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Sample records for international geomagnetic reference

  1. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Love, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    This is a set of five world charts showing the declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, vertical component, and total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at mean sea level at the beginning of 2005. The charts are based on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) main model for 2005 and secular change model for 2005-2010. The IGRF is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 ellipsoid. Additional information about the USGS geomagnetism program is available at: http://geomag.usgs.gov/

  2. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the third generation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    In August 1981 the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy revised the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). It is the second revision since the inception of the IGRF in 1968. The revision extends the earlier series of IGRF models from 1980 to 1985, introduces a new series of definitive models for 1965-1976, and defines a provisional reference field for 1975- 1980. The revision consists of: 1) a model of the main geomagnetic field at 1980.0, not continuous with the earlier series of IGRF models together with a forecast model of the secular variation of the main field during 1980-1985; 2) definitive models of the main field at 1965.0, 1970.0, and 1975.0, with linear interpolation of the model coefficients specified for intervening dates; and 3) a provisional reference field for 1975-1980, defined as the linear interpolation of the 1975 and 1980 main-field models.-from Author

  3. International geomagnetic reference field 1965.0 in dipole coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    Computer program transforming spherical harmonic coefficients into arbitrarily tilted coordinate systems, tabulating coefficients of International Geomagnetic Reference Field 1965 in dipole coordinate system

  4. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the twelfth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher; The IGRF Working Group

    2015-04-01

    The IGRF is an internationally-agreed reference model of the Earth's magnetic field produced under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. The IGRF-12 is the latest update of this well-known model which is used each year by many thousands of users for both industrial and scientific purposes. In October 2014, ten institutions worldwide have made contributions to the IGRF. These models were evaluated and the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014. In this presentation, we will report on the IGRF activities, briefly describe the candidate models, summarize the evaluation of models performed by different independent teams, show how the IGRF-12 models were calculated and finally discuss some of the main magnetic features of this new model.

  5. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher C.; Beggan, Ciarán D.; Alken, Patrick; Aubert, Julien; Barrois, Olivier; Bertrand, Francois; Bondar, Tatiana; Boness, Axel; Brocco, Laura; Canet, Elisabeth; Chambodut, Aude; Chulliat, Arnaud; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Civet, François; Du, Aimin; Fournier, Alexandre; Fratter, Isabelle; Gillet, Nicolas; Hamilton, Brian; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Hulot, Gauthier; Jager, Thomas; Korte, Monika; Kuang, Weijia; Lalanne, Xavier; Langlais, Benoit; Léger, Jean-Michel; Lesur, Vincent; Lowes, Frank J.; Macmillan, Susan; Mandea, Mioara; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Maus, Stefan; Olsen, Nils; Petrov, Valeriy; Ridley, Victoria; Rother, Martin; Sabaka, Terence J.; Saturnino, Diana; Schachtschneider, Reyko; Sirol, Olivier; Tangborn, Andrew; Thomson, Alan; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Vigneron, Pierre; Wardinski, Ingo; Zvereva, Tatiana

    2015-05-01

    The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2010.0, a main field model for epoch 2015.0, and a linear annual predictive secular variation model for 2015.0-2020.0. Here, we present the equations defining the IGRF model, provide the spherical harmonic coefficients, and provide maps of the magnetic declination, inclination, and total intensity for epoch 2015.0 and their predicted rates of change for 2015.0-2020.0. We also update the magnetic pole positions and discuss briefly the latest changes and possible future trends of the Earth's magnetic field.

  6. A proposed International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1965- 1985.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Fabiano, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A set of spherical harmonic models describing the Earth's main magnetic field from 1965 to 1985 has been developed and is proposed as the next revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). A tenth degree and order spherical harmonic model of the main field was derived from Magsat data. A series of eighth degree and order spherical harmonic models of the secular variation of the main field was derived from magnetic observatory annual mean values. Models of the main field at 1965, 1970, 1975, and 1980 were obtained by extrapolating the main-field model using the secular variation models.-Authors spherical harmonic models Earth main magnetic field Magsat data

  7. Supplemental Summary of Cutoff Rigidities Calculated Using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field for Various Epochs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Rigidities Calculated Using the International -Geomagnetic Reference Field for Various Epochs M.A. SHEA D.F. SMART 1 NOVEMBER 1982 Approved for publie...SUMMARY OF CUTOFF Scientific. Interim. RIGIDITIES CALCULATED USING THE INTER -_ _________ NATIONAL GEOMAGNETIC REFERENCE FIELD 6 PERFORMING 01G. REPORT...n-b.’I Cosmic rays Cutoff rigidities Geomagnetic field 20 ABSTRACT (ContinuC0 e o, sid. it ---. 0, -,d id- 5,.- 550,5- Tables of cosmic-ray cutoff

  8. Analysis of geomagnetic secular variation during 1980-1985 and 1985- 1990, and geomagnetic models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during the periods 1980-1985 and 1985-1990 was analyzed in terms of spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree and order. Data from worldwide magnetic observatories and the Navy's Project MAGNET aerial surveys were used. The resulting pair of secular-variation models was used to update the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model for 1980, resulting in new mainfield models for 1985.0 and 1990.0. These, along with the secular-variation model for 1985-1990, were proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). -Author

  9. Evaluation of models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) comprises a definitive main-field model for 1985.0, a main-field model for 1990.0, and a forecast secular-variation model for the period 1990-1995. The five 1985.0 main-field models and five 1990.0 main-field models that were proposed have been evaluated by comparing them with one another, with magnetic observatory data, and with Project MAGNET aerial survey data. The comparisons indicate that the main-field models proposed by IZMIRAN, and the secular-variation model proposed jointly by the British Geological Survey and the US Naval Oceanographic Office, should be assigned relatively lower weight in the derivation of the new IGRF models. -Author

  10. International geomagnetic reference field 1980: a report by IAGA Division I working group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the recommendations of the working group, which suggested additions to IGRF because of the cumulative effect of the inevitable uncertainties in the secular variation models which had led to unacceptable inaccuracies in the IGRF by the late 1970's. The recommendations were accepted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy on August 15, 1981 at the 4th Scientific Assembly, Edinburgh. An extended table sets out spherical harmonic coefficients of the IGRF 1980.-R.House

  11. Assessment of models proposed for the 1985 revision of the international geomagnetic reference field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Zunde, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Geomagnetic measurements from land, marine and aerial surveys conducted in the years 1945-1964 were used to test the 14 models proposed as additions, for that period, to the series of definitive geomagnetic reference field (DGRF) models. Overall, NASA's 'SFAS' models and the BGS (British Geological Survey) models agree best with these data. Comparisons of the two proposed definitive main-field models for 1980.0, with each other and with the existing IGRF 1980 main-field model, show mostly close agreement, with the greatest absolute differences (several tens of nanotesla) occurring in the region of Antarctica. Comparison of the the three proposed forecast secular-variation models for 1985-1990 with estimates of recent rates of change at 148 magnetic observatories shows that the IZMIRAN (U.S.S.R.) and USGS models are in closest agreement with these data. ?? 1987.

  12. An assessment of the near-surface accuracy of the international geomagnetic reference field 1980 model of the main geomagnetic field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Zunde, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The new International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model of the main geomagnetic field for 1980 is based heavily on measurements from the MAGSAT satellite survey. Assessment of the accuracy of the new model, as a description of the main field near the Earth's surface, is important because the accuracy of models derived from satellite data can be adversely affected by the magnetic field of electric currents in the ionosphere and the auroral zones. Until now, statements about its accuracy have been based on the 6 published assessments of the 2 proposed models from which it was derived. However, those assessments were either regional in scope or were based mainly on preliminary or extrapolated data. Here we assess the near-surface accuracy of the new model by comparing it with values for 1980 derived from annual means from 69 magnetic observatories, and by comparing it with WC80, a model derived from near-surface data. The comparison with observatory-derived data shows that the new model describes the field at the 69 observatories about as accurately as would a model derived solely from near-surface data. The comparison with WC80 shows that the 2 models agree closely in their description of D and I near the surface. These comparisons support the proposition that the new IGRF 1980 main-field model is a generally accurate description of the main field near the Earth's surface in 1980. ?? 1985.

  13. Geomagnetic Disturbances Caused by Internal Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneman, G.

    1984-01-01

    It is commonly believed that geomagnetic disturbances are caused by external influences connected with the solar wind. The 27-day recurrence of perturbations seems to be a strong hint for this interaction. But frequently geomagnetic disturbances occur without any relation to sunspot numbers or radiowave fluxes. This was one of the reasons for introducing hypothetical M-regions on the Sun and their relation to solar wind activities. Only one half of the variance of the geomagnetic AL-index could be related to the solar wind. Therefore it is concluded that internal processes of the magnetosphere were responsible for additional geomagnetic activity. Arguments, which might lead to the suggestion of geomagnetic disturbances as being caused by internal atmospheric dynamics are discussed and a rather preliminary scenario of those processes is proposed.

  14. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  15. International Reference Ionosphere -2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    The International Reference Ionosphere 2010 includes several important improvements and ad-ditions. This presentation introduces these changes and discusses their benefits. The electron and ion density profiles for the bottomside ionosphere will be significantly improved by using more ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional lower iono-sphere parameter IRI-2010 will include the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Net models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. At high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity. The homepage for the IRI project is at http://IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  16. The Development of a Dynamic Geomagnetic Cutoff Rigidity Model for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a computer model of geomagnetic vertical cutoffs applicable to the orbit of the International Space Station. This model accounts for the change in geomagnetic cutoff rigidity as a function of geomagnetic activity level. This model was delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center in July 1999 and tested on the Space Radiation Analysis Group DEC-Alpha computer system to ensure that it will properly interface with other software currently used at NASA JSC. The software was designed for ease of being upgraded as other improved models of geomagnetic cutoff as a function of magnetic activity are developed.

  17. Steady induction effects in geomagnetism. Part 1C: Geomagnetic estimation of steady surficial core motions: Application to the definitive geomagnetic reference field models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1993-01-01

    In the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core magnetic earth model, the non-linear inverse steady motional induction problem was solved using the method presented in Part 1B. How that method was applied to estimate steady, broad-scale fluid velocity fields near the top of Earth's core that induce the secular change indicated by the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) models from 1945 to 1980 are described. Special attention is given to the derivation of weight matrices for the DGRF models because the weights determine the apparent significance of the residual secular change. The derived weight matrices also enable estimation of the secular change signal-to-noise ratio characterizing the DGRF models. Two types of weights were derived in 1987-88: radial field weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the radial geomagnetic field component at Earth's surface implied by the DGRF's, and general weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the scalar potential specified by these models. The difference is non-trivial because not all the geomagnetic data represented by the DGRF's constrain the radial field component. For radial field weights (or general weights), a quantitatively acceptable explication of broad-scale secular change relative to the 1980 Magsat epoch must account for 99.94271 percent (or 99.98784 percent) of the total weighted variance accumulated therein. Tolerable normalized root-mean-square weighted residuals of 2.394 percent (or 1.103 percent) are less than the 7 percent errors expected in the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core approximation.

  18. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  19. The International Reference Ionosphere - Status 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. IRI-2012 includes new models for the electron density and ion densities in the region below the F-peak, a storm-time model for the auroral E-region, an improved electron temperature model that includes variations with solar activity, and for the first time a description of auroral boundaries. In addition, the thermosphere model required for baseline neutral densities and temperatures was upgraded from MSIS-86 to the newer NRLMSIS-00 model and Corrected Geomagnetic coordinates (CGM) were included in IRI as an additional coordinate system for a better representation of auroral and polar latitudes. Ongoing IRI activities towards the inclusion of an improved model for the F2 peak height hmF2 are discussed as are efforts to develop a "Real-Time IRI". The paper is based on an IRI status report presented at the 2013 IRI Workshop in Olsztyn, Poland. The IRI homepage is at

  20. The International Reference Ionosphere - 45 Years of International Space Weather Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B. W.; Rawer, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project was started in 1970 when the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) joined forces to establish an internationally accepted reference model for the ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. Because of this operational needs both unions requested that IRI be based primarily on data using all available and reliable data sources from space and ground. Similar activities had been started for the Atmosphere with the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) model and for the Earth's magnetic field with the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). This presentation will give a brief overview over the IRI project and the progress made since its inception. An important milestone was reached early last year when IRI was voted to become the ISO standard for the ionosphere; the International Standardization Organization (ISO) is in charge of establishing and publishing international standards. This talk will discuss the most recent status of IRI activities including the development of a Real-Time IRI and the IRI 2015 Workshop, the first COSPAR Capacity Building Workshop on a Space Weather topic, that will be held in Bangkok from November 2 to 13. The IRI model is heavily used for a wide range of applications in science, engineering and education. We will discuss some of the more important ones of these applications and present measures of success that underline the superior performance of the model and the wide acceptance in the science community and science-interested public.

  1. Empirical Reference Models for COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, Douglas; Emmert, John; Picone, Michael

    Openly distributed atmospheric reference models are an essential tool for scientific research and operational activities. To meet the needs of all users, such models must utilize rigorous statistical methods and the most comprehensive and reliable data sets in their development. Two such models that meet these requirements are the Naval Research Laboratory, Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Extended (NRLMSISE-00) and Horizontal Wind Model (HWM-93) empirical reference models. The NRLMSISE-00 model and its predecessors are based on 35 years of empirical modeling experience and over 40 years of research measurements. These global models are well documented and extend from the ground to the exosphere, providing estimates of neutral temperature, density, and major neutral species composition as a function of geographic location, day of year, time of day, and geomagnetic and solar activity conditions. Relative to the most comprehensive span of datasets available these models have the smallest bias and root mean square deviations of any climatological reference model built to date, although there are a few limitations in the 80 to 120 km region. The less advanced HWM-93 model, based on the same statistical methodologies and general mathematical formulation of the NRLMSISE-00 model, provides climatological estimates of the horizontal wind fields over the same variables and range of conditions as the NRLMSISE-00 model. The availability of several new long term data sets, including satellite wind measurements from the WINDII instrument onboard the UARS satellite, as well as ground-based optical Fabery-Perot measurements, provide the opportunity to make significant refinements to the existing model. Initial results from an improved HWM will be shown for altitudes between 100 and 500 km. Improvement in the model's ability to represent the seasonal changes, solar forcing, geomagnetic forcing, diurnal variation, and vertical structure of horizontal winds of the region is

  2. Ionosphere over Africa: Results from Geomagnetic Field Measurements During International Heliophysical Year IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A. B.; Yumoto, K.; Falayi, E. O.; Bello, O. R.; Magdas/Cpmn Group

    2011-12-01

    Space Environment Research Centre of Kyushu University, Japan, installed 13 units of Magnetic Data Acquisition Systems MAGDAS over Africa during the International Heliophysical Year IHY. Magnetic records from 10 stations along the African 96o Magnetic Meridian (Geographical 30° - 40° East) were examined for Solar quiet daily Sq variations in the two geomagnetic field components H and D. Latitudinal variations of Sq in the geomagnetic components were examined. Signatures of equatorial electrojet and worldwide Sq were identified and studied in detail. H field experienced more variation within the equatorial electrojet zone. Diurnal variations of the geomagnetic variations in the two components were discussed. Sq H is expectedly consistently maximum within the electrojet zone as a result of EEJ. Sq D has maximum values at about -20ɛ (sunrise), -10ɛ (noon time) and +10ɛ (sunset). Levels of inter-relationships between the Sq and its variability in the two components were statistically derived and interpreted in line with the mechanisms responsible for the variations of the geomagnetic field. Data from 2 magnetic observatories within equatorial electrojet EEJ strip and 2 stations outside the EEJ strip were employed to evaluate and study the signatures of the Equatorial electrojet over the African sector. The transient variations of the EEJ at two almost parallel axes using Lagos-Ilorin (West Africa) and Nairobi-Addis Ababa (East Africa) pairs were examined. The eastern electrojet appeared stronger than the western. The latitudinal and longitudinal profiles of the Sq were examined and inferences drawn from observed results were discussed.

  3. The use of geomagnetic field models in magnetic surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, R. D.; Gain, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of global geomagnetic field models for the reduction of magnetic surveys is discussed. It is demonstrated that a numerical model with adequate secular variation correction, provides a suitable representation of the regional field. The limitations of the presently available models are reported, with emphasis on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field.

  4. New idea of geomagnetic monitoring through ENA detection from the International Space Station: ENAMISS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Anna; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Orsini, Stefano; Rubini, Alda; Evangelista, Yuri; Mura, Alessandro; Rispoli, Rosanna; Vertolli, Nello; Carrubba, Elisa; Donati, Alessandro; Di Lellis, Andrea Maria; Plainaki, Christina; Lazzarotto, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) in the Earth's environment has been proven to be a successful technique able to provide detailed information on the ring current plasma population at energies below 100 keV. Indeed, the existing space weather databases usually include a good coverage of Sun and solar wind monitoring. The global imaging of the Earth's magnetosphere/ ionosphere is usually obtained by the high-latitudes monitoring of aurorae, ground magnetic field variations and high-latitude radio emissions. The equatorial magnetic field variations on ground, from which the geomagnetic indices like Dst, Sym-H and Asym-H are derived, include the effects of all current systems (i.e. ring current, Chapman -Ferraro current, tails currents, etc...) providing a kind of global information. Nevertheless, the specific information related to the ring current cannot be easily derived from such indices. Only occasional local plasma data are available by orbiting spacecraft. ENA detection is the only way to globally view the ring current populations. Up-to-now this technique has been used mainly from dedicated high altitude polar orbiting spacecraft, which do not allow a continuous and systematic monitoring, and a discrimination of the particle latitude distribution. The Energetic Neutral Atoms Monitor on the International space Station (ENAMISS) project intends to develop an ENA imager and install it on the ISS for continuous monitoring of the spatially distributed ring current plasma population. ISS is the ideal platform to perform continuous ENA monitoring since its particular low altitude and medium/low latitude orbit allows wide-field ENA images of various magnetospheric regions. The calibrated ENA data, the deconvolved ion distributions and ad-hoc ENA-based new geomagnetic indices will be freely distributed to the space weather community. Furthermore, new services based on plasma circulation models, spacecraft surface charging models and radiation dose models

  5. The geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Roberts, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    Information available on the geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo is presented. Attention is given to the process of mapping the magnetic field, the last version of International Geomagnetic Reference Field Model, and maps of the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary and their interpretation. Particular consideration is given to the existing geodynamo theories, with special relation given to the Braginsky and Meytlis theory of core turbulence in which the turbulence differs fundamentally from classical turbulence of Kolmogorov type.

  6. Investigations of a simulated geomagnetic field experienced by the International Space Station on attentional performance.

    PubMed

    Del Seppia, Cristina; Mezzasalma, Lorena; Messerotti, Mauro; Cordelli, Alessandro; Ghione, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported that the exposure to an abnormal magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the International Space Station (ISS) orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli. Here we report the results of the second part of that study which tested whether this field also affects cognitive functions. Twenty-four volunteers participated in the study, 12 exposed to the natural geomagnetic field and 12 to the magnetic field encountered by ISS. The test protocol consisted of a set of eight tests chosen from a computerized test battery for the assessment of attentional performance. The duration of exposure was 90 min. No effect of exposure to ISS magnetic field was observed on attentional performance.

  7. The International Reference Preparation of Penicillin K

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.

    1954-01-01

    The International Reference Preparation of Penicillin K was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization at its fifth session, held in Geneva in 1951. Since the preparation is likely to be used for research only, no unit has been defined. The composition of the preparation, in terms of its activity against a strain of Bacillus subtilis, is penicillin K 89.9%, penicillin dihydro F 9.6%, and penicillin F 0.5%. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13199652

  8. International Reference Ionosphere: Plasma densities - Status 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawer, K.; Bilitza, D.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of the changes proposed in 1988 for the International Reference Ionosphere electron density profile, as well as the status of their implementation. The fully analytical profile function under development for the entire ionosphere can be achieved with a linear combination of several LAY functions. Although four LAY functions are required to describe the density features of the middle ionosphere, three LAY functions suffice to reproduce electron densities in both the topside ionosphere and lower ionosphere. Attention is given to the way in which the LAY parameters are computationally derivable from characteristic profile points.

  9. On the Usage of Geomagnetic Indices for Data Selection in Internal Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Morschhauser, A.; Olsen, N.; Finlay, C. C.; McPherron, R. L.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a review on geomagnetic indices describing global geomagnetic storm activity (Kp, am, Dst and dDst/dt) and on indices designed to characterize high latitude currents and substorms (PC and AE-indices and their variants). The focus in our discussion is in main field modelling, where indices are primarily used in data selection criteria for weak magnetic activity. The publicly available extensive data bases of index values are used to derive joint conditional Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) for different pairs of indices in order to investigate their mutual consistency in describing quiet conditions. This exercise reveals that Dst and its time derivative yield a similar picture as Kp on quiet conditions as determined with the conditions typically used in internal field modelling. Magnetic quiescence at high latitudes is typically searched with the help of Merging Electric Field (MEF) as derived from solar wind observations. We use in our PDF analysis the PC-index as a proxy for MEF and estimate the magnetic activity level at auroral latitudes with the AL-index. With these boundary conditions we conclude that the quiet time conditions that are typically used in main field modelling ( PC<0.8, Kp<2 and |Dst|<30 nT) correspond to weak auroral electrojet activity quite well: Standard size substorms are unlikely to happen, but other types of activations (e.g. pseudo breakups AL>-300 nT) can take place, when these criteria prevail. Although AE-indices have been designed to probe electrojet activity only in average conditions and thus their performance is not optimal during weak activity, we note that careful data selection with advanced AE-variants may appear to be the most practical way to lower the elevated RMS-values which still exist in the residuals between modeled and observed values at high latitudes. Recent initiatives to upgrade the AE-indices, either with a better coverage of observing stations and improved baseline corrections (the Super

  10. On the Usage of Geomagnetic Indices for Data Selection in Internal Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Morschhauser, A.; Olsen, N.; Finlay, C. C.; McPherron, R. L.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present a review on geomagnetic indices describing global geomagnetic storm activity ( Kp, am, Dst and dDst/dt) and on indices designed to characterize high latitude currents and substorms ( PC and AE-indices and their variants). The focus in our discussion is in main field modelling, where indices are primarily used in data selection criteria for weak magnetic activity. The publicly available extensive data bases of index values are used to derive joint conditional Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) for different pairs of indices in order to investigate their mutual consistency in describing quiet conditions. This exercise reveals that Dst and its time derivative yield a similar picture as Kp on quiet conditions as determined with the conditions typically used in internal field modelling. Magnetic quiescence at high latitudes is typically searched with the help of Merging Electric Field ( MEF) as derived from solar wind observations. We use in our PDF analysis the PC-index as a proxy for MEF and estimate the magnetic activity level at auroral latitudes with the AL-index. With these boundary conditions we conclude that the quiet time conditions that are typically used in main field modelling (PC<0.8, Kp<2 and |Dst|<30 nT) correspond to weak auroral electrojet activity quite well: Standard size substorms are unlikely to happen, but other types of activations (e.g. pseudo breakups AL>-300 nT) can take place, when these criteria prevail. Although AE-indices have been designed to probe electrojet activity only in average conditions and thus their performance is not optimal during weak activity, we note that careful data selection with advanced AE-variants may appear to be the most practical way to lower the elevated RMS-values which still exist in the residuals between modeled and observed values at high latitudes. Recent initiatives to upgrade the AE-indices, either with a better coverage of observing stations and improved baseline corrections (the Super

  11. The International Reference Ionosphere 2012 - a model of international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Zhang, Yongliang; Mertens, Chris; Truhlik, Vladimir; Richards, Phil; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Reinisch, Bodo

    2014-02-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project was established jointly by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) in the late sixties with the goal to develop an international standard for the specification of plasma parameters in the Earth's ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. At the request of COSPAR and URSI, IRI was developed as a data-based model to avoid the uncertainty of theory-based models which are only as good as the evolving theoretical understanding. Being based on most of the available and reliable observations of the ionospheric plasma from the ground and from space, IRI describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 km to 2000 km. A working group of about 50 international ionospheric experts is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. Over time as new data became available and new modeling techniques emerged, steadily improved editions of the IRI model have been published. This paper gives a brief history of the IRI project and describes the latest version of the model, IRI-2012. It also briefly discusses efforts to develop a real-time IRI model. The IRI homepage is at http://IRImodel.org.

  12. International linear collider reference design report

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  13. Geomagnetic field variations induced by internal and surface waves in the four-layer model of the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, V. P.; Semkin, S. V.; Savchenko, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    The layered model of the marine environment, including the atmosphere, two seawater layers with different conductivity and density, and the bottom rock layer, has been considered. The geomagnetic field variations, generated by internal and surface waves with different frequency and propagation direction, have been found in the scope of this model. The effect of magnetic permeability and electric conductivity of bottom rocks on induced magnetic field has been taken into account. The transfer functions and spectral densities of these variations have been analytically determined and numerically estimated.

  14. 75 FR 34017 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

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    ... 20 International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final... United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM ) and its incorporation by reference in the...: Issue 36 of the International Mail Manual was issued on May 11, 2009. It replaced all previous...

  15. The International Reference Ionosphere: Model Update 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Reinisch, Bodo; Galkin, Ivan; Shubin, Valentin; Truhlik, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is recognized as the official standard for the ionosphere (COSPAR, URSI, ISO) and is widely used for a multitude of different applications as evidenced by the many papers in science and engineering journals that acknowledge the use of IRI (e.g., about 11% of all Radio Science papers each year). One of the shortcomings of the model has been the dependence of the F2 peak height modeling on the propagation factor M(3000)F2. With the 2016 version of IRI, two new models will be introduced for hmF2 that were developed directly based on hmF2 measurements by ionosondes [Altadill et al., 2013] and by COSMIC radio occultation [Shubin, 2015], respectively. In addition IRI-2016 will include an improved representation of the ionosphere during the very low solar activities that were reached during the last solar minimum in 2008/2009. This presentation will review these and other improvements that are being implemented with the 2016 version of the IRI model. We will also discuss recent IRI workshops and their findings and results. One of the most exciting new projects is the development of the Real-Time IRI [Galkin et al., 2012]. We will discuss the current status and plans for the future. Altadill, D., S. Magdaleno, J.M. Torta, E. Blanch (2013), Global empirical models of the density peak height and of the equivalent scale height for quiet conditions, Advances in Space Research 52, 1756-1769, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.11.018. Galkin, I.A., B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, and D. Bilitza (2012), Assimilation of GIRO Data into a Real-Time IRI, Radio Science, 47, RS0L07, doi:10.1029/2011RS004952. Shubin V.N. (2015), Global median model of the F2-layer peak height based on ionospheric radio-occultation and ground-based Digisonde observations, Advances in Space Research 56, 916-928, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.05.029.

  16. The null magnetic field as reference for the study of geomagnetic directional effects in animals and man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beischer, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    Techniques for producing very low and zero magnetic fields are considered, giving attention to the compensation of the geomagnetic field by a Helmholtz coil system, approaches utilizing the shielding power of highly permeable alloys, and the complete exclusion of the geomagnetic field with the aid of a superconductive shield. Animal experiments in low magnetic fields are discussed, together with the exposure of man to 'null' magnetic fields and the Josephson junction as a possible biosensor of magnetic fields. It is found that neither the functions nor the behavior of man changes significantly during a two-week exposure to magnetic fields below 50 gammas.

  17. A model of geomagnetic secular variation for 1980-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Zunde, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    We developed an updated model of the secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during 1980 through 1983 based on annual mean values for that interval from 148 worldwide magnetic observatories. The model consists of a series of 80 spherical harmonics, up to and including those of degree and order 8. We used it to form a proposal for the 1985 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). Comparison of the new model, whose mean epoch is approximately 1982.0, with the Provisional Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1975-1980 (PGRF 1975), indicates that the moment of the centered-dipole part of the geomagnetic field is now decreasing faster than it was 5 years ago. The rate (in field units) indicated by PGRF 1975 was about -25 nT a-1, while for the new model it is -28 nT a-1. ?? 1987.

  18. Reference Guide to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a great international, technological, and political achievement. It is the latest step in humankind's quest to explore and live in space. The research done on the ISS may advance our knowledge in various areas of science, enable us to improve life on this planet, and give us the experience and increased understanding that can eventually equip us to journey to other worlds. As a result of the Station s complexity, few understand its configuration, its design and component systems, or the complex operations required in its construction and operation. This book provides high-level insight into the ISS. The ISS is in orbit today, operating with a crew of three. Its assembly will continue through 2010. As the ISS grows, its capabilities will increase, thus requiring a larger crew. Currently, 16 countries are involved in this venture. This CD-ROM includes multimedia files and animations.

  19. 77 FR 64724 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

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  20. 76 FR 50414 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

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  1. Principles of major geomagnetic storms forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagnetko, Alexander; Applbaum, David; Dorman, Lev; Pustil'Nik, Lev; Sternlieb, Abraham; Zukerman, Igor

    According to NOAA Space Weather Scales, geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3-hour index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). To prevent these serious damages will be very important to forecast dangerous geomagnetic storms. In many papers it was shown that in principle for this forecasting can be used data on CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC of major geomagnetic storms accompanied by sufficient Forbush-decreases (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999). In this paper we consider all types of observed precursor effects in CR what can be used for forecasting of great geomagnetic storms and possible mechanisms of these precursor effects origin. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, 49A, 136-144 (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their pre-diction", Proc. of 26-th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, 6, 476-479 (1999).

  2. Developing an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel.

    PubMed

    De Soyza, Anthony; Hall, Amanda J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Toth, Veronika; Coenye, Tom; Zlosnik, James E A; Burns, Jane L; Sá-Correia, Isabel; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Kidd, Timothy J; Reid, David; Manos, Jim; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard; McClean, Siobhán; Winstanley, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organism's diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents.

  3. International reference preparations for standardization of biological medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Minor, P

    2014-10-01

    International standards are prepared as materials assigned an arbitrary unitage for a biological activity by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization. Working reference materials are calibrated against international standards giving a common unit of measurement between laboratories. The references are assessed by a collaborative study including all relevant assays rather than by a single reference method as in the SI (Le Système international d'unités) system and the unitage assigned is an arbitrary value derived from a consensus of all valid methods. The process has proved valuable in assaying the activity of therapeutic biological medicines and in standardizing certain types of diagnostics. Issues arise with maintaining the unit when the primary reference must be replaced and to some extent in assessing the commutability of the reference with real life analytes.

  4. International Relations: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvester, Elizabeth

    Intended for students, this annotated bibliography describes reference materials in International Relations that may be found in either the McLennan or Law Library of McGill University. Scope includes political science, international law, and related areas in the social and behavioral sciences, but titles which relate to the foreign relations of a…

  5. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS): Terms of Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husson, Van; Noll, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is an established Service within Section II , Advanced Space Technology, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). The primary objective of the ILRS is to provide a service to support, through Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging data and related products, geodetic and geophysical research activities as well as International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The service also develops the necessary standards/specifications and encourages international adherence to its conventions.

  6. The International Reference Preparation of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (Type A)

    PubMed Central

    Krag, P.; Bentzon, M. Weis

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes the international collaborative assay that led to the establishment in 1967 of the International Reference Preparation of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (Type A) and the studies completed during the following years on the use of the preparation for evaluating the haemagglutinin content of 46 influenza virus vaccines in terms of international units. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (1967) defined the International Unit as 0,09361 mg of the International Reference Preparation. Altogether 14 laboratories in 12 countries took part in one or both studies, using a total of 24 methods (HA titrations and, in a few cases CCA titrations). Major differences in the HA titres were found between laboratories, while the potencies (the haemagglutinin content values) relative to the International Reference Preparation were free from most of these differences. Haemagglutination titres varied over a range factor up to 50, while the corresponding relative ”potencies” varied with a factor of only 2. The CCA method used in a few laboratories gave results close to the lowest haemagglutination titres and showed relatively small variations between laboratories. The analyses of variance disclosed differences in the variation within laboratories, but for the majority of the laboratories the variation allowed an overall estimate of a standard error. The calculation of haemagglutinin content (in IU) from relative potencies is described. Advice is given on the selection, preparation, and titration of a local reference vaccine with a view to expressing its haemagglutinin content in international units. The test results with 46 local vaccines are also given. The deviations of the relative potencies from the average per vaccine showed a distribution with eight major discrepancies instead of the expected one. The background for these cases is discussed. PMID:5317082

  7. Geomagnetism applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    The social uses of geomagnetism include the physics of the space environment, satellite damage, pipeline corrosion, electric power-grid failure, communication interference, global positioning disruption, mineral-resource detection, interpretation of the Earth's formation and structure, navigation, weather, and magnetoreception in organisms. The need for continuing observations of the geomagnetic field, together with careful archiving of these records and mechanisms for dissemination of these data, is emphasized.

  8. Challenges Handling Magnetospheric and Ionospheric Signals in Internal Geomagnetic Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, C. C.; Lesur, V.; Thébault, E.; Vervelidou, F.; Morschhauser, A.; Shore, R.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of the Earth's magnetic field collected by low-Earth-orbit satellites such as Swarm and CHAMP, as well as at ground observatories, are dominated by sources in the Earth's interior. However these measurements also contain significant contributions from more rapidly-varying current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In order to fully exploit magnetic data to probe the physical properties and dynamics of the Earth's interior, field models with suitable treatments of external sources, and their associated induced signals, are essential. Here we review the methods presently used to construct models of the internal field, focusing on techniques to handle magnetospheric and ionospheric signals. Shortcomings of these techniques often limit the quality, as well as spatial and temporal resolution, of internal field models. We document difficulties in using track-by-track analysis to characterize magnetospheric field fluctuations, differences in internal field models that result from alternative treatments of the quiet-time ionospheric field, and challenges associated with rapidly changing, but spatially correlated, magnetic signatures of polar cap current systems. Possible strategies for improving internal field models are discussed, many of which are described in more detail elsewhere in this volume.

  9. Challenges Handling Magnetospheric and Ionospheric Signals in Internal Geomagnetic Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, C. C.; Lesur, V.; Thébault, E.; Vervelidou, F.; Morschhauser, A.; Shore, R.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the Earth's magnetic field collected by low-Earth-orbit satellites such as Swarm and CHAMP, as well as at ground observatories, are dominated by sources in the Earth's interior. However these measurements also contain significant contributions from more rapidly-varying current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In order to fully exploit magnetic data to probe the physical properties and dynamics of the Earth's interior, field models with suitable treatments of external sources, and their associated induced signals, are essential. Here we review the methods presently used to construct models of the internal field, focusing on techniques to handle magnetospheric and ionospheric signals. Shortcomings of these techniques often limit the quality, as well as spatial and temporal resolution, of internal field models. We document difficulties in using track-by-track analysis to characterize magnetospheric field fluctuations, differences in internal field models that result from alternative treatments of the quiet-time ionospheric field, and challenges associated with rapidly changing, but spatially correlated, magnetic signatures of polar cap current systems. Possible strategies for improving internal field models are discussed, many of which are described in more detail elsewhere in this volume.

  10. Observed Coupling Between the International Space Station PCU Plasma and a FPMU Langmuir Probe Facilitated by the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, William; Koontz, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is a matter of serious concern resulting from the possibility of vehicle arcing and electrical shock hazard to crew during extravehicular activity (EVA). A Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) was developed and integrated into ISS in order to control the ISS floating potential, thereby, minimize vehicle charging and associated hazards. One of the principle factors affecting ISS electrical charging is the ionosphere plasma state (i.e., electron temperature and density). To support ISS electrical charging studies a Floating Potential Monitoring Unit (FPMU) is also integrated into ISS in order to measure the ionosphere properties using Langmuir probes (LP). The FPMU was located on the Starboard side of ISS. The PCU is located near the center of ISS with its plasma exhaust pointed to port. From its integration on ISS in 2006 through November of 2009, the FPMU data exhibited nominal characteristics during PCU operation. On November 21, 2009 the FPMU was relocated from the Starboard location to a new Port location. After relocation significant enhanced noise was observed in both the LP current-voltage sweeps and the derived electron temperature data. The enhanced noise only occurred when the PCU was in discharge and at unique and repeatable locations of the ISS orbit. The cause of this enhanced noise was investigated. It was found that there is coupling occurring between the PCU plasma and the FPMU LP. In this paper we shall 1) present the on-orbit data and the presence of enhanced noise, 2) demonstrate that the coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU measurements is geomagnetically organized, 3) show that coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU is primarily due to and driven by particle-wave interaction and 4) show that the ionosphere conditions are adequate for Alfven waves to be generated by the PCU plasma.

  11. The 1995 revision of the joint US/UK geomagnetic field models - I. Secular variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macmillan, S.; Barraclough, D.R.; Quinn, J.M.; Coleman, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present the methods used to derive mathematical models of global secular variation of the main geomagnetic field for the period 1985 to 2000. These secular-variation models are used in the construction of the candidate US/UK models for the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field at 1990, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1995 to 2000, and the World Magnetic Model for 1995 to 2000 (see paper II, Quinn et al., 1997). The main sources of data for the secular-variation models are geomagnetic observatories and repeat stations. Over the areas devoid of these data secular-variation information is extracted from aeromagnetic and satellite data. We describe how secular variation is predicted up to the year 2000 at the observatories and repeat stations, how the aeromagnetic and satellite data are used, and how all the data are combined to produce the required models.

  12. Magnetospheric effects of cosmic rays. 1. Long-term changes in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdevskii, B. B.; Abunin, A. A.; Kobelev, P. G.; Gushchina, R. T.; Belov, A. V.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Yanke, V. G.

    2016-07-01

    Vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are obtained for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors via trajectory calculations for each year of the period from 1950 to 2020. Geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are found from the model of the Earth's main field International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for 1950-2015, and the forecast until 2020 is provided. In addition, the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the same period are obtained by Tsyganenko model T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) with the average annual values of the Kp-index. In each case, the penumbra is taken into account in the approximation of the flat and power spectra of variations of cosmic rays. The calculation results show an overall decrease in geomagnetic cutoff rigidities, which is associated with the overall decrease and restructuring of the geomagnetic field during the reporting period, at almost all points.

  13. The International Reference Ionosphere: Rawer's IRI and its status today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, D.

    2014-11-01

    When the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) initiated the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project in 1968 it wisely selected K. Rawer as its first Chairperson. With a solid footing and good contacts in both the ground-based and space-based ionospheric communities he was ideally suited to pull together colleagues and data from both communities to help build the first version of the IRI. He assembled a team of 20+ international ionospheric experts in the IRI Working Group and chaired and directed the group from 1968 to 1984. The working group has now grown to 63 members and the IRI model has undergone many revisions as new data became available and new modeling techniques were applied. This paper was presented during a special session of the Kleinheubach Tagung 2013 in honor of K. Rawer's 100th birthday. It will review the current status of the IRI model and project and the international recognition it has achieved. It is quite fitting that this year we not only celebrate K. Rawer's 100th birthday but also the exciting news that his favorite science endeavor, IRI, has been internationally recognized as an ISO (International Standardization Organization) standard. The IRI homepage is at http://irimodel.org.

  14. Johann von Lamont: A Pioneer in Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, Heinrich

    2006-06-01

    The 200th birthday of John Lamont (1805-1879, Figure 1), a pioneer in the study of geomagnetism, was marked on 13 December 2005. Lamont founded the Munich Geomagnetic Observatory in 1840 and was a member of the group of scientists including Carl Friedrich Gauss, Alexander von Humboldt, Eduard Sabine, Jonas Angstrøm, Humphret Lloyd, Adolf Kupffer, Karl Kreil, and Adolphe Quetelet who composed the Göttingen Magnetic Union. They organized an international network of geomagnetic observatories [Barraclough et al., 1992]. The present knowledge of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation is largely based on the data collected by the global network of geomagnetic observatories during the last 170 years. Lamont's talents and his dedication and enthusiasm for discovery are reflected in the depth and scope of his contributions to a broad variety of natural sciences such as astronomy, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geodesy. However, this article just touches on his merits in geomagnetism.

  15. Geomagnetic Jerks in the Swarm Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, William; Beggan, Ciaran; Macmillan, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The timely provision of geomagnetic observations as part of the European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm mission means up-to-date analysis and modelling of the Earth's magnetic field can be conducted rapidly in a manner not possible before. Observations from each of the three Swarm constellation satellites are available within 4 days and a database of close-to-definitive ground observatory measurements is updated every 3 months. This makes it possible to study very recent variations of the core magnetic field. Here we investigate rapid, unpredictable internal field variations known as geomagnetic jerks. Given that jerks represent (currently) unpredictable changes in the core field and have been identified to have happened in 2014 since Swarm was launched, we ask what impact this might have on the future accuracy of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). We assess the performance of each of the IGRF-12 secular variation model candidates in light of recent jerks, given that four of the nine candidates are novel physics-based predictive models.

  16. On transformation between international celestial and terrestrial reference systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretagnon, P.; Brumberg, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    Based on the current IAU hierarchy of the relativistic reference systems, practical formulae for the transformation between barycentric (BCRS) and geocentric (GCRS) celestial reference systems are derived. BCRS is used to refer to ICRS, International Celestial Reference System. This transformation is given in four versions, dependent on the time arguments used for BCRS (TCB or TDB) and for GCRS (TCG or TT). All quantities involved in these formulae have been tabulated with the use of the VSOP theories (IMCCE theories of motion of the major planets). In particular, these formulae may be applied to account for the indirect relativistic third-body perturbations in motion of Earth's satellites and Earth's rotation problem. We propose to use the SMART theory (IMCCE theory of Earth's rotation) in constructing the Newtonian three-dimensional spatial rotation transformation between GCRS and ITRS, the International Terrestrial Reference System. This transformation is compared with two other versions involving extra angular variables currently used by IERS, the International Earth Rotation Service. It is shown that the comparison of these three forms of the same transformation may be greatly simplified by using the proposed composite rotation formula. Tables 1-20 of Appendix B containing the initial terms of the VSOP-based series for the BCRS<->GCRS transformation are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/387. The work on ICRS<->GCRS transformation with the use of VSOP theories was done in February-March 2002 during the stay of the second author in IMCCE. The authors hoped to complete the second part concerning GCRS<->ITRS transformation with the use of SMART theory in September 2002 during the visit of the first author to IAA. The grave disease of Pierre Bretagnon which tragically resulted in his death on November 17, 2002, did not permit us to complete

  17. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  18. The End of the International Reference Pricing System?

    PubMed

    Persson, Ulf; Jönsson, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    All 28 EU member states except Sweden and the UK apply international reference pricing (IRP), international price comparison, external reference pricing or cross-reference pricing. The attractiveness of using prices of other countries as a benchmark for decisions within a national price control is obvious. Alternative models for price and reimbursement decision making such as value-based pricing (VBP), i.e. cost-effectiveness analyses, are more complicated. However, IRP provides incentives for stakeholders to take action not in line with optimal (welfare-maximizing) pricing. IRP is costly for two reasons. First, manufacturers are incentivised to limit or delay access to new innovative treatments in countries with small markets and/or a low income, which can be costly in terms of loss of health. Second, all countries also experience a loss of welfare (health) because IRP reduces the opportunities for differential pricing (Ramsey pricing), i.e. using the fact that the ability and willingness to pay differs between countries. Thus, IRP results in less sales revenue to finance research and development of new innovative drugs. We can now observe that payers and manufacturers are engaged in different types of risk-sharing schemes, price-volume negotiations, payback arrangements, confidential discounts, coverage with evidence developments, etc., all with the purpose of returning to the old model of price discrimination and Ramsey pricing. Shortly, real prices for use in IRP systems will cease to exist and, thus, we expect to soon see the end of IRP, a new system for price discrimination and an increasing demand for VBP.

  19. New book discusses normal geomagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pochtarev, V.I.

    1984-07-01

    Material on the normal geomagnetic field and its gradients over the Earth's surface at different elevations is presented. Methods are developed for plotting the normal geomagnetic field and mathematical approximations of the geomagnetic field are presented. The nature of the Earth's normal magnetic field is investigated on the basis of an analysis of geophysical, geological and geochemical data and data on the internal structure of the Earth.

  20. Geomagnetic transmission disturbances and heavy-ion fluences observed in low Earth orbit during the solar energetic particle events of October 1989.

    PubMed

    Boberg, P R; Tylka, A J; Adams, J H; Beahm, L P; Fluckiger, E O; Kleis, T; Kobel, E

    1996-01-01

    The large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and simultaneous large geomagnetic disturbances observed during October 1989 posed a significant, rapidly evolving space radiation hazard. Using data from the GOES-7, NOAA-10, IMP-8 and LDEF satellites, we determined the geomagnetic transmission, heavy ion fluences, mean Fe ionic charge state, and effective radiation hazard observed in low Earth orbit (LEO) for these SEPs. We modeled the geomagnetic transmission by tracing particles through the combination of the internal International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the Tsyganenko (1989) magnetospheric field models, extending the modeling to large geomagnetic disturbances. We used our results to assess the radiation hazard such very large SEP events would pose in the anticipated 52 degrees inclination space station orbit.

  1. AOAC INTERNATIONAL's Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) Reference Materials Database.

    PubMed

    Zink, Donna

    2016-09-01

    The Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) of AOAC INTERNATIONAL recommends policy and criteria to facilitate the development and use of reference materials (RMs) in the validation, implementation, and routine use of AOAC INTERNATIONAL methods. To aid analysts in these areas, TDRM has developed a searchable online database to identify RMs suitable for use with AOAC Official Methods of Analysis(SM) (OMA). RMs can be queried by analyte, by analyte and matrix, or by the selection of an OMA, based on analytes and matrixes described within the scope of the selected method. Only essential information is included in the database, to maximize usefulness and minimize the effort required to keep information current. Additional information, such as measurement uncertainty and purchasing instructions, is available through a link to the producer's Web site, when that information is available online. Data sets are solicited on a voluntary basis from National Metrology Institutes and accredited producers. Consideration of ease-of-use and ease-of-operation is a guiding principle in this database, as is cost management.

  2. Vertical datum unification for the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Laura; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYThe <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of an <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (IHRS). According to this resolution, the IHRS coordinates are potential differences <span class="hlt">referring</span> to the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the IHRS realisation is the integration of the existing height systems into the global one; i.e. existing vertical coordinates should be <span class="hlt">referred</span> to one and the same <span class="hlt">reference</span> level realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, i.e., the potential differences between the local and the global <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach. Those observation equations are then empirically evaluated for the vertical datum unification of the North American and South American height systems. In the first case, simulations performed in North America provide numerical estimates about the impact of omission errors and direct and indirect effects on the vertical datum parameters. In the second case, a combination of local geopotential numbers, ITRF coordinates, satellite altimetry observations, tide gauge registrations and high-resolution gravity field models is performed to estimate the level differences between the South American height systems and the global level W0. Results show that indirect effects vanish when a satellite-only gravity field model with a degree higher than n ≥ 180 is used for the solution of the GBVP. However, the component derived from satellite-only global gravity models has to be refined with terrestrial gravity data to minimise the omission error and its effect on the vertical datum parameter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17058481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17058481"><span id="translatedtitle">Transportation of reagents, <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and samples: the <span class="hlt">international</span> perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearson, J E; Edwards, S</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Regulations for the transport of infectious substances, which could include reagents, <span class="hlt">reference</span> material and samples, are based on the 13th revision of the United Nations Model Regulations and are the standard for transport of infectious substances by all means of transportation. The 13th revision, effective January 2005 and further amended in March and July 2005, made major improvements in these shipping regulations. They specifically exempt certain substances, including those that have been neutralized or inactivated to destroy any pathogens and samples from "normal" animals. Infectious substances are divided into Category A, which includes primarily cultures of the more pathogenic agents and Category B, which includes all other substances that do not meet the Category A criteria. Tissue specimens, submitted for diagnosis, are included in Category B. Category A shipments must have a Dangerous Goods Certificate and meet other requirements; Category B shipments do not. The National requirements, such as import permits, and certain airline restrictions must also be met.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996RaSc...31..893A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996RaSc...31..893A"><span id="translatedtitle">Equatorial F1 characteristics and the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adeniyi, J. O.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Average values of the F1 critical frequency (f0F1) and the height of the F1 ledge (hmF1) for Ibadan (Latitude 7.4°N, Longitude 3.9°E) were used for this study. Well-defined F1 characteristics are observed during winter at low solar activity. <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere (IRI) does not predict F1 parameters during this season. Deviation of predicted F1 electron density (NF1) by the IRI model from observed values are less than 10% for all seasons of low solar activity, when IRI predicts NF1. Higher percentage deviations are observed during summers of high solar activity. IRI overestimates hmF1. Deviations from experimental values vary from 4 to 35%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1738O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1738O"><span id="translatedtitle">The quasi-biennial variation in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field: a global characteristics analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The periodicity of 1.5-3 years, namely the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), has been identified in the solar, geophysical, and atmospheric variability. Sugiura (1976) investigated the observatory annual means over 1900-1970 and confirmed the QBO in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. At present, studying the quasi-biennial oscillation becomes substantial for separating the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external parts in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations. For the <span class="hlt">internal</span> field, two typical periodicities, namely the 6-year oscillation in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular acceleration (SA) and the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerk (occurs in 1-2 years), have close period to the QBO. Recently, a global quasi-biennial fluctuation was identified in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> core field model (Silva et al., 2012). Silva et al. speculated this 2.5 years signal to either external source remaining in the core field model or consequence of the methods used to construct the model. As more high-quality data from global observatories are available, it is a good opportunity to characterize the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> QBO in the global range. In this paper, we investigate the QBO in the observatory monthly <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field X, Y, and Z components spanning 1985-2010. We employ the observatory hourly means database from the World Data Center for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> (WDC) for the investigation. Wavelet analysis is used to detect and identify the QBO, while Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis to obtain the statistics of the QBO. We apply the spherical harmonic analysis on QBO's amplitude, in order to quantify and separate <span class="hlt">internal</span> and external sources. Three salient periods respectively at 2.9, 2.2, and 1.7 years, are identified in the amplitude spectrum over 1988-2008. The oscillation with the period of ~2.2 years is most prominent in all field components and further studied. In the X component the QBO is attenuated towards the polar regions, while in the Z component the amplitude of QBO increases with increasing of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitude. At the high latitudes, the QBO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011988&hterms=ionosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dionosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011988&hterms=ionosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dionosphere"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere Today and in the Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter; McKinnell, Lee-Ane; Reinisch, Bodo; Fuller-Rowell,Tim</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere (IRI) is the <span class="hlt">internationally</span> recognized and recommended standard for the specification of plasma parameters in Earth's ionosphere. It describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 to 1,500 km. A joint working group of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Union of Radio Science (URSI) is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. As requested by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model being based on most of the available and reliable data sources for the ionospheric plasma. The paper describes the latest version of the model and reviews efforts towards future improvements, including the development of new global models for the F2 peak density and height, and a new approach to describe the electron density in the topside and plasmasphere. Our emphasis will be on the electron density because it is the IRI parameter most relevant to geodetic techniques and studies. Annual IRI meetings are the main venue for the discussion of IRI activities, future improvements, and additions to the model. A new special IRI task force activity is focusing on the development of a real-time IRI (RT-IRI) by combining data assimilation techniques with the IRI model. A first RT-IRI task force meeting was held in 2009 in Colorado Springs. We will review the outcome of this meeting and the plans for the future. The IRI homepage is at http://www.IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeIss...1...33S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeIss...1...33S"><span id="translatedtitle">Secular Variations of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sas-Uhrynowski, A.; Welker, E.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">international</span> project MagNetE (Magnetic Net For Europe) was undertaken in 2003. The project has been accepted by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Aeronomy of the IUGG. The common research on the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field space and time distribution in Europe, as well as collecting data and its analysis, constitutes the grounds for theoretical works on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models and their parameters. It is also the basis for studying the genesis of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field secular variations and its mechanism. The results of the project enable to increase the accuracy of models on the global, regional, and also on local scale. It has a vital meaning for the regions where the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data are not available or, where the existing data, because of their low accuracy, cannot be used. Information about the secular variations of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field makes it possible to update the magnetic data, which is needed in navigation, topography, telecommunication, geology and geophysics and other domains. The enclosed maps of isopors presented have been compiled using the results of measuring campaigns in the years 2004-2006 together with the archive data. They show the secular variations of the magnetic declination D, the length H of the horizontal intensity vector and the lenght F of the total intensity vector of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, in the intervals 1995-2000 and 2000-2005. The maps of isopors for Europe have been worked out using data from not only the magnetic observatories, but also from some hundred magnetic secular variation stations (repeated stations), located in 23 European countries. The secular variation differences between data obtained from terrestrial surveys and data from the IGRF model (<span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Field) have been presented in the form of maps and histograms. In several regions of Europe the unexpectedly large secular variation anomalies are visible. Anomalies of so high frequency and large amplitude cannot exist. They are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4014150','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4014150"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Internal</span> dosimetry estimates using voxelized <span class="hlt">reference</span> phantoms for thyroid agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoseinian-Azghadi, E.; Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This work presents <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry estimates for diagnostic procedures performed for thyroid disorders by relevant radiopharmaceuticals. The organ doses for 131Iodine, 123Iodine and 99mTc incorporated into the body were calculated for the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) <span class="hlt">reference</span> voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo transport method. A comparison between different thyroid uptakes of iodine in the range of 0–55% was made, and the effect of various techniques for administration of 99mTc on organ doses was studied. To investigate the necessity of calculating organ dose from all source regions, the major source organ and its contribution to total dose were specified for each target organ. Moreover, we compared effective dose in ICRP voxel phantoms with that in stylized phantoms. In our method, we directly calculated the organ dose without using the S values or SAFs, as is commonly done. Hence, a distribution of the absorbed dose to entire tissues was obtained. The chord length distributions (CLDs) were also computed for the selected source–target pairs to make comparison across the genders. The results showed that the S values for radionuclides in the thyroid are not sufficient for calculating the organ doses, especially for 123I and 99mTc. The thyroid and its neighboring organs receive a greater dose as thyroid uptake increases. Our comparisons also revealed an underestimation of organ doses reported for the stylized phantoms compared with the values based on the ICRP voxel phantoms in the uptake range of 5–55%, and an overestimation of absorbed dose by up to 2-fold for Iodine administration using blocking agent and for 99mTc incorporation. PMID:24222311</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222311"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Internal</span> dosimetry estimates using voxelized <span class="hlt">reference</span> phantoms for thyroid agents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoseinian-Azghadi, E; Rafat-Motavalli, L; Miri-Hakimabad, H</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This work presents <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry estimates for diagnostic procedures performed for thyroid disorders by relevant radiopharmaceuticals. The organ doses for (131)Iodine, (123)Iodine and (99m)Tc incorporated into the body were calculated for the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) <span class="hlt">reference</span> voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo transport method. A comparison between different thyroid uptakes of iodine in the range of 0-55% was made, and the effect of various techniques for administration of (99m)Tc on organ doses was studied. To investigate the necessity of calculating organ dose from all source regions, the major source organ and its contribution to total dose were specified for each target organ. Moreover, we compared effective dose in ICRP voxel phantoms with that in stylized phantoms. In our method, we directly calculated the organ dose without using the S values or SAFs, as is commonly done. Hence, a distribution of the absorbed dose to entire tissues was obtained. The chord length distributions (CLDs) were also computed for the selected source-target pairs to make comparison across the genders. The results showed that the S values for radionuclides in the thyroid are not sufficient for calculating the organ doses, especially for (123)I and (99m)Tc. The thyroid and its neighboring organs receive a greater dose as thyroid uptake increases. Our comparisons also revealed an underestimation of organ doses reported for the stylized phantoms compared with the values based on the ICRP voxel phantoms in the uptake range of 5-55%, and an overestimation of absorbed dose by up to 2-fold for Iodine administration using blocking agent and for (99m)Tc incorporation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..58.2479M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..58.2479M"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">International</span> DORIS Service contribution to the 2014 realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreaux, Guilhem; Lemoine, Frank G.; Capdeville, Hugues; Kuzin, Sergey; Otten, Michiel; Štěpánek, Petr; Willis, Pascal; Ferrage, Pascale</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In preparation of the 2014 realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ITRF2014), the <span class="hlt">International</span> DORIS Service delivered to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems Service a set of 1140 weekly solution files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. The data come from eleven DORIS satellites: TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, Envisat, Jason-1, Jason-2, Cryosat-2, Saral and HY-2A. In their processing, the six analysis centers which contributed to the DORIS combined solution used the latest time variable gravity models and estimated DORIS ground beacon frequency variations. Furthermore, all the analysis centers but one excepted included in their processing phase center variations for ground antennas. The main objective of this study is to present the combination process and to analyze the impact of the new modeling on the performance of the new combined solution. Comparisons with the IDS contribution to ITRF2008 show that (i) the application of the DORIS ground phase center variations in the data processing shifts the combined scale upward by nearly 7-11 mm and (ii) thanks to estimation of DORIS ground beacon frequency variations, the new combined solution no longer shows any scale discontinuity in early 2002 and does not present unexplained vertical discontinuities in any station position time series. However, analysis of the new series with respect to ITRF2008 exhibits a scale increase late 2011 which is not yet explained. A new DORIS Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame was computed to evaluate the intrinsic quality of the new combined solution. That evaluation shows that the addition of data from the new missions equipped with the latest generation of DORIS receiver (Jason-2, Cryosat-2, HY-2A, Saral), results in an <span class="hlt">internal</span> position consistency of 10 mm or better after mid-2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......210B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......210B"><span id="translatedtitle">Restoration project of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> survey in Latvia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burlakovs, J.; Lembere, I.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p> framework of <span class="hlt">international</span> projects, e.g. IMAGE and INTERMAGNET; it will be important step towards the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observation network development in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880508"><span id="translatedtitle">Intended use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> products & WHO <span class="hlt">International</span> Standards/<span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagents in the development of similar biological products (biosimilars).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorpe, Robin; Wadhwa, Meenu</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Products and WHO <span class="hlt">International</span> Standards/<span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagents have roles to play in the development and characterization of similar biological products (SBPs). However, these roles are distinct and non-interchangeable. The uses of these materials and their limitations are considered in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080021242&hterms=review+international+studies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dreview%2Binternational%2Bstudies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080021242&hterms=review+international+studies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dreview%2Binternational%2Bstudies"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> longitudinal pediatric <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards for bone mineral content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four <span class="hlt">international</span> sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P<0.05). Compared to White males, Asian males had 31.8 (6.8) g less WB BMC accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P<0.05). We provide a tool to calculate a child's BMC Z-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018871','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018871"><span id="translatedtitle">The national <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field <span class="hlt">reference</span> models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> initiative to define objectives and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6933H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6933H"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data and services into EPOS infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hejda, Pavel; Chambodut, Aude; Curto, Juan-Jose; Flower, Simon; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Kubašta, Petr; Matzka, Jürgen; Tanskanen, Eija; Thomson, Alan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Monitoring of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field has a long history across Europe that dates back to 1830', and is currently experiencing an increased interest within Earth observation and space weather monitoring. Our goals within EPOS-IP are to consolidate the community, modernise data archival and distribution formats for existing services and create new services for magnetotelluric data and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> models. Specific objectives are: • Enhance existing services providing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data (INTERMAGNET- <span class="hlt">INTErnational</span> Real-time MAGnetic observatory NETwork; World Data Centre for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span>; IMAGE- <span class="hlt">International</span> Monitor for Auroral <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Effects) and existing services providing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices (ISGI - <span class="hlt">International</span> Service of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Indices). • Develop and enhance the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> community's metadata systems by creating a metadata database, filling it and putting in place processes to ensure that it is kept up to date in the future. • Develop and build access to magnetotelluric (MT) data including transfer functions and time series data from temporary, portable MT-arrays in Europe, as well as to lithospheric conductivity models derived from TM-data. • Develop common web and database access points to global and regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and conductivity models. • Establish links from the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data services, products and models to the Integrated Core Services. The immediate task in the current period is to identify data models of existing services, modify them and integrate into a common model of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Thematic Core Services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/0177-97/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/0177-97/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">On the watch for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, Arthur W.; Brown, William M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms, induced by solar activity, pose significant hazards to satellites, electrical power distribution systems, radio communications, navigation, and geophysical surveys. Strong storms can expose astronauts and crews of high-flying aircraft to dangerous levels of radiation. Economic losses from recent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms have run into hundreds of millions of dollars. With the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the lead agency, an <span class="hlt">international</span> network of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories monitors the onset of solar-induced storms and gives warnings that help diminish losses to military and commercial operations and facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=UFO&pg=3&id=EJ555809','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=UFO&pg=3&id=EJ555809"><span id="translatedtitle">UFOs, NGOs, or IGOs: Using <span class="hlt">International</span> Documents for General <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shreve, Catherine</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Discusses accessing and using documents from <span class="hlt">international</span> (intergovernmental) organizations. Profiles the United Nations, the European Union and other Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs). Discusses the librarian as "Web detective," notes questions to focus on, and presents examples to demonstrate navigation of IGO sites. Lists basic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.384B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.384B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> excursions date early hominid migration to China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Atreyee</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Global-scale <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals, which are periods when the direction of Earth's magnetic field flips, leave imprints in magnetic minerals present in sediments. But so do smaller-scale, even local, changes in Earth's magnetic field direction. Paleomagnetists believe that the smaller-scale events represent “failed reversals” and <span class="hlt">refer</span> to them as “<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions.” Scientists use <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions in sedimentary basins as markers to tie together events of Earth's history across the globe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1033236','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1033236"><span id="translatedtitle">High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Routbort, Jules L [Hinsdale, IL; Singh, Dileep [Naperville, IL; Dutta, Prabir K [Worthington, OH; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy [North Royalton, OH; Spirig, John V [Columbus, OH; Akbar, Sheikh [Hilliard, OH</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050192563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050192563"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI): Task Force Activity 2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The annual IRI Task Force Activity was held at the Abdus Salam <span class="hlt">International</span> Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy from July 10 to July 14. The participants included J. Adeniyi (University of Ilorin, Nigeria), D. Bilitza (NSSDC/RITSS, USA), D. Buresova (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Republic), B. Forte (ICTP, Italy), R. Leitinger (University of Graz, Austria), B. Nava (ICTP, Italy), M. Mosert (University National Tucuman, Argentina), S. Pulinets (IZMIRAN, Russia), S. Radicella (ICTP, Italy), and B. Reinisch (University of Mass. Lowell, USA). The main topic of this Task Force Activity was the modeling of the topside ionosphere and the development of strategies for modeling of ionospheric variability. Each day during the workshop week the team debated a specific modeling problem in the morning during informal presentations and round table discussions of all participants. Ways of resolving the specific modeling problem were devised and tested in the afternoon in front of the computers of the ICTP Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory using ICTP s computer networks and internet access.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo..tmp....5I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo..tmp....5I"><span id="translatedtitle">Definition and Proposed Realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (IHRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ihde, Johannes; Sánchez, Laura; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Drewes, Hermann; Foerste, Christoph; Gruber, Thomas; Liebsch, Gunter; Marti, Urs; Pail, Roland; Sideris, Michael</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Studying, understanding and modelling global change require geodetic <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames with an order of accuracy higher than the magnitude of the effects to be actually studied and with high consistency and reliability worldwide. The <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of Geodesy, taking care of providing a precise geodetic infrastructure for monitoring the Earth system, promotes the implementation of an integrated global geodetic <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame that provides a reliable frame for consistent analysis and modelling of global phenomena and processes affecting the Earth's gravity field, the Earth's surface geometry and the Earth's rotation. The definition, realization, maintenance and wide utilization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System guarantee a globally unified geometric <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame with an accuracy at the millimetre level. An equivalent high-precision global physical <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame that supports the reliable description of changes in the Earth's gravity field (such as sea level variations, mass displacements, processes associated with geophysical fluids) is missing. This paper addresses the theoretical foundations supporting the implementation of such a physical <span class="hlt">reference</span> surface in terms of an <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System and provides guidance for the coming activities required for the practical and sustainable realization of this system. Based on conceptual approaches of physical geodesy, the requirements for a unified global height <span class="hlt">reference</span> system are derived. In accordance with the practice, its realization as the <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame is designed. Further steps for the implementation are also proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ICRC...12..425S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ICRC...12..425S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> and atmospheric effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoker, P. H.</p> <p>1983-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> and atmospheric processes affecting cosmic-ray earthbound spectrometry are analyzed. The topics discussed include: cutoff rigidities and asymptotic directions; cosmic ray secondaries in the atmosphere and magnetosphere; neutron counters without lead and neutron monitors; and coupling coefficients/yield functions and response functions of cosmic ray detectors. Theoretical simulations of the atmosphere and <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> are presented, taking into account such factors as <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> ring currents and meteorological effects. Diagrams and cutoff rigidity contours are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JNuM..233.1601P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JNuM..233.1601P"><span id="translatedtitle">FENDL: <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> nuclear data library for fusion applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pashchenko, A. B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The IAEA Nuclear Data Section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an <span class="hlt">internationally</span> available Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron—photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon—atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enthalpy&pg=6&id=EJ280055','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enthalpy&pg=6&id=EJ280055"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reference</span> States and Relative Values of <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fredrickson, A. G.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Discusses two <span class="hlt">reference</span> states (pure chemical compounds and pure elements at specified condition of temperature and pressure) and the relation between these <span class="hlt">reference</span> states for <span class="hlt">internal</span> energy and enthalpy. Problem 5.11 from Modell and Reid's "Thermodynamics and its Applications" (p. 141) is used to apply the ideas discussed. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference&pg=4&id=EJ995384','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference&pg=4&id=EJ995384"><span id="translatedtitle">Standard Setting to an <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Standard setting theory has largely developed with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1108740.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1108740.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Generalized <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model: An Extension to Dimensional Comparison Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Möller, Jens; Müller-Kalthoff, Hanno; Helm, Friederike; Nagy, Nicole; Marsh, Herb W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The dimensional comparison theory (DCT) focuses on the effects of <span class="hlt">internal</span>, dimensional comparisons (e.g., "How good am I in math compared to English?") on academic self-concepts with widespread consequences for students' self-evaluation, motivation, and behavioral choices. DCT is based on the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447645"><span id="translatedtitle">The Vector Matching Method in <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Aiding Navigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli</p> <p>2016-07-20</p> <p>In this paper, a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> matching navigation method that utilizes the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> entropy information in the matching region is small or the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> contour line's variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4970163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4970163"><span id="translatedtitle">The Vector Matching Method in <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Aiding Navigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> matching navigation method that utilizes the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> entropy information in the matching region is small or the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> contour line’s variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27447645</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5149058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5149058"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for relative quantitation studies of gene expression in human laryngeal cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Wang, Wei; Ren, Ming; Gao, Sujie; Zhao, Guanjie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background The aim of this study was to determine the expression stabilities of 12 common <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for the relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in human laryngeal cancer. Methods Hep-2 cells and 14 laryngeal cancer tissue samples were investigated. The expression characteristics of 12 <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene candidates (18S rRNA, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, RPL29, HMBS, PPIA, ALAS1, TBP, PUM1, GUSB, and B2M) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The data were analyzed by three commonly used software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results The use of the combination of four <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes was more appropriate than the use of a single <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene. The optimal combination was PPIA + GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 for both the cell line and tissues; while the most appropriate combination was GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 + HMBS for the tissues. Conclusions Our recommended <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes may improve the accuracy of relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by the RT-qPCR method in further gene expression research on laryngeal tumors. PMID:27957397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2631881','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2631881"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementing a network for electronic surveillance reporting from public health <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories: an <span class="hlt">international</span> perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bean, N. H.; Martin, S. M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Electronic data reporting from public health laboratories to a central site provides a mechanism for public health officials to rapidly identify problems and take action to prevent further spread of disease. However, implementation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratory systems is much more complex than simply adopting new technology, especially in <span class="hlt">international</span> settings. We describe three major areas to be considered by <span class="hlt">international</span> organizations for successful implementation of electronic reporting systems from public health <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories: benefits of electronic reporting, planning for system implementation (e.g., support, resources, data analysis, country sovereignty), and components of system initiation (e.g., authority, disease definition, feedback, site selection, assessing readiness, problem resolution). Our experience with implementation of electronic public health laboratory data management and reporting systems in the United States and working with <span class="hlt">international</span> organizations to initiate similar efforts demonstrates that successful <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratory reporting can be implemented if surveillance issues and components are planned. PMID:11747687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985EOSTr..66..545B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985EOSTr..66..545B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span>-Paleomagnetism Committee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Subir K.</p> <p></p> <p>I n response to strong member concerns about the future of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>, Neil D. Opdyke, President of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Paleomagnetism Section, has appointed an ad hoc Committee for the Future of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Paleomagnetism consisting of Subir K. Banerjee (chair; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), Joseph Cain (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo.) and Rob Van der Voo (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor). The committee seeks, from the membership at large, perceptions of future directions of research, help in identifying a few expanding research areas that show a promise of delivering significant results in the next 5 to 10 years, and guidance in generating a strategy to bring these about.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015jsrs.conf..191R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015jsrs.conf..191R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> excitation of nutation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ron, C.; Vondrák, J.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We tested the hypothesis of Malkin (2013), who demonstrated that the observed changes of Free Core Nutation parameters (phase, amplitude) occur near the epochs of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks. We found that if the numerical integration of Brzeziński broad-band Liouville equations of atmospheric/oceanic excitations is re-initialized at the epochs of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks, the agreement between the integrated and observed celestial pole offsets is improved (Vondrák & Ron, 2014). Nevertheless, this approach assumes that the influence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks leads to a stepwise change in the position of celestial pole, which is physically not acceptable. Therefore we introduce a simple continuous excitation function that hypothetically describes the influence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks, and leads to rapid but continuous changes of pole position. The results of numerical integration of atmospheric/oceanic excitations and this newly introduced excitation are then compared with the observed celestial pole offsets, and prove that the agreement is improved significantly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internal+AND+waves&pg=2&id=EJ1045382','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internal+AND+waves&pg=2&id=EJ1045382"><span id="translatedtitle">The Reciprocal <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model Using Grades and Test Scores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+line&pg=5&id=EJ785515','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+line&pg=5&id=EJ785515"><span id="translatedtitle">Antecedents of Academic Emotions: Testing the <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model for Academic Enjoyment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.; Pekrun, Reinhard</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The present study focused on students' academic enjoyment as predicted by achievement in multiple academic domains. Assumptions were based on Marsh's <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external (I/E) frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions, and were tested in a sample of 1380 German students from grades 5 to 10. Students' academic…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70095725','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70095725"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for isotope-ratio analysis (IUPAC Technical Report)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Prohaska, Thomas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since the early 1950s, the number of <span class="hlt">international</span> measurement standards for anchoring stable isotope delta scales has mushroomed from 3 to more than 30, expanding to more than 25 chemical elements. With the development of new instrumentation, along with new and improved measurement procedures for studying naturally occurring isotopic abundance variations in natural and technical samples, the number of <span class="hlt">internationally</span> distributed, secondary isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials with a specified delta value has blossomed in the last six decades to more than 150 materials. More than half of these isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials were produced for isotope-delta measurements of seven elements: H, Li, B, C, N, O, and S. The number of isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for other, heavier elements has grown considerably over the last decade. Nevertheless, even primary <span class="hlt">international</span> measurement standards for isotope-delta measurements are still needed for some elements, including Mg, Fe, Te, Sb, Mo, and Ge. It is recommended that authors publish the delta values of <span class="hlt">internationally</span> distributed, secondary isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials that were used for anchoring their measurement results to the respective primary stable isotope scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Santa+AND+Fe&pg=3&id=EJ625151','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Santa+AND+Fe&pg=3&id=EJ625151"><span id="translatedtitle">Faculty and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Librarians: A Virtual Dynamic Duo. An <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Educational Partnership for Learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Evans, Ruby</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Discusses how faculty and <span class="hlt">reference</span> librarians at Santa Fe Community College (Florida) formed an <span class="hlt">internal</span> educational partnership to incorporate the use of technology for enhancing teaching and learning. Describes efforts in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics, as well as the Web-based library instruction course. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20338782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20338782"><span id="translatedtitle">The development and role of <span class="hlt">international</span> biological <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials in the diagnosis of anaemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorpe, Susan J</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Anaemia is a major global health problem. Although the main cause is iron deficiency, anaemia also results from other nutritional deficiencies (folate and vitamin B12), haemolytic disorders including haemoglobinopathies, and bone marrow disorders. Accurate diagnosis of anaemia is dependent on reliable diagnostic tests and <span class="hlt">reference</span> ranges, which in turn are dependent on effective standardisation. Standardisation is achieved through the availability of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedures. <span class="hlt">International</span> biological <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials have therefore been developed to standardise and control diagnostic tests for anaemia for a diverse range of analytes including total haemoglobin and haemoglobin types, ferritin, the serum transferrin receptor, serum vitamin B12 and folate, whole blood folate, and alloantibodies which mediate immune haemolytic anaemia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013124"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-<span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The classical <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard qNMR method. In this new method, the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard method is retained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4214Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4214Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> disturbances imprints in ground and satellite altitude observatories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yahiat, Yasmina; Lamara, Souad; Zaourar, Naima; Hamoudi, Mohamed</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The temporal evolution of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and its variations have been repeatedly studied from both ground observatories and near-earth orbiting platforms. With the advent of the space ageand the launches of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> low altitude orbits satellites, a global coverage has been achieved. Since Magsat mission, more satellites were put into orbit and some of them are still collecting data enhancing the spatial and temporal descriptions of the field. Our study uses new data gathered by the latest SWARM satellite mission launched on November, 22nd 2013. It consists of a constellation of three identical satellites carrying on board high resolution and accuracy scientific equipment. Data from this constellation will allow better understanding the multiscale behavior of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. Our goal is to analyze and interpret the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data collected by this Swarm mission, for a given period and try to separate the external disturbances from <span class="hlt">internal</span> contributions. We consider in the study the variation of the horizontal component H, for different virtual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories at the satellite altitude. The analysis of data by Swarm orbital segments shows clearly the external disturbances of the magnetic field like that occurring on 27th of August 2014. This perturbation is shown on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indexes and is related to a coronal mass ejection (CME). These results from virtual observatories are confirmed, by the equivalent analysis using ground observatories data for the same geographic positions and same epochs. Key words: <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field, external field, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index, SWARM mission, virtual observatories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050236278&hterms=data+mining+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddata%2Bmining%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050236278&hterms=data+mining+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddata%2Bmining%2Bmodel"><span id="translatedtitle">Data Assimilation as a Tool for Developing a Mars <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Houben, Howard</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A new paradigm for a Mars <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Atmosphere is proposed. In general, as is certainly now the case for Mars, there are sufficient observational data to specify what the full atmospheric state was under a variety of circumstances (season, dustiness, etc.). There are also general circulation models capable of deter- mining the evolution of these states. If these capabilities are combined-using data assimilation techniques-the resulting analyzed states can be probed to answer a wide variety of questions, whether posed by scientists, mission planners, or others. This system would fulfill all the purposes of an <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> atmosphere and would make the scientific results of exploration missions readily available to the community. Preliminary work on a website that would incorporate this functionality has begun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA548342','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA548342"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent and Anticipated Changes to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems Service (IERS) Conventions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>object, it must utilize the five Earth orientation parameters (EOPs): polar motion (2 angles), UT1-UTC, and nutation (2 angles) (see Seidelmann...Recent and Anticipated Changes to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems Service (IERS) Conventions Brian Luzum, U.S. Naval...the Earth Orientation Parameters Combination and Prediction Division in the USNO Earth Orientation Department. He is also the co-director of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9567308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9567308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards: antibody standards for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wright, P F; Tounkara, K; Lelenta, M; Jeggo, M H</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> standards are used to calibrate similar assay systems against an <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> protocol and to provide a template for the preparation of secondary and/or working standards. Three <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards are recommended for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: a strong positive standard, a weak positive standard and a negative serum standard. The negative standard should be derived from a single serum or from a serum pool which exhibits typical background activity in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> protocol. The strong and weak positive standards should be derived from a single serum or from a serum pool which typifies the humoral response (antibody) to natural infection. Suitable candidates for the positive <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards should exhibit dose/response curves in the mid-range of antibody activity. The strong and weak positive standards should each be prepared from a one-time dilution in the negative standard, to yield antibody activities which are defined by specific points on the linear portion of the dose/response curve. The strong positive standard should represent an antibody activity (absorbance value) midway between the upper and central points and the weak positive standard should represent an antibody activity midway between the central and lower points of the linear portion of the curve. Owing to inherent differences among assay systems, antibody activities should be expressed in relative rather than in absolute terms. It is recommended that the antibody activity of the strong positive standard should denote 100% positivity. The activities of the weak positive and negative standards should then be expressed as relative percentages. Every set of <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards should be accompanied by an information sheet which includes, among other things, a plot of the dose/response curve and an indication of the dilutions used to prepare the standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84..586H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84..586H"><span id="translatedtitle">Introduction to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hinze, William J.</p> <p></p> <p>Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span>, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034360','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034360"><span id="translatedtitle">OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> CELESTIAL <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> FRAME (ICRF) RADIO SOURCES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Titov, O.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, H. M.; Hunstead, R. W.; Christensen, L.</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>We present the results of spectroscopic observations of the optical counterparts of 47 southern radio sources from the candidate <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Catalogue as part of a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame, especially in the south. We made the observations with the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope. We obtained redshifts for 30 quasars and one radio galaxy, with a further seven objects being probable BL Lac objects with featureless spectra. Of the remainder, four were clear misidentifications with Galactic stars and five had low signal-to-noise spectra and could not be classified. These results, in combination with new VLBI data of the radio sources with redshifts more than 2, add significantly to the existing data needed to refine the distribution of source proper motions over the celestial sphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009841','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009841"><span id="translatedtitle">Research Activities for the DORIS Contribution to the Next <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Soudarin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Ferrage, P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame solutions. These efforts include (i) assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2 (2008-2011), (ii) individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and scale, and (iii) improving orbit dynamics (atmospheric loading effects, satellite surface force modeling. . . ). We report on the preliminary results from these research activities, review the status of the IDS combination which is now routinely generated from the contributions of the IDS analysis centers, and discuss the prospects for continued improvement in the DORIS contribution to the next <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118743"><span id="translatedtitle">OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> CELESTIAL <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Pursimo, T.; Jauncey, David L.; Maslennikov, K.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the <span class="hlt">International</span> VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871718','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871718"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> Standards and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials for Quantitative Molecular Infectious Disease Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Madej, Roberta M.; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J.; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of <span class="hlt">international</span> standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives. PMID:20075208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20075208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20075208"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> standards and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for quantitative molecular infectious disease testing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Madej, Roberta M; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of <span class="hlt">international</span> standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6435863','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6435863"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of San Diego observations (March 1992) with IRI parameters. [IRI (<span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paul, A.K.; Sprague, R.A.; Moision, W.K.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>During the month of March 1992, the new four channel ionosonde at NRaD was used to obtain ionograms at five minute intervals. Using the method of Paul, the standard F2 layer parameters (HmF2 and foF2) were extracted from the data at fifteen minute intervals. In this paper the authors present a comparison of these experimentally determined parameters to those predicted, for the same time and conditions, by the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere....Electromagnetic, Propagation, Electro-optics, Atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010008"><span id="translatedtitle">Representation of the Auroral and Polar Ionosphere in the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This issue of Advances in Space Research presents a selection of papers that document the progress in developing and improving the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI), a widely used standard for the parameters that describe the Earths ionosphere. The core set of papers was presented during the 2010 General Assembly of the Committee on Space Research in Bremen, Germany in a session that focused on the representation of the auroral and polar ionosphere in the IRI model. In addition, papers were solicited and submitted from the scientific community in a general call for appropriate papers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AJ....153..157T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AJ....153..157T"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical Spectra of Candidate <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Titov, O.; Pursimo, T.; Johnston, Helen M.; Stanford, Laura M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Jauncey, David L.; Zenere, Katrina A.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ∼160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128359"><span id="translatedtitle">Realistic <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult and paediatric phantom series for <span class="hlt">internal</span> and external dosimetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stabin, M G; Emmons, M A; Segars, W P; Fernald, M J</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>A new generation of realistic, image-based anthropomorphic phantoms has been developed based on the <span class="hlt">reference</span> masses and organ definitions given in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 89. Specific absorbed fractions for <span class="hlt">internal</span> radiation sources have been calculated for photon and electron sources for many body organs. Values are similar to those from the previous generation of 'stylized' (mathematical equation-based) models, but some differences are seen, particularly at low particle or photon energies, due to the more realistic organ geometries, with organs generally being closer together, and with some touching and overlapping. Extension of this work, to use these phantoms in Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation codes with external radiation sources, is an important area of investigation that should be undertaken.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836685"><span id="translatedtitle">A study to establish <span class="hlt">international</span> diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels for paediatric computed tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vassileva, J; Rehani, M; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Al-Naemi, H M; Al Suwaidi, J S; Arandjic, D; Bashier, E H O; Kodlulovich Renha, S; El-Nachef, L; Aguilar, J G; Gershan, V; Gershkevitsh, E; Gruppetta, E; Hustuc, A; Jauhari, A; Kharita, Mohammad Hassan; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N; Khosravi, H R; Khoury, H; Kralik, I; Mahere, S; Mazuoliene, J; Mora, P; Muhogora, W; Muthuvelu, P; Nikodemova, D; Novak, L; Pallewatte, A; Pekarovič, D; Shaaban, M; Shelly, E; Stepanyan, K; Thelsy, N; Visrutaratna, P; Zaman, A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The article reports results from the largest <span class="hlt">international</span> dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes <span class="hlt">international</span> diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDIw, CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and <span class="hlt">international</span> DRLs were established at rounded 75th percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. <span class="hlt">International</span> DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the <span class="hlt">reference</span> values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910018318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910018318"><span id="translatedtitle">Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 31: <span class="hlt">Reference</span> models of trace species for the COSPAR <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keating, G. M. (Editor)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A set of preliminary <span class="hlt">reference</span> atmosphere models of significant trace species which play important roles in controlling the chemistry, radiation budget, and circulation patterns of the atmosphere were produced. These models of trace species distributions are considered to be <span class="hlt">reference</span> models rather than standard models; thus, it was not crucial that they be correct in an absolute sense. These <span class="hlt">reference</span> models can serve as a means of comparison between individual observations, as a first guess in inversion algorithms, and as an approximate representation of observations for comparison to theoretical calculations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EOSTr..80...39J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EOSTr..80...39J"><span id="translatedtitle">Foundations of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, Andy</p> <p></p> <p>The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span>? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014158','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014158"><span id="translatedtitle">On regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> charts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Alldredge, L.R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>When regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C"><span id="translatedtitle">On extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17617044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17617044"><span id="translatedtitle">Proposal of a candidate <span class="hlt">international</span> conventional <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedure for free thyroxine in serum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thienpont, Linda M; Beastall, Graham; Christofides, Nicholas D; Faix, James D; Ieiri, Tamio; Jarrige, Véronique; Miller, W Greg; Miller, Richard; Nelson, Jerald C; Ronin, Cathérine; Ross, H Alec; Rottmann, Michael; Thijssen, Jos H; Toussaint, Brigitte</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the present paper the IFCC WG-STFT recommends and provides the rationale to establish metrological traceability of serum free thyroxine (FT4) measurements to a candidate <span class="hlt">international</span> conventional <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedure. It is proposed that this procedure be based on equilibrium dialysis combined with determination of thyroxine in the dialysate with a trueness-based <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedure. The measurand is thus operationally defined as "thyroxine in the dialysate from equilibrium dialysis of serum prepared under defined conditions". With regard to the trueness-based <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedure, the WG-STFT recommends use of an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/tandem MS) procedure for total thyroxine that has been optimized towards measurement at picomolar concentration levels and that is listed in the database of the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM). For calibration, the purified thyroxine material IRMM-468 (resulting from a project funded by the European Commission and recently submitted to the JCTLM) is proposed. The WG-STFT stresses that according to this recommendation it is a prerequisite to strictly adhere to the defined equilibrium dialysis procedure, whereas it is permissible to introduce variants in the ID-LC/tandem MS procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999BAAA...43...17M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999BAAA...43...17M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF): mantenimiento y extensión</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, C.; Arias, E. F.; Eubanks, T.; Fey, A. L.; Gontier, A.-M.; Jacobs, C. S.; Sovers, O. J.; Archinal, B. A.; Charlot, P.</p> <p></p> <p>A partir de enero de 1998 el sistema de referencia celeste convencional está representado por el <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (ICRS) y materializado a través de las coordenadas VLBI del conjunto de radiofuentes extragalácticas que conforman el <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF). La primera realización del ICRF, fue elaborada en 1995 por un grupo de expertos designado por la IAU, la que encomendó al <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation Service el mantenimiento del ICRS, del ICRF y del vínculo con marcos de referencia en otras frecuencias. Una primera extensión del ICRF se realizó entre abril y junio de 1999, con el objetivo primario de proveer posiciones de radiofuentes extragalácticas observadas a partir de julio de 1995 y de mejorar las posiciones de las fuentes ``candidatas" con la inclusión de observaciones adicionales. Objetivos secundarios fueron monitorear a las radiofuentes para verificar que siguen siendo adecuadas para realizar al ICRF y mejorar las técnicas de análisis de datos. Como resultado del nuevo análisis se obtuvo una solución a partir de la cual se construyó la primera extensión del ICRF, denominada ICRF - Ext.1. Ella representa al ICRS, sus fuentes de definición se mantienen con las mismas posiciones y errores que en la primera realización del ICRF; las demás radiofuentes tienen coordenadas mejor determinadas que en ICRF; el marco de referencia se densificó con el agregado de 59 nuevas radiofuentes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18184639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18184639"><span id="translatedtitle">Dosimetry calculations for <span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources using a Korean <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult stylised phantom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, S; Lee, J K; Lee, C; Lee, C</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for <span class="hlt">internally</span> deposited electron were calculated using a Korean <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult stylised phantom, where a total of 15 <span class="hlt">internal</span> organ volumes and external body dimension were designed to match average Korean adult male. The walls of oesophagus, stomach, colon and urinary bladder were additionally divided into the mucosal layer and residual wall to accommodate dose calculation for weakly penetrating electron. The mucosal wall thicknesses were determined by the data reported in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 89 and other literature resources and by direct measurements. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX (version 2.5.0) was employed to calculate the electron energy deposited. The SAFs and AFs for monoenergetic electrons with the energies ranging from 10 keV to 2 MeV were calculated. The results were compared with those of the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory phantoms and showed considerable differences up to 150% in SAFs, whereas no substantial differences were observed in the AFs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=supply+AND+demand+AND+nurses&pg=5&id=ED183766','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=supply+AND+demand+AND+nurses&pg=5&id=ED183766"><span id="translatedtitle">Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Health Manpower Planning. Volume 3: Health Manpower Planning <span class="hlt">References</span>. <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>White (E.H.) Co., San Francisco, CA.</p> <p></p> <p>Intended as a companion piece to volume 3 in the Method Series, Health Manpower Planning (CE 024 231), this third of six volumes in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with health manpower planning for developing countries. The review identifies literature relevant…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183765.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183765.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health <span class="hlt">References</span>. <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa</p> <p></p> <p>Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21587322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21587322"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishment of the first WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> genetic <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel for Prader Willi and Angelman syndromes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyle, Jennifer; Hawkins, Malcolm; Barton, David E; Meaney, Karen; Guitart, Miriam; O'Grady, Anna; Tobi, Simon; Ramsden, Simon C; Elles, Rob; Gray, Elaine; Metcalfe, Paul; Hawkins, J Ross</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Prader Willi and Angelman syndromes are clinically distinct genetic disorders both mapping to chromosome region 15q11-q13, which are caused by a loss of function of paternally or maternally inherited genes in the region, respectively. With clinical diagnosis often being difficult, particularly in infancy, confirmatory genetic diagnosis is essential to enable clinical intervention. However, the latter is challenged by the complex genetics behind both disorders and the unmet need for characterised <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials to aid accurate molecular diagnosis. With this in mind, a panel of six genotyping <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for Prader Willi and Angelman syndromes was developed, which should be stable for many years and available to all diagnostic laboratories. The panel comprises three Prader Willi syndrome materials (two with different paternal deletions, and one with maternal uniparental disomy (UPD)) and three Angelman syndrome materials (one with a maternal deletion, one with paternal UPD or an epigenetic imprinting centre defect, and one with a UBE3A point mutation). Genomic DNA was bulk-extracted from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines established from consenting patients, and freeze-dried as aliquots in glass ampoules. In total, 37 laboratories from 26 countries participated in a collaborative study to assess the suitability of the panel. Participants evaluated the blinded, triplicate materials using their routine diagnostic methods against in-house controls or externally sourced uncertified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. The panel was established by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization as the first <span class="hlt">International</span> Genetic <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Panel for Prader Willi and Angelman syndromes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19619877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19619877"><span id="translatedtitle">The learning experiences of <span class="hlt">international</span> doctoral students with particular <span class="hlt">reference</span> to nursing students: a literature review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Catrin; Stevenson, Keith</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>One of the key challenges for the advancement of nursing globally is the development of doctorally prepared educators and leaders in a context where there is a shortage of provision of doctoral nursing programmes. For the short term future, many nurses wishing to undertake a doctorate will need to complete this education in the USA, the UK or Australia. Very little is known however about the nature of their learning experiences in these countries. This paper presents a literature review on the <span class="hlt">international</span> doctoral student experience, with specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> to nursing. A thorough review of the literature from 1990 to 2009 was undertaken which yielded only three empirical studies related to nursing. The review was then expanded to include subjects other than nursing which yielded 16 studies in total. This paper presents key themes that appear to be generic to <span class="hlt">international</span> doctoral students, and draws out specific implications for nursing. The review found that <span class="hlt">international</span> doctoral students' learning experiences were strongly influenced by the extent to which they could engage with three key elements of doctoral programmes: The first months represented a critical time of transition and most <span class="hlt">international</span> students seemed to want and expect considerable support and structured in-put during this period. Most studies concluded that there was a need for greater institutional support and supervisor training. The three nursing-specific papers were entirely consistent with these themes. The existing evidence is extremely heterogeneous and of variable methodological quality. In order to ensure that doctoral nursing students are getting a high quality and appropriate PhD experience, there is a need for more research specifically with this group. There is also a need to investigate the different stages of the doctoral process in nursing, including, for example, writing up and examination processes and post-doctoral career outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860059486&hterms=heat+ionosphere&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bionosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860059486&hterms=heat+ionosphere&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bionosphere"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat balance of the ionosphere - Implications for the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Theoretical considerations can be helpful tools in modeling ionospheric parameters in regions and for times where not enough experimental data are available. This study asks whether results of heat balance calculations should be introduced to supplement the data base for the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere. The present status of the theoretical understanding is discussed and the influence of the following unresolved or neglected times are examined: (1) electron heating rate, (2) electron cooling by fine structure excitation of atomic oxygen, and (3) height-dependent Coulomb Logarithm. The ambiguity introduced by these terms leads to up to 30 percent uncertainty in the electron temperature of the lower ionosphere. The electron temperature in the upper ionosphere is largely determined by heat conduction from above and depends critically on the conditions assumed at the boundary between ionosphere and plasmasphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22981761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22981761"><span id="translatedtitle">Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards to the USDA veterinary <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D</p> <p>2012-11-06</p> <p>Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> vaccines are based on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary <span class="hlt">reference</span> 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412927B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412927B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere - A tool for Space Weather Applications: Recent Developments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, D.; McKinnell, L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We will present the latest developments regarding the COSPAR and URSI sponsored <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI). IRI is a widely used standard for the specification of ionospheric densities and temperatures recommended by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Standardization Organization (ISO) and the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECCS). With the latest version of the model, IRI-2012, significant improvements and new parameters have been introduced in the model and will be discussed in this talk. Recent comparisons and applications of the model will be briefly reviewed. Of special interest is the performance of IRI during the recent, highly unusual solar minimum of cycle 23/24. Measurements by the CHAMP, GRACE, and C/NOFS satellites have found large discrepancies with IRI predictions during the minimum while ionosonde data show good agreement at the F2 peak. We will discuss these results and investigate possible causes. An exciting new activity are the efforts towards the development of a Real-Time IRI based on data assimilation and model updating with real-time data. We will give a progress report following the special IRI-RT workshops in Colorado Springs (May 2009) and Prague (March 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4337155','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4337155"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete <span class="hlt">internal</span> audit of a mammography service in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> institution for breast imaging*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Badan, Gustavo Machado; Roveda Júnior, Décio; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; de Noronha Junior, Ozeas Alves</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Undertaking of a complete audit of the service of mammography, as recommended by BI-RADS®, in a private <span class="hlt">reference</span> institution for breast cancer diagnosis in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and comparison of results with those recommended by the literature. Materials and Methods Retrospective, analytical and cross-sectional study including 8,000 patients submitted to mammography in the period between April 2010 and March 2011, whose results were subjected to an <span class="hlt">internal</span> audit. The patients were followed-up until December 2012. Results The radiological classification of 7,249 screening mammograms, according to BI-RADS, was the following: category 0 (1.43%), 1 (7.82%), 2 (80.76%), 3 (8.35%), 4 (1.46%), 5 (0.15%) and 6 (0.03%). The breast cancer detection ratio was 4.8 cases per 1,000 mammograms. Ductal carcinoma in situ was found in 22.8% of cases. Positive predictive values for categories 3, 4 and 5 were 1.3%, 41.3% and 100%, respectively. In the present study, the sensitivity of the method was 97.1% and specificity, 97.4%. Conclusion The complete <span class="hlt">internal</span> audit of a service of mammography is essential to evaluate the quality of such service, which reflects on an early breast cancer detection and reduction of mortality rates. PMID:25741052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BTSNU..51...23S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BTSNU..51...23S"><span id="translatedtitle">Operational <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Forecast Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Semeniv, O.; Polonska, A.; Parnowski, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The operational forecasting service for real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices Dst and Kp was described. The warning time for the Earth to the intersection of the Dst index is 1-4 hours, for the Kp index - 3 hours. The skillscore parameter, which is defined as a decrease of the relative mean square error with respect to the trivial model, was approximately 40% for Dst and 15% for Kp. The service works on-line freely available through STAFF http://www.staff.oma.be/ browser.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162674','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162674"><span id="translatedtitle">Hazards of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Herzog, D.C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4561O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4561O"><span id="translatedtitle">Space-time structure of the 2003 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerk at Mid-Eastern Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin; Xu, Wenyao; Yang, Dongmei</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The 2003 jerk has an abrupt change in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation (SV), and was recognized as a local phenomenon of <span class="hlt">internal</span> origin from the satellite observations (Olsen and Mandea, 2007). Notable strength of the 2003 jerk is located at Mid-Eastern Asia. The temporal and spatial features at this area are important to resolve the Earth's core fluid flow dynamics at local scale (e.g. Wardinski et al., 2008). We investigate the temporal-spatial development of the 2003 jerk in more detail at Mid-Eastern Asia with the ground-based observations and CHAOS-3 core field model. We select the data in the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> quiet days to calculate the monthly means. In order to reduce the influence of the external field, we adopt a function comprising the terms associated with the indices of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, and the terms of the periodic signals on the observatory monthly means data (Stewart and Whaler, 1992). We then use an empirical AR-2 model to represent the <span class="hlt">internal</span> field signals in the observatory data. The extreme detection is applied to identify the jerk in the SV time series. The onset time and the strength of the 2003 jerk are obtained through the detection for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field component, X, Y and Z. The maximum of the strength of the 2003 jerk is located under the Indian mainland. The onset time of this jerk propagates approximately southeastward. Two jerks in 2001 and 2003 for the Z component are further compared and they are confirmed as independent processes. We suggest the jerk in 2001 identical to the well known 1999 jerk in Europe (Mandea et al., 2000). Our results reveal the fine structures of the 2003 jerk that corroborate the conclusions in previous studies. The larger scale time-spatial structure given by the AR-2 model constructed from ground observatory data (monthly values) is consistent with the results from the CHAOS-3 model. This structure can be applied for further inversion of the local core surface fluid flow motions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5798199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5798199"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of the high-latitude thermosphere to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rees, D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Fuller-Rowell and Rees (1980) and Roble et al. (1982) have developed three-dimensional, time-dependent models which simulate the structure and dynamics of the thermosphere with considerable realism. These models are particularly useful for the evaluation of the individual contributions of the many distinct elements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> forcing of the polar thermosphere. A description is given of simulations of the steady-state structure and dynamics of the thermosphere for a level of moderately high solar activity, at the December and June solstices, and for moderately quiet and rather disturbed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions. In the present paper, the simulations are used for <span class="hlt">reference</span> purposes. Attention is given to time-dependent simulations of the thermospheric response to large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. 24 <span class="hlt">references</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410284"><span id="translatedtitle">Domino model for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reversals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mori, N; Schmitt, D; Wicht, J; Ferriz-Mas, A; Mouri, H; Nakamichi, A; Morikawa, M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We solve the equations of motion of a one-dimensional planar Heisenberg (or Vaks-Larkin) model consisting of a system of interacting macrospins aligned along a ring. Each spin has unit length and is described by its angle with respect to the rotational axis. The orientation of the spins can vary in time due to spin-spin interaction and random forcing. We statistically describe the behavior of the sum of all spins for different parameters. The term "domino model" in the title <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the interaction among the spins. We compare the model results with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reversals and dynamo simulations and find strikingly similar behavior. The aggregate of all spins keeps the same direction for a long time and, once in a while, begins flipping to change the orientation by almost 180 degrees (mimicking a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversal) or to move back to the original direction (mimicking an excursion). Most of the time the spins are aligned or antialigned and deviate only slightly with respect to the rotational axis (mimicking the secular variation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pole with respect to the geographic pole). Reversals are fast compared to the times in between and they occur at random times, both in the model and in the case of the Earth's magnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004057"><span id="translatedtitle">Fit-for-purpose shellfish <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for <span class="hlt">internal</span> and external quality control in the analysis of phycotoxins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hess, Philipp; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The need for <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for quality control of analysis of foodstuffs has been stressed frequently. This has been particularly true in the phycotoxins field, where there is a great shortage of both pure calibration standards and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. Worldwide there are very few independent bodies that produce certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for phycotoxins, the main producers currently being the National Research Council Canada and the Japanese Food Research Laboratory. Limited availability of contaminated shellfish and algae, as well as the time and knowledge necessary for the production of adequate <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, continuously lead to limited editions of certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and even more limited production of in-house <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. The restricted availability of in-house quality control materials promotes the rapid use of the limited certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, which in turn hampers the production of the suite of materials required globally for complete protection of public health. This paper outlines the various options that analysts can pursue in the use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for <span class="hlt">internal</span> and external quality control, with a view to optimising the efforts of both <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials users and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials producers. For this purpose, the logical sequence is reviewed from the discovery of a new bioactive compound in shellfish, through initial method development up to regulation for food safety purposes including accepted <span class="hlt">reference</span> methods. Subsequently, the requirements for and efforts typically spent in the production and characterisation of laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and other test materials used in inter-laboratory studies or proficiency testing, in the area of marine biotoxins are evaluated. Particular emphasis is put on practical advice for the preparation of in-house <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. The intricate link between <span class="hlt">reference</span> material characterisation and method performance is</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27396652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27396652"><span id="translatedtitle">Absolute Quantification of Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins by Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Using Removable <span class="hlt">Internal</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Substance with SI Traceability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kato, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Maki; Nagae, Mika; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Tomoji; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Inagaki, Minoru</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Okadaic acid (OA), a lipophilic shellfish toxin, was accurately quantified using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance with <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards for the development of an authentic <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard. Pyridine and the residual proton in methanol-d4 were used as removable <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards to limit any contamination. They were calibrated based on a maleic acid certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> material. Thus, the concentration of OA was traceable to the SI units through accurate quantitative NMR with an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance. Signals from the protons on the oxygenated and unsaturated carbons of OA were used for quantification. A reasonable accuracy was obtained by integrating between the lower and upper (13)C satellite signal range when more than 4 mg of OA was used. The best-determined purity was 97.4% (0.16% RSD) when 20 mg of OA was used. Dinophysistoxin-1, a methylated analog of OA having an almost identical spectrum, was also quantified by using the same methodology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.6109A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.6109A"><span id="translatedtitle">ITRF2014: A new release of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame modeling nonlinear station motions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Métivier, Laurent; Collilieux, Xavier</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>For the first time in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ITRF) history, the ITRF2014 is generated with an enhanced modeling of nonlinear station motions, including seasonal (annual and semiannual) signals of station positions and postseismic deformation for sites that were subject to major earthquakes. Using the full observation history of the four space geodetic techniques (very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS)), the corresponding <span class="hlt">international</span> services provided reprocessed time series (weekly from SLR and DORIS, daily from GNSS, and 24 h session-wise from VLBI) of station positions and daily Earth Orientation Parameters. ITRF2014 is demonstrated to be superior to past ITRF releases, as it precisely models the actual station trajectories leading to a more robust secular frame and site velocities. The ITRF2014 long-term origin coincides with the Earth system center of mass as sensed by SLR observations collected on the two LAGEOS satellites over the time span between 1993.0 and 2015.0. The estimated accuracy of the ITRF2014 origin, as reflected by the level of agreement with the ITRF2008 (both origins are defined by SLR), is at the level of less than 3 mm at epoch 2010.0 and less than 0.2 mm/yr in time evolution. The ITRF2014 scale is defined by the arithmetic average of the implicit scales of SLR and VLBI solutions as obtained by the stacking of their respective time series. The resulting scale and scale rate differences between the two solutions are 1.37 (±0.10) ppb at epoch 2010.0 and 0.02 (±0.02) ppb/yr. While the postseismic deformation models were estimated using GNSS/GPS data, the resulting parametric models at earthquake colocation sites were applied to the station position time series of the three other techniques, showing a very high level of consistency which enforces more the link</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1402M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1402M"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of magnetic fields produced by simulated and real <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms on rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this paper we report experiments of arterial pressure (AP) measurements of ten Wistar rats subjected to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field changes and to artificially stimulated magnetic field variations. Environmental electromagnetic effects were screened using a semianechoic chamber, which allowed us to discern the effects associated with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. We stimulated the subjects with a linear magnetic profile constructed from the average changes of sudden storm commencement (SSC) and principal phases of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms measured between 1996 and 2008 with Dst ⩽ -100 nT. Although we found no statistically significant AP variations, statistically significant AP changes were found when a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurred during the experimental period. Using the observed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm variations to construct a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> profile to stimulate the rats, we found that the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations associated to the SSC day were capable of increasing the subjects AP between 7% and 9% from the <span class="hlt">reference</span> value. Under this magnetic variation, the subjects presented a notably restless behavior not seen under other conditions. We conclude that even very small changes in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field associated with a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm can produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080511"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative 2D HSQC NMR determination of polymer structures by selecting suitable <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard <span class="hlt">references</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Liming; Gellerstedt, Göran</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A new analytical method based on the 2D HSQC NMR sequence is presented, which can be applied for quantitative structural determination of complicated polymers. The influence of T1 and T2 relaxations, off-resonance effects, coupling constants and homonuclear couplings are discussed. It was found that the T2 values measured on polymeric samples with the conventional HSQC-CPMG sequence could not be used to correct the errors caused by T2 relaxations during the polarization transfer delay. A unique way of selecting the proper <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> signal(s) is therefore proposed to eliminate the major errors caused by T2 relaxations, resonance offsets, coupling constant deviations and homonuclear couplings. Two polymer samples, a cellulose triacetate and an acetylated lignin, have been used to illustrate the principles. The methodology developed in this work is robust to instrument miss-setting and it can find wide-spread applications in areas where a quantitative analysis of structurally complicated polymers is necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.129..111Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.129..111Z"><span id="translatedtitle">F region electron density profile inversion from backscatter ionogram based on <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Peng; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Yuannong; Yang, Guobin; Jiang, Chunhua; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Ionospheric backscatter sounding transmits HF (3-30 MHz) radio wave obliquely into ionosphere and receives echoes backscattered from remote ground. Due to the focusing effect, the echoes form leading edge on the swept frequency backscatter ionogram (BSI). This kind of backscatter ionogram contains plentiful ionospheric information, such as electron density, radio wave propagation modes and maximum usage frequency (MUF). By inversion algorithm, the backscatter ionogram can provide two-dimensional electron density profile (EDP) down range. In this paper, we propose an ionospheric F2 region EDP inversion algorithm. By utilizing the F2 bottomside electron density profile represented by the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) model and ray tracing techniques, this approach inverts the leading edge of the backscatter ionogram to two dimensional F region EDP. Results of validation experiments demonstrate that the inverted ionospheric EDPs show good agreement with the results of vertical ionosonde and provide reliable information of ionosphere. Thus the proposed inversion algorithm provide an effective and accurate method for achieving large scale and remote ionospheric electron density structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880061822&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880061822&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian inference in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Backus, George E.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The inverse problem in empirical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> modeling is investigated, with critical examination of recently published studies. Particular attention is given to the use of Bayesian inference (BI) to select the damping parameter lambda in the uniqueness portion of the inverse problem. The mathematical bases of BI and stochastic inversion are explored, with consideration of bound-softening problems and resolution in linear Gaussian BI. The problem of estimating the radial magnetic field B(r) at the earth core-mantle boundary from surface and satellite measurements is then analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the selection of lambda in the studies of Gubbins (1983) and Gubbins and Bloxham (1985). It is argued that the selection method is inappropriate and leads to lambda values much larger than those that would result if a reasonable bound on the heat flow at the CMB were assumed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP23A1279H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP23A1279H"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation Based <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holschneider, M.; Mauerberger, S.; Lesur, V.; Baerenzung, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a new method for determining <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models. It is based on the construction of an a priori correlation structure derived from our knowledge about characteristic length scales and sources of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. The magnetic field measurements are then seen as correlated random variables too and the inversion process amounts to compute the a posteriori correlation structure using Bayes theorem. We show how this technique allows the statistical separation of the various field contributions and the assessment of their uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ789056','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ789056"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model Revisited: Incorporating General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brunner, Martin; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986) is a highly influential model of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E model do not typically incorporate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GGG....15.2515P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GGG....15.2515P"><span id="translatedtitle">Intensity of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in Europe for the last 3 ka: Influence of data quality on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Hervé, Gwenaël.; Osete, María. Luisa; Chauvin, Annick</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>of the main challenges of paleomagnetic research is to obtain high-resolution <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity reconstructions. For the last millennia, these reconstructions are mostly based on archeomagnetic data. However, the quality of the intensity data available in the databases is very variable, and the high scatter observed in the records clearly suggests that some of them might not be reliable. In this work we investigate how the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity reconstructions and, hence, our present knowledge of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in the past, are affected by the quality of the data selected for modeling the Earth's magnetic field. For this purpose we rank the European archeointensity data in four quality categories following widely accepted paleomagnetic criteria based on the methodology used during the laboratory treatment of the samples and on the number of specimens retained to calculate the mean intensities. Four <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field regional models have been implemented by applying the revised spherical cap harmonic analysis to these four groups of input data. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field models strongly depend on the used data set. The model built using all the available data (without any preselection) appears to be the less accurate, indicating some <span class="hlt">internal</span> inconsistencies of the data set. In addition, some features of this model are clearly dominated by the less reliable archeointensity data, suggesting that such features might not reflect real variations of the past <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. On the contrary, the regional model built on selected high-quality intensity data shows a very consistent intensity pattern at the European scale, confirming that the main intensity changes observed in Europe in the recent history of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field occurred at the continental scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NeuL..400..197D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NeuL..400..197D"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field experienced by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station in its revolution around the Earth: Effects on psychophysiological responses to affective picture viewing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Del Seppia, C.; Mezzasalma, L.; Messerotti, M.; Cordelli, A.; Ghione, S.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F|2,36 = 22.927; p = 0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002RvGeo..40.1007S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002RvGeo..40.1007S"><span id="translatedtitle">a Millennium of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stern, David P.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The history of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> began around the year 1000 with the discovery in China of the magnetic compass. Methodical studies of the Earth's field started in 1600 with William Gilbert's De Magnete [Gilbert, 1600] and continued with the work of (among others) Edmond Halley, Charles Augustin de Coulomb, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Edward Sabine. The discovery of electromagnetism by Hans Christian Oersted and André-Marie Ampére led Michael Faraday to the notion of fluid dynamos, and the observation of sunspot magnetism by George Ellery Hale led Sir Joseph Larmor in 1919 to the idea that such dynamos could sustain themselves naturally in convecting conducting fluids. From that came modern dynamo theory, of both the solar and terrestrial magnetic fields. Paleomagnetic studies revealed that the Earth's dipole had undergone reversals in the distant past, and these became the critical evidence in establishing plate tectonics. Finally, the recent availability of scientific spacecraft has demonstrated the intricacy of the Earth's distant magnetic field, as well as the existence of magnetic fields associated with other planets and with satellites in our solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26088387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26088387"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Values for Bone Speed of Sound in Pediatric Populations: Meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rivas-Ruiz, R; Méndez-Sánchez, L; Castelán-Martínez, O D; Clark, P; Tamayo, J; Talavera, J O; Huitrón, G; Salmerón-Castro, J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to compare <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (RV) for tibial and radial speed of sound (SoS) assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in pediatric populations. These values were compared by age and country of origin in a systematic review with meta-analysis from studies published on QUS (Sunlight Omnisense). A search was carried out in electronic databases. Nine studies with 6963 patients were included in the meta-analysis. For the newborn populations, 3 studies (from Italy, Portugal, and Israel) were used. These studies included subjects with 27-42 wk gestational age. The mean difference (Portugal-Israel) was found to be 23.62 m/s [95% confidence interval [CI] 6.29, 40.95]. Additionally, no difference was found between Italy-Portugal (p = 0.69), or Italy-Israel (p = 0.28). In pediatric populations, we compared 8 studies from Canada, Mexico, Israel, Greece, Portugal, and Turkey. No significant differences found for SoS RV between Israel-Turkey, Israel-Greece, or Israel-Canada (p > 0.05). Significant differences were found in Mexico-Israel -105.29 m/s (95% CI -140.05, -70.54) (p < 0.001); Mexico-Portugal -115.14 m/s (95% CI -164.86, -65.42) (p < 0.001); Mexico-Greece: -239.14 m/s (95% CI -267.67, -210.62) (p < 0.001); Mexico-Turkey: -115.14 m/s (95% CI -164.86, -65.42) (p < 0.001); Mexico-Canada: -113.51 m/s (95% CI -140.25, -86.77) (p < 0.001).This study demonstrates that there are differences in SoS-RV obtained by tibial and radial QUS in pediatric populations between Mexico and other countries (Israel, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, and Canada).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012855','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012855"><span id="translatedtitle">MoSST DAS: The First Working <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Data Assimilation System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuang, Weijia; Wei, Zigang; Tangborn, Andrew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Earth possesses an <span class="hlt">internal</span> magnetic field (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field) generated by convection in the outer core (geodynamo). Previous efforts have been focused along two distinct paths: (1) numerical geodynamo modeling to understand the origin of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, and the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variations (SV); and (2) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling to map the spatial/temporal variations of the field from <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data, and to derive core properties, e.g. inversion of core flow near the core-mantle boundary (CMB). <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> data assimilation is a new approach emerged over the past 5 years: surface observations are assimilated with geodynamo models for better understanding of the core dynamical state, and accurately prediction of SV. In collaboration with several <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research groups, we have developed the first working <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation system, Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent, and Three-dimensional (MoSST) DAS, that includes the MoSST numerical dynamo model; 7000 years of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field maps from several field models utilizing satellite and ground observatory data, historical magnetic records and archeo/paleo magnetic data; and an ensemble based optimal interpolation (01) assimilation algorithm. With this system, we have demonstrated clearly that the assimilated core dynamical state is substantially different from those of pure geodynamo simulations. Ensemble assimilation runs also show the convergence of the assimilated solutions inside the core, suggesting that the simulation state is pulled closer to the truth via data assimilation. The forecasts from this system are also very accurate: the 5-year forecast of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field agrees very well with the observations; and the 5-year secular variation forecast is more accurate than the IGRF SV forecast models in the past. Using <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> records up to 2009, we have made an SV forecast for the period from 2010-2015, and is a candidate SV model for IGRF-11.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746667"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular self-assembly of two-terminal, voltammetric microsensors with <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">references</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hickman, J J; Ofer, D; Laibinis, P E; Whitesides, G M; Wrighton, M S</p> <p>1991-05-03</p> <p>Self-assembly of a ferrocenyl thiol and a quinone thiol onto Au microelectrodes forms the basis for a new microsensor concept: a two-terminal, voltammetric microsensor with <span class="hlt">reference</span> and sensor functions on the same electrode. The detection is based on measurement of the potential difference of current peaks for oxidation and reduction of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> (ferrocene) and indicator (quinone) in aqueous electrolyte in a two-terminal, linear sweep voltammogram in which a counterelectrode of relatively large surface area is used. The quinone has a half-wave potential, E((1/2)), that is pH-sensitive and can be used as a pH indicator; the ferrocene center has an E(1/2) that is a pH-insensitive <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The key advantages are that such sensors require no separate <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode and function as long as current peaks can be located for <span class="hlt">reference</span> and indicator molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Sci...252..688H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Sci...252..688H"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular Self-Assembly of Two-Terminal, Voltammetric Microsensors with <span class="hlt">Internal</span> <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickman, James J.; Ofer, David; Laibinis, Paul E.; Whitesides, George M.; Wrighton, Mark S.</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Self-assembly of a ferrocenyl thiol and a quinone thiol onto Au microelectrodes forms the basis for a new microsensor concept: a two-terminal, voltammetric microsensor with <span class="hlt">reference</span> and sensor functions on the same electrode. The detection is based on measurement of the potential difference of current peaks for oxidation and reduction of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> (ferrocene) and indicator (quinone) in aqueous electrolyte in a two-terminal, linear sweep voltammogram in which a counterelectrode of relatively large surface area is used. The quinone has a half-wave potential, E1/2, that is pH-sensitive and can be used as a pH indicator; the ferrocene center has an E1/2 that is a pH-insensitive <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The key advantages are that such sensors require no separate <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode and function as long as current peaks can be located for <span class="hlt">reference</span> and indicator molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI51B2625I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI51B2625I"><span id="translatedtitle">Total <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Survey on Suruga Bay, on the Pacific cost, Shizuoka, Japan, the second series report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ichinose, S.; Baba, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In 2009 to 2014, total <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and geological surveys by School of Marine Science & Technology, Tokai University, were conducted on Suruga Bay, located on the Pacific coast of Honshu in Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, where a large thrust earthquake, often <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the Tokai earthquake, has been supposed to occur soon (Ishibashi, 1981). Suruga Bay area, where the Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath Japan, had some local magnetic anomalies on the overriding plate side. The past investigation of ship-borne survey conducted in Suruga Bay area is <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly data of the Hydrographic Department of the Maritime Safety Agency in 1997. Detailed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> surveys carried out in the Suruga Bay area, is 50 km x 35km in S-N and W-E, respectively. Total <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly values range from +100nT to +600nT. In this report, we carried out newly <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> survey lines which costal region on Suruga Bay. The following results were found. (1) The costal region of Izu Peninsula in Northern part of Izu-Ogasawara arc is indicated high <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly. This cause is regarded as something to come near to some volcanos. (2) And costal region of the Fujigawa fault system in the Sourath Fossa Magna region is indicated high <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly. We present features of total <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomalies on and around Suruga Bay with the results of inversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536156"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative study for the calibration of HCV RNA, HBV DNA and HIV RNA <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations against the relative <span class="hlt">international</span> standards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pisani, Giulio; Marino, Francesco; Cristiano, Karen; Bisso, Guillermo Mario; Mele, Caludio; Luciani, Francesca; Wirz, Maria; Gentili, Giuliano</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We organised a collaborative study to calibrate three new ISS <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations (ISS: Istituto Superiore di Sanità), one for HCV RNA, one for HIV RNA and one for HBV DNA, to be used for nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) in blood testing. Serial dilution of the ISS <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations and the respective <span class="hlt">international</span> standards were tested in different days by each participating laboratory using two commercial NAT assays. Data were collected by the ISS for statistical analysis. Based on the mean potency of the HCV RNA and HIV RNA preparations, calculated from the results provided by the 12 participating laboratories, a definitive concentrations of 5700 IU/mL and 4000 IU/mL, respectively, were assigned to the <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. On the contrary, it was not possible to obtain a consensus titre for the HBV DNA <span class="hlt">reference</span> material. These new Italian <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations (HCV RNA ISS/1005 and HIV RNA ISS/1005) calibrated against the respective <span class="hlt">international</span> standards are available free of charge to any laboratory upon request.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8933910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8933910"><span id="translatedtitle">The relationship between anthropometric indices derived from the CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macfarlane, S B</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the relationship between the standard deviation scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) calculated using the CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The pattern of WHZ with age is explored for CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> children following set paths for WAZ and HAZ, and the nature of the regression of WAZ on HAZ and WHZ is examined for the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data (1988). <span class="hlt">Reference</span> children with heights and weights at the lower end of the range for their population showed discrepancies in their WHZ indices. A marked discontinuity between 23 and 24 months reflected the junction between the two data sets from which the CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> was derived. There was also clear curvature in the values for WHZ between 3 and 23 months, particularly apparent for children with weights and heights well below the <span class="hlt">reference</span> median. While the regression equation for the Ghanaian data was similar to that already described by Keller in 1983, marked curvature was observed in the residual plot for children under 2 years. Consistency with age is a prerequisite for a weight-for-height index. The peculiarities of this index as based on the CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> undermine the validity of its use in measuring malnutrition among young children in developing countries. It is suggested that serious consideration is given to the use of an alternative index of wasting and to the development of alternative <span class="hlt">reference</span> figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036040&hterms=heflin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dheflin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036040&hterms=heflin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dheflin"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">International</span> GPS Service (IGS) as a Continuous <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System for Precise GPS Positioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neilan, Ruth; Heflin, Michael; Watkins, Michael; Zumberge, James</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) is an organization which operates under the auspices of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of Geodesy (IAG) and has been operational since January 1994. The primary objective of the IGS is to provide precise GPS data and data products to support geodetic and geophysical research activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100025855&hterms=global+strategy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bstrategy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100025855&hterms=global+strategy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bstrategy"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">International</span> Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...23K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...23K"><span id="translatedtitle">Extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We propose an emergency alert framework for <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25.1011J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25.1011J"><span id="translatedtitle">Persistently anomalous Pacific <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Catherine L.; Constable, Catherine G.</p> <p></p> <p>A new average <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model for the past 3kyr (ALS3K) helps bridge a large temporal sampling gap between historical models and more traditional paleomagnetic studies spanning the last 5 Myr. A quasi-static feature seen historically in the central Pacific has the opposite sign in ALS3K; its structure is similar to, but of larger amplitude than, that in the time-averaged <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field for the last 5 Myr. Anomalous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields exist beneath the Pacific over timescales ranging from 10²-106 years. It is unlikely that bias over such long time scales arises from electromagnetic screening, but conceivable that the Lorentz force is influenced by long wavelength thermal variations and/or localized regions of increased electrical conductivity (associated with compositional anomalies and possibly partial melt). This is consistent with recent seismic observations of the lower mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1033060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1033060"><span id="translatedtitle">18O-Labeled Proteome <span class="hlt">Reference</span> as Global <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Standards for Targeted Quantification by Selected Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Jong Seo; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Liu, Tao; Robinson, Errol W.; Hossain, Mahmud; Champion, Boyd L.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun</p> <p>2011-10-11</p> <p>Selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) is an emerging technology for high throughput targeted protein quantification and verification in biological and biomarker discovery studies; however, the cost associated with the use of stable isotope labeled synthetic peptides as <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards is prohibitive for quantitatively screening large numbers of candidate proteins as often required in the pre-verification phase of biomarker discovery. Herein we present the proof-of-concept experiments of using an 18O-labeled 'universal' <span class="hlt">reference</span> as comprehensive <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards for quantitative SRM-MS analysis. With an 18O-labeled whole proteome sample as <span class="hlt">reference</span>, every peptide of interest will have its own corresponding heavy isotope labeled <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard, thus providing an ideal approach for quantitative screening of a large number of candidates using SRM-MS. Our results showed that the 18O incorporation efficiency using a recently improved protocol was >99.5% for most peptides investigated, a level comparable to 13C/15N labeled synthetic peptides in terms of heavy isotope incorporation. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantification were further assessed based on known ratios of standard proteins spiked into mouse plasma with an 18O-labeled mouse plasma <span class="hlt">reference</span>. A dynamic range of four orders of magnitude in relative concentration was obtained with high reproducibility (i.e., coefficient of variance <10%) based on the 16O/18O peak area ratios. Absolute and relative quantification of C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen were demonstrated by coupling an 18O-labeled <span class="hlt">reference</span> with standard additions of protein standards. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the use of 18O-labeled <span class="hlt">reference</span> provides a convenient and effective strategy for quantitative SRM screening of large number of candidate proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150020858','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150020858"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Influences on <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> and Related Phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vestine, E. H.</p> <p>1961-01-01</p> <p>A discussion of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> effects of streams of electromagnetic and particular radiation from the sun. The interplay of forces between the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and solar streams is outlined; and the theoretical relationship between these, the solar storms, the trapped Van Allen radiations, the polar aurora, and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field distortion are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120..778C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120..778C"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-duration <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm effects on the D region of the ionosphere: Some case studies using VLF signal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choudhury, Abhijit; De, Barin Kumar; Guha, Anirban; Roy, Rakesh</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>present work investigates the effects of long-duration <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms on VLF signal during ionospheric sunrise time, commonly known as D Layer Preparation Time (DLPT) depth. The VLF signal at 19.8 kHz transmitted from Northwest Cape, Australia, and received at a low-latitude station, Tripura, India, is used for the present analysis. The data for the analysis are selected from November 2008 to October 2011. In the active period of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, the average DLPT depth is found to have a negative correlation coefficient of 0.91 with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Ap index. It is also found that with each 10 unit increase of Ap index, the DLPT depth (the day and night asymmetry level) changes by 1.25 dB. The results are supported with modeled <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) electron density data and DLPT depth at 71 km height for the three positions, namely, receiver position, signal hop position, and the transmitter position along the total Great Circle Path. It is found that the receiver position electron density is the main controlling factor for DLPT depth. The correlation between IRI electron density and DLPT depth increases from -0.13 at transmitter position to -0.33 at the first hop position, to -0.46 at the receiver position, respectively. The percentage change of post storm electron density, at 71 km height, is found to increase by more than 100% at the receiver position. The results are discussed on the basis of the electron density changes over the signal propagation path, mainly caused by the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730030036&hterms=Mead&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMead%2BG.','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730030036&hterms=Mead&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMead%2BG."><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> response to solar activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mead, G. D.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between solar activity and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations is discussed in the light of spacecraft data obtained during the last decade. The effects of centers of solar activity responsible for producing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on earth are believed to be transmitted through the solar wind, and there is usually a delay of two or three days before the onset of magnetic activity. Attempts to make a one-to-one correspondence between specific solar events and specific magnetic storms, however, are usually unsuccessful, because of the complex and indirect processes linking the two phenomena. Normally, only statistical tendencies can be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3001A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> inverse problem and data assimilation: a progress report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubert, Julien; Fournier, Alexandre</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In this presentation I will present two studies recently undertaken by our group in an effort to bring the benefits of data assimilation to the study of Earth's magnetic field and the dynamics of its liquid iron core, where the geodynamo operates. In a first part I will focus on the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> inverse problem, which attempts to recover the fluid flow in the core from the temporal variation of the magnetic field (known as the secular variation). <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> data can be downward continued from the surface of the Earth down to the core-mantle boundary, but not further below, since the core is an electrical conductor. Historically, solutions to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> inverse problem in such a sparsely observed system were thus found only for flow immediately below the core mantle boundary. We have recently shown that combining a numerical model of the geodynamo together with magnetic observations, through the use of Kalman filtering, now allows to present solutions for flow throughout the core. In a second part, I will present synthetic tests of sequential <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation aiming at evaluating the range at which the future of the geodynamo can be predicted, and our corresponding prospects to refine the current <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> predictions. Fournier, Aubert, Thébault: Inference on core surface flow from observations and 3-D dynamo modelling, Geophys. J. Int. 186, 118-136, 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05037.x Aubert, Fournier: Inferring <span class="hlt">internal</span> properties of Earth's core dynamics and their evolution from surface observations and a numerical geodynamo model, Nonlinear Proc. Geoph. 18, 657-674, 2011, doi:10.5194/npg-18-657-2011 Aubert: Flow throughout the Earth's core inverted from <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations and numerical dynamo models, Geophys. J. Int., 2012, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggs051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026773','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026773"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the change in asymptotic direction due to secular changes in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Flueckiger, E. O.; Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; Gentile, L. C.; Bathurat, A. A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The concept of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> optics, as described by the asymptotic directions of approach, is extremely useful in the analysis of cosmic radiation data. However, when changes in cutoff occur as a result of evolution in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, there are corresponding changes in the asymptotic cones of acceptance. A method is introduced of estimating the change in the asymptotic direction of approach for vertically incident cosmic ray particles from a <span class="hlt">reference</span> set of directions at a specific epoch by considering the change in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990032411&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990032411&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Paleomagnetism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Voorhies, Coerte V.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A statistical description of Earth's broad scale, core-source magnetic field has been developed and tested. The description features an expected, or mean, spatial magnetic power spectrum that is neither "flat" nor "while" at any depth, but is akin to spectra advanced by Stevenson and McLeod. This multipole spectrum describes the magnetic energy range; it is not steep enough for Gubbins' magnetic dissipation range. Natural variations of core multipole powers about their mean values are to be expected over geologic time and are described via trial probability distribution functions that neither require nor prohibit magnetic isotropy. The description is thus applicable to core-source dipole and low degree non-dipole fields despite axial dipole anisotropy. The description is combined with main field models of modem satellite and surface <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements to make testable predictions of: (1) the radius of Earth's core, (2) mean paleomagnetic field intensity, and (3) the mean rates and durations of both dipole power excursions and durable axial dipole reversals. The predicted core radius is 0.7% above the 3480 km seismologic value. The predicted root mean square paleointensity (35.6 mu T) and mean Virtual Axial Dipole Moment (about 6.2 lx 1022 Am(exp 2)) are within the range of various mean paleointensity estimates. The predicted mean rate of dipole power excursions, as defined by an absolute dipole moment <20% of the 1980 value, is 9.04/Myr and 14% less than obtained by analysis of a 4 Myr paleointensity record. The predicted mean rate of durable axial dipole reversals (2.26/Myr) is 2.3% more than established by the polarity time-scale for the past 84 Myr. The predicted mean duration of axial dipole reversals (5533 yr) is indistinguishable from an observational value. The accuracy of these predictions demonstrates the power and utility of the description, which is thought to merit further development and testing. It is suggested that strong stable stratification</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5206374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5206374"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical importance of duodenal recesses with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rana, Kum Kum; Kakar, Arun; Aggarwal, Satish; Aggrawal, Anil; Kakar, Smita; Borkar, Nitinkumar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The detailed knowledge of the peritoneal recesses has great significance with respect to <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernias. The recesses are usually related to rotation and adhesion of abdominal viscera to the posterior abdominal wall and/or the presence of retroperitoneal vessels which raises the serosal fold. The duodenal recesses are usually related to the 3rd and 4th parts of the duodenum. <span class="hlt">Internal</span> hernias with respect to these recesses are difficult to diagnose clinically and usually noticed at the time of laparotomy. So, the knowledge of these recesses can be valuable to abdominal surgeons. Material and methods The present study was conducted in 100 cases including 10 cadavers, 45 post mortem cases and 45 cases undergoing laparotomy. Results We found superior and inferior duodenal recesses in 28% and 52% respectively, paraduodenal in 12%, mesentericoparietal in 3%, retroduodenal in 2% and duodenojejunal in 18% of cases. Two abnormal duodenojejunal recesses were found, one on the right (instead of the left) of the abdominal aorta, and in the other the opening was directed upwards instead of downwards. The incidence of <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernias was 3%. Conclusions Thus it was observed that there is low incidence of superior and inferior duodenal recesses, and high incidence of paraduodenal recess. The abnormal recesses might be due to malrotation of the gut. In laparotomy cases, the <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernia was noticed when the abdomen was opened for intestinal obstruction. The incidence of <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernia was found to be high. PMID:28144266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ1001855','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ1001855"><span id="translatedtitle">Differential School Contextual Effects for Math and English: Integrating the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and the <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and the big-fish-little-pond effect are two major models of academic self-concept formation which have considerable theoretical and empirical support. Integrating the domain specific and compensatory processes of the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model with the big-fish-little-pond effect suggests a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internal+AND+waves&pg=2&id=EJ947749','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internal+AND+waves&pg=2&id=EJ947749"><span id="translatedtitle">The Reciprocal <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model: An Integration of Models of Relations between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moller, Jens; Retelsdorf, Jan; Koller, Olaf; Marsh, Herb W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The reciprocal <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (RI/EM) combines the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model and the reciprocal effects model. The RI/EM predicts positive effects of mathematics and verbal achievement and academic self-concepts (ASC) on subsequent mathematics and verbal achievements and ASCs within domains and negative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5240017','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5240017"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and evaluation of a secondary <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel for BCR-ABL1 quantification on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cross, N C P; White, H E; Ernst, T; Welden, L; Dietz, C; Saglio, G; Mahon, F-X; Wong, C C; Zheng, D; Wong, S; Wang, S-S; Akiki, S; Albano, F; Andrikovics, H; Anwar, J; Balatzenko, G; Bendit, I; Beveridge, J; Boeckx, N; Cerveira, N; Cheng, S-M; Colomer, D; Czurda, S; Daraio, F; Dulucq, S; Eggen, L; El Housni, H; Gerrard, G; Gniot, M; Izzo, B; Jacquin, D; Janssen, J J W M; Jeromin, S; Jurcek, T; Kim, D-W; Machova-Polakova, K; Martinez-Lopez, J; McBean, M; Mesanovic, S; Mitterbauer-Hohendanner, G; Mobtaker, H; Mozziconacci, M-J; Pajič, T; Pallisgaard, N; Panagiotidis, P; Press, R D; Qin, Y-Z; Radich, J; Sacha, T; Touloumenidou, T; Waits, P; Wilkinson, E; Zadro, R; Müller, M C; Hochhaus, A; Branford, S</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Molecular monitoring of chronic myeloid leukemia patients using robust BCR-ABL1 tests standardized to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Scale (IS) is key to proper disease management, especially when treatment cessation is considered. Most laboratories currently use a time-consuming sample exchange process with <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories for IS calibration. A World Health Organization (WHO) BCR-ABL1 <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel was developed (MR1–MR4), but access to the material is limited. In this study, we describe the development of the first cell-based secondary <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel that is traceable to and faithfully replicates the WHO panel, with an additional MR4.5 level. The secondary panel was calibrated to IS using digital PCR with ABL1, BCR and GUSB as <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and evaluated by 44 laboratories worldwide. Interestingly, we found that >40% of BCR-ABL1 assays showed signs of inadequate optimization such as poor linearity and suboptimal PCR efficiency. Nonetheless, when optimized sample inputs were used, >60% demonstrated satisfactory IS accuracy, precision and/or MR4.5 sensitivity, and 58% obtained IS conversion factors from the secondary <span class="hlt">reference</span> concordant with their current values. Correlation analysis indicated no significant alterations in %BCR-ABL1 results caused by different assay configurations. More assays achieved good precision and/or sensitivity than IS accuracy, indicating the need for better IS calibration mechanisms. PMID:27109508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149615"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardization project for measurements of apolipoproteins A-I and B. IV. Comparability of apolipoprotein B values by use of <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marcovina, S M; Albers, J J; Kennedy, H; Mei, J V; Henderson, L O; Hannon, W H</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>We performed temporal and thermal stability studies on SP3-07, a liquid-stabilized <span class="hlt">reference</span> material for apolipoprotein (apo) B, selected during the previous phase of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Clinical Chemistry project on standardization of apolipoprotein measurements. Results indicate that SP3-07 stored at -70 degrees C has the long-term stability required for a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material. We assigned an accuracy-based apo B value of 1.22 g/L to SP3-07, using a nephelometric method that was calibrated with freshly isolated low-density lipoprotein for which the apo B mass value was determined by a standardized sodium dodecyl sulfate-Lowry procedure. Using a common protocol, the study participants transferred the assigned mass value from SP3-07 to the individual calibrators of the analytical systems and measured the apo B concentration of 20 fresh-frozen samples obtained from individual donors and covering a clinically relevant range of apo B values. The among-laboratory CV on these samples, analyzed by 25 analytical systems, ranged from 3.1% to 6.7%. These results demonstrate the lack of matrix effects of SP3-07 and its ability to provide accurate and comparable apo B values in a variety of immunochemical methods. On the basis of the outcome of these studies, the World Health Organization has endorsed SP3-07 as the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material for Apolipoprotein B.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=composites&pg=3&id=EJ1036081','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=composites&pg=3&id=EJ1036081"><span id="translatedtitle">Script Concordance Testing in Continuing Professional Development: Local or <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Panels?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pleguezuelos, E. M.; Hornos, E.; Dory, V.; Gagnon, R.; Malagrino, P.; Brailovsky, C. A.; Charlin, B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Context: The PRACTICUM Institute has developed large-scale <span class="hlt">international</span> programs of on-line continuing professional development (CPD) based on self-testing and feedback using the Practicum Script Concordance Test© (PSCT). Aims: To examine the psychometric consequences of pooling the responses of panelists from different countries (composite…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED053054.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED053054.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Education for <span class="hlt">International</span> Understanding and Peace, with Special <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Moral and Civic Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).</p> <p></p> <p>This report covers the committee's views and recommendations toward strengthening the contribution of education to <span class="hlt">international</span> understanding and peace. Suggestions are aimed at every level, from Unesco officials, to heads of government, to the individual classroom teacher. The report is divided into several major sections: General Observations,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED101748.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED101748.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Library Associations. A Selected List of <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cambio, Edward P., Comp.</p> <p></p> <p>Prepared in anticipation of the 40th session of the General Council of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), this bibliography cites materials issued by or under the auspices of the federation and its council, sections, and committees, as well as selected works about IFLA and its various subdivisions. The citations are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ge%26Ae..56..342S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ge%26Ae..56..342S"><span id="translatedtitle">Klimovskaya: A new <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soloviev, A. A.; Sidorov, R. V.; Krasnoperov, R. I.; Grudnev, A. A.; Khokhlov, A. V.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In 2011 Geophysical Center RAS (GC RAS) began to deploy the Klimovskaya <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory in the south of Arkhangelsk region on the territory of the Institute of Physiology of Natural Adaptations, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPNA UB RAS). The construction works followed the complex of preparatory measures taken in order to confirm that the observatory can be constructed on this territory and to select the optimal configuration of observatory structures. The observatory equipping stages are described in detail, the technological and design solutions are described, and the first results of the registered data quality control are presented. It has been concluded that Klimovskaya observatory can be included in INTERMAGNET network. The observatory can be used to monitor and estimate <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, because it is located at high latitudes and provides data in a timely manner to the scientific community via the web-site of the Russian-Ukrainian <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Data Center. The role of ground observatories such as Klimovskaya remains critical for long-term observations of secular variation and for complex monitoring of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in combination with low-orbiting satellite data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=4&id=EJ601929','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=4&id=EJ601929"><span id="translatedtitle">Ready <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koltay, Emery</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Includes the following ready <span class="hlt">reference</span> information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSWSC...6A..37E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSWSC...6A..37E"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of substorm electrojet on declination along concurrent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitudes in the northern auroral zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edvardsen, Inge; Johnsen, Magnar G.; Løvhaug, Unni P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field often experiences large fluctuations, especially at high latitudes in the auroral zones. We have found, using simulations, that there are significant differences in the substorm signature, in certain coordinate systems, as a function of longitude. This is confirmed by the analysis of real, measured data from comparable locations. Large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fluctuations pose challenges for companies involved in resource exploitation since the Earth's magnetic field is used as the <span class="hlt">reference</span> when navigating drilling equipment. It is widely known that <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity increases with increasing latitude and that the largest fluctuations are caused by substorms. In the auroral zones, substorms are common phenomena, occurring almost every night. In principle, the magnitude of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances from two identical substorms along concurrent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitudes around the globe, at different local times, will be the same. However, the signature of a substorm will change as a function of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> longitude due to varying declination, dipole declination, and horizontal magnetic field along constant <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitudes. To investigate and quantify this, we applied a simple substorm current wedge model in combination with a dipole representation of the Earth's magnetic field to simulate magnetic substorms of different morphologies and local times. The results of these simulations were compared to statistical data from observatories and are discussed in the context of resource exploitation in the Arctic. We also attempt to determine and quantify areas in the auroral zone where there is a potential for increased space weather challenges compared to other areas.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810230P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810230P"><span id="translatedtitle">The risk characteristics of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Podolska, Katerina</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The main aim of this contribution is a deeper analysis of the influence of solar activity which is expected to have an impact on human health, and therefore on mortality, in particular civilization and degenerative diseases. We have constructed the characteristics that represent the risk of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on human health on the basis of our previous analysis of association between the daily numbers of death on diseases of the nervous system and diseases of the circulatory system and solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity in the Czech Republic during the years 1994 - 2013. We used long period daily time series of numbers of deaths by cause, long period time series of solar activity indices (namely R and F10.7), <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indicies (Kp planetary index, Dst) and ionospheric parameters (foF2 and TEC). The ionospheric parameters were related to the geographic location of the Czech Republic and adjusted for middle geographic latitudes. The risk characteristics were composed by cluster analysis in time series according to the phases of the solar cycle resp. the seasonal insolation at mid-latitudes or the daily period according to the impact of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on mortality by cause of death from medical cause groups of death VI. Diseases of the nervous system and IX. Diseases of the circulatory system mortality by 10th Revision of <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Diseases WHO (ICD-10).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12139047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12139047"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">international</span> evaluation of holmium oxide solution <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for wavelength calibration in molecular absorption spectrophotometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Travis, John C; Zwinkels, Joanne C; Mercader, Flora; Ruíz, Arquímedes; Early, Edward A; Smith, Melody V; Noël, Mario; Maley, Marissa; Kramer, Gary W; Eckerle, Kenneth L; Duewer, David L</p> <p>2002-07-15</p> <p>Commercial spectrophotometers typically use absorption-based wavelength calibration <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials to provide wavelength accuracy for their applications. Low-mass fractions of holmium oxide (Ho2O3) in dilute acidic aqueous solution and in glass matrixes have been favored for use as wavelength calibration materials on the basis of spectral coverage and absorption band shape. Both aqueous and glass Ho2O3 <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials are available commercially and through various National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). Three NMIs of the North American Cooperation in Metrology (NORAMET) have evaluated the performance of Ho3-(aq)-based Certified <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials (CRMs) under "routine" operating conditions using commercial instrumentation. The study was not intended to intercompare national wavelength scales but to demonstrate comparability of wavelength measurements among the participants and between two versions of the CRMs. It was also designed to acquire data from a variety of spectrophotometers for use in a NIST study of wavelength assignment algorithms and to provide a basis for a possible reassessment of NIST-certified Ho3+(aq) band locations. The resulting data show a substantial level of agreement among laboratories, instruments, CRM preparations, and peak-location algorithms. At the same time, it is demonstrated that the wavelength comparability of the five participating instruments can actually be improved by calibrating all of the instruments to the consensus Ho3+(aq) band locations. This finding supports the value of absorption-based wavelength standards for calibrating absorption spectrophotometers. Coupled with the demonstrated robustness of the band position values with respect to preparation and measurement conditions, it also supports the concept of extending the present approach to additional NMIs in order to certify properly prepared dilute acidic Ho2O3 solution as an intrinsic wavelength standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24675788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24675788"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for gene expression normalization between the two sexes in dioecious white Campion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes in a wide diversity of species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cfbg.conf..117P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cfbg.conf..117P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Reversals and Life on the Earth in Phanerozoic Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pechersky, D. M.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Global paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data are generalized. As a result it is found out that the direct connection between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals, biozones and maxima of mass extinction of a biota is absent. At the same time it is noted close to a synchronous total picture of consistent changes of biozones and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> polarity. It is explained by the general source - the Earth's diurnal rotation. The reversal polarity of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field prevailed during the Phanerozoic that is agreed with the Earth's counterclockwise rotation. Change of polarity of a field, most likely, is connected with acceleration or deceleration of rotation speed of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> core relative to the Earth's mantle. Lack of direct interrelation between changes in the biosphere and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field indicate a lack of influence of a field on life evolution on Earth. It follows also from the fact that life on Earth developed from primitive unicellular forms to mammals and the man and diversity of biota was grew against a close condition of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field during ~2,5 billion years and irrespective of numerous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals. Main conclusion: evolutionary development of life on Earth doesn't depend both on large changes of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, and on the extreme catastrophic events conducting to mass extinction of a biota.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SoPh..291.1447V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SoPh..291.1447V"><span id="translatedtitle">Extreme <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms - 1868 - 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present the first large statistical study of extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707301','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707301"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> actors and population policies in India, with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to contraceptive policies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ollila, E; Koivusalo, M; Hemminki, E</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">international</span> population policy agenda has traditionally been dominated by demographically driven population control policies. However, in the population policy development that preceded the <span class="hlt">International</span> Conference on Population and Development in 1994, people's reproductive needs and rights received more emphasis. The aim of this study was to analyze how the new emphasis in population policies has been interpreted at the country level. In analyzing population policy rhetoric and its practical interpretations in India in 1994, the authors found that the rhetoric was broadening to encompass women's empowerment and reproductive health and that the use of direct method-specific monetary incentives and disincentives for accepting family planning methods was disapproved. However, population policy options were still considered mainly in terms of their ability to reduce fertility. Furthermore, the increased emphasis on the general market agenda was more important than that on reproductive needs and rights in molding population policies, as was evident in the greater stress on cost-recovery systems and nongovernmental actors. The findings suggest that the broader agenda for population policies and reproductive rights has been interpreted so that it can serve the aims of population-growth control and be implemented in the context of more market-oriented social policies and trade liberalization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8869M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8869M"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals via data assimilation: a feasibility study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morzfeld, Matthias; Fournier, Alexandre; Hulot, Gauthier</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The system of three ordinary differential equations (ODE) presented by Gissinger in [1] was shown to exhibit chaotic reversals whose statistics compared well with those from the paleomagnetic record. We explore the geophysical relevance of this low-dimensional model via data assimilation, i.e. we update the solution of the ODE with information from data of the dipole variable. The data set we use is 'SINT' (Valet et al. [2]), and it provides the signed virtual axial dipole moment over the past 2 millions years. We can obtain an accurate reconstruction of these dipole data using implicit sampling (a fully nonlinear Monte Carlo sampling strategy) and assimilating 5 kyr of data per sweep. We confirm our calibration of the model using the PADM2M dipole data set of Ziegler et al. [3]. The Monte Carlo sampling strategy provides us with quantitative information about the uncertainty of our estimates, and -in principal- we can use this information for making (robust) predictions under uncertainty. We perform synthetic data experiments to explore the predictive capability of the ODE model updated by data assimilation. For each experiment, we produce 2 Myr of synthetic data (with error levels similar to the ones found in the SINT data), calibrate the model to this record, and then check if this calibrated model can reliably predict a reversal within the next 5 kyr. By performing a large number of such experiments, we can estimate the statistics that describe how reliably our calibrated model can predict a reversal of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. It is found that the 1 kyr-ahead predictions of reversals produced by the model appear to be accurate and reliable. These encouraging results prompted us to also test predictions of the five reversals of the SINT (and PADM2M) data set, using a similarly calibrated model. Results will be presented and discussed. <span class="hlt">References</span> Gissinger, C., 2012, A new deterministic model for chaotic reversals, European Physical Journal B, 85:137 Valet, J</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019377','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019377"><span id="translatedtitle">Types and Characteristics of Data for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A. (Editor); Baldwin, R. T. (Editor)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Given here is material submitted at a symposium convened on Friday, August 23, 1991, at the General Assembly of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) held in Vienna, Austria. Models of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field are only as good as the data upon which they are based, and depend upon correct understanding of data characteristics such as accuracy, correlations, systematic errors, and general statistical properties. This symposium was intended to expose and illuminate these data characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM..ED21C03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM..ED21C03S"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> in High School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stern, D. P.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>Many high school curricula include a one-year course in Earth Sciences, often in the 9th grade (essentially pre-algebra). That is a good time to teach about <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>. Not only are dipole reversals and sea-floor magnetization central to this subject, but this is a good opportunity to introduce students to magnetism and its connection to electric currents. The story of Oersted and Faraday give a fascinating insight into the uneven path of scientific discovery, the magnetic compass and William Gilbert provide a view of the beginnings of the scientific revolution, and even basic concepts of dynamo theory and its connection to solar physics can be included. A resource including all the suitable material now exists on the world-wide web at http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/earthmag/demagint.htm (home page). A 1-month unit on <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> will be outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930009779','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930009779"><span id="translatedtitle">Ice ages and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Patrick</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6052652','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6052652"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlative comparison of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and auroral substorms using <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indeces. Master's thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cade, W.B.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Partial contents include the following: (1) <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storm and substorm processes; (2) Magnetospheric structure; (3) Substorm processes; (4) Data description; (5) <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> indices; and (6) Data period and data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2c..33L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2c..33L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> effects caused by rocket exhaust jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lipko, Yuriy; Pashinin, Aleksandr; Khakhinov, Vitaliy; Rahmatulin, Ravil</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In the space experiment Radar-Progress, we have made 33 series of measurements of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations during ignitions of engines of Progress cargo spacecraft in low Earth orbit. We used magneto-measuring complexes, installed at observatories of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and magnetotelluric equipment of a mobile complex. We assumed that engine running can cause <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances in flux tubes crossed by the spacecraft. When analyzing experimental data, we took into account space weather factors: solar wind parameters, total daily mid-latitude <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity index Kp, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> auroral electrojet index AE, global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. The empirical data we obtained indicate that 18 of the 33 series showed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations in various time ranges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040021339','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040021339"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field During a Reversal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heirtzler, James R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field during a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820047244&hterms=core+magnetic+field+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bmagnetic%2Bfield%2Bcrust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820047244&hterms=core+magnetic+field+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bmagnetic%2Bfield%2Bcrust"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field spectrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A spherical harmonic model of the earth's <span class="hlt">internal</span> magnetic field of degree and order 23 is derived from selected Magsat data, and its power spectrum, computed with terms developed by Mauersberger (1956) and Lowes (1974), is found to exhibit a change of a slope at n = 14 which is interpreted as an indication that the core field dominates at values lower than 13 while the crust field dominates above a value of 15. The representations of the two portions of the spectrum obtained can be used to establish order-of-magnitude inaccuracies due to both crustal fields and the inability to observe core field wavelengths beyond n = 13, at which point they are obscured by the crustal field, in core field models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23454168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23454168"><span id="translatedtitle">An old method facing a new challenge: re-visiting housekeeping proteins as <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> control for neuroscience research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Rena; Shen, Yong</p> <p>2013-04-19</p> <p>The study of specific target protein expression is often performed by western blotting, a commonly used method to measure the protein expression in neuroscience research by specific antibodies. Housekeeping proteins are used as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> control for protein loading as well as <span class="hlt">reference</span> in the western blotting analysis. This practice is based on the belief that such housekeeping genes are considered to be ubiquitously and constitutively expressed in every tissue and produce the minimal essential transcripts necessary for normal cellular function. The most commonly used housekeeping proteins are β-actin, β-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, recent studies have shown significant variation in some housekeeping genes both at the mRNA and protein levels in various neuropathological events, such as spinal cord injury and Alzheimer's diseases. Changes of housekeeping genes are also induced by non-neuronal diseases in various tissues. Therefore, these discoveries raise a potential concern regarding whether using a housekeeping protein as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard for target protein analysis is an appropriate practice. This minireview will focus on (I) the effects of neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, experimental condition, and tissue-specific roles on alteration of housekeeping genes, and (II) alternative <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards for gene and protein expression analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3614345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3614345"><span id="translatedtitle">An old method facing a new challenge: re-visiting housekeeping proteins as <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> control for neuroscience research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Rena; Shen, Yong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Study of specific target protein expression is often performed by western blotting, a commonly used method to measure the protein expression in neuroscience research by specific antibodies. Housekeeping proteins are used as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> control for protein loading as well as <span class="hlt">reference</span> in the western blotting analysis. This practice is based on the belief that such housekeeping genes are considered to be ubiquitously and constitutively expressed in every tissue and produce the minimal essential transcripts necessary for normal cellular function. The most commonly used housekeeping proteins are β-actin, β-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, recent studies have shown significant variation in some housekeeping genes both at the mRNA and protein levels in various neuropathological events, such as spinal cord injury and Alzheimer's diseases. Changes of housekeeping genes are also induced by non-neuronal diseases in various tissues. Therefore, these discoveries raise a potential concern regarding whether using a housekeeping protein as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard for target protein analysis is an appropriate practice. This mini review will focus on (I) the effects of neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, experimental condition, and tissues-specific roles on alteration of housekeeping genes, and (II) alternative <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards for gene and protein expression analysis. PMID:23454168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041462&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041462&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span id="translatedtitle">The Causes of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms During Solar Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>One of the oldest mysteries in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is the linkage between solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms were first noted by Sabine (1852).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=grenada&pg=5&id=ED410166','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=grenada&pg=5&id=ED410166"><span id="translatedtitle">Social Justice and Third World Education. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 37. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 1130.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scrase, Timothy J., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The impact of <span class="hlt">international</span> social change is having a marked effect on developing nations' <span class="hlt">internal</span> policies, budgets, and development programs. This collection of articles addresses the importance of education in the creation of social policies and development policies; the effect of <span class="hlt">international</span> changes on education; the investment of limited…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4060G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4060G"><span id="translatedtitle">On the shape of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Tail at Lunar distances: Preliminary Resuts from Artemis Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gencturk Akay, Iklim; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Sibeck, David G.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> tail is one of the least investigated regions of the magnetosphere behind the Earth owing to the limited number of spacecraft and observations. It is the region where the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dipole field lines of the Earth are organized by the solar wind stretching. The characteristics of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail and its response to IMF were studied by the missions, ISEE-3, IMP-8, Wind, Geotail, visited <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail at different distances. The structure of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail is controlled by the IMF orientation and its own <span class="hlt">internal</span> dynamics. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> tail has different regions where the plasma and magnetic field characteristics are largely depend on the IMF orientation. These characteristics show differences at different tail distances. For example it is determined that the tail twists as result of the reconnection with IMF By and this twist is higher as one move away from the Earth toward the distant tail. Like a windsock, it is expected that the IMF control will increase toward the distant tail. Twisting also displaces the north and south lobes on the dawn and dusk sides. Tail length and the shape are also different for different IMF orientations. Flattening of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail cross-section occurs during the strong IMF Bys. It becomes an ellipse in the yz plane as the IMF By stress causes the tail to be flattened on the top and bottom. Models estimate that the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail length can be 165 Re while Pioneer spacecraft detected <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail as long as 100 Re. These findings are based on the very limited data from brief <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail encounters of the spacecraft. Since August 2011, with the repositioning of the two of THEMIS spacecraft pair, ARTEMIS is giving a new opportunity to study the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail at the lunar distances, 60 Re. Using these observations, we will investigate the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field shape and its IMF dependence at 60 Re. Based on the magnetopause locations at 60 Re, we will study the shape of the tail on the xy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP12A..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP12A..02C"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent developments in the global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chulliat, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Magnetic observatories provide precise and continuous measurements of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations over time scales ranging from one second to more than a century. They have been an essential observational infrastructure for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research for about 170 years. A large fraction of magnetic observatories belong to INTERMAGNET (<span class="hlt">International</span> Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network), a global network founded in the late 1980s which now includes about 115 observatories in 45 countries. INTERMAGNET magnetic observatories comply with strict data quality and timeliness standards and distribute their data through an integrated data information system. Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the global network: new observatories have been installed in remote locations, such as oceanic islands (St Helena, Easter Island, Tristan da Cunha) or Antarctica (Dome C); ancient observatories have been upgraded to <span class="hlt">international</span> standards (for example in China and Siberia). This has been prompted by the need to have a more geographically homogeneous network. In parallel, new data products (one second data and quasi-definitive data) are being made available, addressing a wide variety of research needs, and real timeliness is being improved for operational purposes such as space weather monitoring and forecasting. This presentation will provide an overview of these recent developments, focusing on those most relevant to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> modeling community, and discuss their expected scientific benefits.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3474B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3474B"><span id="translatedtitle">Sparkling <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field: Involving Schools in <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bailey, Rachel; Leonhardt, Roman; Leichter, Barbara</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Solar activity will be reaching a maximum in 2013/2014 as the sun reaches the end of its cycle, bringing with it an opportunity to study in greater detail the effect of solar wind or "space weather" on our planet's magnetic field. Heightened solar activity leads to a larger amount of clouds of energetic particles bombarding the Earth. Although the Earth's magnetic field shields us from most of these particles, the field becomes distorted and compacted by the solar wind, which leads to magnetic storms that we detect from the surface. These storms cause aurorae at higher latitudes and can lead to widespread disruption of communication and navigation equipment all over the Earth when sufficiently strong. This project, "Sparkling <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field," is a part of Austria's Sparkling Science programme, which aims to involve schools in active scientific research to encourage interest in science from a young age. Researchers from the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Vienna have worked hand-in-hand with three schools across Austria to set up regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> stations consisting of state-of-the-art scalar and vector magnetometers to monitor the effects of the solar wind on the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. The students have been an active part of the research team from the beginning, first searching for a suitable location to set up the stations as well as later overseeing the continued running of the equipment and analysing the data output. Through this project the students will gain experience in contemporary scientific methods: data processing and analysis, field work, as well as equipment setup and upkeep. A total of three stations have been established with schools in Innsbruck, Tamsweg and Graz at roughly equal distances across Austria to run alongside the already active station in the Conrad Observatory near Vienna. Data acquisition runs through a data logger and software developed to deliver data in near realtime. This network allows for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029489','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029489"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> Linear Collider <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab</p> <p>2011-11-14</p> <p>The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the <span class="hlt">International</span> Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic and weak</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810060080&hterms=solar+wind+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bwind%2Bpower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810060080&hterms=solar+wind+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bwind%2Bpower"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar wind control of auroral zone <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clauer, C. R.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Searls, C.; Kivelson, M. G.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Solar wind magnetosphere energy coupling functions are analyzed using linear prediction filtering with 2.5 minute data. The relationship of auroral zone <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity to solar wind power input functions are examined, and a least squares prediction filter, or impulse response function is designed from the data. Computed impulse response functions are observed to have characteristics of a low pass filter with time delay. The AL index is found well related to solar wind energy functions, although the AU index shows a poor relationship. High frequency variations of auroral indices and substorm expansions are not predictable with solar wind information alone, suggesting influence by <span class="hlt">internal</span> magnetospheric processes. Finally, the epsilon parameter shows a poorer relationship with auroral <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity than a power parameter, having a VBs solar wind dependency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH51C1248L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH51C1248L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Effect Caused by 1908 Tunguska Event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Losseva, T. V.; Kuzmicheva, M. Y.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> results of this current system shows that an unique azimuth of trajectory of the body exists, for which the variations of all three components of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field do not contradict to the observation data. This azimuth is equal to 306 degrees, while other estimates are in the range of 290-344 degrees. This idea of the atmospheric plume ejected along the trajectory and ionization in the upper atmosphere, caused by the following atmospheric oscillations, could explain the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> effect both in general and locally in Irkutsk observatory: the time delay and the variations of all magnetic field components. Binding of simulation results of observation data also allows us to select the unique trajectory azimuth for Tunguska body. <span class="hlt">References</span>: [1] Ivanov K.G. The <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> phenomena, which were being observed on the Irkutsk magnetic observatory, following the explosion of the Tunguska meteorite //Meteoritika. 1961. Iss. XXI. P.46-49 (in Russian). [2] Losseva T., Merkin V., Nemtchinov I. Estimations of the Aeronomical and Electromagnetic Disturbances in the E-layer of the Ionosphere, caused by Tunguska Event // AGU Fall Meeting. 1999. SA32A-09.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380508"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study for the calibration of the Ph. Eur. somatropin chemical <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance batches 3 and 4 (BSP108).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Girard, M; Rautmann, G; Lorbetskie, B; Joly, M-A; Daas, A; Terao, E</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study was carried out for the establishment of replacement batches for the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Somatropin Chemical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Substance (CRS) batch 2. The study was organised within the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the Council of Europe and the European Commission. Seventeen laboratories from Europe, North America, South America and Australia took part in the collaborative study. The study aimed at calibrating the somatropin content of 2 candidate preparations and demonstrating their suitability to serve as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance in the tests for identification, for related proteins, for dimers and related substances of higher molecular mass (HMM), for charged variants distribution and for the assay of somatropin, as prescribed by the current Ph. Eur. monographs 0950 Somatropin bulk solution, 0951 Somatropin and 0952 Somatropin for injection. Based on the results summarised herein the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted in January 2012 candidate preparation b (cCRS-b, Sample D) as somatropin CRS batch 3 with an assigned content of 3.86 mg of somatropin monomer per vial, and candidate preparation a (cCRS-a, Sample C) as somatropin CRS batch 4 with an assigned content of 2.59 mg of somatropin monomer per vial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASTRA...7..373P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASTRA...7..373P"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of cosmic ray intensity variations and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances on the physiological state of aviators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Kudela, K.; Stetiarova, J.; Dimitrova, S.; Giannaropoulou, E.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Over the last few years various researches have reached the conclusion that cosmic ray variations and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances are related to the condition of the human physiological state. In this study medical data regarding 4018 Slovak aviators were analyzed in relation to daily variations of cosmic ray and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. Specifically daily data concerning mean values of heart rate which were registered during the medical examinations of the Slovak aviators, were related to daily variations of cosmic ray intensity, as measured by the Neutron Monitor Station on Lomnicky Stit (http://neutronmonitor.ta3.sk/realtime.php3) and the high resolution neutron monitor database (http://www.nmdb.eu) and daily variations of Dst and Ap <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices. All subjects were men in good health of age 18-60 yrs. This particular study <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the time period from 1 January 1994 till 31 December 2002. Statistical methods were applied to establish a statistical significance of the effect of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity levels and cosmic ray intensity variations on the aforementioned physiological parameters for the whole group. The Pearson r-coefficients were calculated and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method was applied to establish the statistical significance levels (p-values) of the effect of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and cosmic ray intensity variations on heart rate up to three days before and three days after the respective events. Results show that there is an underlying effect of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and cosmic ray intensity variations on the cardiovascular functionality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5985934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5985934"><span id="translatedtitle">Electric utility industry experience with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. ); Taylor, E.R. Jr. ); Tesche, F.M.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814404','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814404"><span id="translatedtitle">Electric Utility Industry Experience with <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, P.R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10108452','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10108452"><span id="translatedtitle">Electric utility industry experience with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1226/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1226/"><span id="translatedtitle">Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition, and Processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Love, Jeffrey J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The thirteenth biennial <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Aeronomy (IAGA) Workshop on <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing was held in the United States for the first time on June 9-18, 2008. Hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program, the workshop's measurement session was held at the Boulder Observatory and the scientific session was held on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. More than 100 participants came from 36 countries and 6 continents. Preparation for the workshop began when the USGS <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program agreed, at the close of the twelfth workshop in Belsk Poland in 2006, to host the next workshop. Working under the leadership of Alan Berarducci, who served as the chairman of the local organizing committee, and Tim White, who served as co-chairman, preparations began in 2007. The Boulder Observatory was extensively renovated and additional observation piers were installed. Meeting space on the Colorado School of Mines campus was arranged, and considerable planning was devoted to managing the many large and small issues that accompany an <span class="hlt">international</span> meeting. Without the devoted efforts of both Alan and Tim, other <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program staff, and our partners at the Colorado School of Mines, the workshop simply would not have occurred. We express our thanks to Jill McCarthy, the USGS Central Region Geologic Hazards Team Chief Scientist; Carol A. Finn, the Group Leader of the USGS <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program; the USGS <span class="hlt">International</span> Office; and Melody Francisco of the Office of Special Programs and Continuing Education of the Colorado School of Mines. We also thank the student employees that the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program has had over the years and leading up to the time of the workshop. For preparation of the proceedings, thanks go to Eddie and Tim. And, finally, we thank our sponsors, the USGS, IAGA, and the Colorado School of Mines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..852A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..852A"><span id="translatedtitle">A new regard about Surlari National <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asimopolos, Laurentiu; Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Pestina, Agata-Monica</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field study in Romanian stations has started with irregular measurements in late XIXth century. In 1943, the foundation of Surlari National <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory (SNGO) marks the beginning of a new era in the systematic study of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field by a continuous registration of its variations and by carrying out standard absolute measurements in a fundamental station. The location of the observatory meets the highest exigencies, being situated in physical-geological conditions of a uniform local field, at a reasonably long distance from human activities. Its laboratories observe strict conditions of non-magnetism, ensuring the possibility of absolute standard measurements (national magnetic standards) for all the units in the country, civil or military, which are endowed with equipment based on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> metrology. These basic conditions have allowed the observatory to become by developing its initial preoccupations a centre of complex <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research, constantly involved in national and <span class="hlt">international</span> issues, promoting new themes in our country and bringing significant contributions. During the last two decades, infrastructure and equipment used in monitoring <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field at European and planetary level have experienced a remarkable development. New registering techniques have allowed a complete to automate of data acquisition, and sampling step and their precision increased by two classes of size. Systems of transmitting these data in real time to world collecting centres have resulted in the possibility of approaching globalize studies, suitable for following some phenomena at planetary scale. At the same time, a significant development in the procedures of processing primary data has been registered, based on standardized programmes. The new stage of this fundamental research, largely applicable in various fields, is also marked by the simultaneous observation of space-time distribution of terrestrial electromagnetic field by means of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.8794O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.8794O"><span id="translatedtitle">An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female—<span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Reilly, Shannon E.; DeWeese, Lindsay S.; Maynard, Matthew R.; Rajon, Didier A.; Wayson, Michael B.; Marshall, Emily L.; Bolch, Wesley E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for <span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow). Each of these limitations was addressed in the present study. Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to both active and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the University of Florida <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female. The skeletal macrostructure and microstructure were modeled separately. The bone macrostructure was based on the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of <span class="hlt">reference</span> models, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 years-old female cadaver. The active and shallow marrow are typically adopted as surrogate tissue regions for the hematopoietic stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Source tissues included active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume, and cortical bone surfaces. Marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. All other sources were run at the defined ICRP Publication 70 cellularity for each bone site. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or analytically modeled. The method of combining skeletal macrostructure and microstructure absorbed fractions assessed using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model applied to the UF adult male skeletal dosimetry model. Calculated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897136"><span id="translatedtitle">An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female-<span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Reilly, Shannon E; DeWeese, Lindsay S; Maynard, Matthew R; Rajon, Didier A; Wayson, Michael B; Marshall, Emily L; Bolch, Wesley E</p> <p>2016-12-21</p> <p>An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for <span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow). Each of these limitations was addressed in the present study. Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to both active and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the University of Florida <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female. The skeletal macrostructure and microstructure were modeled separately. The bone macrostructure was based on the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of <span class="hlt">reference</span> models, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 years-old female cadaver. The active and shallow marrow are typically adopted as surrogate tissue regions for the hematopoietic stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Source tissues included active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume, and cortical bone surfaces. Marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. All other sources were run at the defined ICRP Publication 70 cellularity for each bone site. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or analytically modeled. The method of combining skeletal macrostructure and microstructure absorbed fractions assessed using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model applied to the UF adult male skeletal dosimetry model. Calculated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940024991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940024991"><span id="translatedtitle">ASSIST <span class="hlt">internals</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST) program was developed at NASA LaRC in order to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. A user manual was developed to detail its use. Certain technical specifics are of no concern to the end user, yet are of importance to those who must maintain and/or verify the correctness of the tool. This document takes a detailed look into these technical issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001684','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001684"><span id="translatedtitle">History of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Doell, Richard R.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>Direct measurements of the direction and strength of the earth's magnetic field have provided a knowledge of the field's form and behavior during the last few hundreds of years. For older times, however, it has been necessary to measure the magnetism of certain rocks to learn what the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field was like. For example, when a lava flow solidifies (at temperatures near 1000??C) and cools through the Curie point of the magnetic minerals contained in it (around 500??C) it acquires a remanent magnetism that is (1) very weak, (2) very stablel, (3) paralle to the direction of the ambient <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, and (4) proportional in intensity to the ambient field. Separating, by various analytical means, this magnetization from other 'unwanted' magnetizations has allowed paleomagnetists to study the historical and prehistorical behavior of the earth's field. It has been learned, for example, that the strength of the field was almost twice its present value 2000 years ago and that it has often completely reversed its polarity. Paleo-magnetists have also confirmed that most oceans are, geologically speaking, relatively new features, and that the continents have markedly changed their positions over the surface of the earth. ?? 1969 The American Institute of Physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH24A..01Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH24A..01Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Anomalies Related to Earthquakes at Pisco Peru 2007 (M=8.0) and at Taiwan 2009 (M= 6.4) (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yumoto, K.; Takla, E.; Ishitsuka, J.; Rosales, D.; Dutra, S. L.; Liu, J. G.; Kakinami, Y.; Uozumi, T.; Abe, S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University deployed the MAGnetic Data Acqusition System (MAGDAS) at 53 stations along the 210- and 96-degree magnetic meridians (MM) and the magnetic Dip equator, and three FM-CW radars along the 210-degree MM during the <span class="hlt">International</span> Heliophysical Year (IHY) period of 2005-2009 (see http://magdas.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/ and http://magdas2.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/). By analyzing these new MAGDAS data, we can perform a real-time monitoring for understanding the plasma and electromagnetic environment changes in geospace and lithosphere. In the present paper, we will introduce <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomalies associated with larger earthquakes (EQs), observed at the MAGDAS stations. The first event is the Pisco earthquake (M=8.0) on August 15, 2007, which was the largest shallow earthquake and affected the coastal area south of Lima for 250 years. This occurred at the boundary between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> data from the MAGDAS Ancon (ANC; about 180 km from the epicenter), the INTERMAGNET Huancayo (HUA;about 190 km from the epicenter) and the MAGDAS Eusebio (EUS; about 39°east from ANC) stations were analyzed to clarify if there is a relation between the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations and the tectonic activities at Peru during 2007. Our results indicate both long- (several months) and short-term (daily) anomalous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations (H and Z components) in relation with these seismic activities. In addition, there were anomalous signals of Pc 3 polarization (Z/H) a few months before the onset of seismic activities. The second event is the Taiwan earthquake of M=6.4 on the Richter scale, which occurred at depth ≈ 45 km, on 19th of December 2009. The epicenter was located about 20 Km away from our MAGDAS Hualien (HLN) station. The MAGDAS Amami-ohshima (AMA) station in Japan was used as a remote <span class="hlt">reference</span> station. The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> components (H, D and Z) at the HLN station showed baseline fluctuations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183767.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183767.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Selected Bibliographies and State-of the-Art Review for Socio-cultural Factors in Health. Volume 4: Socio-cultural Factors in Health <span class="hlt">References</span>. <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa</p> <p></p> <p>Intended as a companion picce to volume 4 in the Method Series, Sociocultural Factors in Health Planning (CE 024 232), this fourth of six volumes in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with social, cultural, and behavioral aspects of delivering, planning, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN31D..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN31D..08L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory Data for Real-Time Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Love, J. J.; Finn, C. A.; Rigler, E. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The global network of magnetic observatories represents a unique collective asset for the scientific community. Historically, magnetic observatories have supported global magnetic-field mapping projects and fundamental research of the Earth's interior and surrounding space environment. More recently, real-time data streams from magnetic observatories have become an important contributor to multi-sensor, operational monitoring of evolving space weather conditions, especially during magnetic storms. In this context, the U.S. Geological Survey (1) provides real-time observatory data to allied space weather monitoring projects, including those of NOAA, the U.S. Air Force, NASA, several <span class="hlt">international</span> agencies, and private industry, (2) collaborates with Schlumberger to provide real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data needed for directional drilling for oil and gas in Alaska, (3) develops products for real-time evaluation of hazards for the electric-power grid industry that are associated with the storm-time induction of geoelectric fields in the Earth's conducting lithosphere. In order to implement strategic priorities established by the USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area and the National Science and Technology Council, and with a focus on developing new real-time products, the USGS is (1) leveraging data management protocols already developed by the USGS Earthquake Program, (2) developing algorithms for mapping <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, a collaboration with NASA and NOAA, (3) supporting magnetotelluric surveys and developing Earth conductivity models, a collaboration with Oregon State University and the NSF's EarthScope Program, (4) studying the use of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity maps and Earth conductivity models for real-time estimation of geoelectric fields, (5) initiating geoelectric monitoring at several observatories, (6) validating real-time estimation algorithms against historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and geoelectric data. The success of these long-term projects is subject to funding constraints</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013947','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013947"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Weather Monitoring for ISS <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storm Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24126457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24126457"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> recommendations for the assessment of autoantibodies to cellular antigens <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as anti-nuclear antibodies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Damoiseaux, Jan; Kallenberg, Cees; Sack, Ulrich; Witte, Torsten; Herold, Manfred; Bossuyt, Xavier; Musset, Lucille; Cervera, Ricard; Plaza-Lopez, Aresio; Dias, Carlos; Sousa, Maria José; Radice, Antonella; Eriksson, Catharina; Hultgren, Olof; Viander, Markku; Khamashta, Munther; Regenass, Stephan; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho; Wiik, Allan; Tincani, Angela; Rönnelid, Johan; Bloch, Donald B; Fritzler, Marvin J; Chan, Edward K L; Garcia-De La Torre, I; Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Lahita, Robert; Wilson, Merlin; Vainio, Olli; Fabien, Nicole; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Meroni, Pierluigi; Shoenfeld, Yehuda</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are fundamental for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, and have been determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) for decades. As the demand for ANA testing increased, alternative techniques were developed challenging the classic IIFA. These alternative platforms differ in their antigen profiles, sensitivity and specificity, raising uncertainties regarding standardisation and interpretation of incongruent results. Therefore, an <span class="hlt">international</span> group of experts has created recommendations for ANA testing by different methods. Two groups of experts participated in this initiative. The European autoimmunity standardization initiative representing 15 European countries and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Union of Immunologic Societies/World Health Organization/Arthritis Foundation/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autoantibody standardising committee. A three-step process followed by a Delphi exercise with closed voting was applied. Twenty-five recommendations for determining ANA (1-13), anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (14-18), specific antibodies (19-23) and validation of methods (24-25) were created. Significant differences between experts were observed regarding recommendations 24-25 (p<0.03). Here, we formulated recommendations for the assessment and interpretation of ANA and associated antibodies. Notably, the roles of IIFA as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> method, and the importance of defining nuclear and cytoplasmic staining, were emphasised, while the need to incorporate alternative automated methods was acknowledged. Various approaches to overcome discrepancies between methods were suggested of which an improved bench-to-bedside communication is of the utmost importance. These recommendations are based on current knowledge and can enable harmonisation of local algorithms for testing and evaluation of ANA and related autoantibodies. Last but not least, new more appropriate terminologies have been suggested.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162557','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162557"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing in the Arctic environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poedjono, B.; Beck, N.; Buchanan, A. C.; Borri, L.; Maus, S.; Finn, Carol; Worthington, Bill; White, Tim</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing uses the Earth’s magnetic field to determine accurate wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs, either as an alternative or a complement to north-seeking gyroscopic referencing. However, fluctuations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, especially at high latitudes, make the application of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise crustal mapping and the monitoring of real-time variations by nearby magnetic observatories is crucial to achieving the required <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing accuracy. The Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate, real-time data to the oilfield drilling industry. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing is enhanced with real-time data from DED and other observatories, and has been successfully used for accurate wellbore positioning. The availability of real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements leads to significant cost and time savings in wellbore surveying, improving accuracy and alleviating the need for more expensive surveying techniques. The correct implementation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing is particularly critical as we approach the increased activity associated with the upcoming maximum of the 11-year solar cycle. The DED observatory further provides an important service to scientific communities engaged in studies of ionospheric, magnetospheric and space weather phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interchange+AND+students+AND+book&id=ED420542','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interchange+AND+students+AND+book&id=ED420542"><span id="translatedtitle">Education and Social Change in Korea. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 513; <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 23.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adams, Don; Gottlieb, Esther E.</p> <p></p> <p>This book provides students and scholars with an introduction to Korean education and the dynamics of interchange between the educational system and the rapidly changing Korean society. Attention is given only to the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and includes only English language works of <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The book contains six chapters: (1)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Qualitative+AND+Research+AND+Evaluation+AND+Methods+AND+Integrating+AND+Theory+AND+Practice&id=ED415132','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Qualitative+AND+Research+AND+Evaluation+AND+Methods+AND+Integrating+AND+Theory+AND+Practice&id=ED415132"><span id="translatedtitle">Qualitative Educational Research in Developing Countries: Current Perspectives. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 35. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 927.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crossley, Michael, Ed.; Vulliamy, Graham, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This book contains 11 essays that offer in-depth accounts of qualitative research in developing countries. Each chapter focuses upon a specific method and considers related theoretical and practical issues with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to recent experiences in selected developing countries. Key issues addressed include: (1) the identification of appropriate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055085"><span id="translatedtitle">Trial-by-trial updating of an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> in discrimination tasks: evidence from effects of stimulus order and trial sequence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dyjas, Oliver; Bausenhart, Karin M; Ulrich, Rolf</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>In psychophysics, participants are often asked to discriminate between a constant standard and a variable comparison. Previous studies have shown that discrimination performance is better when the comparison follows, rather than precedes, the standard. Prominent difference models of psychophysics and decision making cannot easily explain this order effect. However, a simple extension of this model class involving dynamical updating of an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> accounts for this order effect. In addition, this <span class="hlt">Internal</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model (IRM) predicts sequential response effects. We examined the predictions of IRM in two duration discrimination experiments. The obtained results are in agreement with the predictions of IRM, suggesting that participants update their <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> on every trial. Additional simulations show that IRM also accounts for the negative sequential effects observed in single-stimulus paradigms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21055496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21055496"><span id="translatedtitle">Report of an <span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study to establish the first WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagents for BCG vaccines of three different sub-strains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Mei M; Markey, Kevin; Rigsby, Peter; Hockley, Jason; Corbel, Michael J</p> <p>2011-01-10</p> <p>The WHO First <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Preparation for BCG vaccine is over forty years old and is no longer available for distribution due to stock depletion and its significant loss of viability. <span class="hlt">International</span> consultations identified a demand for replacement with sub-strain specific BCG preparations. An <span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study was carried out to evaluate three candidates for WHO <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagent for BCG vaccine of Danish 1331, Russian BCG-I and Tokyo 172-1 sub-strains. These candidates were quantified for viability using both cultural viable count and modified ATP assays. The proposal for the establishment of these First WHO <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagents for BCG vaccines was discussed in the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization meeting, October 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/20600','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/20600"><span id="translatedtitle">Global energy and water cycle experiment (GEWEX) continental-scale <span class="hlt">international</span> project (GCIP); <span class="hlt">reference</span> data sets CD-ROM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, Joel R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The data sets on this compact disc are a compilation of several geographic <span class="hlt">reference</span> data sets of interest to the global-change research community. The data sets were chosen with input from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale <span class="hlt">International</span> Project (GCIP) Data Committee and the GCIP Hydrometeorology and Atmospheric Subpanels. The data sets include: locations and periods of record for stream gages, reservoir gages, and meteorological stations; a 500-meter-resolution digital elevation model; grid-node locations for the Eta numerical weather-prediction model; and digital map data sets of geology, land use, streams, large reservoirs, average annual runoff, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, average annual heating and cooling degree days, hydrologic units, and state and county boundaries. Also included are digital index maps for LANDSAT scenes, and for the U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000, 1:100,000, and 1:24,000-scale map series. Most of the data sets cover the conterminous United States; the digital elevation model also includes part of southern Canada. The stream and reservoir gage and meteorological station files cover all states having area within the Mississippi River Basin plus that part of the Mississippi River Basin lying within Canada. Several data-base retrievals were processed by state, therefore many sites outside the Mississippi River Basin are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34..751M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34..751M"><span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere electron density in the polar cap and cusp using EISCAT Svalbard radar measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merete Bjoland, Lindis; Belyey, Vasyl; Løvhaug, Unni Pia; La Hoz, Cesar</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Incoherent scatter radar measurements are an important source for studies of ionospheric plasma parameters. In this paper the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR) long-term database is used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) model. The ESR started operations in 1996, and the accumulated database up to 2012 thus covers 16 years, giving an overview of the ionosphere in the polar cap and cusp during more than one solar cycle. Data from ESR can be used to obtain information about primary plasma parameters: electron density, electron and ion temperature, and line-of-sight plasma velocity from an altitude of about 50 and up to 1600 km. Monthly averages of electron density and temperature and ion temperature and composition are also provided by the IRI model from an altitude of 50 to 2000 km. We have compared electron density data obtained from the ESR with the predicted electron density from the IRI-2016 model. Our results show that the IRI model in general fits the ESR data well around the F2 peak height. However, the model seems to underestimate the electron density at lower altitudes, particularly during winter months. During solar minimum the model is also less accurate at higher altitudes. The purpose of this study is to validate the IRI model at polar latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788975"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model Revisited: Incorporating General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunner, Martin; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986 ) is a highly influential model of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E model do not typically incorporate general cognitive ability or general academic self-concept. This article investigates alternative measurement models for domain-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities and academic self-concepts within an extended I/E model framework using representative data from 25,301 9th-grade students. Empirical support was found for the external validity of a new measurement model for academic self-concepts with respect to key student characteristics (gender, school satisfaction, educational aspirations, domain-specific interests, grades). Moreover, the basic predictions of the I/E model were confirmed, and the new extension of the traditional I/E model permitted meaningful relations to be drawn between domain-general cognitive ability and domain-general academic self-concept as well as between the domain-specific elements of the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18330312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18330312"><span id="translatedtitle">[Determination of Sb and Bi in 24 <span class="hlt">international</span> geological <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Zhao-chu; Gao, Shan; Liu, Xiao-ming; Yuan, Hong-lin; Liu, Ye; Diwu, Chun-rong</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The authors studied in detail the memory effect of Bi, Sb, As and Te in ICP-MS. The produced memory effects of these element were in the order of Bi>Sb>Te>As. Bi was seriously adsorbed by the polypropylene sample storing bottle and the sample introduction system in the low nitric acid medium (0.01%-1% HNO3). The washout effect of 0.1% HF was found to be better than those of 6% HNO3 and 0.1% HClO4. Under the given experiment conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.001 and 0.0001 ng x mL(-1) for Sb and Bi, respectively. The authors report the determination of Sb and Bi in 24 <span class="hlt">international</span> geological <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS (including AGV-2, BHVO-2, BCR-2, etc.). Most of the results were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported values in the literature. The authors' determined values of Sb for GSR-1 (granite; 0.30 microg x g(-1)) and JP-1 (peridotite; 0.045 microg x g(-1)) are obviously higher than those reported values. This is attributed to the efficient pressurized acid digestion, which is generally much more efficient than conventional wet digestions for insoluble minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62.1885V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62.1885V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Internal</span> dosimetry with the Monte Carlo code GATE: validation using the ICRP/ICRU female <span class="hlt">reference</span> computational model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Villoing, Daphnée; Marcatili, Sara; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bardiès, Manuel</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The purpose of this work was to validate GATE-based clinical scale absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine dosimetry. GATE (version 6.2) and MCNPX (version 2.7.a) were used to derive dosimetric parameters (absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values) for the <span class="hlt">reference</span> female computational model proposed by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP report 110. Monoenergetic photons and electrons (from 50 keV to 2 MeV) and four isotopes currently used in nuclear medicine (fluorine-18, lutetium-177, iodine-131 and yttrium-90) were investigated. Absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values were generated with GATE and MCNPX for 12 regions of interest in the ICRP 110 female computational model, thereby leading to 144 source/target pair configurations. Relative differences between GATE and MCNPX obtained in specific configurations (self-irradiation or cross-irradiation) are presented. Relative differences in absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions or S-values are below 10%, and in most cases less than 5%. Dosimetric results generated with GATE for the 12 volumes of interest are available as supplemental data. GATE can be safely used for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry at the clinical scale. This makes GATE a viable option for Monte Carlo modelling of both imaging and absorbed dose in nuclear medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21258850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21258850"><span id="translatedtitle">Vocational rehabilitation from the client's perspective using the <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glässel, Andrea; Finger, Monika E; Cieza, Alarcos; Treitler, Christine; Coenen, Michaela; Escorpizo, Reuben</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION A mixed-methods (qualitative-quantitative), multicenter study was conducted using a focus group design to explore the lived experiences of persons in vocational rehabilitation (VR) with regard to functioning and contextual factors using six open-ended questions related to the ICF components. The results were classified by using the <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span>. METHODS The meaningful concepts within the transcribed data were identified and linked to ICF categories according to established linking rules. RESULTS The seven focus groups with 26 participants yielded a total of 4,813 relevant concepts which were linked to a total of 160 different second-level ICF categories. From the client perspective, the ICF components (a) body functions, (b) activities and participation and (c) environmental factors were equally represented, while (d) body structures appeared less frequently. Out of the total number of concepts, 864 concepts (18%) were assigned to the ICF component personal factors which is not yet classified but could indicate important aspects of resource management and strategy development of patients in VR. CONCLUSION Therefore, VR of patients must not be limited to anatomical and pathophysiologic changes, but should also consider a more comprehensive view which includes client's demands, strategies and resources in daily life and the context around the individual and social circumstances of their work situation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1253M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1253M"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Ionospheric TEC Derived from GPS and IRI 2012 Model during <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms at Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marlia, Dessi; Wu, Falin</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the variations of vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) at Manado, Indonesia (geographic coordinates : lat 1.34 ° S and long 124.82 ° E) for period 2013. The GPS measured TEC is compared with the TEC derived from the IRI (<span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere) 2012 model. Vertical TEC measurements obtained from dual frequency GPS receiver that is GISTM (GPS Ionospheric Scintillations and TEC monitor). Variation of TEC validate to IRI 2012 model at Manado station has been compared with the model for three different topside of electron density namely NeQuick, IRI-01-Corr and IRI2001.There is a need to investigation on diurnal, seasonal variations, solar activity dependence of TEC and including effects of space weather related events to TEC and modeling of TEC. In this paper, diurnal and seasonal variations of VTEC and the effect of VTEC due to space weather events like <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms are analyzed. The result show that the TEC prediction using IRI-2001 model overestimated the GPS TEC measurements, while IRI-NeQuick and IRI-01-corr show a tendency to underestimates the observed TEC during the day time particularly in low latitude region in the maximum solar activity period (2013). The variations of VTEC during 17th March, 2013, 29th June, 2013 storms are analyzed. During 17th March,2013 storm enhancement in VTEC with Kp value 6 and Disturbance storm index (DST) -132 nT. During 29th June, 2013 storm VTEC depletion with value 7 and DST -98 nT. Significant deviations in VTEC during the main phase of the storms are observed. It is found that the response of ionospheric TEC consist of effects of both enhancement and depletions in ionospheric structures (positive and negative storm). Keywords: TEC ionosphere, GPS, GISTM, IRI 2012 model, solar activity, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.437....9D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.437....9D"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency of Proterozoic <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> superchrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Peter E.; Evans, David A. D.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Long-term geodynamo evolution is expected to respond to inner core growth and changing patterns of mantle convection. Three <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> superchrons, during which Earth's magnetic field maintained a near-constant polarity state through tens of Myr, are known from the bio/magnetostratigraphic record of Phanerozoic time, perhaps timed according to supercontinental episodicity. Some geodynamo simulations incorporating a much smaller inner core, as would have characterized Proterozoic time, produce field reversals at a much lower rate. Here we compile polarity ratios of site means within a quality-filtered global Proterozoic paleomagnetic database, according to recent plate kinematic models. Various smoothing parameters, optimized to successfully identify the known Phanerozoic superchrons, indicate 3-10 possible Proterozoic superchrons during the 1300 Myr interval studied. Proterozoic geodynamo evolution thus appears to indicate a relatively narrow range of reversal behavior through the last two billion years, implying either remarkable stability of core dynamics over this time or insensitivity of reversal rate to core evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037751&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037751&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimax confidence intervals in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stark, Philip B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RvGeo..54..410V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RvGeo..54..410V"><span id="translatedtitle">Deciphering records of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Polarity reversals of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field are a major feature of the Earth's dynamo. Questions remain regarding the dynamical processes that give rise to reversals and the properties of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field during a polarity transition. A large number of paleomagnetic reversal records have been acquired during the past 50 years in order to better constrain the structure and geometry of the transitional field. In addition, over the past two decades, numerical dynamo simulations have also provided insights into the reversal mechanism. Yet despite the large paleomagnetic database, controversial interpretations of records of the transitional field persist; they result from two characteristics inherent to all reversals, both of which are detrimental to an ambiguous analysis. On the one hand, the reversal process is rapid and requires adequate temporal resolution. On the other hand, weak field intensities during a reversal can affect the fidelity of magnetic recording in sedimentary records. This paper is aimed at reviewing critically the main reversal features derived from paleomagnetic records and at analyzing some of these features in light of numerical simulations. We discuss in detail the fidelity of the signal extracted from paleomagnetic records and pay special attention to their resolution with respect to the timing and mechanisms involved in the magnetization process. Records from marine sediments dominate the database. They give rise to transitional field models that often lead to overinterpret the data. Consequently, we attempt to separate robust results (and their subsequent interpretations) from those that do not stand on a strong observational footing. Finally, we discuss new avenues that should favor progress to better characterize and understand transitional field behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013786','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013786"><span id="translatedtitle">Range indices of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stuart, W.F.; Green, A.W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The simplest index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity is the range in nT from maximum to minimum value of the field in a given time interval. The hourly range R was recommended by IAGA for use at observatories at latitudes greater than 65??, but was superceded by AE. The most used <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index K is based on the range of activity in a 3 h interval corrected for the regular daily variation. In order to take advantage of real time data processing, now available at many observatories, it is proposed to introduce a 1 h range index and also a 3 h range index. Both will be computed hourly, i.e. each will have a series of 24 per day, the 3 h values overlapping. The new data will be available as the range (R) of activity in nT and also as a logarithmic index (I) of the range. The exponent relating index to range in nT is based closely on the scale used for computing K values. The new ranges and range indices are available, from June 1987, to users in real time and can be accessed by telephone connection or computer network. Their first year of production is regarded as a trial period during which their value to the scientific and commercial communities will be assessed, together with their potential as indicators of regional and global disturbances' and in which trials will be conducted into ways of eliminating excessive bias at quiet times due to the rate of change of the daily variation field. ?? 1988.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Japanese+AND+Nationalism&pg=5&id=ED417999','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Japanese+AND+Nationalism&pg=5&id=ED417999"><span id="translatedtitle">Three Decades of Peace Education around the World: An Anthology. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 600. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 24.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burns, Robin J., Ed.; Aspeslagh, Robert, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The Peace Education Commission (PEC) of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Peace Research Association (IPRA) has been the forum for peace educators to come together, to exchange and to share ideas, materials and experiences over three decades. This book draws from key papers from different areas and times of peace education work to show the richness of ideas and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rust&pg=6&id=ED419723','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rust&pg=6&id=ED419723"><span id="translatedtitle">Teachers and Teaching in the Developing World. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 8. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 617.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rust, Val D., Ed.; Dalin, Per, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This book is an outgrowth of an <span class="hlt">international</span> seminar held in Bali, Indonesia in 1986 entitled "Improving the Quality of Teaching in the Developing World: Alternative Models." The book contains essays written by 20 authors and coauthors from 12 different countries and is divided into five sections, plus a preface. The focus of section 1,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=3&id=EJ639605','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=3&id=EJ639605"><span id="translatedtitle">Ready <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koltay, Emery</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Includes four articles that relate to ready <span class="hlt">reference</span>, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019378&hterms=inventions+discoveries&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dinventions%2Bdiscoveries','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019378&hterms=inventions+discoveries&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dinventions%2Bdiscoveries"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical Data for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, Andrew</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Described here are the various types of historical data (by which we mean actual measurements of the field taken in the past) which are available for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modelling, concentrating exclusively on observations made prior to the 20th century. These data take quite diverse forms, being derived from voyages of discovery or scientific expeditions, from surveys on land, or from observatories after the formation of the Gottingen Magnetic Union. Toward the latter part of the 19th Century, declination was measured quite regularly by various naval vessels for the purpose of constructing charts. Prior to the invention of a method for measuring field intensities by Gauss in 1832, all measurements were of declination or inclination. During the 19th Century over 40,000 observations are available in one year (the first <span class="hlt">International</span> Polar Year 1882-83). Prior to 1800 there are only of the order of 12,000 measurements. We discuss measurement methods and the types of instruments used, and focus on specific problems which have been noted, such as those associated with the measurement of intensity on iron ships in the late 19th Century.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1466O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1466O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storm Main Phase effect on the Equatorial Ionosphere as measured from GPS observations at Ile-Ife</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olabode, Ayomide; Ariyibi, Emmanuel</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The effect of the main phase of two intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm events which occurred on August 5-6 and September 26-27, 2011 on the equatorial ionosphere have been investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained from an Ile-Ife station (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> lat. 9.84°N, long. 77.25°E). The WinTEC-P and GPS-TEC analysis software programs were used to process the GPS data to obtain Total Electron Content (TEC) and Scintillation Index (S4). TEC profiles during the main phase of the two <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> disturbed days were compared with quiet time average profiles to examine the response of the equatorial ionosphere. <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 TEC model was also obtained from Virtual Ionosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere Observatory (VITMO) and the extents of deviation from measured GPS-derived TEC were examined for the main phase of the storm events. The results showed that the intensity of both storm events during the main phase which occurred at night-time correlated well with a strong southward direction of the z-component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF-Bz) and Solar Wind Speed (Vsw), with the Disturbance storm time (Dst) profile showing multiple step development. TEC depletion was observed during the main phase of the August 5-6, 2011 storm event with TEC recording a maximum value of 9.31 TECU. A maximum TEC value of 55.8 TECU was recorded during the main phase of the September 26-27, 2011 storm event depicting TEC enhancement. Significant scintillation index value of 0.57 was observed when the main phase started on August 5-6, 2011 followed by a prolonged suppression while there was less significant scintillation impact on September 26-27, 2011 with a maximum value of 0.33. The study concluded that the intensification of the ring current during the main phase of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm events was responsible for the intensity of the storm events causing large variations in TEC and significant scintillation phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA242991','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA242991"><span id="translatedtitle">Electric Utility Industry Experience with <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>the March 13, 1989, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. Source: North American Electric Reliability Council ................................................ 9 Fig. 2.2...Events and K intensity recorded in North America during the March 13, 1989, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. Source: North American Electric Reliability Council. 2.2...Unit I experienced VAR excursions of 150 to 200 MVAR. Additional VARs were consumed by the saturated step-up transformers. An empirical equation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013010','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013010"><span id="translatedtitle">How the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field vector reverses polarity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Coe, R.S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860011526','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860011526"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> main field modeling using magnetohydrodynamic constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Estes, R. H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The influence of physical constraints are investigated which may be approximately satisfied by the Earth's liquid core on models of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> main field and its secular variation. A previous report describes the methodology used to incorporate nonlinear equations of constraint into the main field model. The application of that methodology to the GSFC 12/83 field model to test the frozen-flux hypothesis and the usefulness of incorporating magnetohydrodynamic constraints for obtaining improved <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24955567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24955567"><span id="translatedtitle">Standardization of human IL-29 (IFN-λ1): establishment of a World Health Organization <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent for IL-29 (IFN-λ1).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meager, Anthony; Heath, Alan; Dilger, Paula; Zoon, Kathryn; Wadhwa, Meenu</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Human interleukin-29 (IL-29), a helical cytokine with interferon-like activities, is currently being developed as a clinical biotherapeutic to treat chronic hepatitis C infection and some cancers. As such, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized a need for biological standardization of IL-29 and the establishment of an <span class="hlt">internationally</span> available <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent of IL-29. In order to accomplish this, an <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study that evaluates WHO candidate <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagents of IL-29 was instigated by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in 2010 and was carried out in the succeeding year. Two preparations of human sequence recombinant IL-29, one expressed in murine NS0 cells and the other in Escherichia coli, were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC before evaluation in the collaborative study for their suitability to serve as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent. The preparations were tested by 6 laboratories from 4 countries using in vitro bioassays and also evaluated for thermal stability within the NIBSC laboratory. On the basis of the results of the collaborative study, both preparations, 07/212 (NS0-derived) and 10/176 (E. coli-derived) were judged sufficiently active and stable to serve as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent. However, since IL-29 produced in E. coli is in development for clinical applications, it was recommended that the preparation coded 10/176 be established as the WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent for human IL-29. This recommendation was accepted, and the IL-29 preparation coded 10/176 was formally established by the WHO ECBS at its meeting in October 2012 as the WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent for IL-29 with an assigned unitage of 5,000 <span class="hlt">reference</span> units per ampoule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9254354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9254354"><span id="translatedtitle">[Comparative analysis of diagnoses by the <span class="hlt">referring</span> family physician and the hospital admission committee in ambulatory patients at an <span class="hlt">internal</span> medicine department].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hajnal, F; Nagy, P; Abrahám, G</p> <p>1997-05-25</p> <p>The objectives of the present study were, as follows: 1. To what rate do the primary care doctors <span class="hlt">refer</span> their patients to the regional <span class="hlt">internal</span> medicine emergency department? 2. What sort of problems are the reasons of the <span class="hlt">referring</span>? 3. To what extent are the opinions of the <span class="hlt">referring</span> doctors confirmed or reviewed by the specialists? 4. What rate of the <span class="hlt">referred</span> patients are admitted or discharged after the urgent consultations and-or interventions. 5. What kind of additional tests were used by the institutional caregivers in order to make accurate diagnoses? 6. What was the fate of the unaccepted patients? Data were collected in the patient document archive of the First Dept. of Medicine of the Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University, Szeged, Hungary. Each patients' <span class="hlt">referring</span> notes and inpatient charts between September 15th, 1995 and January 15th, 1996 were studied in a retrospective way. Upon the results of the study, it was concluded, as follows: The primary care doctors <span class="hlt">referred</span> their patients with right orientation diagnosis to the emergency department in 70% of the cases. 45.8% of the <span class="hlt">referred</span> pts. were admitted to the <span class="hlt">internal</span> inpatient ward. The agreement of the <span class="hlt">referring</span> and discharge diagnoses was greater (85.7%) among the admitted patients as compared to the unaccepted ones (56.8%). 14% of the <span class="hlt">referred</span> pts. were <span class="hlt">referred</span> to other specialists by the internists. On the basis of the results the actual messages of the study for an under- and postgraduate medical teaching group, and for the health care politicians are discussed in the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6046690','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6046690"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> disturbance effects on power systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Albertson, V.D.; Bozoki, B.; Feero, W.E.; Kappenman, J.G.; Larsen, E.V.; Nordell, D.E.; Ponder, J.; Prabhakara, F.S.; Thompson, K.; Walling, R.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>In the northern hemisphere, the aurora borealis is visual evidence of simultaneous fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field). These <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances (GMD's), or <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, can affect a number of man-made systems, including electric power systems. The GMD's are caused by the electromagnetic interaction of the solar wind plasma of protons and electrons with the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. These dynamic impulses in the solar wind are due to solar flares, coronal holes, and disappearing filaments, and reach the earth from one to six days after being emitted by a solar event. Instances of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms affecting telegraph systems were noted in England in 1846, and power system disturbances linked to GMD's were first reported in the United States in 1940. This Working Group report is a summary of the state of knowledge and research activity to the present time, and covers the GMD/<span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span>-induced currents (GIC) phenomena, transformer effects, the impact on generators, protective relay effects, and communication system effects. It also summarizes modeling and predicting GIC, measuring and monitoring GIC, mitigation methods, system operating guidelines during GMD's, and alerting and forecasting procedures and needs for the power industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Natur.444...51E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Natur.444...51E"><span id="translatedtitle">Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field from evaporite palaeolatitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, David A. D.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Palaeomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields and palaeoclimate zones. Proterozoic glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial palaeomagnetic latitudes can be explained by `snowball Earth' episodes, high orbital obliquity or markedly non-uniformitarian <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields. Here I present a global palaeomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly remains the most viable model for low-latitude Proterozoic ice ages. Efforts to reconstruct Proterozoic supercontinents are strengthened by this demonstration of a consistently axial and dipolar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame, which itself implies stability of geodynamo processes on billion-year timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080082"><span id="translatedtitle">Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field from evaporite palaeolatitudes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, David A D</p> <p>2006-11-02</p> <p>Palaeomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields and palaeoclimate zones. Proterozoic glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial palaeomagnetic latitudes can be explained by 'snowball Earth' episodes, high orbital obliquity or markedly non-uniformitarian <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields. Here I present a global palaeomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly remains the most viable model for low-latitude Proterozoic ice ages. Efforts to reconstruct Proterozoic supercontinents are strengthened by this demonstration of a consistently axial and dipolar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame, which itself implies stability of geodynamo processes on billion-year timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445006.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445006.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Extension of the <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model of Self-Concept Formation: Importance of Native and Nonnative Languages for Chinese Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hau, Kit-Tai; Kong, Chit-Kwong; Marsh, Herbert W.; Cheng, Zi-Juan</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> (I/E) model of self-concept formation was extended by relating Chinese, English, and mathematics achievement to Chinese, English, and mathematics self-concepts in a 5-year longitudinal study based on a large (N=9,482) representative sample of Hong Kong high school students. Tests of the I/E model are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=motivation+AND+concept&pg=4&id=EJ1049913','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=motivation+AND+concept&pg=4&id=EJ1049913"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model of Self-Concept and Achievement Relations: Age-Cohort and Cross-Cultural Differences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Parker, Philip D.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Möller, Jens; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> (I/E) model and dimensional comparison theory posit paradoxical relations between achievement (ACH) and self-concept (SC) in mathematics (M) and verbal (V) domains; ACH in each domain positively affects SC in the matching domain (e.g., MACH to MSC) but negatively in the nonmatching domain (e.g., MACH to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Brunner&pg=6&id=EJ1049486','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Brunner&pg=6&id=EJ1049486"><span id="translatedtitle">The Longitudinal Interplay of Students' Academic Self-Concepts and Achievements within and across Domains: Replicating and Extending the Reciprocal <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Niepel, Christoph; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Students' cognitive and motivational profiles have a large impact on their academic careers. The development of such profiles can partly be explained by the reciprocal <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (RI/E model). The RI/E model predicts positive and negative longitudinal effects between academic self-concepts and achievements within…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP31A1386O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP31A1386O"><span id="translatedtitle">Fine structure of the 2003 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerk near China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ou, J.; Du, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The 2003 jerk has an abrupt change in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation (SV), and was recognized as a local phenomenon of <span class="hlt">internal</span> origin from the satellite observations (Olsen and Mandea, 2007). Notable strength of the 2003 jerk is located near China. The temporal and spatial features at this area are important to resolve the Earth's core fluid flow dynamics at local scale (e.g. Wardinski et al., 2008). We investigate the temporal-spatial development of the 2003 jerk in more detail near China with the ground-based observations and CHAOS-3 core field model. We select the data in the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> quiet days to calculate the monthly means. In order to reduce the influence of the external field, we adopt a function comprising the terms associated with the indices of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, and the terms of the periodic signals on the observatory monthly means data (Stewart and Whaler, 1992). We then use an empirical AR-2 model to represent the <span class="hlt">internal</span> field signals in the observatory data. The extreme detection is applied to identify the jerk in the SV time series. The onset time and the strength of the 2003 jerk are obtained through the detection for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field component, X, Y and Z. The maximum of the strength of the 2003 jerk is located under the Indian mainland. The onset time of this jerk propagates approximately southeastward. Two jerks in 2001 and 2003 for the Z component are further compared and they are confirmed as independent processes. We suggest the jerk in 2001 identical to the well known 1999 jerk in Europe (Mandea et al., 2000). Our results reveal the fine structures of the 2003 jerk that corroborate the conclusions in previous studies. The larger scale time-spatial structure given by the AR-2 model constructed from ground observatory data (monthly values) is consistent with the results from the CHAOS-3 model. This structure can be applied for further inversion of the local core surface fluid flow motions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3077K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3077K"><span id="translatedtitle">Advantage of wavelet technique to highlight the observed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> perturbations linked to the Chilean tsunami (2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klausner, V.; Mendes, Odim; Domingues, Margarete O.; Papa, Andres R. R.; Tyler, Robert H.; Frick, Peter; Kherani, Esfhan A.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The vertical component (Z) of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field observed by ground-based observatories of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network has been used to analyze the induced magnetic fields produced by the movement of a tsunami, electrically conducting sea water through the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. We focus on the survey of minutely sampled <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations induced by the tsunami of 27 February 2010 at Easter Island (IPM) and Papeete (PPT) observatories. In order to detect the tsunami disturbances in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data, we used wavelet techniques. We have observed an 85% correlation between the Z component variation and the tide gauge measurements in period range of 10 to 30 min which may be due to two physical mechanisms: gravity waves and the electric currents in the sea. As an auxiliary tool to verify the disturbed magnetic fields, we used the maximum variance analysis (MVA). At PPT, the analyses show local magnetic variations associated with the tsunami arriving in advance of sea surface fluctuations by about 2 h. The first interpretation of the results suggests that wavelet techniques and MVA can be effectively used to characterize the tsunami contributions to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and further used to calibrate tsunami models and implemented to real-time analysis for forecast tsunami scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.2691M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.2691M"><span id="translatedtitle">On the local Hurst exponent of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations: Spatial distribution for different <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michelis, Paola De; Consolini, Giuseppe</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study attempts to characterize the spatial distribution of the scaling features of the short time scale magnetic field fluctuations obtained from 45 ground-based <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate the changes of the scaling properties of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations by evaluating the local Hurst exponent and reconstruct maps of this index as a function of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity level. These maps permit us to localize the different latitudinal structures responsible for disturbances and related to the ionospheric current systems. We find that the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations associated with the different ionospheric current systems have different scaling features, which can be evidenced by the local Hurst exponent. We also find that in general, the local Hurst exponent for quiet magnetospheric periods is higher than that for more active periods suggesting that the dynamical processes that are activated during disturbed times are responsible for changes in the nature of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167429"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric redistribution during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>[1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<-100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3-6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000070462','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000070462"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Paleomagnetism I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Voorhies, Coerte V.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A partial description of Earth's broad scale, core-source magnetic field has been developed and tested three ways. The description features an expected, or mean, spatial magnetic power spectrum that is approximately inversely proportional to horizontal wavenumber atop Earth's core. This multipole spectrum describes a magnetic energy range; it is not steep enough for Gubbins' magnetic dissipation range. Temporal variations of core multipole powers about mean values are to be expected and are described statistically, via trial probability distribution functions, instead of deterministically, via trial solution of closed transport equations. The distributions considered here are closed and neither require nor prohibit magnetic isotropy. The description is therefore applicable to, and tested against, both dipole and low degree non-dipole fields. In Part 1, a physical basis for an expectation spectrum is developed and checked. The description is then combined with main field models of twentieth century satellite and surface <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field measurements to make testable predictions of the radius of Earth's core. The predicted core radius is 0.7% above the 3480 km seismological value. Partial descriptions of other planetary dipole fields are noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/150357','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/150357"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> trapped anomalous cosmic rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Selesnick, R.S.; Cummings, A.C.; Cummings, J.R.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Since its launch in July 1992, the polar-orbiting satellite SAMPEX has been collecting data on <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> trapped heavy ions, predominantly O, N, and Ne, at energies {ge}15 MeV/nucleon and in a narrow L shell range L = 2. Their location, elemental composition, energy spectra, pitch angle distribution, and time variations all support the theory that these particles originated as singly ionized interplanetary anomalous cosmic rays that were stripped of electrons in the Earth`s upper atmosphere and subsequently trapped. The O are observed primarily at pitch angles outside the atmospheric loss cones, consistent with a trapped population, and their distribution there is nearly isotropic. The abundances relative to O of the N, possible Ne, and especially C are lower than the corresponding interplanetary values, which may be indicative of the trapping efficiencies. The distributions of trapped N, O, and Ne in energy and L shell suggest that most of the ions observed at the SAMPEX altitude of {approximately}600 km are not fully stripped when initially trapped. A comparison of the trapped intensity with the much lower interplanetary intensity of anomalous cosmic rays provides model-dependent estimates of the product of the trapping probability and the average trapped particle lifetime against ionization losses in the residual atmosphere for particles that mirror near the SAMPEX altitude. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7975466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7975466"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of the problems involved in using enzymes in blood group serology--provision of freeze-dried ICSH/ISBT protease enzyme and anti-D <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards. <span class="hlt">International</span> Council for Standardization in Haematology. <span class="hlt">International</span> Society of Blood Transfusion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scott, M L; Voak, D; Phillips, P K; Hoppe, P A; Kochman, S A</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Proteolytic enzyme preparations and techniques used routinely in blood group serology for the detection of atypical patient antibodies prior to transfusion vary widely and are often poorly standardised. Recent advances have been made in the use of biochemical methods to standardise and stabilise the potency of the enzyme preparations used. A joint working party of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) has investigated possibilities for the provision of standards for the protease preparations and techniques. The specification for these standards was that the performance of enzyme <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> technique should be of equivalent sensitivity to the ICSH/ISBT LISS spin indirect antiglobulin test using a titration series of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> weak anti-D, and be free from false-positive reactions. The working party circulated materials for evaluation in inter-laboratory trials, followed by a laboratory workshop meeting to achieve agreement on the specification for <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and methods. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> freeze-dried papain at 0.6 azoalbumin units and weak anti-D preparations (91/562) have been prepared and validated to meet these specifications. The performance of a test enzyme preparation in the technique for which it is recommended for use should be at least equal to that of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> papain preparation, by the <span class="hlt">reference</span> two-stage technique in terms of sensitivity, using a titration series of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> anti-D, and freedom from false-positive reactions, using six fresh inert sera. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> papain and weak anti-D can also be used to calibrate the level of proteolytic activity required in other procedures in blood group serology, such as new technology methods for antibody detection, and automated and microplate cell grouping procedures. These preparations and an agreed method for their use are now available from listed centres as ICSH/ISBT and Food</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3423434','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3423434"><span id="translatedtitle">Avoiding Pitfalls of <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Controls: Validation of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes for Analysis by qRT-PCR and Western Blot throughout Rat Retinal Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rocha-Martins, Maurício; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Housekeeping genes have been commonly used as <span class="hlt">reference</span> to normalize gene expression and protein content data because of its presumed constitutive expression. In this paper, we challenge the consensual idea that housekeeping genes are reliable controls for expression studies in the retina through the investigation of a panel of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes potentially suitable for analysis of different stages of retinal development. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied statistical tools on combinations of retinal developmental stages to assess the most stable <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The stability of expression of seven putative <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt1, Mapk1, Ppia and Rn18s) was analyzed using geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder software. In addition, several housekeeping genes were tested as loading controls for Western blot in the same sample panel, using Image J. Overall, for qRT-PCR the combination of Gapdh and Mapk1 showed the highest stability for most experimental sets. Actb was downregulated in more mature stages, while Rn18s and Hprt1 showed the highest variability. We normalized the expression of cyclin D1 using various <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and demonstrated that spurious results may result from blind selection of <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls. For Western blot significant variation could be seen among four putative <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls (β-actin, cyclophilin b, α-tubulin and lamin A/C), while MAPK1 was stably expressed. Conclusion Putative housekeeping genes exhibit significant variation in both mRNA and protein content during retinal development. Our results showed that distinct combinations of <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls fit for each experimental set in the case of qRT-PCR and that MAPK1 is a reliable loading control for Western blot. The results indicate that biased study outcomes may follow the use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes without prior validation for qRT-PCR and Western blot. PMID:22916200</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP51A1309P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP51A1309P"><span id="translatedtitle">Bats Use <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field: Behavior and Mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Y.; Tian, L.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It has been known that numerous animals can use the Earth's magnetic field for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation, nevertheless, how animals can respond to the magnetic field remain mostly ambiguous. The intensities of the global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field varies between 23 and 66 μT, and the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity could drop to 10% during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> polarity reversals or <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions. Such dramatic changes of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field may pose a significant challenge for the evolution of magnetic compass in animals. For examples, it is vital whether the magnetic compass can still work in such very weak magnetic fields. Our previous experiment has demonstrated that a migratory bat (Nyctalus plancyi) uses a polarity compass for orientation during roosting when exposed to an artificial magnetic field (100 μT). Recently, we experimentally tested whether the N. plancyi can sense very weak magnetic fields that were even lower than those of the present-day <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. Results showed: 1) the bats can sense the magnetic north in a field strength of present-day local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field (51μT); 2) As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (10 μT), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. Notably, as the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field with intensity range from twice to 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This allows them to orient themselves across the entire range of present-day global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field strengths and sense very weak magnetic fields. We propose that this high sensitivity might have evolved in bats as the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years since the origin of bats. The physiological mechanisms underlying</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Natur.289..478G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Natur.289..478G"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> archaeomagnitudes from clay pipes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Games, K. P.; Baker, M. E.</p> <p>1981-02-01</p> <p>Archaeomagnitude determinations of a selection of clay pipes dateable to AD 1645+/-10 as well as studies of pottery samples from the same site and of the same age have been made. Values of the magnitude of the ancient magnetic field (Banc), were obtained from two pottery sherds, two pipe bowls and three pipe stems. The values from the sherds and bowls agree within 2% and compare well with the average value of the magnitude of the magnetic field for the seventeenth century as determined by other archaeomagnetic studies. However, the pipe stems give values of Banc which are significantly less than those from the bowls and pottery. We have not yet been able to explain this and thus we suggest that reliable archaeomagnitude determinations can be made from the bowls of clay pipes but not from the stems. Nevertheless, this result provides a new source of material for investigating variations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field strength over the past 400 yr. Clay pipes have been manufactured in England since the end of the sixteenth century. In the firing process some pipes were broken and disposed of without ever having been smoked. One such collection, discovered at Rainford, Lancashire, in 1978, consisted of a series of discrete dumps including pipes, kiln debris and a small collection of contemporary used earthenware sherds. The <span class="hlt">internal</span> consideration of the dumps suggested a very short period of activity and archaeologists (P. Davey, personal communication) ascribe all the material to the period 1645+/-10 yr. With such well-dated material, we set out to check whether or not reliable archaeomagnitudes could be obtained from the pipes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770007709','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770007709"><span id="translatedtitle">The causes of recurrent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The causes of recurrent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity were studied by analyzing interplanetary magnetic field and plasma data from earth-orbiting spacecraft in the interval from November 1973 to February 1974. This interval included the start of two long sequences of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and two corresponding corotating interplanetary streams. In general, the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity was related to an electric field which was due to two factors: (1) the ordered, mesoscale pattern of the stream itself, and (2) random, smaller-scale fluctuations in the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field Bz. The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity in each recurrent sequence consisted of two successive stages. The first stage was usually the most intense, and it occurred during the passage of the interaction region at the front of a stream. These large amplitudes of Bz were primarily produced in the interplanetary medium by compression of ambient fluctuations as the stream steepened in transit to 1 A.U. The second stage of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity immediately following the first was associated with the highest speeds in the stream.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2879B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2879B"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutral thermosphere modelling using sectorial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bezdek, A.; Biancale, R.; Bruinsma, S.; Lathuillere, C.; Menvielle, M.; Valette, J. J.</p> <p></p> <p>Since the 1970 s semi-empirical models of neutral thermospheric density are stuck at a 10--20 precision limit with respect to observations One of the reasons for this is the use of planetary <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices i e one value for the whole Earth at a given UT However it is well known that the atmospheric variability related to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity at thermospheric heights is a function while not well known of geographical location cf different physical regimes governing the polar ionosphere In our tests we made use of the so-called a lambda longitude sector <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index that depends on both the geodetic latitude and longitude the DTM-2000 model of the neutral thermospheric density and the observed densities derived from the accelerometer measurements aboard the CHAMP satellite Using the sectorial index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity instead of the planetary one improves the agreement of the modelled and observed densities especially during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms The DTM-2000 algorithm was modified to accommodate these indices which in fact represents the first step of its upcoming complete revision in order to benefit most from the assimilation of the CHAMP and GRACE density data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+Clinic&pg=6&id=EJ911006','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+Clinic&pg=6&id=EJ911006"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Internal</span> Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic <span class="hlt">Referred</span> Youths Age 11 to 17 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we examined the <span class="hlt">internal</span> consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high <span class="hlt">internal</span> consistency estimates were observed across…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497462','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497462"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric redistribution during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>[1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<−100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3–6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow. PMID:26167429</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.4061F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.4061F"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric Balloon Gradient <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Filippov, Sergey; Tsvetkov, Yury</p> <p></p> <p>The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth's crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). One of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN during already about 20 years. This system consists of three instrumental con-tainers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field along the whole flight trajectory and so one's name is -stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Data trans-mission is carried out by Globalstar satellite link. The obtained data are used in solving the problems of deep sounding of the Earth's crust magnetic structure -an extraction of magnetic anomalies, determination of a depth of bedding of magnetoactive rocks and others. The developed launching technology, deployment in flight, assembly, data processing, transfer and landing the containers with the equipment can be used for other similar problems of monitoring and sounding an environment. Useful flight weights of each instrumental container may be reaching 50 kg. More than ten testing flights (1986-2009) at stratospheric altitudes (20-30 km) have proven the reliability of this system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740004984','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740004984"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetospheric mapping with quantitative <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fairfield, D. H.; Mead, G. D.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The Mead-Fairfield <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models were used to trace field lines between the outer magnetosphere and the earth's surface. The results are presented in terms of ground latitude and local time contours projected to the equatorial plane and into the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail. With these contours various observations can be mapped along field lines between high and low altitudes. Low altitudes observations of the polar cap boundary, the polar cusp, the energetic electron trapping boundary and the sunward convection region are projected to the equatorial plane and compared with the results of the model and with each other. The results provide quantitative support to the earlier suggestions that the trapping boundary is associated with the last closed field line in the sunward hemisphere, the polar cusp is associated with the region of the last closed field line, and the polar cap projects to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail and has a low latitude boundary corresponding to the last closed field line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM14A..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM14A..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying Power Grid Risk from <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Homeier, N.; Wei, L. H.; Gannon, J. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We are creating a statistical model of the geophysical environment that can be used to quantify the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm hazard to power grid infrastructure. Our model is developed using a database of surface electric fields for the continental United States during a set of historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. These electric fields are derived from the SUPERMAG compilation of worldwide magnetometer data and surface impedances from the United States Geological Survey. This electric field data can be combined with a power grid model to determine GICs per node and reactive MVARs at each minute during a storm. Using publicly available substation locations, we derive relative risk maps by location by combining magnetic latitude and ground conductivity. We also estimate the surface electric fields during the August 1972 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm that caused a telephone cable outage across the middle of the United States. This event produced the largest surface electric fields in the continental U.S. in at least the past 40 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019868','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019868"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling laws from <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> time series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Voros, Z.; Kovacs, P.; Juhasz, A.; Kormendi, A.; Green, A.W.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The notion of extended self-similarity (ESS) is applied here for the X - component time series of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations. Plotting nth order structure functions against the fourth order structure function we show that low-frequency <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fluctuations up to the order n = 10 follow the same scaling laws as MHD fluctuations in solar wind, however, for higher frequencies (f > l/5[h]) a clear departure from the expected universality is observed for n > 6. ESS does not allow to make an unambiguous statement about the non triviality of scaling laws in "<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span>" turbulence. However, we suggest to use higher order moments as promising diagnostic tools for mapping the contributions of various remote magnetospheric sources to local observatory data. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015664','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015664"><span id="translatedtitle">An introduction to quiet daily <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Campbell, W.H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950058567&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950058567&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span id="translatedtitle">The causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms during solar maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>One of the oldest mysteries in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is the linkage between solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. In investigating the causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms occurring during solar maximum, the following topics are discussed: solar phenomena; types of solar wind; magnetic reconnection and magnetic storms; an interplanetary example; and future space physics missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4088A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4088A"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamo simulations: tools to understand and forecast the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubert, Julien</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The past two decades have seen an extensive development of numerical geodynamo simulations as tools to understand the mechanisms through which the magnetic field of <span class="hlt">internal</span> origin of our planet is generated. Though these are still run at parameter regimes far from that of the Earth's core, the similarity of their output with the various observables of the field, secular variation, and underlying core flows has strengthened the prospect to use these simulations as analysis and forecasting tools for the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field evolution. In this presentation, I will report on recent progress in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation, an emerging discipline which blends together the high-quality satellite data such as these obtained by the Swarm mission, and state-of-the art numerical geodynamo simulation with an Earth-like output. The outcome of data assimilation is an estimate of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> geodynamo structure, which sheds light into the mechanisms currently responsible for the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dipole decay and the extension of the South Atlantic <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly. Starting from such estimates obtained at present, ensemble-based techniques akin to those used in meteorology can help to estimate how the present field will evolve in the future. For the next century, our operational forecasts predict a further dipole decay of about 1 microtesla at Earth's surface, together with a similar deepening and a westward motion of the South Atlantic anomaly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9626C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9626C"><span id="translatedtitle">Tsunami related to solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between earthquakes of high intensity capable of generating tsunami and variations of solar and Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in the hours that preceded the four earthquakes of high intensity that have generated tsunamis: 1) Japan M9 earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 at 05:46 UTC; 2) Japan M7.1 earthquake occurred on October 25, 2013 at 17:10 UTC; 3) Chile M8.2 earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014 at 23:46 UTC; 4) Chile M8.3 earthquake occurred on September 16, 2015 at 22:54 UTC. The data relating to the four earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> activity data were provided by Tromsø <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark and by Space Weather Prediction Center of Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007249','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007249"><span id="translatedtitle">Large <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms: Introduction to Special Section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, N.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Solar cycle 23 witnessed the accumulation of rich data sets that reveal various aspects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms in unprecedented detail both at the Sun where the storm causing disturbances originate and in geospace where the effects of the storms are directly felt. During two recent coordinated data analysis workshops (CDAWs) the large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms (Dst < or = -100 nT) of solar cycle 23 were studied in order to understand their solar, interplanetary, and geospace connections. This special section grew out of these CDAWs with additional contributions relevant to these storms. Here I provide a brief summary of the results presented in the special section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019381&hterms=Sputnik&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSputnik','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019381&hterms=Sputnik&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSputnik"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite Data for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.; Baldwin, R. T.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Satellite measurements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May of 1958 and have continued sporadically. Spacecraft making significant contributions to main field <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> will be reviewed and the characteristics of their data discussed, including coverage, accuracy, resolution and data availability. Of particular interest are Vanguard 3; Cosmos 49, Ogo's -2, -4, and -6; Magsat; DE-2; and POGS. Spacecraft make measurements on a moving platfrom above the ionosphere as opposed to measurements from fixed observatories and surveys, both below the ionosphere. Possible future missions, such as Aristoteles and GOS are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992NASCP3153...75L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992NASCP3153...75L"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite data for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.; Baldwin, R. T.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>Satellite measurements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May of 1958 and have continued sporadically. Spacecraft making significant contributions to main field <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> will be reviewed and the characteristics of their data discussed, including coverage, accuracy, resolution and data availability. Of particular interest are Vanguard 3; Cosmos 49, Ogo's -2, -4, and -6; Magsat; DE-2; and POGS. Spacecraft make measurements on a moving platfrom above the ionosphere as opposed to measurements from fixed observatories and surveys, both below the ionosphere. Possible future missions, such as Aristoteles and GOS are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/433919','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/433919"><span id="translatedtitle">Anencephalus, drinking water, <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> and cosmic radiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Archer, V E</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The mortality rates from anencephalus from 1950-1969 in Canadian cities are shown to be strongly correlated with city growth rate and with horizontal <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> flux, which is directly related to the intensity of cosmic radiation. They are also shown to have some association with the magnesium content of drinking water. Prior work with these data which showed associations with magnesium in drinking water, mean income, latitude and longitude was found to be inadequate because it dismissed the observed geographic associations as having little biological meaning, and because the important variables of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> and city growth rate were overlooked.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.782H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.782H"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> Quiet Time Disturbances of the Ionosphere over Uganda during the Beginning of Solar Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Habyarimana, Valence</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The ionosphere is prone to significant disturbances during <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> active and quiet conditions. This study focused on the occurrence of ionospheric disturbances during <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet conditions. Ionospheric data comprised of Global Positioning System (GPS)-derived Total Electron Content (TEC), obtained over Mt. Baker, Entebbe, and Mbarara <span class="hlt">International</span> Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Service (IGS) stations. The Disturbance storm time (Dst) index was obtained from Kyoto University website. The number of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet days in the period under study were first identified. Their monthly percentages were compared for the two years. The monthly percentage of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet days for all the months in 2009 numerically exceeded those in 2008. December had the highest percentage of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet days for both years (94 % in 2008 and 100 % in 2009). <span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> quiet days did not show seasonal dependence. The variation in percentage of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet days during solstice months (May, June, July, November, December, and January) and equinoctial months (February, March, April, August, September, and October) was not uniform. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> quiet time disturbances were found to be more significant from 09:00 UT to 13:00 UT. However, there were some other disturbances of small scale amplitude that occurred between 14:00 UT and 22:00 UT. Further analysis was done to identify the satellites that observed the irregularities that were responsible for TEC perturbations. Satellites are identified by Pseudo Random Numbers (PRNs). The ray path between individual PRNs and the corresponding receivers were analysed. Satellites with PRNs: 3, 7, 8, 19 and 21 registered most of the perturbations. It was found that Q disturbances led to fluctuations in density gradients. Significant TEC perturbations were observed on satellite with PRN 21 with receivers at Entebbe and Mbarara on June 28, 2009 between 18:00 UT and 21:00 UT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1770687','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1770687"><span id="translatedtitle">European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation. A multicentre calibration study of WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations for thromboplastin, rabbit (RBT/90) and human (rTF/95)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Poller, L; Keown, M; Chauhan, N; van den Besselaar, A M H P; Tripodi, A; Shiach, C; Jespersen, J</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A 10 centre calibration was performed after six years to determine the <span class="hlt">international</span> sensitivity index (ISI) of rTF/95 relative to RBT/90, and to assess any <span class="hlt">international</span> normalised ratio (INR) bias compared with the original multicentre calibration. After exclusion of one outlying centre, the follow up calibration gave a mean ISI for rTF/95 of 0.99, which although a small difference, is significantly greater than the mean ISI of 0.94 obtained previously. The change in ISI for <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation (IRP) rTF/95 relative to RBT/90 would lead to a slight bias in INR for human compared with rabbit thromboplastins. At a theoretical INR of 3.0, the INR bias is 6.0%, and this is below the accepted 10% level of clinical relevance. Ongoing stability monitoring of World Health Organisation thromboplastin IRP is advised. PMID:15917425</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26830160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26830160"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation batch 5 and the USP <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study was organised jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM/Council of Europe) for the establishment of harmonised replacement endotoxin standards for these 3 organisations. Thirty-five laboratories worldwide, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers enrolled in the study. Three candidate preparations (10/178, 10/190 and 10/196) were produced with the same material and same formulation as the current <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards with the objective of generating a new (3(rd)) <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard (IS) with the same potency (10 000 IU/vial) as the current (2(nd)) IS, as well as new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). and USP standards. The suitability of the candidate preparations to act as the <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard in assays for endotoxin performed according to compendial methods was evaluated. Their potency was calibrated against the WHO 2(nd) IS for Endotoxin (94/580). Gelation and photometric methods produced similar results for each of the candidate preparations. The overall potency estimates for the 3 batches were comparable. Given the intrinsic assay precision, the observed differences between the batches may be considered unimportant for the intended use of these materials. Overall, these results were in line with those generated for the establishment of the current preparations of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards. Accelerated degradation testing of vials stored at elevated temperatures supported the long-term stability of the 3 candidate preparations. It was agreed between the 3 organisations that batch 10/178 be shared between WHO and EDQM and that batches 10/190 and 10/196 be allocated to USP, with a common assigned value of 10 000 IU/vial. This value maintains the continuity of the global harmonisation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..102K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..102K"><span id="translatedtitle">Planetary distribution of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations during a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm at solar minimum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the features of the planetary distribution of wave phenomena (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations) in the Earth's magnetic shell (the magnetosphere) during a strong <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm on December 14-15, 2006, which is untypical of the minimum phase of solar activity. The storm was caused by the approach of the interplanetary magnetic cloud towards the Earth's magnetosphere. The study is based on the analysis of 1-min data of global digital <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations at a few latitudinal profiles of the global network of ground-based magnetic stations. The analysis is focused on the Pc5 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations, whose frequencies fall in the band of 1.5-7 mHz ( T ˜ 2-10 min), on the fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and in the solar wind density in this frequency band. It is shown that during the initial phase of the storm with positive IMF Bz, most intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations were recorded in the dayside polar regions. It was supposed that these pulsations could probably be caused by the injection of the fluctuating streams of solar wind into the Earth's ionosphere in the dayside polar cusp region. The fluctuations arising in the ionospheric electric currents due to this process are recorded as the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations by the ground-based magnetometers. Under negative IMF Bz, substorms develop in the nightside magnetosphere, and the enhancement of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations was observed in this latitudinal region on the Earth's surface. The generation of these pulsations is probably caused by the fluctuations in the field-aligned magnetospheric electric currents flowing along the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field lines from the substorm source region. These <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations are not related to the fluctuations in the interplanetary medium. During the main phase of the magnetic storm, when fluctuations in the interplanetary medium are almost absent, the most intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations were observed in the dawn sector in the region corresponding to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059027&hterms=current+sheet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcurrent%2Bsheet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059027&hterms=current+sheet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcurrent%2Bsheet"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of possible <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> feedback from energetic (0.1 to 16 keV) terrestrial O(+) ions in the magnetotail current sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lennartsson, O. W.; Klumpar, D. M.; Shelley, E. G.; Quinn, J. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Data from energetic ion mass spectrometers on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Sun Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE 1) and AMPTE/CCE spacecraft are combined with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and solar indices to investigate, in a statistical fashion, whether energized O(+) ions of terrestrial origin constitute a source of feedback which triggers or amplifies <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> magnetotail current sheet. The ISSE 1 data (0.1-16 keV/e) provide in situ observations of the O(+) solar cycle 21, as well as inner magnetosphere data from same period. The CCE data (0.1-17 keV/e), taken during the subsequent solar minimum, all within 9 R(sub E), provide a <span class="hlt">reference</span> for long-term variations in the magnetosphere O(+) content. Statistical correlations between the ion data and the indices, and between different indices, all point in the same direction: there is probably no feedback specific to the O(+) ions, in spite of the fact that they often contribute most of the ion mass density in the tail current sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541929"><span id="translatedtitle">Space radiation enhancement linked to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tomita, F; Den, M; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Nagaoka, T; Kato, M</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made on board the Space Shuttle. A newly developed active detector called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)" was used (Doke et al., 1995; Hayashi et al., 1995). The RRMD results indicate that low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particles steadily penetrate around the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) without clear enhancement of dose equivalent and some daily periodic enhancements of dose equivalent due to high LET particles are seen at the lower <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff regions (Doke et al., 1996). We also have been analyzing the space weather during the experiment, and found that the anomalous high-energy particle enhancement was linked to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance due to the high speed solar wind from a coronal hole. Additional analysis and other experiments are necessary for clarification of these phenomena. If a penetration of high-energy particles into the low altitude occurs by common <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances, the prediction of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity becomes more important in the next Space Station's era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770016723','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770016723"><span id="translatedtitle">On the causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Svalgaard, L.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity are studied both theoretically in terms of the reconnection model and empirically using the am-index and interplanetary solar wind parameters. It is found that two separate mechanisms supply energy to the magnetosphere. One mechanism depends critically on the magnitude and direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. Both depend strongly on solar wind speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70006358','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70006358"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing in the arctic environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Podjono, Benny; Beck, Nathan; Buchanan, Andrew; Brink, Jason; Longo, Joseph; Finn, Carol A.; Worthington, E. William</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to north-seeking gyroscopic surveys to achieve the precise wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs. However, the greater magnitude of variations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> environment at higher latitudes makes the application of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise, real-time data on those variations from relatively nearby magnetic observatories can be crucial to achieving the required accuracy, but constructing and operating an observatory in these often harsh environments poses a number of significant challenges. Operational since March 2010, the Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located in Deadhorse, Alaska, was created through collaboration between the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and a leading oilfield services supply company. DED was designed to produce real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data at the required level of accuracy, and to do so reliably under the extreme temperatures and harsh weather conditions often experienced in the area. The observatory will serve a number of key scientific communities as well as the oilfield drilling industry, and has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate data while offering significant cost and time savings, compared with traditional surveying techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035431','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035431"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing in the arctic environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poedjono, B.; Beck, N.; Buchanan, A. C.; Brink, J.; Longo, J.; Finn, C.A.; Worthington, E.W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to north-seeking gyroscopic surveys to achieve the precise wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs. However, the greater magnitude of variations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> environment at higher latitudes makes the application of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise, real-time data on those variations from relatively nearby magnetic observatories can be crucial to achieving the required accuracy, but constructing and operating an observatory in these often harsh environments poses a number of significant challenges. Operational since March 2010, the Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located in Deadhorse, Alaska, was created through collaboration between the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and a leading oilfield services supply company. DED was designed to produce real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data at the required level of accuracy, and to do so reliably under the extreme temperatures and harsh weather conditions often experienced in the area. The observatory will serve a number of key scientific communities as well as the oilfield drilling industry, and has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate data while offering significant cost and time savings, compared with traditional surveying techniques. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GSL.....3....5L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GSL.....3....5L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms: historical perspective to modern view</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The history of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is more than 400 years old. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms as we know them were discovered about 210 years ago. There has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs, and concomitant magnetic storms in recent times. Magnetic storms are the most important component of space weather effects on Earth. We give an overview of the historical aspects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the progress made during the past two centuries. Super magnetic storms can cause life-threatening power outages and satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. The data for such super magnetic storms that occurred in the last 50 years during the space era is sparce. Research on historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms can help to create a database for intense and super magnetic storms. New knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of magnetic storms gained from spaceage observations will be used to review the super magnetic storm of September 1-2, 1859. We discuss the occurrence probability of such super magnetic storms, and the maximum possible intensity for the effects of a perfect ICME: extreme super magnetic storm, extreme magnetospheric compression, and extreme magnetospheric electric fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - <span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment toxicity discharge... of this appendix. Drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio = 4-day LC5. of C16-C18 <span class="hlt">internal</span> olefin... determined by ASTM E1367-92 and supplemented with the sediment preparation procedure (Appendix 3 of subpart...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol30-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol30-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - <span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment toxicity discharge... of this appendix. Drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio = 4-day LC5. of C16-C18 <span class="hlt">internal</span> olefin... determined by ASTM E1367-92 and supplemented with the sediment preparation procedure (appendix 3 of subpart...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8464P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8464P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions and reversals. To date, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions have been identified by virtual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5015641','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5015641"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and <span class="hlt">international</span> Global Lung Function Initiative <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for spirometry in the Finnish general population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and <span class="hlt">international</span> Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new <span class="hlt">reference</span> values with older, currently used Finnish <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 <span class="hlt">reference</span> values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 <span class="hlt">reference</span> values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 <span class="hlt">reference</span> values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry <span class="hlt">reference</span> values. PMID:27608270</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015817','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015817"><span id="translatedtitle">What do we mean by accuracy in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, A.W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>High accuracy is what distinguishes measurements made at the world's magnetic observatories from other types of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements. High accuracy in determining the absolute values of the components of the Earth's magnetic field is essential to studying <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation and processes at the core mantle boundary, as well as some magnetospheric processes. In some applications of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data, precision (or resolution) of measurements may also be important. In addition to accuracy and resolution in the amplitude domain, it is necessary to consider these same quantities in the frequency and space domains. New developments in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> instruments and communications make real-time, high accuracy, global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory data sets a real possibility. There is a growing realization in the scientific community of the unique relevance of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory data to the principal contemporary problems in solid Earth and space physics. Together, these factors provide the promise of a 'renaissance' of the world's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory system. ?? 1990.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080007187','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080007187"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric E-Region Response to Solar-<span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms Observed by TIMED/SABER and Application to IRI Storm-Model Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mertens, Christopher J.; Mast, Jeffrey C.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Evans, David S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The large thermospheric infrared radiance enhancements observed from the TIMED/SABER experiment during recent solar storms provide an exciting opportunity to study the influence of solar-<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. In particular, nighttime enhancements of 4.3 um emission, due to vibrational excitation and radiative emission by NO+, provide an excellent proxy to study and analyze the response of the ionospheric E-region to auroral electron dosing and storm-time enhancements to the E-region electron density. In this paper we give a status report of on-going work on model and data analysis methodologies of deriving NO+ 4.3 um volume emission rates, a proxy for the storm-time E-region response, and the approach for deriving an empirical storm-time correction to <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) E-region NO+ and electron densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014204','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014204"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerk of 1969 and the DGRFs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thompson, D.; Cain, J.C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Cubic spline fits to the DGRF/IGRF series indicate agreement with other analyses showing the 1969-1970 magnetic jerk in the h ??12 and g ??02 secular change coefficients, and agreement that the h ??11 term showed no sharp change. The variation of the g ??01 term is out of phase with other analyses indicating a likely error in its representation in the 1965-1975 interval. We recommend that future derivations of the 'definitive' <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> models take into consideration the times of impulses or jerks so as to not be bound to a standard 5 year interval, and otherwise to make more considered analyses before adopting sets of coefficients. ?? 1987.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21A0983L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21A0983L"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity trend and singularity with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data at Cheongyang Magnetic Observatory, Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Y.; Jeon, Y.; Ryoo, S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) has installed and operated the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory at Cheongyang-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea which started in April, 2009. As Cheongyang <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory, it has been automatically observing total-, X-, Y- and Z-component data at 1-sec interval and storing in real-time. The National Institute of Meteorological Research, which belongs to KMA, proceeded with their work on the production of K-index that is used for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity observation. In addition, we detect the starting and ending of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm as typical thing of global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field change and utilize it for showing current status of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurrence. It has been reported that <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurred seven times during from April, 2010 to July, 2011. It was 5 of the maximum K-index value during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurrence period and thought mostly to have been caused by coronal hole and CME(Coronal Mass Ejection). Yet the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm has not been had much of an impact locally. At Cheongyang Observatory, a significantly disturbed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data was seen as related to the Tohoku, Japan Earthquake, Mw 9.0, on March 11, 2011. Compared to seismic wave data at Seosan seismic observatory 60km away from Cheongyang <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory, we identified the signal involved to the Tohoku, Japan Earthquake. The power spectral density of the disturbed signal has the dominant frequency band of about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz. We should proceed additional study about this in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..206..281F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..206..281F"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Friis-Christensen, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Hesse, M.; Laundal, K. M.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> main field. Observations from the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine the distribution of scalar measurements of the magnetic field intensity minus predictions from a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model. These `residuals' fall into two main categories. One category is consistently distributed according to the well-known ionospheric plasma convection and its associated Birkeland currents. The other category represent contributions caused by <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currents in the substorm current wedge in the northern polar region for By > 0 and correspondingly in the southern hemisphere for By < 0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=128574','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=128574"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity over a wide range of time scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pelletier, Jon D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The majority of numerical models in climatology and <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with <span class="hlt">internal</span> fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions. PMID:11875208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp....4F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp....4F"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Friis-Christensen, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Hesse, M.; Laundal, K. M.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> main field. Observations from the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine the distribution of scalar measurements of the magnetic field intensity minus predictions from a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model. These `residuals' fall into two main categories. One category is consistently distributed according to the well-known ionospheric plasma convection and its associated Birkeland currents. The other category represent contributions caused by <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currents in the substorm current wedge in the northern polar region for By > 0 and correspondingly in the southern hemisphere for By < 0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.1708N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.1708N"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> and Environmental Symptoms in the Area of Athens During the Solar Cycle No 22</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nastos, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.; Korbakis, G. K.; Tritakis, V. P.; Bergiannaki, A.; Psarros, K.; Paparrigopoulos, P.; Stafanis, K.</p> <p></p> <p>The goal of this research is to confirm possible influences of environmental and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variability in psychiatric hygiene of sensitive and heavily psychological patients. Three yearly samples of psychological patients consisted by four thousand cases (4000) each have been studied. The patients have been filed by the psychiatric clinic of the Eginition hospital in Athens where the three samples have been compiled during three very characteristic years of the No 22 11-year cycle, the maximum (1989), the minimum (1996) and one intermediate year of the descending branch (1994). A file with five to eight psychological symptoms like depression, sleep disturbance anxiety, aggressiveness etc. is attached to every patient. Each of these symptoms is correlated to the local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index (k-index), the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index (Dst) and the environmental index (DI, Discomfort Index) in both daily and monthly basis. A clear seasonal variation in almost all symptoms and samples is present with maximum at the end of summer (August/September) and minimum at the end of winter (February-March). In addition very significant correlations among DI, Dst and some psychological symptoms appear. The main conclusion is that meteorological and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> factors play a significant role in the formation of sensitive psychological patients, behavior</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875208"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity over a wide range of time scales.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pelletier, Jon D</p> <p>2002-02-19</p> <p>The majority of numerical models in climatology and <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with <span class="hlt">internal</span> fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGeod..82..883J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGeod..82..883J"><span id="translatedtitle">GPS observations of the ionospheric F2-layer behavior during the 20th November 2003 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm over South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Shuanggen; Luo, O. F.; Park, P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The ionospheric F2-layer peak density (NmF2) and its height (hmF2) are of great influence on the shape of the ionospheric electron density profile Ne (h) and may be indicative of other physical processes within the ionosphere, especially those due to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. Such parameters are often estimated using models such as the semiempirical <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere (IRI) models or are measured using moderately priced to expensive instrumentation, such as ionosondes or incoherent scatter radars. Global positioning system (GPS) observations have become a powerful tool for mapping high-resolution ionospheric structures, which can be used to study the ionospheric response to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. In this paper, we describe how 3-D ionospheric electron density profiles were produced from data of the dense permanent Korean GPS network using the tomography reconstruction technique. These profiles are verified by independent ionosonde data. The responses of GPS-derived parameters at the ionospheric F2-layer to the 20th November 2003 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm over South Korea are investigated. A fairly large increase in the electron density at the F2-layer peak (the NmF2) (positive storm) has been observed during this storm, which is accompanied by a significant uplift in the height of the F2 layer peak (the hmF2). This is confirmed by independent ionosonde observations. We suggest that the F2-layer peak height uplift and NmF2 increase are mainly associated with a strong eastward electric field, and are not associated with the increase of the O/N2 ratio obtained from the GUVI instruments aboard the TIMED satellite. It is also inferred that the increase in NmF2 is not caused by the changes in neutral composition, but is related to other nonchemical effects, such as dynamical changes of vertical ion motions induced by winds and E × B drifts, tides and waves in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region, which can be dynamically coupled upward to generate ionospheric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005501"><span id="translatedtitle">Docking Offset Between the Space Shuttle and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station and Resulting Impacts to the Transfer of Attitude <span class="hlt">Reference</span> and Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Helms, W. Jason; Pohlkamp, Kara M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Space Shuttle does not dock at an exact 90 degrees to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) x-body axis. This offset from 90 degrees, along with error sources within their respective attitude knowledge, causes the two vehicles to never completely agree on their attitude, even though they operate as a single, mated stack while docked. The docking offset can be measured in flight when both vehicles have good attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> and is a critical component in calculations to transfer attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> from one vehicle to another. This paper will describe how the docking offset and attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> errors between both vehicles are measured and how this information would be used to recover Shuttle attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> from ISS in the event of multiple failures. During STS-117, ISS on-board Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) computers began having problems and after several continuous restarts, the systems failed. The failure took the ability for ISS to maintain attitude knowledge. This paper will also demonstrate how with knowledge of the docking offset, the contingency procedure to recover Shuttle attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> from ISS was reversed in order to provide ISS an attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> from Shuttle. Finally, this paper will show how knowledge of the docking offset can be used to speed up attitude control handovers from Shuttle to ISS momentum management. By taking into account the docking offset, Shuttle can be commanded to hold a more precise attitude which better agrees with the ISS commanded attitude such that start up transients with the ISS momentum management controllers are reduced. By reducing start-up transients, attitude control can be transferred from Shuttle to ISS without the use of ISS thrusters saving precious on-board propellant, crew time and minimizing loads placed upon the mated stack.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010020269','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010020269"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of Ring Current Dynamics During <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jordanova, Vania K.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This research program considered modeling the dynamical evolution of the ring current during several <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. The first year (6/01/1997-5/31/1998) of this successful collaborative research between the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) was supported by NASA grant NAG5-4680. The second and third years (6/01/1998-5/31/2000) were funded at UNH under NASA grant NAG5-7368. Research work at UNH concentrated on further development of a kinetic model to treat all of the important physical processes that affect the ring current ion population during storm conditions. This model was applied to simulate ring current development during several <span class="hlt">International</span> Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) events, and the results were directly compared to satellite observations. A brief description of our major accomplishments and a list of the publications and presentations resulting from this effort are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2818R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2818R"><span id="translatedtitle">Interrelation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and earthquakes: Insight from lab experiments and field observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruzhin, Yuri; Kamogawa, Masashi; Novikov, Victor</p> <p></p> <p> statistical approach for the problem of ionosphere-lithosphere coupling, and in each case the possible behavior of fluids should be considered under electromagnetic impact on lithosphere. Experimental results supporting this idea are obtained at the spring-block model simulating the seismic cycle (slow accumulation and sharp drop of stresses in the fault gauge), as well as from field observations of water level variations in the well during ionospheric disturbances are presented and discussed. In the lab experiments it was shown that the earthquake may be triggered by very small fluid content injected into the simulated fault (<0.1 % mass of fault gauge). In the field observations it was found that water level in the well rises during sunrise, when ionosphere is excited by solar radiation, and drops during sunset (relaxation process in ionosphere). Moreover, it was shown that the water level in well correlates with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field perturbations during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. A simplified model describing interaction of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations with fluid behavior near the seismogenic fault is presented. <span class="hlt">References</span>: 1. Duma G., Ruzhin Yu. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Sq-variations // Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 3, 2003, p.p.171-177. 2. Novikov V.A. Water imbalance in the geological fault as a possible earthquake trigger // AGU 2012 Fall Meeting, Dec. 3-8, San Francisco, USA, Abstract GC42B-08.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26703728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26703728"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation and Characterization of Six Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxins as <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material to Serve in an <span class="hlt">International</span> Proficiency Test.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weisemann, Jasmin; Krez, Nadja; Fiebig, Uwe; Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Endermann, Tanja; Dorner, Martin B; Bergström, Tomas; Muñoz, Amalia; Zegers, Ingrid; Müller, Christian; Jenkinson, Stephen P; Avondet, Marc-Andre; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Denayer, Sarah; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Åstot, Crister; Dorner, Brigitte G; Rummel, Andreas</p> <p>2015-11-26</p> <p>The detection and identification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is complex due to the existence of seven serotypes, derived mosaic toxins and more than 40 subtypes. Expert laboratories currently use different technical approaches to detect, identify and quantify BoNT, but due to the lack of (certified) <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, analytical results can hardly be compared. In this study, the six BoNT/A1-F1 prototypes were successfully produced by recombinant techniques, facilitating handling, as well as improving purity, yield, reproducibility and biosafety. All six BoNTs were quantitatively nicked into active di-chain toxins linked by a disulfide bridge. The materials were thoroughly characterized with respect to purity, identity, protein concentration, catalytic and biological activities. For BoNT/A₁, B₁ and E₁, serotypes pathogenic to humans, the catalytic activity and the precise protein concentration were determined by Endopep-mass spectrometry and validated amino acid analysis, respectively. In addition, BoNT/A₁, B₁, E₁ and F₁ were successfully detected by immunological assays, unambiguously identified by mass spectrometric-based methods, and their specific activities were assigned by the mouse LD50 bioassay. The potencies of all six BoNT/A1-F1 were quantified by the ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, allowing a direct comparison. In conclusion, highly pure recombinant BoNT <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials were produced, thoroughly characterized and employed as spiking material in a worldwide BoNT proficiency test organized by the EQuATox consortium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7228S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7228S"><span id="translatedtitle">On the local operational <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index K calculation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stankov, Stan; Stegen, Koen; Wautelet, Gilles; Warnant, Rene</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>There is an ongoing demand for services that can provide real-time assessment of the (global and local) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and identified as being of importance to the exploration geophysics, radio communications and precise position/navigation practices, space weather research and modelling, etc. Such services depend largely on the reduction of solar, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and ionospheric observations to generate activity indices, one of the most widely used being the K index. The K index is a quasi-logarithmic index characterising the 3-hourly range in transient magnetic activity relative to the regular "quiet-day" activity for a single site location. A derivative "planetary" index (Kp), the mean standardized K index from several globally distributed stations, provides a convenient measure of the global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. Computer-based derivation of K/Kp indices was a major step towards higher efficiency and lower costs. Nowadays, automated data acquisition, processing and generating the index in real time is mandatory for any reliable service. However, Kp may not be accurate enough when monitoring disturbances of smaller scale, so the local K index (derived from the nearest magnetic station/s) might be considered as the better choice. Moreover, the 3-hour time scale is much larger than the shorter characteristic time of localised ionospheric phenomena that are of particular interest to us. Our experience in developing a novel nowcast system for local operational <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index K calculation (K-LOGIC) will be presented. The system is based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, screening the dataset and removing the outliers, establishing the solar regular (Sr) variation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, calculating the K index, and issuing an alert if storm-level activity is indicated. This is a time-controlled (rather than event-driven) system delivering as regular output (time resolution set to 1 hour) the K value</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP52A..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP52A..08M"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding and Predicting <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Dipole Reversals Via Low Dimensional Models and Data Assimilation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morzfeld, M.; Fournier, A.; Hulot, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We investigate the geophysical relevance of low-dimensional models of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dipole fieldby comparing these models to the signed relative paleomagnetic intensity over the past 2 Myr.The comparison is done via Bayesian statistics, implemented numerically by Monte Carlo (MC) sampling.We consider several MC schemes, as well as two data sets to show the robustness of our approach with respect to its numerical implementation and to the details of how the data are collected.The data we consider are the Sint-2000 [1] and PADM2M [2] data sets.We consider three stochastic differential equation (SDE) models and one deterministic model. Experiments with synthetic data show that it is feasible that a low dimensional modelcan learn the geophysical state from data of only the dipole field,and reveal the limitations of the low-dimensional models.For example, the G12 model [3] (a deterministic model that generates dipole reversals by crisis induced intermittency)can only match either one of the two important time scales we find in the data. The MC sampling approach also allows usto use the models to make predictions of the dipole field.We assess how reliably dipole reversals can be predictedwith our approach by hind-casting five reversals documented over the past 2 Myr. We find that, besides its limitations, G12 can be used to predict reversals reliably,however only with short lead times and over short horizons. The scalar SDE models on the other hand are not useful for prediction of dipole reversals.<span class="hlt">References</span> Valet, J.P., Maynadier,L and Guyodo, Y., 2005, <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field strength and reversal rate over the past 2 Million years, Nature, 435, 802-805. Ziegler, L.B., Constable, C.G., Johnson, C.L. and Tauxe, L., 2011, PADM2M: a penalized maximum likelihood model of the 0-2 Ma paleomagnetic axial dipole moment, Geophysical Journal <span class="hlt">International</span>, 184, 1069-1089. Gissinger, C., 2012, A new deterministic model for chaotic reversals, European Physical Journal B, 85:137.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1753M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1753M"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial reproduction of magnetic fields produced by a natural <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm increases systolic blood pressure in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.; Miranda-Anaya, M.; Durán, P.; Flores-Chávez, P. L.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The incidence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms may be associated with changes in circulatory physiology. The way in which the natural variations of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field due to solar activity affects the blood pressure are poorly understood and require further study in controlled experimental designs in animal models. In the present study, we tested whether the systolic arterial pressure (AP) in adult rats is affected by simulated magnetic fields resembling the natural changes of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. We exposed adult rats to a linear magnetic profile that simulates the average changes associated to some well-known <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm phases: the sudden commencement and principal phase. Magnetic stimulus was provided by a coil inductor and regulated by a microcontroller. The experiments were conducted in the electromagnetically isolated environment of a semi-anechoic chamber. After exposure, AP was determined with a non-invasive method through the pulse on the rat's tail. Animals were used as their own control. Our results indicate that there was no statistically significant effect in AP when the artificial profile was applied, neither in the sudden commencement nor in the principal phases. However, during the experimental period, a natural <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurred, and we did observe statistically significant AP increase during the sudden commencement phase. Furthermore, when this storm phase was artificially replicated with a non-linear profile, we noticed a 7 to 9 % increase of the rats' AP in relation to a <span class="hlt">reference</span> value. We suggested that the changes in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field associated with a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm in its first day could produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response in AP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094916"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial reproduction of magnetic fields produced by a natural <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm increases systolic blood pressure in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez-Bretón, J L; Mendoza, B; Miranda-Anaya, M; Durán, P; Flores-Chávez, P L</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The incidence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms may be associated with changes in circulatory physiology. The way in which the natural variations of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field due to solar activity affects the blood pressure are poorly understood and require further study in controlled experimental designs in animal models. In the present study, we tested whether the systolic arterial pressure (AP) in adult rats is affected by simulated magnetic fields resembling the natural changes of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. We exposed adult rats to a linear magnetic profile that simulates the average changes associated to some well-known <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm phases: the sudden commencement and principal phase. Magnetic stimulus was provided by a coil inductor and regulated by a microcontroller. The experiments were conducted in the electromagnetically isolated environment of a semi-anechoic chamber. After exposure, AP was determined with a non-invasive method through the pulse on the rat's tail. Animals were used as their own control. Our results indicate that there was no statistically significant effect in AP when the artificial profile was applied, neither in the sudden commencement nor in the principal phases. However, during the experimental period, a natural <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurred, and we did observe statistically significant AP increase during the sudden commencement phase. Furthermore, when this storm phase was artificially replicated with a non-linear profile, we noticed a 7 to 9 % increase of the rats' AP in relation to a <span class="hlt">reference</span> value. We suggested that the changes in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field associated with a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm in its first day could produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response in AP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4690111','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4690111"><span id="translatedtitle">Generation and Characterization of Six Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxins as <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material to Serve in an <span class="hlt">International</span> Proficiency Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weisemann, Jasmin; Krez, Nadja; Fiebig, Uwe; Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Endermann, Tanja; Dorner, Martin B.; Bergström, Tomas; Muñoz, Amalia; Zegers, Ingrid; Müller, Christian; Jenkinson, Stephen P.; Avondet, Marc-Andre; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Denayer, Sarah; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Åstot, Crister; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Rummel, Andreas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The detection and identification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is complex due to the existence of seven serotypes, derived mosaic toxins and more than 40 subtypes. Expert laboratories currently use different technical approaches to detect, identify and quantify BoNT, but due to the lack of (certified) <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, analytical results can hardly be compared. In this study, the six BoNT/A1–F1 prototypes were successfully produced by recombinant techniques, facilitating handling, as well as improving purity, yield, reproducibility and biosafety. All six BoNTs were quantitatively nicked into active di-chain toxins linked by a disulfide bridge. The materials were thoroughly characterized with respect to purity, identity, protein concentration, catalytic and biological activities. For BoNT/A1, B1 and E1, serotypes pathogenic to humans, the catalytic activity and the precise protein concentration were determined by Endopep-mass spectrometry and validated amino acid analysis, respectively. In addition, BoNT/A1, B1, E1 and F1 were successfully detected by immunological assays, unambiguously identified by mass spectrometric-based methods, and their specific activities were assigned by the mouse LD50 bioassay. The potencies of all six BoNT/A1–F1 were quantified by the ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, allowing a direct comparison. In conclusion, highly pure recombinant BoNT <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials were produced, thoroughly characterized and employed as spiking material in a worldwide BoNT proficiency test organized by the EQuATox consortium. PMID:26703728</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20223189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20223189"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study to establish <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations to standardise haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in normal intravenous immunoglobulins by the direct method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorpe, S J; Fox, B; Sharp, G; Heath, A B; Behr-Gross, M-E; Terao, E; Virata-Theimer, M L; Yu, M W</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>A joint project (coded BSP089) was run by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) of the Council of Europe, the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to evaluate, in an <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study, 3 lyophilised intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations for their suitability to serve as <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Preparations to standardise and control the highly variable haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in IVIG products. 23 laboratories tested candidate IVIG <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations consisting of a Positive control, a Negative control and a specifically formulated Limit test <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation to define the maximum (e.g., pharmacopoeial) limits of anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinins in IVIG products, where limits are applicable. Laboratories performed direct haemagglutination using papain-treated erythrocytes and/or indirect anti-globulin tests. For both methods, there was up to 16-fold variation in anti-A and anti-B titres, although there was good agreement over a 2-fold titre range for anti-A and anti-B between laboratories using the direct method for both the Positive control and Limit <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations. Comparative titration data for the Positive control and Limit <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations indicated that the use of a 'Limit' test <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation would facilitate identification of higher titre batches when the direct haemagglutination method is used. The Positive control, Negative control and Limit test preparations were adopted in November 2008 by the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) as Biological <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Preparations. The same preparations have been established as <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagents by the WHO and the U.S FDA, including the maximal specifications defined by the Limit test preparation. This will facilitate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1059951','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1059951"><span id="translatedtitle">Product definition for healthcare contracting: an overview of approaches to measuring hospital output with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the UK <span class="hlt">internal</span> market.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Söderlund, N</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE--In many industrialised countries, health care third party payers are moving towards contracted provision arrangements with suppliers of hospital care. Essential to such a process is a standard approach to quantifying the care provided. This paper aims to outline the possible approaches to hospital product definition for the UK National Health Service, and recommends appropriate further research. METHODS--All published and unpublished studies on hospital output measurement in the NHS since 1980 were sought for the purposes of the review. This included both discursive and empirical work, and no exclusion criteria were applied. Most empirical reports on this topic, however, come from the United States. Consequently, the published reports since 1980 from the USA, accessed from the Medline and Healthplan CD-ROM databases, have also been included in the overview. CONCLUSIONS--Where data are sufficient, the true casemix approach offers advantages over other methods of output measurement. In the UK NHS, two systems--diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) and healthcare resource groups (HRGs)--are the only casemix measures that have achieved any significant degree of attention. DRGs have been extensively evaluated <span class="hlt">internationally</span>, and explain variations in resource use in the UK slightly better than do HRGs. As a local product, HRGs can be more easily adapted to the specific needs of the NHS <span class="hlt">internal</span> market, however, and will thus probably emerge as a better measure for the UK in the long term. In both cases, locally derived cost weights are unavailable, and their development constitutes a major requirement for use in contracting. Adaptations for long stay and outpatient hospital episodes would enhance the usefulness of hospital casemix systems in the NHS. Existing approaches, such as specialty based classifications, are neither standardised nor predictive of resource use, and would be better replaced by casemix systems. Other countries facing similar choices between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920023411','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920023411"><span id="translatedtitle">Steady induction effects in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>. Part 1A: Steady motional induction of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> chaos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Voorhies, Coerte V.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> effects of magnetic induction by hypothetically steady fluid motion and steady magnetic flux diffusion near the top of Earth's core are investigated using electromagnetic theory, simple magnetic earth models, and numerical experiments with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models. The problem of estimating a steady fluid velocity field near the top of Earth's core which induces the secular variation indicated by broad-scale models of the observed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field is examined and solved. In Part 1, the steady surficial core flow estimation problem is solved in the context of the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core model. In the first paper (IA), the theory underlying such estimates is reviewed and some consequences of various kinematic and dynamic flow hypotheses are derived. For a frozen-flux core, fluid downwelling is required to change the mean square normal magnetic flux density averaged over the core-mantle boundary. For surficially geostrophic flow, downwelling implies poleward flow. The solution of the forward steady motional induction problem at the surface of a frozen-flux core is derived and found to be a fine, easily visualized example of deterministic chaos. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> effects of statistically steady core surface flow may well dominate secular variation over several decades. Indeed, effects of persistent, if not steady, surficially geostrophic core flow are described which may help explain certain features of the present broad-scale <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and perhaps paleomagnetic secular variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19214460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19214460"><span id="translatedtitle">[Infectious disease emergencies. Responsibility of municipal, state and federal health protection authorities with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the <span class="hlt">international</span> health regulations].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gottschalk, René; Dreesman, J; Leitmeyer, K; Krause, G</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Pandemic preparedness has become a catch phrase for politicians, government agencies and communities, both nationally and <span class="hlt">internationally</span>. This is due to the increasing number of infectious diseases emergencies that are important challenges for health protection authorities, which was shown impressively when SARS emerged as the first pandemic in this millennium. In Germany, effective and efficient infection control is complex, with local health protection authorities having their own responsibilities. In the case of an emergency epidemic, regional health departments are responsible. Having authority over these are authorities on the federal state level as well as on the federal level. For the European Community, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established. The mission of this agency is to identify, assess and communicate current and emerging threats to human health posed by infectious diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225076"><span id="translatedtitle">Mental Health and Its Associated Variables Among <span class="hlt">International</span> Students at a Japanese University: With Special <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Their Financial Status.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the <span class="hlt">international</span> students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15353691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15353691"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reference</span> dosimetry measurements for the <span class="hlt">international</span> intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry SILENE 9-21 June 2002.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asselineau, B; Trompier, F; Texier, C; Itié, C; Médioni, R; Tikunov, D; Muller, H; Pelcot, G</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">international</span> intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems took place in the SILENE reactor, in June 2002. Participants from 60 laboratories irradiated their dosemeters (physical and biological) using two different configurations of the reactor. In preparation for this intercomparison, the leakage radiation fields were characterised by spectrometry and dosimetry measurements using the ROSPEC spectrometer associated with a NE-213 scintillator, ionisation chambers, GM counters, diodes and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs). For this intercomparison, a large area was required to irradiate the dosemeters both in free air and on phantoms. Therefore, measurements of the uniformity of the field were performed with activation detectors and TLDs for neutron and gammas, respectively. This paper describes the procedures used and the results obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830007484','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830007484"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> modeling by optimal recursive filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gibbs, B. P.; Estes, R. H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of using Kalman filter techniques for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling are given. Specifically, five separate field models were computed using observatory annual means, satellite, survey and airborne data for the years 1950 to 1976. Each of the individual field models used approximately five years of data. These five models were combined using a recursive information filter (a Kalman filter written in terms of information matrices rather than covariance matrices.) The resulting estimate of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and its secular variation was propogated four years past the data to the time of the MAGSAT data. The accuracy with which this field model matched the MAGSAT data was evaluated by comparisons with predictions from other pre-MAGSAT field models. The field estimate obtained by recursive estimation was found to be superior to all other models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25..889K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25..889K"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluctuations in tides and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohsiek, A.; Kiefer, M.; Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.</p> <p></p> <p>Middle atmosphere tidal winds and the daily <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Sq-variation show a day-to-day variability, both with a local behaviour. Due to the main cause of the Sq-variation, the ionospheric dynamo effect, day-to-day fluctuation of Sq could be raised by fluctuations in tides. This coupling of fluctuations is investigated with radar wind data measured at Saskatoon at around 100 km height and with magnetic data from four observatories in the vicinity of the radar. We show that our definition of fluctuations exhibits properties of atmospheric tides in the winds and that the magnetic data can be assumed to represent a local behaviour. We find that there are some significant correlations between fluctuations in winds and magnetic variations. Apparently the local fluctuation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations is weakly coupled not only to the fluctuations of the semidiurnal tides but also to those of the mean winds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AN....333..309R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AN....333..309R"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar wind charge exchange during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robertson, I. P.; Cravens, T. E.; Sibeck, D. G.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>On 2001 March 31 a coronal mass ejection pushed the subsolar magnetopause to the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit at 6.6 R_E. The NASA/GSFC Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) employed a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to simulate the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction during the peak of this <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. Robertson et al. then modeled the expected soft X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange with geocoronal neutrals in the dayside cusp and magnetosheath. The locations of the bow shock, magnetopause and cusps were clearly evident in their simulations. Another <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm took place on 2000 July 14 (Bastille Day). We again modeled X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange, but this time as observed from a moving spacecraft. This paper discusses the impact of spacecraft location on observed X-ray emission and the degree to which the locations of the bow shock and magnetopause can be detected in images.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EP%26S...63..469C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EP%26S...63..469C"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring the ionospheric total electron content variations over the Korean Peninsula using a GPS network during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Byung-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Jong-Uk</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>We have established a regional ionospheric model (RIM) for investigating changes in the total electron content (TEC) over South Korea using 38 Korean GPS <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations. The inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method was applied to create a two-dimensional ionospheric map of vertical TEC units (TECU) based on a grid. To examine the diurnal patterns of ionospheric TEC over South Korea, we first processed the GPS data from a <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet period of 10 days. In a second step, we compared the estimated GPS-TEC variations with the changes in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity indices (the K p and D st indices) and the auroral electrojet index (AE) as a function of universal time (UT) on 4 and 20 November, 2003. The GPS-TEC responses for those storm events were proportional to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity at this mid-latitude location. The sudden increases in ionospheric TEC (SITEC) caused by the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms were detected. The variations in GPS-TEC may help reveal the processes of ionospheric disturbances caused by <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015701','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015701"><span id="translatedtitle">MAGSAT for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> studies over Indian region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rastogi, R. G.; Bhargava, B. N.; Singh, B. P.; Rao, D. R. K.; Rangarajan, G. K.; Rajaram, R.; Roy, M.; Arora, B. R.; Seth, A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Progress in the preparation of software for converting data tapes produced on an IBM system to data readable on a DEC-10 system, in the creation of awareness of the utility of MAGSAT data among users in India, and in making computer programs supplied by NASA operational on the DEC-10 system is reported. Papers presented to Indian users, at the IAGA fourth scientific assembly, at a symposium on interdisciplinary approaches to <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>, and a paper published in Science Today are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM23C2326D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM23C2326D"><span id="translatedtitle">NOAA Plans for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storm Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diedrich, B. L.; Biesecker, D. A.; Mulligan, P.; Simpson, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>For many years, NOAA has issued <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm watches and warnings based on coronal mass ejection (CME) imagery and in-situ solar wind measurements from research satellites. The NOAA Satellite and Information Service (NESDIS) recognizes the importance of this service to protecting technological infrastructure including power grids, polar air travel, and satellite navigation, so is actively planning to replace these assets to ensure their continued availability. NOAA, NASA, and the US Air Force are working on launching the first operational solar wind mission in 2014, the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), to follow NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in making solar wind measurements at the sun-Earth L1 for 15-60 minute <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm warning. For continuing operations after the DSCOVR mission, one technology NOAA is looking at is solar sails that could greatly improve the lead time of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm warnings by stationkeeping closer to the sun than L1. We are working with NASA and private industry on the Sunjammer solar sail demonstration mission to test making solar wind measurements from a solar sail in the sun-Earth L1 region. NOAA uses CME imagery from the NASA/ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) satellites to issue 1-3 day <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm watches. For the future, NOAA worked with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to develop a Compact Coronagraph (CCOR) through Phase A, and is studying ways to complete instrument development and test fly it for use in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SunGe..12...31K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SunGe..12...31K"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Activity Relation for the Last two Solar Cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kilcik, A.; Yiǧit, E.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The long-term relationship between solar (sunspot counts in different Zurich sunspot groups, <span class="hlt">International</span> Sunspot Number (ISSN), solar wind, and X-Ray solar flare index and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices (Ap and Dst) is investigated. Data sets used in this study cover a time period from January 1996 to March 2014. Our main findings are as follows: 1) The best correlation between the sunspot counts and the Ap index are obtained for the large group time series, while the other categories exhibited lower (final and medium) or no correlation at all (small). It is interesting to note that Ap index is delayed by about 13 months relatively to all sunspot count series and ISSN data. 2) The best correlation between the sunspot counts and the Dst index was as well obtained for the large AR time series. The Dst index delays with respect to the large group by about 2 months. 3) The highest correlation between the solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices were obtained between the solar wind speed and Ap and Dst indices with zero time delays (r = 0.76, r = 0.52, respectively). 4) The correlation coefficients between the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices (Ap, Dst) and X-Ray solar flare index (r = 0.59, r = -0.48, respectively) are a little higher than the correlation coefficients between these <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices and ISSN (r = 0.57, r = -0.43, respectively). 5) The magnitude of all solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices (except the solar wind speed) has significantly decreased during the current solar cycle as compared to the same phase of the previous cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23165549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23165549"><span id="translatedtitle">[Anthropometric study and evaluation of the nutritional status of a population school children in Granada; comparison of national and <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González Jiménez, E; Aguilar Cordero, M J; Álvarez Ferre, J; Padilla López, C; Valenza, M C</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies show an alarming increase in levels of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The main objectives of this research were the following: (i) to carry out an anthropometric evaluation of the nutritional status and body composition of school children in the city and province of Granada; (ii) to compare the nutritional status of this population sample with national and <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards. The results obtained in this study showed that the general prevalence of overweight in both sexes was 22.03% and that 9.12% of the children were obese. Statistically significant differences were found between the variable, weight for age and sex (p < 0.05) and the variable, height for age and sex (p < 0.05). Regarding the body mass index, no statistically significant differences were found for the variable, sex (p = 0.182). This contrasted with the variable, age, which did show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, the results of our study highlighted the fact that these anthropometric values were much higher than national and <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6830476','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6830476"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> organization for standardization (ISO) 9000 and chemical agent standard analytical <span class="hlt">reference</span> material (SASARM) quality system development and implementation. Phase 1. Final report, April 1993-June 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turley, S.D.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is in the process of developing an <span class="hlt">International</span> Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 quality assurance (QA) system and a Chemical Agent Standard Analytical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material (CASARM) QA program. Phase I of this process consisted of analyzing the current DPG QA system, defining the structure of the new QA system, determine how the ISO 9000 and the CASARM systems will interact, develop the new QA system and implementation plan, and develop the CASARM program and begin implementation. The initial phases of the system design and synthesis met the objectives established for Phase I of this methodology project. Phase II will complete the functional analysis, system design, and prototype implementation. The prototype will be analyzed for weaknesses in operation, personnel and equipment requirements, software, and cost effectiveness. The system will be modified, if needed, and implemented across the Materiel Test Directorate. The final stage of this methodology will be to achieve ISO 9000 registration. <span class="hlt">International</span> Organization for Standardization(ISO) 9000, Chemical Agent Standard Analytical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material(CASARM), Standardized Quality Assurance(QA), QA/Quality Control(QC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997GMS....98..243L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997GMS....98..243L"><span id="translatedtitle">AI techniques in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lundstedt, Henrik</p> <p></p> <p>This review deals with how <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms can be predicted with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Today many different Al techniques have been developed, such as symbolic systems (expert and fuzzy systems) and connectionism systems (neural networks). Even integrations of AI techniques exist, so called Intelligent Hybrid Systems (IHS). These systems are capable of learning the mathematical functions underlying the operation of non-linear dynamic systems and also to explain the knowledge they have learned. Very few such powerful systems exist at present. Two such examples are the Magnetospheric Specification Forecast Model of Rice University and the Lund Space Weather Model of Lund University. Various attempts to predict <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms on long to short-term are reviewed in this article. Predictions of a month to days ahead most often use solar data as input. The first SOHO data are now available. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution new solar physics have been revealed. These SOHO data might lead to a breakthrough in these predictions. Predictions hours ahead and shorter rely on real-time solar wind data. WIND gives us real-time data for only part of the day. However, with the launch of the ACE spacecraft in 1997, real-time data during 24 hours will be available. That might lead to the second breakthrough for predictions of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003E%26PSL.207..151H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003E%26PSL.207..151H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> secular variation in the Indian Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heirtzler, J. R.; Nazarova, K.</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>Annual repeat stations in Australia and in South Africa show that secular variation may change rapidly and over short geographical distances in the Indian Ocean area. Satellite models show large secular variations in the center of the Indian Ocean where there are few island <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories. This paper investigates marine <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements to see if they give more information about secular variations in this area. Between 1960 and 1988 there were more than 70 port-to-port cruises with ships towing proton precession magnetometers in the Indian Ocean. Change in field intensity from one cruise to another provides new information about the secular variation in this part of the world. Several methods were investigated to determine this change from the ship's data. Observing the change on closely parallel or crossing tracks provides an estimate of this change. These results indicate that there are short time and distance scales of secular variation in the Indian Ocean which have not been accounted for in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018766','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018766"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar generated quasi-biennial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The existence of highly correlated quasi-biennial variations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and in solar activity is demonstrated. The analysis uses a numerical filter technique applied to monthly averages of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> horizontal component and of the Zurich relative sunspot number. Striking correlations are found between the quasi-biennial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations determined from several magnetic observatories located at widely different longitudes, indicating a worldwide nature of the obtained variation. The correlation coefficient between the filtered Dst index and the filtered relative sunspot number is found to be -0.79 at confidence level greater than 99% with a time-lag of 4 months, with solar activity preceding the Dst variation. The correlation between the unfiltered data of Dst and of the sunspot number is also high with a similar time-lag. Such a timelag has not been discussed in the literature, and a further study is required to establish the mode of sun-earth relationship that gives this time delay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37..488C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37..488C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chandel, Babita</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere Babita Chandel, Shailendra Saini, Sneha Yadav,S.K.Vijay and A.K.Gwal Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India ABSTRACT: This paper represents the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field response at Southern Hemisphere (MAITRI) and Northern Hemisphere (TROMSO). The Indian Antarctic Station MAITRI is located at <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Long. (66.030, 53.210) where as TROMSO is at <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Long. (66.030, 53.210). We studied the behaviour of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field with respect to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms at both the stations TROMSO and MAITRI. It was observed that at Southern Hemisphere there is more variation in winter as compared to the summer season, where as in Northern Hemisphere the variations are more in summer as compared to winter. As in the Northern hemisphere the magnetospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in summer and in Southern hemisphere the magentospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SpWea...812006D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SpWea...812006D"><span id="translatedtitle">A sensitive <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity index for space weather operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, D.; Xu, W. Y.; Zhao, M. X.; Chen, B.; Lu, J. Y.; Yang, G. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>There is an ongoing demand for real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices in space services. The traditional 3 h K index and K-derived planetary indices cannot issue alters promptly during large storms, and the 3 h interval is much larger than the time scales of ionospheric responses. To overcome these difficulties, we define a new consecutive and linear <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity index, the range of hourly H component index (rH) with 1 min resolution, and develop a local rH index nowcast system for space weather operation, which can issue <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm alerts quickly. We also derive Kp/Ap indices conveniently from a single station data to describe the global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. Then we make a statistic comparison between rH and other definite index values during storm and find that rH is sensitive to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance and can reflect the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity more delicately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnGeo..35...39D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnGeo..35...39D"><span id="translatedtitle">Induction effects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances in the geo-electric field variations at low latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doumbia, Vafi; Boka, Kouadio; Kouassi, Nguessan; Didier Franck Grodji, Oswald; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Menvielle, Michel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this study we examined the influences of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on the Earth surface electric field variations at low latitudes. During the <span class="hlt">International</span> Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) various experiments were performed along 5° W in West Africa from 1992 to 1995. Among other instruments, 10 stations equipped with magnetometers and telluric electric field lines operated along a meridian chain across the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dip equator from November 1992 to December 1994. In the present work, the induced effects of space-weather-related <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) influence area in West Africa were examined. For that purpose, variations in the north-south (Ex) and east-west (Ey) components of telluric electric field were analyzed, along with that of the three components (H, D and Z) of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm of 17 February 1993 and the solar flare observed on 4 April 1993. The most important induction effects during these events are associated with brisk impulses like storm sudden commencement (ssc) and solar flare effect (sfe) in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations. For the moderate <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm that occurred on 17 February 1993, with a minimum Dst index of -110 nT, the geo-electric field responses to the impulse around 11:00 LT at LAM are Ex = 520 mV km-1 and Ey = 400 mV km-1. The geo-electric field responses to the sfe that occurred around 14:30 LT on 4 April 1993 are clearly observed at different stations as well. At LAM the crest-to-crest amplitude of the geo-electric field components associated with the sfe are Ex = 550 mV km-1 and Ey = 340 mV km-1. Note that the sfe impact on the geo-electric field variations decreases with the increasing distance of the stations from the subsolar point, which is located at about 5.13° N on 4 April. This trend does not reflect the sfe increasing amplitude near the dip equator due the high Cowling conductivity in the EEJ belt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4815936','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4815936"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of Older Adults Admitted to Hospital versus Those Discharged Home, in Emergency Department Patients <span class="hlt">Referred</span> to <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hominick, Kathryn; McLeod, Victoria; Rockwood, Kenneth</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Frail older adults present to the Emergency Department (ED) with complex medical, functional, and social needs. When these needs can be addressed promptly, discharge is possible, and when they cannot, hospital admission is required. We evaluated the care needs of frail older adults in the ED who were consulted to <span class="hlt">internal</span> medicine and seen by a geriatrician to determine, under current practices, which factors were associated with hospitalization and which allowed discharge. Methods We preformed a chart-based, exploratory study. Data were abstracted from consultation records and ED charts. All cases had a standard Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA which records a Clinical Frailty Scale (CFA) and allows calculation of a Frailty Index (FI). Results Of 100 consecutive patients, 2 died in the ED, 75 were admitted, and 23 were discharged, including one urgent placement. Compared with discharged patients (0.39 ± SD 0.16), those admitted had a higher mean FI-CGA (0.48 ± 0.13; p < .01). Greater mobility dependence (2% in discharged vs. 32% in admitted; p < .05) was notable. Conclusions Discharge decisions require assessment of medical, functional, and social problems. Ill, frail patients often can be discharged home when social and nursing support can be provided. The degree of frailty, impaired mobility, and likely delirium must be taken into account when planning for their care. PMID:27076860</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5745444','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5745444"><span id="translatedtitle">McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> work in fifteen volumes including an index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an <span class="hlt">international</span> advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1477154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1477154"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological study on the stomach of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the <span class="hlt">internal</span> surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agungpriyono, S; Yamamoto, Y; Kitamura, N; Yamada, J; Sigit, K; Yamashita, T</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>The stomach of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) was observed macroscopically. It consisted of only three compartments, rumen, reticulum and abomasum without omasum. The rumen was S-shaped with large ventral and caudoventral blind sacs and the reticulum was larger than the abomasum. <span class="hlt">Internally</span>, the rumen was covered with numerous ruminal papillae even on the pillars and the ruminoreticular fold. These papillae were leaf- or tongue-like shaped and varied in size and density. The reticulum had honey-combed crests and the secondary crests were found rarely. The lips of the reticular groove were prominent and more developed in the aboral part than in the oral one. A sac-like transition zone, which had more prominent mucosal folds than had the floor of the reticular groove, was observed between the caudal end of the reticular groove and the abomasum. Mucosal folds of the abomasum were spiral, low but rather thick. These findings were discussed in view of comparison with other ruminants and of possible functional implications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5437U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5437U"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the Effects of Solar and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Changes on the Total Electron Content: Mid-Latitude Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulukavak, Mustafa; Yalcinkaya, Mualla</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Global Positioning System (GPS) is used as an important tool for ionosphere monitoring and obtaining the Total Electron Content (TEC). GPS satellites, positioned in the Earth's orbit, are used as sensors to investigate the space weather conditions. In this study, solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity variations were investigated between the dates 1 March-30 June 2015 for the mid-latitude region. GPS-TEC variations were calculated for each selected <span class="hlt">International</span> GNSS Service (IGS) station in Europe. GNSS data was obtained from Crustal Dynamics Data and Information System (CDDIS) archive. Solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity indices (Kp, F10.7 ve Dst) were obtained from the Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre (CSWFC) and Data Analysis Center for <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University (WDC) archives. GPS-TEC variations were determined for the quiet periods of the solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activities. GPS-TEC changes were then compared with respect to the quiet periods of the solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activities. Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) IONEX files, obtained from the IGS analysis center, was used to check the robustness of the GPS-TEC variations. The investigations revealed that it is possible to use the GPS-TEC data for monitoring the ionospheric disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012720','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012720"><span id="translatedtitle">Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>In order to infer the interplanetary sector polarity from polar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field diurnal variations, measurements were carried out at Godhavn and Thule (Denmark) <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatories. The inferred interplanetary sector polarity was compared with the polarity observed at the same time by Explorer 33 and 35 magnetometers. It is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar cap <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMGP44A..01D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMGP44A..01D"><span id="translatedtitle">Has the Next <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Reversal Already Started?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Santis, A.; Tozzi, R.; Wicht, J.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Although in the past some speculations about an occurring <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reversal were already formulated, only recently this has emerged as a really constructive hypothesis to be better investigated. From Information Content analysis of global models of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and geodynamo simulations, it results that within 1000-1500 years the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field will likely change its polarity. In this work we will present some considerations that support this possibility together with their geophysical implications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19326953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19326953"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study of the endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified rice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lingxi; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Mazzara, Marco; Van den Eede, Guy; Zhang, Dabing</p> <p>2009-05-13</p> <p>One rice ( Oryza sativa ) gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), has been proven to be a suitable endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene for genetically modified (GM) rice detection in a previous study. Herein are the reported results of an <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative ring trial for validation of the SPS gene as an endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene and its optimized qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems. A total of 12 genetically modified organism (GMO) detection laboratories from seven countries participated in the ring trial and returned their results. The validated results confirmed the species specificity of the method through testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, low heterogeneity, and a stable single-copy number of the rice SPS gene among 7 indica varieties and 5 japonica varieties. The SPS qualitative PCR assay was validated with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%, which corresponded to about 230 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the quantitative PCR system was about 23 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Furthermore, the bias between the test and true values of eight blind samples ranged from 5.22 to 26.53%. Thus, we believe that the SPS gene is suitable for use as an endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene for the identification and quantification of GM rice and its derivates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743365"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of potential <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">references</span> for quantitative real-time RT-PCR normalization of gene expression in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Bo-Guang; Hu, Yong-Hua</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively for studying gene expression in diverse organisms including fish. In this study, with an aim to identify reliable <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for qRT-PCR in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an economic fish species, we determined the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in healthy and bacterium-infected red drum. Each of the selected candidate genes was amplified by qRT-PCR from the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and spleen of red drum infected with or without a bacterial pathogen for 12 and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the genes were analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that in the absence of bacterial infection, translation initiation factor 3, NADH dehydrogenase 1, and QM-like protein may be used together as <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">references</span> across the eight examined tissues. Bacterial infection caused variations in the rankings of the most stable genes in a tissue-dependent manner. For all tissues, two genes sufficed for reliable normalization at both 12 and 48 h post-infection. However, the optimal gene pairs differed among tissues and, for four of the examined eight tissues, between infection points. These results indicate that when studying gene expression in red drum under conditions of bacterial infection, the optimal <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes should be selected on the basis of tissue type and, for accurate normalization, infection stage.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25213217','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25213217"><span id="translatedtitle">Certification of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard ISO 11262:2011.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined <span class="hlt">referring</span> to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil <span class="hlt">reference</span> material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7577H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7577H"><span id="translatedtitle">Coseismic ionospheric and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances caused by great earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Zuo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Despite primary energy disturbances from the Sun, oscillations of the Earth surface due to a large earthquake will couple with the atmosphere and therefore the ionosphere, then the so-called coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs) can be detected in the ionosphere. Using a combination of techniques, total electron content, HF Doppler, and ground magnetometer, a new time-sequence of such effects propagation were developed on observational basis and ideas on explanation provided. In the cases of 2008 Wenchuan and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, infrasonic waves accompanying the propagation of seismic Rayleigh waves were observed in the ionosphere by all the three kinds of techniques. This is the very first report to present CIDs recorded by different techniques at co-located sites and profiled with regard to changes of both ionospheric plasma and current (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field) simultaneously. Comparison between the oceanic (2011 Tohoku) and inland (2008 Wenchuan) earthquakes revealed that the main directional lobe of latter case is more distinct which is perpendicular to the direction of the fault rupture. We argue that the different fault slip (inland or submarine) may affect the way of couplings of lithosphere with atmosphere. <span class="hlt">References</span> Zhao, B., and Y. Hao (2015), Ionospheric and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A revisit, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021035. Hao, Y. Q., Z. Xiao, and D. H. Zhang (2013), Teleseismic magnetic effects (TMDs) of 2011 Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 3914-3923, doi:10.1002/jgra.50326. Hao, Y. Q., Z. Xiao, and D. H. Zhang (2012), Multi-instrument observation on co-seismic ionospheric effects after great Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A02305, doi:10.1029/2011JA017036.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020381','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020381"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field models incorporating physical constraints on the secular variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Constable, Catherine; Parker, Robert L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This proposal has been concerned with methods for constructing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models that incorporate physical constraints on the secular variation. The principle goal that has been accomplished is the development of flexible algorithms designed to test whether the frozen flux approximation is adequate to describe the available <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data and their secular variation throughout this century. These have been applied to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data from both the early and middle part of this century and convincingly demonstrate that there is no need to invoke violations of the frozen flux hypothesis in order to satisfy the available <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21427487','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21427487"><span id="translatedtitle">An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult male--<span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley</p> <p>2011-04-21</p> <p>-averaged values of absorbed fraction in the present model are noted to be very compatible with those weighted by the skeletal tissue distributions found in the ICRP Publication 110 adult male and female voxel phantoms, but are in many cases incompatible with values used in current and widely implemented <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMB....56.2309H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PMB....56.2309H"><span id="translatedtitle">An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult male—<span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>-averaged values of absorbed fraction in the present model are noted to be very compatible with those weighted by the skeletal tissue distributions found in the ICRP Publication 110 adult male and female voxel phantoms, but are in many cases incompatible with values used in current and widely implemented <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2804578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2804578"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for quantitative real-time PCR in a non-model organism, the yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Reference</span> genes are used as <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards to normalize mRNA abundance in quantitative real-time PCR and thereby allow a direct comparison between samples. So far most of these expression studies used human or classical laboratory model species whereas studies on non-model organism under in-situ conditions are quite rare. However, only studies in free-ranging populations can reveal the effects of natural selection on the expression levels of functional important genes. In order to test the feasibility of gene expression studies in wildlife samples we transferred and validated potential <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes that were developed for lab mice (Mus musculus) to samples of wild yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis. The stability and suitability of eight potential <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes was accessed by the programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. Findings Although the three programs used different algorithms the ranking order of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes was significantly concordant and geNorm differed in only one, NormFinder in two positions compared to BestKeeper. The genes ordered by their mean rank from the most to the least stable gene were: Rps18, Sdha, Canx, Actg1, Pgk1, Ubc, Rpl13a and Actb. Analyses of the normalization factor revealed best results when the five most stable genes were included for normalization. Discussion We established a SYBR green qPCR assay for liver samples of wild A. flavicollis and conclude that five genes should be used for appropriate normalization. Our study provides the basis to investigate differential expression of genes under selection under natural selection conditions in liver samples of A. flavicollis. This approach might also be applicable to other non-model organisms. PMID:20030847</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3468834','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3468834"><span id="translatedtitle">Zebrafish respond to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field by bimodal and group-dependent orientation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Takebe, Akira; Furutani, Toshiki; Wada, Tatsunori; Koinuma, Masami; Kubo, Yoko; Okano, Keiko; Okano, Toshiyuki</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A variety of animals use Earth's magnetic field as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> for their orientation behaviour. Although distinctive magnetoreception mechanisms have been postulated for many migrating or homing animals, the molecular mechanisms are still undefined. In this study, we found that zebrafish, a model organism suitable for genetic manipulation, responded to a magnetic field as weak as the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. Without any training, zebrafish were individually released into a circular arena that was placed in an artificial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, and their preferred magnetic directions were recorded. Individuals from five out of the seven zebrafish groups studied, groups mostly comprised of the offspring of predetermined pairs, showed bidirectional orientation with group-specific preferences regardless of close kinships. The preferred directions did not seem to depend on gender, age or surrounding environmental factors, implying that directional preference was genetically defined. The present findings may facilitate future study on the molecular mechanisms underlying magnetoreception. PMID:23061010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23061010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23061010"><span id="translatedtitle">Zebrafish respond to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field by bimodal and group-dependent orientation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Takebe, Akira; Furutani, Toshiki; Wada, Tatsunori; Koinuma, Masami; Kubo, Yoko; Okano, Keiko; Okano, Toshiyuki</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A variety of animals use Earth's magnetic field as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> for their orientation behaviour. Although distinctive magnetoreception mechanisms have been postulated for many migrating or homing animals, the molecular mechanisms are still undefined. In this study, we found that zebrafish, a model organism suitable for genetic manipulation, responded to a magnetic field as weak as the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. Without any training, zebrafish were individually released into a circular arena that was placed in an artificial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, and their preferred magnetic directions were recorded. Individuals from five out of the seven zebrafish groups studied, groups mostly comprised of the offspring of predetermined pairs, showed bidirectional orientation with group-specific preferences regardless of close kinships. The preferred directions did not seem to depend on gender, age or surrounding environmental factors, implying that directional preference was genetically defined. The present findings may facilitate future study on the molecular mechanisms underlying magnetoreception.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Natur.318..453T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Natur.318..453T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> secular variation in Sicily and revised ages of historic lavas from Mount Etna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanguy, J. C.; Bucur, I.; Thompson, J. F. C.</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>The variation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field direction in Sicily during the past 700 yr has tentatively been determined using lavas of known date from Mount Etna1. Additional palaeomagnetic studies on several hundred volcanic samples, combined with archaeomagnetic investigations carried out on Norman buildings, have improved the previous results and permit a reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variation curve to about AD 1000. This curve agrees well with those obtained for other European countries2-6 and may be used as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> for checking the ages attributed to archaeological structures as well as volcanic products in southern Italy during the past 1,000 yr. The present results cast serious doubts on the true ages of numerous historically dated lavas from Mount Etna, most of which are at least several centuries older than previously believed. The conclusions have implications for the succession of eruptions, effusion rates, magmatic evolution, and so on, and demonstrate the inconsistency of eruptive models based on historical records alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SunGe..11..111D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SunGe..11..111D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> Induced Currents, a space weather hazard. Case study - Europe under intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms of the solar cycle 23</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dobrica, V.; Demetrescu, Cr.; Stefan, C.; Greculeasa, R.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The interaction of the solar wind and heliospheric magnetic field with the magnetosphere and ionosphere results in variations of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field that induce hazardous electric currents in grounded technological systems (electric power and hydrocarbon transportation networks), the so-called <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced currents (GICs). In order to evaluate the hazard induced on the European continent, we present a study of the surface electric field induced by 16 intense (Dst < -150 nT) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, based on the analysis of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> records from the European network of observatories, study that tend to solve the geophysical part of the problem. The evolution during storm development and the sources of the disturbance field are explored in case of the largest <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm in the cycle 23 (Dst = -422 nT, November 20-21, 2003), and the geographical distribution of the maximum induced surface geoelectric field over Europe by the 16 storms considered in the study is presented. As source proxies, the Dst <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index, showing the disturbed field produced by the magnetospheric ring current at the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> equator, the AL <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index, showing the disturbed field produced by the ionospheric electrojet at auroral latitude, and the PC <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index, showing the disturbed field produced by the polar cap current, were examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASS...30..169H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASS...30..169H"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of K-index Calculations between Several <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Stations during IQDs and IDDs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, Junga; Kim, Hang-Pyo; Park, Young-Deuk</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>BOH magnetometer was installed at Mt. Bohyun in 2007 and has provided continuous dataset for 3-axis <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field over the South Korea. We have calculated real-time K-index based on BOH magnetic field data using well-known FMI method. Local K-index is calculated eight times a day, per every three hours. To calculate K-index, it is critical to get the Quiet Day Curve (QDC). For QDC calculation, we take the previous one month's average of H-component. In this paper, we compared four <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> stations' magnetic field data over South Korea and Japan and K-indices of each stations; Bohyun, Gangneung, Jeju, and Kakioka for two years data, 2011-2012. To investigate the difference depending on the latitude, longitude and local time in more detail, we compare K-index on <span class="hlt">International</span> Quiet Days (IQDs) and <span class="hlt">International</span> Disturbed Days (IDDs). As a result, we report the correlation between local K-indices are higher than those between Kp and local K-indices, and the correlation is much better after sunset than after sunrise. As the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity becomes stronger, the correlation between the local K-indices and global Kp-index become higher.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018878','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018878"><span id="translatedtitle">Lower thermosphere (80-100 km) dynamics response to solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity: Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kazimirovsky, E. S.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The variations of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity may affect the thermosphere circulation via plasma heating and electric fields, especially at high latitudes. The possibility exists that the energy involved in auroral and magnetic storms can produce significant changes of mesosphere and lower thermosphere wind systems. A study of global radar measurements of winds at 80 to 100 km region revealed the short term effects (correlation between wind field and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms) and long term variations over a solar cycle. It seems likely that the correlation results from a modification of planetary waves and tides propagated from below, thus altering the dynamical regime of the thermosphere. Sometimes the long term behavior points rather to a climatic variation with the <span class="hlt">internal</span> atmospheric cause than to a direct solar control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20526035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20526035"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the ICRP/ICRU <span class="hlt">reference</span> computational phantoms to <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry: calculation of specific absorbed fractions of energy for photons and electrons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hadid, L; Desbrée, A; Schlattl, H; Franck, D; Blanchardon, E; Zankl, M</p> <p>2010-07-07</p> <p>The emission of radiation from a contaminated body region is connected with the dose received by radiosensitive tissue through the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of emitted energy, which is therefore an essential quantity for <span class="hlt">internal</span> dose assessment. A set of SAFs were calculated using the new adult <span class="hlt">reference</span> computational phantoms, released by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) together with the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Part of these results has been recently published in ICRP Publication 110 (2009 Adult <span class="hlt">reference</span> computational phantoms (Oxford: Elsevier)). In this paper, we mainly discuss the results and also present them in numeric form. The emission of monoenergetic photons and electrons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV was simulated for three source organs: lungs, thyroid and liver. SAFs were calculated for four target regions in the body: lungs, colon wall, breasts and stomach wall. For quality assurance purposes, the simulations were performed simultaneously at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU, Germany) and at the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, France), using the Monte Carlo transport codes EGSnrc and MCNPX, respectively. The comparison of results shows overall agreement for photons and high-energy electrons with differences lower than 8%. Nevertheless, significant differences were found for electrons at lower energy for distant source/target organ pairs. Finally, the results for photons were compared to the SAF values derived using mathematical phantoms. Significant variations that can amount to 200% were found. The main reason for these differences is the change of geometry in the more realistic voxel body models. For electrons, no SAFs have been computed with the mathematical phantoms; instead, approximate formulae have been used by both the Medical <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Radiation Dose committee (MIRD) and the ICRP due to the limitations imposed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMB....55.3631H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMB....55.3631H"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the ICRP/ICRU <span class="hlt">reference</span> computational phantoms to <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry: calculation of specific absorbed fractions of energy for photons and electrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hadid, L.; Desbrée, A.; Schlattl, H.; Franck, D.; Blanchardon, E.; Zankl, M.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>The emission of radiation from a contaminated body region is connected with the dose received by radiosensitive tissue through the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of emitted energy, which is therefore an essential quantity for <span class="hlt">internal</span> dose assessment. A set of SAFs were calculated using the new adult <span class="hlt">reference</span> computational phantoms, released by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) together with the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Part of these results has been recently published in ICRP Publication 110 (2009 Adult <span class="hlt">reference</span> computational phantoms (Oxford: Elsevier)). In this paper, we mainly discuss the results and also present them in numeric form. The emission of monoenergetic photons and electrons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV was simulated for three source organs: lungs, thyroid and liver. SAFs were calculated for four target regions in the body: lungs, colon wall, breasts and stomach wall. For quality assurance purposes, the simulations were performed simultaneously at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU, Germany) and at the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, France), using the Monte Carlo transport codes EGSnrc and MCNPX, respectively. The comparison of results shows overall agreement for photons and high-energy electrons with differences lower than 8%. Nevertheless, significant differences were found for electrons at lower energy for distant source/target organ pairs. Finally, the results for photons were compared to the SAF values derived using mathematical phantoms. Significant variations that can amount to 200% were found. The main reason for these differences is the change of geometry in the more realistic voxel body models. For electrons, no SAFs have been computed with the mathematical phantoms; instead, approximate formulae have been used by both the Medical <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Radiation Dose committee (MIRD) and the ICRP due to the limitations imposed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710135D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710135D"><span id="translatedtitle">On the scaling features of high-latitude <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations during a large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Michelis, Paola; Federica Marcucci, Maria; Consolini, Giuseppe</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recently we have investigated the spatial distribution of the scaling features of short-time scale magnetic field fluctuations using measurements from several ground-based <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories distributed in the northern hemisphere. We have found that the scaling features of fluctuations of the horizontal magnetic field component at time scales below 100 minutes are correlated with the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity level and with changes in the currents flowing in the ionosphere. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the dynamical changes of the magnetic field scaling features as a function of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity level during the well-known large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurred on July, 15, 2000 (the Bastille event). The observed dynamical changes are discussed in relationship with the changes of the overall ionospheric polar convection and potential structure as reconstructed using SuperDARN data. This work is supported by the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA) - Research Project 2013/AC3.08 and by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013]) under Grant no. 313038/STORM and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8463054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8463054"><span id="translatedtitle">Acidolytic cleavage of tris(alkoxy)benzylamide (PAL) "<span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>" amino acyl (IRAA) anchoring linkages: validation of accepted procedures in solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albericio, F; Barany, G</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Under the normal conditions of acidolytic cleavage/deprotection of tris(alkoxy)benzylamide (PAL) anchoring linkages in Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), product release occurs by a straightforward single-step pathway. A recently reported cleavage of the NH--alpha CH bond of an amino acyl residue adjacent to PAL [see Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 38, 146-153 (1991)] could not be confirmed in novel experiments incorporating a double "<span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>" amino acid (IRAA) design. The results of the present work revalidate the widely accepted application of IRAAs to monitor yields in SPPS, and confirm the reliability of PAL methodology for the preparation of C-terminal peptide amides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.360C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.360C"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Models based on Magnetometer Measurements for Satellite's Attitude Determination System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cilden, Demet; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Hajiyev, Chingiz</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Magnetometers are common attitude determination sensors for small satellites at low Earth orbit; therefore, magnetic field model of the Earth is necessary to estimate the satellite's attitude angles. Difference in the components of the magnetic field vectors -mostly used as unit vector. Therefore the angle between them (model and measurement data) affects the estimation accuracy of the satellite's attitude. In this study, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models are compared with satellite magnetic field observations in order to evaluate the models using the magnetometer results with high accuracy. For attitude determination system, IGRF model is used in most of the cases but the difference between the sensor and model increases when the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity occurs. Hence, several models including the empirical ones using the external variations in the Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field resulting from the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field are of great importance in determination of the satellite's attitude correctly. IGRF model describes the <span class="hlt">internal</span>-part of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, on the other hand candidate models to IGRF, such as recently developed POMME-6 model based on Champ data, CHAOS-5 (CHAmp, Oersted, Swarm), T89 (Tsyganenko's model), include simple parameterizations of external fields of magnetospheric sources in addition to the <span class="hlt">internal</span> field especially for low Earth orbiting satellites. Those models can be evaluated to see noticeable difference on extraterrestrial field effects on satellite's attitude determination system changing with its height. The comparisons are made between the models and observations and between the models under various magnetospheric activities. In this study, we will present our preliminary results from the comparisons and discuss their implications from the satellite attitude perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1681B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1681B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> imprint of the Persani volcanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Besutiu, Lucian; Seghedi, Ioan; Zlagnean, Luminita; Atanasiu, Ligia; Popa, Razvan-Gabriel; Pomeran, Mihai; Visan, Madalina</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Persani small volume volcanism is located in the SE corner of the Transylvanian Depression, at the north-western edge of the intra-mountainous Brasov basin. It represents the south-easternmost segment of the Neogene-Quaternary volcanic chain of the East Carpathians. The alkaline basalt monogenetic volcanic field is partly coeval with the high-K calc-alkaline magmatism south of Harghita Mountains (1-1.6 Ma). Its eruptions post-dated the calc-alkaline volcanism in the Harghita Mountains (5.3-1.6 Ma), but pre-dated the high-K calc-alkaline emissions of Ciomadul volcano (1.0-0.03 Ma). The major volcanic forms have been mapped in previous geological surveys. Still, due to the small size of the volcanoes and large extent of tephra deposits and recent sediments, the location of some vents or other volcanic structures has been incompletely revealed. To overcome this problem, the area was subject to several near-surface geophysical investigations, including paleomagnetic research. However, due to their large-scale features, the previous geophysical surveys proved to be an inappropriate approach to the volcanological issues. Therefore, during the summers of 2014 and 2015, based on the high magnetic contrast between the volcanic rocks and the hosting sedimentary formations, a detailed ground <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> survey has been designed and conducted, within central Persani volcanism area, in order to outline the presence of volcanic structures hidden beneath the overlying deposits. Additionally, information on the rock magnetic properties was also targeted by sampling and analysing several outcrops in the area. Based on the acquired data, a detailed total intensity scalar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly map was constructed by using the recent IGRF12 model. The revealed pattern of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field proved to be fully consistent with the direction of magnetisation previously determined on rock samples. In order to enhance the signal/noise ratio, the results were further processed by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PEPI..170....1F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PEPI..170....1F"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical variation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> axial dipole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finlay, Christopher C.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> axial dipole (hereinafter denoted g10) is the largest component of our planet's magnetic field. Its magnitude determines the morphology of solar-terrestrial electrical current systems and it is the most fundamental diagnostic property of the core-generated geodynamo. Elucidating past and future variations of g10(t) is consequently of central importance in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>. Previous historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models, such as gufm1 of Jackson et al. [Jackson, A., Jonkers, A.R.T., Walker, M.R., 2000. Four centuries of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation from historical records. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 358, 957-990], used direct observations to constrain g10(t) only after 1840 A.D.; before this time a crude linear extrapolation of the post-1840 A.D. rate of change (15 nT/year) was employed. In this contribution I construct historical field models with g10(t) instead constrained from 1590 A.D. to 1840 A.D. by an archaeointensity dataset compiled by Korte et al. [Korte, M., Genevey, A., Constable, C.G., Frank, U., Schnepp, E., 2005. Continuous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models for the past 7 millennia. 1. A new global data compilation. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6, doi:10.1029/2004GC000800]. A range of possible linear models of the form g10(t)=g10(1840)+β(t-1840) are first explored; β=2.74±42.32 nT/year is found to explain the archaeointensity dataset with maximum likelihood, consistent with the recent findings of Gubbins et al. [Gubbins, D., Jones, A.L., Finlay, C.C., 2006. Fall in Earth's magnetic field is erratic. Science 312, 900-902]. Relaxing the linear constraint in an effort to find more physically plausible models, I find it is necessary to artificially increase the weight given to the archaeointensity data in order to obtain acceptable models. Despite satisfactorily explaining both the historical and archaeointensity data, and possessing reasonable spatial and temporal complexity, such free evolution models perform worse than the simpler linearly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JGG....34..213D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982JGG....34..213D"><span id="translatedtitle">A correlation between measured E-region current and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> daily variation at equatorial latitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duhau, S.; Osella, A. M.</p> <p></p> <p>The usual methods of separation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> daily variations into parts of external and <span class="hlt">internal</span> origin at equatorial latitudes have been revised to remove any previous assumption about the <span class="hlt">internal</span> current, so that the separation may be performed in a zone of anomalous earth conductivity. The resulting procedure has been applied to obtain the distribution of the ionospheric current from the external field, at the South American dip equator and the result has been compared with previous measurements of the E-region current.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623881"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus antigen in patients with cystic hydatid disease than in patients <span class="hlt">referred</span> to <span class="hlt">internal</span> medicine clinics in Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gültepe, Bilge; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur; Gültepe, İlhami; Karadas, Sevdegul; Ebinç, Senar; Esen, Ramazan</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Turkey remains an intermediate area for prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigenemia. The sheep-raising areas of Turkey also pose a high risk for cystic hydatid disease (CHD). Both HBV infection and CHD are major public health issues particularly in eastern parts of Turkey; however, there is no data regarding HBV infection in patients who have had CHD. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between HBV infection and CHD and suggest ways to reduce HBV infection which is still widespread in Turkey. A retrospective study was conducted with 94 adult patients with active CHD <span class="hlt">referred</span> to the hepatology department, Yuzuncuyil University School of Medicine from December 2010 to December 2012. All subjects came from rural areas of the region and underwent ultrasonography of abdomen which detected CHD of the liver. All the patients were serologically positive for Echinococcus granulosus. The control group consisted of 500 patients (300 men and 200 women) <span class="hlt">referred</span> to the <span class="hlt">internal</span> medicine clinics for other reasons. The patients with CHD and in the control group were tested for the existence of HBs antigen according to the standard procedures. The seroprevalence of HBs antigen was significantly higher in patients with active CHD than those in the control group (12.7% vs 5.2%; P=0.0017). Our data indicate that there is significant association between HBV infection and CHD. All patients with CHD should be screened for HBV infection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9653T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9653T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> Induced Currents: Progress and Issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomson, Alan</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> induced currents (GIC) are a hazard to conducting networks such as high-voltage power and pipeline grids. GIC have been known for decades to affect power systems at higher latitudes (e.g. Europe and North America), although more recently GIC have also been found to affect power networks at middle and lower latitudes. Mitigating the effects of GIC remains an issue for the power and pipeline industries and for governments concerned with the societal and economic implications. To understand, e.g. to model and predict, GIC in conducting grids needs expertise drawn from electrical engineering, geophysics and space weather science - a truly multi-disciplinary undertaking. In terms of geophysics and space physics, issues such as Earth structure (e.g. 3D versus 1D mantle and lithospheric conductivity structure), ocean/continent conductivity contrasts, ionospheric current systems and their variability and Sun-Earth magnetic interactions are all relevant. The start of solar cycle 24 provides an opportune time to consider the status of GIC research and to assess what new studies are required in geophysical modelling and in hazard analysis. What do we need to improve on to better specify/predict GIC flowing in power grids, from ‘up-stream' observations of coronal mass ejections through to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field measurements made during magnetic storms? In this invited review we will consider aspects of a) Measurement: how do we measure GIC in grids; b) Analysis: how do measured GIC relate to geophysical and space physics data; c) Modelling: what methods exist for modelling GIC, again in relation to other data, and how accurate are models; and d) Prediction: how predictable are GIC and what are the implications for, e.g., the power industry and national governments. We will review the more recent developments in GIC and related <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> and space weather science. We will outline what issues are widely believed to now be understood and what issues remain to be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990stp..work.....W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990stp..work.....W"><span id="translatedtitle">Long persistence effects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wrenn, Gordon L.</p> <p>1990-03-01</p> <p>The identification of the physical processes which perturb the dynamic equilibrium of the charged particle populations in the terrestrial magnetosphere is investigated. A planetary index was used and it was proved that the introduction of a persistence factor for a derived index, a time weighted accumulation of recent values, gives a better correlation with an estimation of characteristic persistence times in order to establish the temporal response of observed effects in relation to available measures of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. The analysis procedure was illustrated by results pertaining to ionospheric foF2, cold plasma concentration at geosynchronous orbit and ring current strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730049705&hterms=DST&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DDST','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730049705&hterms=DST&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DDST"><span id="translatedtitle">Interplanetary magnetic field and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Dst variations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patel, V. L.; Desai, U. D.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The interplanetary magnetic field has been shown to influence the ring current field represented by Dst. Explorer 28 hourly magnetic field observations have been used with the hourly Dst values. The moderate <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms of 60 gammas and quiet-time fluctuations of 10 to 30 gammas are correlated with the north to south change of the interplanetary field component perpendicular to the ecliptic. This change in the interplanetary field occurs one to three hours earlier than the corresponding change in the Dst field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007247&hterms=even+letters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Deven%2Bletters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007247&hterms=even+letters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Deven%2Bletters"><span id="translatedtitle">Halo Coronal Mass Ejections and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, Nat</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this letter, I show that the discrepancies in the geoeffectiveness of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) reported in the literature arise due to the varied definitions of halo CMEs used by different authors. In particular, I show that the low geoeffectiveness rate is a direct consequence of including partial halo CMEs. The geoeffectiveness of partial halo CMEs is lower because they are of low speed and likely to make a glancing impact on Earth. Key words: Coronal mass ejections, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, geoeffectiveness, halo CMEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP21A..04H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP21A..04H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field behaviour preceding a Superchron: new evidence for a weak Devonian <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hawkins, L.; Anwar, T.; Scherbakova, V.; Biggin, A. J.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Shatsillo, A.; Holt, J.; Pavlov, V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The ~50 million year transition from the peak in reversal frequency in the Middle Jurassic (~170Ma), associated with a weak <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, to the stable and apparently strong field during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (84-121Ma), represents a dramatic change in time-averaged <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field behaviour during the Mesozoic Era. New evidence from Siberian samples suggests there is a similar transition in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field behaviour during the Palaeozoic, with a weak <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in the Upper Devonian preceding the Permo-Carboniferous Superchron (262-318Ma). Both sites, the Viluy Traps and the Zharovsk complex of the Patom Margin, have seemingly reliable, published palaeomagnetic directions and new age constraints, 364.4 ± 1.7Ma (40Ar/39A) 371-377Ma (U-Pb) respectively. The samples were measured using the Thermal Thellier-Coe protocol with partial thermo-remanent magnetisation (pTRM) and tail checks and the Microwave Thellier-IZZI protocol with pTRM checks. Accepted Arai plots show positive pTRM checks, a clear relation between distinct primary directional and palaeointensity components and little to no zig-zagging. Three distinct magneto-mineralogical types were identified from SEM and rock magnetic techniques; low Ti- and intermediate Ti- titanomagnetite and possible maghemite, with mineral type affecting the success rate of samples but resulting in no significant variation in palaeointensity results. The Arai plots also commonly have a distinct two-slope concave-up shape, although non-heating, pseudo-Thellier experiments have supported this resulting from a strong overprint component rather than alteration or multi-domain effects. Results from these experiments give low site mean values between 2.3-29.9μT (Virtual Dipole Moments 4-50.6 ZAm2). The apparently periodic (~180 million years) transitions in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field behaviour may indicate the influence of mantle convection changing heat flow across the Core Mantle Boundary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3353T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3353T"><span id="translatedtitle">Major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm due to solar activity (2006-2013).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar</p> <p></p> <p>Major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm due to solar activity (2006-2013). Bhupendra Kumar Tiwari Department of Physics, A.P.S.University, Rewa(M.P.) Email: - btiwtari70@yahoo.com mobile 09424981974 Abstract- The geospace environment is dominated by disturbances created by the sun, it is observed that coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar flare events are the causal link to solar activity that produces <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm (GMS).CMEs are large scale magneto-plasma structures that erupt from the sun and propagate through the interplanetary medium with speeds ranging from only a few km/s to as large as 4000 km/s. When the interplanetary magnetic field associated with CMEs impinges upon the earth’s magnetosphere and reconnect occur <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. Based on the observation from SOHO/LASCO spacecraft for solar activity and WDC for <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> Kyoto for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm events are characterized by the disturbance storm time (Dst) index during the period 2006-2013. We consider here only intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm Dst <-100nT, are 12 during 2006-2013.<span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storm with maximum Dst< -155nT occurred on Dec15, 2006 associated with halo CME with Kp-index 8+ and also verify that halo CME is the main cause to produce large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012719','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012719"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical analytic transformations between geographic and corrected <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> coordinates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comfort, R. H.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Based upon a mathematical model of contours of constant corrected <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitude in a polar projection of geographic coordinates, analytic equations are developed for converting geographic coordinates to corrected <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> coordinates and vice versa. The equations were programmed for use on a small computer. This treatment is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750012117','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750012117"><span id="translatedtitle">Search for correlation between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances and mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lipa, B. J.; Barnes, C. W.; Sturrock, P. A.; Feinleib, M.; Rogot, E.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Statistical evaluation of death rates in the U.S.A. from heart diseases or stroke did not show any correlation with measured <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations and thus do not support a claimed relationship between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and mortality rates to low frequency fluctuations of the earth's magnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856572"><span id="translatedtitle">Creation and application of voxelised dosimetric models, and a comparison with the current methodology as used for the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection's <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Animals and Plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Higley, K; Ruedig, E; Gomez-Fernandez, M; Caffrey, E; Jia, J; Comolli, M; Hess, C</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Over the past decade, the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a comprehensive approach to environmental protection that includes the use of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Animals and Plants (RAPs) to assess radiological impacts on the environment. For the purposes of calculating radiation dose, the RAPs are approximated as simple shapes that contain homogeneous distributions of radionuclides. As uncertainties in environmental dose effects are larger than uncertainties in radiation dose calculation, some have argued against more realistic dose calculation methodologies. However, due to the complexity of organism morphology, <span class="hlt">internal</span> structure, and density, dose rates calculated via a homogenous model may be too simplistic. The purpose of this study is to examine the benefits of a voxelised phantom compared with simple shapes for organism modelling. Both methods typically use Monte Carlo methods to calculate absorbed dose, but voxelised modelling uses an exact three-dimensional replica of an organism with accurate tissue composition and radionuclide source distribution. It is a multi-stage procedure that couples imaging modalities and processing software with Monte Carlo N-Particle. These features increase dosimetric accuracy, and may reduce uncertainty in non-human biota dose-effect studies by providing mechanistic answers regarding where and how population-level dose effects arise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP13B1307Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP13B1307Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the <span class="hlt">reference</span> of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> short period variations characteristics in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SpWea..14..324G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SpWea..14..324G"><span id="translatedtitle">Science outreach and capacity building in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> and space sciences—An Indian Institute of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> endeavor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gawali, Praveen; Bhaskar, Ankush; Dhar, Ajay; Ramesh, Durbha Sai</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present an overview of science outreach and capacity building activities at the Indian Institute of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> (IIG) against the backdrop of a long history of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> studies. We also present the future plans of the institute for strengthening these activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.979K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.979K"><span id="translatedtitle">The variations of ionosphere critical frequency of E layer over the equatorial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> region in Southeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kenpankho, Prasert; Ishii, Mamoru; Supnithi, Pornchai</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the values of the critical frequency of the ionospheric E layer, foE, obtained at Chumphon ionospheric observatory station, Thailand. For a declining phase of the solar cycle 23 during the year 2005-2008 and an inclining phase of the solar cycle 24 during the year 2009-2013, the foE data have been used to investigate the foE variations over the equatorial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> region in Southeast Asia. A comparison between the observation data and <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model has also been investigated and studied. The results show that the foE obtained from IRI 2012 model underestimates foE from Chumphon station especially during the period of 7-11 am and after 6 pm for each day and all seasons. As the results combining with the previous investigations, we suggest that the underestimation of ionospheric foE by IRI 2012 model is helpful for the correction and improvement of IRI model in an equatorial Asia region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011244','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011244"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasts of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Joselyn, Joann</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Forecasts of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity are critical since these quantities are such important inputs to the thermospheric density models. At this time in the history of solar science there is no way to make such a forecast from first principles. Physical theory applied to the Sun is developing rapidly, but is still primitive. Techniques used for forecasting depend upon the observations over about 130 years, which is only twelve solar cycles. It has been noted that even-numbered cycles systematically tend to be smaller than the odd-numbered ones by about 20 percent. Another observation is that for the last 12 cycle pairs, an even-numbered sunspot cycle looks rather like the next odd-numbered cycle, but with the top cut off. These observations are examples of approximate periodicities that forecasters try to use to achieve some insight into the nature of an upcoming cycle. Another new and useful forecasting aid is a correlation that has been noted between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices and the size of the next solar cycle. Some best estimates are given concerning both activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.274..472V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.274..472V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> excursions reflect an aborted polarity state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valet, Jean-Pierre; Plenier, Guillaume; Herrero-Bervera, E.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> excursions represent short episodes of a few thousand years at most during which the field considerably exceeds its normal range of variability during a polarity state. Paleomagnetic records have now been obtained with extremely high temporal resolution which have improved our knowledge of these short events. We have compiled the most detailed records of excursions that had occurred during the Brunhes and Matuyama chrons. We show that virtual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> poles (VGPs) of at least one record of each event are able to reach the opposite polarity. In the next step, we have computed different simulations of excursions during which the dipole progressively vanishes before growing back without reversing. This scenario produces very few reversed directions which are only visible at some latitudes. We infer that it is impossible to reach the ratio of reversed to intermediate VGPs present in the paleomagnetic records if the excursions were not associated with a short period of reversed dipole field. Therefore, excursions should be regarded as two successive reversals bracketing an aborted polarity interval. We propose that the same underlying mechanisms prevail in both situations (excursions or reversals) and that below a certain strength the field reaches an unstable position which preludes either the achievement of a reversal or its return to the former polarity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011917&hterms=storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dstorm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011917&hterms=storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dstorm"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Wind Charge Exchange During <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robertson, Ina P.; Cravens, Thomas E.; Sibeck, David G.; Collier, Michael R.; Kuntz, K. D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>On March 31st. 2001, a coronal mass ejection pushed the subsolar magnetopause to the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit at 6.6 RE. The NASA/GSFC Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMe) employed a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to simulate the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction during the peak of this <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. Robertson et aL then modeled the expected 50ft X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange with geocoronal neutrals in the dayside cusp and magnetosheath. The locations of the bow shock, magnetopause and cusps were clearly evident in their simulations. Another <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm took place on July 14, 2000 (Bastille Day). We again modeled X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange, but this time as observed from a moving spacecraft. This paper discusses the impact of spacecraft location on observed X-ray emission and the degree to which the locations of the bow shock and magnetopause can be detected in images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730026939&hterms=9th+planet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D9th%2Bplanet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730026939&hterms=9th+planet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D9th%2Bplanet"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric helium and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reversals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheldon, W. R.; Kern, J. W.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The problem of the earth's helium budget is examined in the light of recent work on the interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetic planets. It is proposed that the dominant mode of helium (He4) loss is ion pumping by the solar wind during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reversals, when the earth's magnetic field is very small. The interaction of the solar wind with the earth's upper atmosphere during such a period is found to involve the formation of a bow shock. The penetration altitude of the shock-heated solar plasma is calculated to be about 700 km, and ionization rates above this level are estimated for a cascade ionization (electron avalanche) process to average 10 to the 9th power ions/sq cm/sec. The calculated ionization rates and the capacity of the solar wind to remove ionized helium (He4) from the upper atmosphere during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dipole reversals are sufficient to yield a secular equilibrium over geologic time scales. The upward transport of helium from the lower atmosphere under these conditions is found to be adequate to sustain the proposed loss rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105414','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105414"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fluctuations to picotesla accuracy using two superconducting quantum interference device vector magnetometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Henry, S.; Pozzo di Borgo, E.; Cavaillou, A.</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>SQUIDs can be used to monitor the three vector components of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field to a high precision at very low frequencies, yet as they are susceptible to external interference, the accuracy to which they can track changes in the dc field over long periods has been unclear. We have carried out simultaneous measurements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field recorded using two independent 3-axis SQUID magnetometers at the Laboratoire Souterrain a Bas Bruit (LSBB). We demonstrate a technique to take the difference between a linear transform of the three signals from one magnetometer, and a <span class="hlt">reference</span> signal from the other, in order to account for any difference in alignment and calibration, and track local signals at a sub-nT level. We confirmed that both systems tracked the same signal with an RMS difference as low as 56pT over a period of 72 h. To our knowledge this is the first such demonstration of the long term accuracy of SQUID magnetometers for monitoring <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JASTP.154...86H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JASTP.154...86H"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of the middle atmosphere to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm of November 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hocke, Klemens</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Ozone and temperature profiles of the satellite microwave limb sounder Aura/MLS are used for the derivation of the middle atmospheric response to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> superstorm of 9 November 2004. We find a destruction of the tertiary ozone layer at 0.022 hPa (77 km) in the northern winter hemisphere lasting for about one week. This effect is surely due to the solar proton event (SPE) of November 2004. At the same time, the zonal mean temperature is enhanced by 5-10 K in the northern polar mesosphere. On the other hand, the zonal mean temperature is decreased by 5-10 K in the northern polar stratosphere. We do not think that the strong temperature perturbations are directly related to the SPE. It seems that the polar vortex was moved by the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm, and this vortex movement caused the strong temperature variations in the zonal mean. However, <span class="hlt">internal</span> variability of temperature in the polar middle atmosphere in winter without any significant link to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm cannot be excluded.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080013389','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080013389"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical Storm-Time Correction to the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere Model E-Region Electron and Ion Density Parameterizations Using Observations from TIMED/SABER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mertens, Christoper J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Evans, David S.; Bilitza, Dieter; Xu, Xiaojing</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The response of the ionospheric E-region to solar-<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms can be characterized using observations of infrared 4.3 micrometers emission. In particular, we utilize nighttime TIMED/SABER measurements of broadband 4.3 micrometers limb emission and derive a new data product, the NO+(v) volume emission rate, which is our primary observation-based quantity for developing an empirical storm-time correction the IRI E-region electron density. In this paper we describe our E-region proxy and outline our strategy for developing the empirical storm model. In our initial studies, we analyzed a six day storm period during the Halloween 2003 event. The results of this analysis are promising and suggest that the ap-index is a viable candidate to use as a magnetic driver for our model.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2259W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2259W"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies on the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Induction Vectors of China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Huiqian; Huang, Qinghua</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study, the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data of 16 stations, near 6 years for most, provided by the National <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Center of China, were used to study on the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> induction vectors. The stations cover the whole North China and part of southwestern China, both of which has a complicate geological and tectonic background. This study will not only advance the understanding of regional tectonic variations, but also provide some suggestions on the construction for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observation network of earthquake monitoring. The time series of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> induction vectors were obtained by the robust estimation method, which has been verified and compared with the ordinary least square and the weighted square method. A principle of selecting a specified period's results from the robust estimation method was defined. Then, the results with the period of 640s for all stations were selected by this principle. The long-term trends (more than six months at least) within the time series were extracted by the Fourier harmonic analysis. Consistent phase variations exist for most stations within a similar tectonic background. About one-month period variations in the most stations' results after removing the long-term trends were found. Spectrum analysis for the results and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity index showed that those phenomena may relate to the period of the global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. A preference azimuth of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> induction vectors was found in each station by statistical analysis on the time series. It pointed out the possible relatively high conductivity structures. Exactly, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> vectors of BJI, JIH, LYH and TAY station, which surround the basin of North China, suggested a relatively higher conductivity layer; that of stations around the Erdos block suggested a complicated structure. Three-dimension inversion by ModEM verifies our results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1203..748P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1203..748P"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Changes of Cardiological Parameters at Middle Latitude Region in Relation to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Disturbances and Cosmic Ray Variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papailiou, M.; Dimitrova, S.; Babayev, E. S.; Mavromichalaki, H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Collaborating scientific groups from Athens (Greece), Baku (Azerbaijan) and Sofia (Bulgaria) have conducted a research work on the possible effects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field disturbances (GMF) and cosmic ray intensity (CRI) variations on human homeostasis, particularly, the cardio-health state. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of seven functionally healthy persons were digitally registered at the joint Laboratory of Heliobiology located in the Medical Centre INAM, Baku, on working days and Saturdays. Heart rate values, estimated from ECGs, were analysed in relation to daily values of CRI, as measured by the Neutron Monitor of the University of Athens and daily variations of Dst and Ap <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices and some significant results had been revealed in previous studies. Researches were continued by study of additional cardiologic parameters estimated from the same ECG data. In this study digital data of RR interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the ECG), namely RRminimum, RRmaximum and RRaverage were analyzed taking into consideration different levels of GMF disturbances (estimated through variations of Dst and Ap indices) and cosmic ray activity (through CRI variations). The data <span class="hlt">refer</span> to the time period 15 July 2006-31 March 2008. Variations of RR intervals show connection to GMF disturbances and CRI variations. The revealed effects are more pronounced for high levels of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity (when <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms occur) and large CRI decreases as well as on the days before and after these variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EOSTr..74...97L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EOSTr..74...97L"><span id="translatedtitle">D'Entrecasteaux, 1792: Celebrating a bicentennial in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lilley, F. E. M. (Ted); Day, Alan A.</p> <p></p> <p>The first surveys of global magnetic intensity, and especially the demonstration of its variation with latitude, are commonly credited (for example, Chapman, [1967]) to Alexander Von Humboldt, who played a major role in developing <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Von Humboldt made intensity measurements in South America from 1798-1803 and later encouraged the establishment of a global magnetic observatory network (see, for example, Malin and Barraclough, [1991]).However, as pointed out by Sabine [1838] in a review of intensity measurements to that time, the earliest surviving survey of global magnetic intensity, showing it to strengthen away from the equator both north and south, was made by Elisabeth Paul Edouard De Rossel during the 1791-1794 expedition of Bruny D'Entrecasteaux. Even earlier measurements seem certain to have been made by the scientist Robert de Paul, chevalier de Lamanon (always <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as Lamanon) of the La Pérouse expedition [Milet-Mureau, 1799], but any records are evidently lost. Lamanon died when the La Pérouse expedition was in Samoa in 1797, and both ships of that expedition were wrecked on the island of Vanikoro, presumably in 1788 [Marchant, 1967; Spate, 1988]. All such measurements were of relative magnetic intensity until a method for the determination of absolute intensity was invented by Gauss in 1832. For a recent discussion of this latter topic, see Jackson [1992].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SpWea..14.1136B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SpWea..14.1136B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> induced currents in the Irish power network during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blake, Seán. P.; Gallagher, Peter T.; McCauley, Joe; Jones, Alan G.; Hogg, Colin; Campanyà, Joan; Beggan, Ciarán. D.; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Kelly, Gemma S.; Bell, David</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> induced currents (GICs) are a well-known terrestrial space weather hazard. They occur in power transmission networks and are known to have adverse effects in both high-latitude and midlatitude countries. Here we study GICs in the Irish power transmission network (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitude 54.7-58.5°N) during five <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms (6-7 March 2016, 20-21 December 2015, 17-18 March 2015, 29-31 October 2003, and 13-14 March 1989). We simulate electric fields using a plane wave method together with two ground resistivity models, one of which is derived from magnetotelluric measurements (magnetotelluric (MT) model). We then calculate GICs in the 220, 275, and 400 kV transmission network. During the largest of the storm periods studied, the peak electric field was calculated to be as large as 3.8 V km-1, with associated GICs of up to 23 A using our MT model. Using our homogenous resistivity model, those peak values were 1.46 V km-1 and 25.8 A. We find that three 400 and 275 kV substations are the most likely locations for the Irish transformers to experience large GICs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760037806&hterms=Myocardial+infarction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMyocardial%2Binfarction','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760037806&hterms=Myocardial+infarction&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMyocardial%2Binfarction"><span id="translatedtitle">Search for correlation between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances and mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lipa, B. J.; Sturrock, P. A.; Rogot, F.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A search is conducted for a possible correlation between solar activity and myocardial infarction and stroke in the United States. A statistical analysis is performed using data on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and the daily U.S. mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke for the years 1962 through 1966. None of the results are found to yield any evidence of a correlation. It is concluded that correlations claimed by Soviet workers between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and the incidence of various human diseases are probably not statistically significant or probably are not due to a causal relation between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15762400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15762400"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-concept and self-efficacy: a test of the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model and predictions of subsequent motivation and achievement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skaalvik, Einar M; Skaalvik, Sidsel</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>We examined how final grades in mathematics and verbal arts in the first year of high school (Grade 11) were predicted in a Norwegian population by sex, previous grades in middle school (Grade 10), self-concept, self-efficacy at a domain-specific level, and intrinsic motivation. Direct and indirect relations were examined by means of a series of regression analyses. Participants were 483 students from six Norwegian high schools. End of term grades in high school correlated positively with grades in middle school in both mathematics (r = .62) and verbal arts (r = .55). The relation between grades at the two points of time was to a large extent mediated through mathematics, verbal self-concept, and self-efficacy. Intrinsic motivation also correlated positively with subsequent achievement (r = .63 and .42 in mathematics and verbal arts, respectively). However, intrinsic motivation had little predictive value for subsequent grades over and above the prediction made by self-concept and self-efficacy. Thus, self-concept and self-efficacy were the strongest predictors of subsequent grades. Predictions from the <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model were supported for self-concept but not for domain-specific self-efficacy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23282970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23282970"><span id="translatedtitle">Exclusion of histiocytes/endothelial cells and using endothelial cells as <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> are crucial for interpretation of MGMT immunohistochemistry in glioblastoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, Chih-Yi; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Ho, Hsiang-Ling; Chang-Chien, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Sanford P-C; Yen, Yu-Shu; Chen, Ming-Hsiung; Guo, Wan-You; Ho, Donald M-T</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We evaluated the predictive value of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein expression and MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastomas (GBM) treated with temozolomide (TMZ) in a Taiwan medical center. Protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) and MGMT promoter methylation detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) were performed in a series of 107 newly diagnosed GBMs. We used endothelial cells as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> for IHC staining because the staining intensities of the MGMT-expressing cells in different specimens varied considerably; a positive result was defined as the staining intensity of the majority of tumor cells similar to that of the adjacent endothelial cells. Immunostainings for microglial/endothelial markers were included as part of the MGMT IHC evaluation, and in cases that were difficult to interpret, double-labeling helped to clarify the nature of reactive cells. The MGMT protein expression was reversely associated with MGMT promoter methylation status in 83.7% of cases (MSP/IHC and MSP/IHC; Pearson r=-0.644, P<0.001). Twenty-two of 24 (91.7%) IHC tumors did not respond to TMZ treatment. Combining MSP and IHC results, all the 15 MSP/IHC GBMs were TMZ resistant. The MGMT status detected by either IHC or MSP was significantly correlated with the TMZ treatment response (both P<0.001) and survival of GBM patients (both P<0.05).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800017470','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800017470"><span id="translatedtitle">Initial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model from MAGSAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.; Mead, G. D.; Fabiano, E. B.; Lancaster, E. R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Magsat data from magnetically quiet days were used to derive a thirteenth degree and order spherical harmonic <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model, MGST(3/80). The model utilized both scalar and vector data and fit that data with standard deviations of 8, 52, 55 and 97 nT for the scalar magnitude, B sub r, B sub theta and B sub phi respectively. When compared with earlier models, the Earth's dipole moment continues to decrease at a rate of about 26 nT/year. Evaluation of earlier models with Magsat data shows that the scalar field at the Magsat epoch is best predicted by the POGO(2/72) model but that the AWC/75 and IGS/75 are better for predicting vector fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12633403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12633403"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic resonance in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> polarity reversals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Consolini, Giuseppe; De Michelis, Paola</p> <p>2003-02-07</p> <p>Among noise-induced cooperative phenomena a peculiar relevance is played by stochastic resonance. In this paper we offer evidence that <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> polarity reversals may be due to a stochastic resonance process. In detail, analyzing the distribution function P(tau) of polarity residence times (chrons), we found the evidence of a stochastic synchronization process, i.e., a series of peaks in the P(tau) at T(n) approximately (2n+1)T(Omega)/2 with n=0,1,...,j and T(omega) approximately 0.1 Myr. This result is discussed in connection with both the typical time scale of Earth's orbit eccentricity variation and the recent results on the typical time scale of climatic long-term variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64..484F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64..484F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and paleomagnetism 1979-1983</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuller, M.</p> <p></p> <p>My function, in writing these notes, is to bring you up to date in <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Paleomagnetism, in as painless a manner as possible—without tears, as the French language texts for tourists used to promise. In writing this account of progress in the past quadrennium, I must first acknowledge that it is a personal and subjective viewpoint;; another reporter would surely emphasize other developments. Yet, there is some virture in writing of things, about which one knows something, so I leave to future reporters the task of redresssing the balance in matters covered.At the outset, one very sad event must be recorded. On April 3, 1981, Sir Edward Bullard died. His published work alone marks him as one of the leaders of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> in our times. Yet his contribution was much greater; many an American geophysicist, as well as a whole generation of British colleagues, have felt the benefit of his perceptive advice on their research. To those who saw him in the last few months of his life, his courage in the face of his illness was a remarkable example of fortitude. It is by now well known that the definitive paper, which he wrote with Malin, on secular variation at London, was only completed immediately before his death. The transmittal letter had been typed, but death prevented him from signing it. Bullard returned in this final paper to a topic to which he had contributed much. In it, he notes the role of Halley, who first described the phenomenon of westward drift, to which Bullard gave a new numerical precision, two and a half centuries later. I seem to remember Bullard saying in a lecture years ago that, while the Newtons of this world seem other than mortal, Halley was a scientist whose life and acheivements could encourage one's own efforts. Bullard, like Halley, inspires and encourages us.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSM51A1738B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSM51A1738B"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activities from the Boyle Index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bala, R.; Reiff, P. H.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Boyle Index (BI), Φ =10-4}( {v{2}/{km/sec) + 11.7({(B)/(nT)})sin 3}{(θ /2) kV, has been successful in predicting the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity since its inception in October 2003. It is available in near-real-time from http://space.rice.edu/ISTP/wind.html and provides space weather predictions of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices (Kp, Dst and the AE) in real time through neural network algorithms. In addition, it provides free email alerts to its 700+ subscribers whenever the magnetospheric activity levels exceed certain pre-defined thresholds. We are constantly improving our algorithms, in the interest of either including more data or improving the accuracy and lead-time of forecasts. For example, with the inclusion of two more years of data (2008 and 2009) in the training, we have the advantage of modeling one of the deepest solar minimums, which has been exceptionally low in terms of the activity level. Our algorithms have been successful in capturing the effects of ``preconditioning" and the non-linearity in the solar wind parameters (for example, see figure 1). This paper presents our new attempts to include the effects of solar turbulence by incorporating the standard deviations in the solar wind parameters along with the BI, for greater the turbulence the higher the energy input into the magnetosphere as some of the previous studies have shown. Furthermore, we will also present how 3-hour averaged 1-hour sliding window scheme have improved our predictions with lead times of 3 hours or longer. Our predictions from a recent activity, 03 August 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IAUS..226....3L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IAUS..226....3L"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on Historical Records of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lakhina, G. S.; Alex, S.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.</p> <p></p> <p>In recent times, there has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs and concomitant magnetic storms. Magnetic storms are the most dramatic and perhaps important component of space weather effects on Earth. Super-intense magnetic storms (defined here as those with Dst < -500 nT, where Dst stands for the disturbance storm time index that measures the strength of the magnetic storm) although relatively rare, have the largest societal and technological relevance. Such storms can cause life-threatening power outages, satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. However, the data for such magnetic storms is rather scarce. For example, only one super-intense magnetic storm has been recorded (Dst=-640 nT, March 13, 1989) during the space-age (since 1958), although such storms may have occurred many times in the last 160 years or so when the regular observatory network came into existence. Thus, research on historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms can help to create a good data base for intense and super-intense magnetic storms. From the application of knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of storms gained from the spaceage observations applied to the super-intense storm of September 1-2, 1859, it has been possible to deduce that an exceptionally fast (and intense) magnetic cloud was the interplanetary cause of this <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm with a Dst -1760 nT, nearly 3 times as large as that of March 13, 1989 super-intense storm. The talk will focus on super-intense storms of September 1-2, 1859, and also discuss the results in the context of some recent intense storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.1269K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.1269K"><span id="translatedtitle">The geocoronal responses to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuwabara, M.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kimura, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Atomic hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial exosphere resonantly scatter solar Lyman alpha (121.6 nm) radiation, observed as the hydrogen geocorona. Measurements of scattered solar photons allow us to probe time-varying distributions of exospheric hydrogen atoms. The Hisaki satellite with the extreme ultraviolet spectrometer (EXtreme ultraviolet spectrosCope for ExosphEric Dynamics: EXCEED) was launched in September 2013. EXCEED acquires spectral images (52-148 nm) of the atmospheres/magnetospheres of planets from Earth orbit. Due to its low orbital altitude ( 1000 km), the images taken by the instrument also contain the geocoronal emissions. In this context, EXCEED has provided quasi-continuous remote sensing observations of the geocorona with high temporal resolution ( 1 min) since 2013. These observations provide a unique database to determine the long-term behavior of the exospheric density structure. In this paper, we report exospheric structural responses observed by EXCEED to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. Several <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms with decreases of Dst index occurred in February 2014 and the Lyman alpha column brightness on the night side of the Earth increased abruptly and temporarily by approximately 10%. Hisaki reveal that the time lag between the peaks of the magnetic activity and the changes in the Lyman alpha column brightness is found to be about 2 to 6 h during storms. In order to interpret the observational results, we evaluate quantitatively the factors causing the increase. On the basis of these results, a coupling effect via charge exchange between the exosphere and plasmasphere causes variations of the exospheric density structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SGeo...35.1123G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SGeo...35.1123G"><span id="translatedtitle">Survey of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observations Made in the Northern Sector of Russia and New Methods for Analysing Them</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gvishiani, Alexei; Lukianova, Renata; Soloviev, Anatoly; Khokhlov, Andrei</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>An overview of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations made in the northern part of Russia is presented from a historical perspective. Several stations were deployed on the territory of the former Soviet Union during the <span class="hlt">International</span> Geophysical Year, 1957-1958, with the active participation and guidance of the Interagency Geophysical Committee which is inherited by the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (GC RAS). In the 1990s, the majority of these stations, especially those in the remoter regions, were closed. Nowadays, the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> network, including the observatories of the INTERMAGNET program, has been restored. Examples of high-latitude <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations in the Russian longitudinal sector are shown, and maps and trends of the secular variation over the territory of Russia presented. Particular attention is paid to the automated processing of data and to the analysis methods used. To process the growing amount of high-resolution <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data, sophisticated mathematical methods based on the fuzzy logic approach and new discrete mathematical analysis algorithms have been developed. The formal methods and algorithms for recognizing both artificial and natural disturbances in the magnetograms are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrEaS...3...61L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrEaS...3...61L"><span id="translatedtitle">An Impending <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> transition? Hints from the past.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The rapid decrease of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720008601','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720008601"><span id="translatedtitle">Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Eriss-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>With the use of a prediction technique it is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ESASP.506..129D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ESASP.506..129D"><span id="translatedtitle">Human physiological reaction to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances of solar origin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dimitrova, Sv.; Stoilova, I.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>During the last two decades publications about the influence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on human health increase but there are not still strong evidences for this relationship. We performed measurements and observations of 86 working volunteers during the period of autumn and spring equinox. We examined systolic, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate. We also collected data for some personal health condition complaints. Four-way analyses of variance (MANOVA method) were employed and the influence of factors <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity level, sequence of the days of measurements with respect to the increased <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, medicaments and sex was investigated. We also performed three-way analyses of variance and investigated influence of atmospheric pressure, medicaments and sex on the physiological parameters under consideration. Our investigations indicate that most of the persons examined irrespectively to their health status could be sensitive to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> changes, which influence directly self-confidence and working ability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.759a2067M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.759a2067M"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphological Investigation of Disturbed Ionosphere during Intense <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malvi, Bhupendra; Srivastav, Prateek S.; Mansoori, Azad A.; Atulkar, Roshni; Bhardwaj, Shivangi; Purohit, P. K.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms are the disturbed magnetic conditions, influenced and induced by Interplanetary Magnetic Field and the Charged Particle's motion around the Earth, respectively, in Geospace. As the ionosphere is woven by the earth's magnetic field it responds to the change in that. During the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms the filled-in plasma between the magnetic field lines, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> flux tubes, redistributes itself in effect of the magnetic field forcing. In the present study we have done the investigation of the morphology of the ionosphere over the mid and high latitude regions during intense <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms. We got fairly convincing results; in three cases decrease of the critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2) and in one case enhancement of the critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2) at mid and high latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.1579T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.1579T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Variations of Near-polar Regions and Human Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tchistova, Z. B.; Kutinov, Y. G.</p> <p></p> <p>In polar region <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations play active role to non-linear tectonic processes. This analysis is based on spatial-time spectral representation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variation and wave migration transformation. Many perturbations in electromagnetic fields may because by external factors (e.g. magnetic storms, ionosphere anomalies and other phenomena related to solar activity) "trigging" tectonic processes but having no direct relation to the processes of their preparation. Geophysical processes are responsible for perturbations in Earth's rotation and orientation on wide range of time-scale, from less than a day of millions of years. The geological structure of some sites of Earth's crust promotes occurrence of wave guides a number of geophysical fields (acoustic, seismic, electromagnetic), usually of transportation of acoustic, seismic, electromagnetic energy in Earth's crust are coincide spatially. During last 250 mln years Arctic Segment has been developing as an autonomous region with circumpolar zonality of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields, and mass - and-energy transfer in its bowlers as well as shitting of lithospheric plates and expansion of ocean are caused by rotation forces under of expanding planet. The dynamic structure of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations may be characteriz ed by the variations of the order-chaos state. The order manifest itself in the rhythmic change of the medium state. Analysis of amplitude and phase of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations can be information on ecological state of regions. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> variations is intrincically a multiscale process in time and space. One of the most important features of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations is multicyclic character, whish predetermined both extent and character of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> show, and specific features. Recently, there are collected many facts, show dependence between the processes in the Earth's biosphere, the elements of it, gelio- geo- physical and meteorological factors. The recent experimental data gives us opportunity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AJ....119.1985S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AJ....119.1985S"><span id="translatedtitle">CCD Positions Determined in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame for the Outer Planets and Many of Their Satellites in 1995-1999</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stone, Ronald C.; Harris, Frederick H.</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>This paper presents 1155 accurate equatorial positions for the outer planets Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto and 17 satellites of Jupiter-Neptune. Additional positions for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune can be determined from the planetocentric motions of their satellites given in this paper. All the positions were determined in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF), the IAU standard for all future astrometric reductions, from CCD observations taken with the Flagstaff Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope (FASTT) and reduced differentially using the ACT <span class="hlt">reference</span> stars. The methods used to determine these positions are fully described. Accuracies of +/-0.08" to +/-0.25" were obtained in each coordinate, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio observed for each object. In many cases, planets and satellites were imaged in the same CCD field of view, thereby giving excellent relative astrometry (+/-0.04") for well-exposed images. Moreover, 424 older FASTT positions determined in 1995-1997 for Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto were converted to the ICRF and are given also in this paper. When FASTT positions are compared with modern Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) ephemerides for the planets and satellites considered herein, there is generally good agreement (less than 0.05") between observation and theory. For the planets, FASTT observations and DE405 ephemerides all agree to better than 0.05" and, in most cases, less than 0.03" when mean differences are formed. There are some exceptions for the satellites. Namely, the ephemerides for the outer satellites of Jupiter and Saturn considered in this paper (Himalia, Elara, Pasiphae, and Phoebe) and the Uranian satellites Titania and Oberon probably need improvement as indicated from the FASTT observational data. The former show systematic trends when (FASTT-JPL ephemeris) coordinate differences are plotted against either coordinate position or orbital phase, and the latter show a possible offset between the right</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2862S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2862S"><span id="translatedtitle">NeMars empirical model for the dayside martian ionosphere and its use to validate MARSIS instrument techniques: Possible contribution to the Mars <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (MIRI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz; Witasse, Olivier; Radicella, Sandro M.; Cartacci, Marco; Orosei, Roberto; Herraiz, Miguel; Rodriguez-Caderot, Gracia</p> <p></p> <p> TEC retrieving techniques constrains and limits. In the context of the ongoing efforts for the creation of a Mars <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (MIRI), we propose to contribute to this effort making use of the AIS data and the NeMars model of daytime electron density. <span class="hlt">References</span>: Cartacci et al 2013. Icarus, 223, 423-437. Mouginot et al. Planet. 2008. Space Sci. 56, 917-926. Sánchez - Cano et al., 2013. Icarus, 225, 236-247.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990110306','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990110306"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field and Radiation in Near-Earth Orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heirtzler, J. R.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This report shows, in detail, how the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field interacts with the particle flux of the radiation belts to create a hazard to spacecraft and humans in near-Earth orbit. It illustrates the geometry of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field lines, especially around the area where the field strength is anomalously low in the South Atlantic Ocean. It discusses how the field will probably change in the future and the consequences that may have on hazards in near space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AcGSn..34..272Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AcGSn..34..272Z"><span id="translatedtitle">System identification of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances initiated by the solar wind.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Xiaoyan; Tschu, Kangkun</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>On the basis of linear and time-invariant supposition, the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances initiated by the solar wind have been studied in terms of least square non-parametric identification method. The macro-external description of the response of the magnetosphere to the solar wind is given by the impulse response function. The predicted <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances are compared with the observations; they are found to agree quite well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA047570','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA047570"><span id="translatedtitle">The ROSCOE Manual. Volume 15. ambient <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-06-13</p> <p>Continue on reverse side it necessary and identify by bloc;, number) ROSCOE\\ ~ Ambient <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Model .3 ABSTRACT fC.-ntinue on re.erse side if...necesAary end idrnttlyhr block number) A preliminary model of the ambient <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field has been adopted for use in ROSCOE. The model fits a locally...presented derivations, flow d’,%rams, Fortran listings, and a test problem and evaluation. The model is found to he both fast and accurate. ream DD I</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/854743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/854743"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> disturbance and the orientation of nocturnally migrating birds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, F R</p> <p>1977-05-06</p> <p>Free-flying passerine migrants respond to natural fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field. The variability in flight directions of nocturnal migrants is significantly correlated with increasing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance as measured by both the K index and various components of the earth's magnetic field. The results indicate that such disturbances influence the orientation of free-flying migrants, but the evidence is not sufficient to show that <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is a cue in their orientation system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20298135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20298135"><span id="translatedtitle">IFCC <span class="hlt">reference</span> procedures for measurement of the catalytic concentrations of enzymes: corrigendum, notes and useful advice. <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC)--IFCC Scientific Division.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schumann, Gerhard; Canalias, Francesca; Joergensen, Poul J; Kang, Dongchon; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Klauke, Rainer; Committee On Reference Systems For Enzymes C-Rse; International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Scientific Division</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The primary <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedures (PRMPs) for the <span class="hlt">international</span> standardization of catalytic concentration measurements of alpha-amylase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), gamma-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase have been performed in <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories for several years. The IFCC Committee on <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems for Enzymes and two <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories, with official accreditation for the PRMPs, have collected useful information on some of the steps of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> procedures that require special attention. This document comprises errata corrige for minor mistakes in published PRMPs for AST and CK. Several notes on the PRMPs are emphasized. This includes details that are very important for improved standardization, and general suggestions for reducing measurement uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3628581','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3628581"><span id="translatedtitle">Using the <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to Describe Children <span class="hlt">Referred</span> to Special Care or Paediatric Dental Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Faulks, Denise; Norderyd, Johanna; Molina, Gustavo; Macgiolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Scagnet, Gabriela; Eschevins, Caroline; Hennequin, Martine</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child’s capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) (WHO), provides a wider picture of a child’s real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents <span class="hlt">referred</span> to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ±3.6yrs). <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Disease (ICD-10) diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%), Down syndrome (22.0%), mental retardation (17.0%), autistic disorders (16.1%), and dental anxiety alone (11.0%). The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were ‘Intellectual functions’, ‘High-level cognitive functions’, and ‘Attention functions’. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including ‘Handling stress’, ‘Caring for body parts’, ‘Looking after one’s health’ and ‘Speaking’. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included ‘Support of friends’, ‘Attitude of friends’ and ‘Support of immediate family’. One item was reported as an environmental barrier – ‘Societal attitudes’. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812574R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812574R"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between the effect of two <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms with the same seasonal and daily characteristics and different intensity on the European ionosphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez-Bouza, Marta; Herraiz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracía; Paparini, Claudia; Otero, Xurxo; Radicella, Sandro M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This work presents an analysis of the ionospheric disturbance caused by two <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms occurred on the same day, 17th March, but one in 2013 and other in 2015. The greatest intensity of both storms occurs after sunset when <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indexes (Dst index, Kp and Ap) reached the peak values. Both <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms can be classified as intense according to the Dst index criteria. The storm of March 17, 2015, ("St Patricḱs storm"), can be considered even "severe" because the Dst index dropped off -200nT. The solar origins of both <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms were magnetic filament eruptions followed by Coronal Mass Ejections, CME. The ionospheric behavior has been studied through the total electron content, TEC. This parameter is obtained from RINEX files processed using the calibration technique developed by Prof. Luigi Ciraolo. RINEX files from selected GNSS stations on Europe belonging to <span class="hlt">International</span> GPS Service, IGS, and EUREF Permanent Network, have been used. The calibration technique assumes the ionospheric thin shell model to obtain vertical total electron content (vTEC) from slant total electron content (sTEC) at the Ionospheric Pierce Point. The data were obtained in periods of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and during quite days surrounding the storms days, at 1 minute sampling. The behavior of the ionosphere during the two <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms was similar. In both cases, a positive ionospheric storm, defined as an increase on the TEC, occurred during the main phase of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms on 17th of March. These increases were followed by a negative ionospheric storm, a decreasing of TEC, in the recuperation phase. However, in the event of 2015, the positive ionospheric storm of the main phase had more intensity but the same duration than that of 2013 and for the negative ionospheric storm both, intensity and duration, were largest in 2015 than in 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28357508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28357508"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Azcárate, T; Mendoza, B</p> <p>2017-03-30</p> <p>We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1016435','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1016435"><span id="translatedtitle">Are migrating raptors guided by a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> compass?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thorup, Kasper; Fuller, Mark R.; Alerstam, T.; Hake, M.; Kjellen, N.; Standberg, R.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We tested whether routes of raptors migrating over areas with homogeneous topography follow constant <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> courses more or less closely than constant geographical courses. We analysed the routes taken over land of 45 individual raptors tracked by satellite-based radiotelemetry: 25 peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, on autumn migration between North and South America, and seven honey buzzards, Pernis apivorus, and 13 ospreys, Pandion haliaetus, on autumn migration between Europe and Africa. Overall, migration directions showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> courses. Tracks deviated significantly from constant <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> courses, but were not significantly different from geographical courses. After we removed movements directed far from the mean direction, which may not be migratory movements, migration directions still showed a better agreement with constant geographical than constant <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> courses, but the directions of honey buzzards and ospreys were not significantly different from constant <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> courses either. That migration routes of raptors followed by satellite telemetry are in closer accordance with constant geographical compass courses than with constant <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> compass courses may indicate that geographical (e.g. based on celestial cues) rather than magnetic compass mechanisms are of dominating importance for the birds' long-distance orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814994G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814994G"><span id="translatedtitle">Local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices and their role in space weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guerrero, Antonio; Cid, Consuelo; Saiz, Elena; Palacios, Judith; Cerrato, Yolanda</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The analysis of local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances (specific longitude and latitude) have recently proved to play an important role in space weather research. Localized strong (high intensity) and impulsive (fast developed and fast recovered) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances are typically recorded at high latitudes and commonly related to field-aligned currents. These type of disturbances are also recorded, less frequently, at mid and low latitudes, representing an important hazard for technology. In order to obtain <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index) from the records at a certain observatory, a baseline has to be removed. The baseline is usually determined taking into account <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation and solar quiet time. At mid-latitudes the shape of the daily solar quiet component presents a strong day-to-day variability difficult to predict. In this work we present a new technique capable to determine the baseline at mid-latitudes which allows us to obtain a high resolution local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index with the highest accuracy ever obtained at mid-latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.383..142H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.383..142H"><span id="translatedtitle">Globally strong <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity circa 3000 years ago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Hoabin; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Ran Hee; Park, Jingyu; Doh, Seong-Jae; Kim, Wonnyon; Sung, Hyongmi</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>High-fidelity <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity determination was carried out using 191 baked fragments collected from 20 kilns or hearths with ages ranging between ∼1200 BC and ∼AD 1725 in South Korea. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field intensity variation displayed three narrow minima at ∼800-700 BC, ∼AD 700, and ∼AD 1600 and two maxima at ∼1200-1100 BC and ∼AD 1000-1100. In most time intervals, virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) variation is confined within 20% of the present VADM. However, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity circa 3000 yr ago is nearly 40% larger than the present value. Such high VADMs circa 3000 yr ago are in phase with those in other longitudinal bands in northern hemisphere centered at 5E (France), 30E (the Middle East) and 200E (Hawaii). Although strong <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity circa 3000 yr ago is globally synchronous, the highest VADM occurs at slightly different time intervals in different locations. Hence it is possible that the globally strong <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity circa 3000 yr ago reflects the migration of persistent hemispheric flux in northern hemisphere or an episode of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field hemispheric asymmetry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27..569B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27..569B"><span id="translatedtitle">Multifractal analysis of low-latitude <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fluctuations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolzan, M. J. A.; Rosa, R. R.; Sahai, Y.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>The technique of large deviation multifractal spectrum has shown that the high-latitude (77.5° N, 69.2° W) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fluctuations can be described from direct dissipation process or loading-unloading regimes of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. In this paper, we analyze the H-component of low-latitude (22.4° S, 43.6° W) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variability observed during the month of July 2000 at the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory, Vassouras, RJ, Brazil. The variability pattern during this period is a mixture of quiet and disturbed days including the Bastille Day intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm on 15 July. Due to the complexity of this data, we pursue a detailed analysis of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fluctuations in different time scales including a multifractal approach using the singular power spectrum deviations obtained from the wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM). The results suggest, as observed from high-latitude data, the occurrence of low-latitude multifractal processes driving the intermittent coupling between the solar wind-magnetosphere and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations. On finer scales possible physical mechanisms in the context of nonlinear magnetosphere response are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2c..59G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2c..59G"><span id="translatedtitle">Modification of the solar activity indices in the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere IRI and IRI-Plas models due to recent revision of sunspot number time series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gulyaeva, Tamara</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) imports global effective ionospheric IG12 index based on ionosonde measurements of the critical frequency foF2 as a proxy of solar activity. Similarly, the global electron content (GEC), smoothed by the sliding 12-months window (GEC12), is used as a solar proxy in the ionospheric and plasmaspheric model IRI-Plas. GEC has been calculated from global ionospheric maps of total electron content (TEC) since 1998 whereas its productions for the preceding years and predictions for the future are made with the empirical model of the linear dependence of GEC on solar activity. At present there is a need to re-evaluate solar and ionospheric indices in the ionospheric models due to the recent revision of sunspot number (SSN2) time series, which has been conducted since 1st July, 2015 [Clette et al., 2014]. Implementation of SSN2 instead of the former SSN1 series with the ionospheric model could increase model prediction errors. A formula is proposed to transform the smoothed SSN212 series to the proxy of the former basic SSN112=R12 index, which is used by IRI and IRI-Plas models for long-term ionospheric predictions. Regression relationships are established between GEC12, the sunspot number R12, and the proxy solar index of 10.7 cm microwave radio flux, F10.712. Comparison of calculations by the IRI-Plas and IRI models with observations and predictions for Moscow during solar cycles 23 and 24 has shown the advantage of implementation of GEC12 index with the IRI-Plas model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3526871','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3526871"><span id="translatedtitle">Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPRS...64..204K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPRS...64..204K"><span id="translatedtitle">SPIRIT. SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Images and Topographies during the fourth <span class="hlt">International</span> Polar Year (2007-2009)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korona, Jérôme; Berthier, Etienne; Bernard, Marc; Rémy, Frédérique; Thouvenot, Eric</p> <p></p> <p>Monitoring the evolution of polar glaciers, ice caps and ice streams is of utmost importance because they constitute a good indicator of global climate change and contribute significantly to ongoing sea level rise. Accurate topographic surveys are particularly relevant as they reflect the geometric evolution of ice masses. Unfortunately, the precision and/or spatial coverage of current satellite missions (radar altimetry, ICESat) or field surveys are generally insufficient. Improving our knowledge of the topography of Polar Regions is the goal of the SPIRIT (SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Images and Topographies) <span class="hlt">international</span> polar year (IPY) project. SPIRIT will allow (1) the acquisition of a large archive of SPOT 5 stereoscopic images covering most polar ice masses and, (2) the delivery of digital terrain models (DTM) to the scientific community. Here, we present the architecture of this project and the coverage achieved over northern and southern polar areas during the first year of IPY (July 2007 to April 2008). We also provide the first accuracy assessments of the SPIRIT DTMs. Over Jakobshavn Isbrae (West Greenland), SPIRIT elevations are within ±6 m of ICESat elevations for 90% of the data. Some comparisons with ICESat profiles over Devon ice cap (Canada), St Elias Mountains (Alaska) and west Svalbard confirm the good overall quality of the SPIRIT DTMs although large errors are observed in the flat accumulation area of Devon ice cap. We then demonstrate the potential of SPIRIT DTMs for mapping glacier elevation changes. The comparison of summer-2007 SPIRIT DTMs with October-2003 ICESat profiles shows that the thinning of Jakobshavn Isbrae (by 30-40 m in 4 years) is restricted to the fast glacier trunk. The thinning of the coastal part of the ice stream (by over 100 m) and the retreat of its calving front (by up to 10 km) are clearly depicted by comparing the SPIRIT DTM to an ASTER April-2003 DTM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP42A..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP42A..05S"><span id="translatedtitle">A Quaternary <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Instability Time Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singer, B. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Reversals and excursions of Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field create marker horizons that are readily detected in sedimentary and volcanic rocks worldwide. An accurate and precise chronology of these <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field instabilities is fundamental to understanding several aspects of Quaternary climate, dynamo processes, and surface processes. For example, stratigraphic correlation between marine sediment and polar ice records of climate change across the cryospheres benefits from a highly resolved record of reversals and excursions. The temporal patterns of dynamo behavior may reflect physical interactions between the molten outer core and the solid inner core or lowermost mantle. These interactions may control reversal frequency and shape the weak magnetic fields that arise during successive dynamo instabilities. Moreover, weakening of the axial dipole during reversals and excursions enhances the production of cosmogenic isotopes that are used in sediment and ice core stratigraphy and surface exposure dating. The <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Instability Time Scale (GITS) is based on the direct dating of transitional polarity states recorded by lava flows using the 40Ar/39Ar method, in parallel with astrochronologic age models of marine sediments in which O isotope and magnetic records have been obtained. A review of data from Quaternary lava flows and sediments yields a GITS comprising 10 polarity reversals and 27 excursions during the past 2.6 million years. Nine of the ten reversals bounding chrons and subchrons are associated with 40Ar/39Ar ages of transitionally-magnetized lava flows. The tenth, the Guass-Matuyama chron boundary, is tightly bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar dated ash deposits. Of the 27 well-documented excursions, 14 occurred during the Matuyama chron and 13 during the Brunhes chron; 19 have been dated directly using the 40Ar/39Ar method on transitionally-magnetized volcanic rocks and form the backbone of the GITS. Excursions are clearly not the rare phenomena once thought</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSMGP33A..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSMGP33A..01K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field -- From Paleomagnetism to Dynamo Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kono, M.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Since 1995, self-consistent models of the geodynamo became available. There are certain problems, but some of these models have shown behaviors quite similar to those observed by paleomagnetism, including polarity reversals (Kono and Roberts, 2002). There is thus a hope that the combination of paleomagnetism and dynamo theory may provide us a very comprehensive understanding of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. In this paper, I will try to highlight the possibilities and limitations in such studies. From satellite observations, it was shown that the power of the magnetic field contained in each degree is nearly the same if measured at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The core field can be seen only to degree 13 or 14 where the field power is about (10 nT)2. Beyond that, the crustal magnetization dominates and the core signal is lost. The value of 10 nT is far larger than the accuracy of the present-day instruments, but much smaller than the resolution obtainable by paleomagnetic observations. We may safely assume that the error in paleomagnetic measurements (in direction) is of the order of 10 degrees. This error corresponds to the resolution of about 1/5. The relative powers of the low degree terms in the magnetic field at the surface are 1.0, 0.033, 0.019, 0.0055 (Langel and Estes, 1982). This means that only the degrees 1 to 3 terms may be distinguished by paleomagnetic data. From the combination of dipole, quadrupole, and octupole, what we can deduce about the fundamental properties of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field? Here are some of the possibilities, which may give important clues when we compare with dynamo simulation results. (1) The current dipole power is several times larger than the value expected from the trend line produced by degrees 2--13. Is this a persistent feature or transient? (2) In PSV analysis, the angular standard deviation increases with latitude. Kono and Tanaka (1995) showed that it is possible only if the (2,1) (degree, order) or (3,2) term is very large</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67...15X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67...15X"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> induction effect on Dst-related magnetic observations under different disturbance intensities of the magnetospheric ring current</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Dan; Chen, Huaran; Gao, Mengtan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Based on the spherical harmonic expansion of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance observed on the mid-latitude surface of the Earth, external and <span class="hlt">internal</span> field separation is conducted in which the external component is magnetic disturbance caused by the magnetospheric ring current and the <span class="hlt">internal</span> component is that raised by the correspondingly induced currents within the Earth. The objectives are to evaluate the influences of the induced <span class="hlt">internal</span> field on the surface magnetic observations and to reveal the response performance of <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> induction under different strengths of magnetospheric ring current fluctuations for better understanding of the disturbance storm time ( Dst) index variations. The results show that the ratio of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> component to surface observation does not remain constant in storm time. During the main phase of the storm, the ratio variation follows the pattern of logarithmic growth with storm evolution up to the top value at the Dst-minimum; then, the ratio slowly decreases in the long recovery phase. Multiple small logarithmic growths are superimposed on the traces of <span class="hlt">internal</span> ratios, corresponding to temporary ring current intensification during the storm main phase and amplifying the effect of this intensification on surface magnetic observations. With the intensification of magnetospheric storms from the level of (-200 nT, - 100 nT) to (-300 nT, - 200 nT) and (-500 nT, - 300 nT) classified with the Dst-minimum, the top value of the ratio averaged for each storm group in the superposed epoch analysis method increases from the value of 0.295 ± 0.014 to 0.300 ± 0.016 and 0.308 ± 0.015, respectively. It is demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> induction exceeds the linear relation with the intensification of the external field, which is physically reasonable and coincident with the Faraday's law of induction. Due to the effects of high induction of the oceans and lateral heterogeneity of electric conductivity distribution in the upper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Tectp.524...29T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Tectp.524...29T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> variations possibly associated with the Pisco earthquake on 15 August 2007, Peru</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takla, E. M.; Yumoto, K.; Ishitsuka, J.; Rosales, D.; Dutra, S.; Uozumi, T.; Abe, S.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>On 15 August 2007, Pisco earthquake (magnitude 8.0) hit the central coast of Peru near the MAGDAS Ancon (ANC) station. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> data from ANC and other <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations have been analyzed to detect any signature related to this great earthquake. Results indicate the presence of annual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations in the vertical component at ANC and Huancayo (HUA) stations (in the vicinity of the epicenter of Pisco earthquake). These variations have a quasi-sinusoidal waveform with amplitudes of about 10 and 5 nT for ANC and HUA stations respectively. They appeared clearly during the period preceding the onset of the Pisco earthquake especially at ANC station. By using HUA, Eusebio (EUS) and Kourou (KOU) as <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations in the vicinity and away from the epicenter of Pisco earthquake, a clear disappearance of the diurnal variation of the vertical component was observed at ANC station during the day of earthquake. Moreover, the Pisco earthquake and another earthquake (on 29 March 2008) near ANC station were found to occur concurrently with the depressions in the polarization ratio (Z/H) of Pc 3 (10-45 s) amplitude. Such anomalous variations appear to be a result of changes in the crustal stress field and the lithospheric conductivity in the studied region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://store.elsevier.com/The-Encyclopedia-of-Mass-Spectrometry/isbn-9780080438047/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://store.elsevier.com/The-Encyclopedia-of-Mass-Spectrometry/isbn-9780080438047/"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotope <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Coplen, Tyler B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. <span class="hlt">International</span> distribution of light element isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850015098','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850015098"><span id="translatedtitle">Periodic substorm activity in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Williams, D. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>On 19 May 1978 an anusual series of events is observed with the Quadrispherical LEPEDEA on board the ISEE-1 satellite in the Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail. For 13 hours periodic bursts of both ions and electrons are seen in all the particle detectors on the spacecraft. On this day periodic activity is also seen on the ground, where multiple intensifications of the electrojets are observed. At the same time the latitudinal component of the interplanetary magnetic field shows a number of strong southward deflections. It is concluded that an extended period of substorm activity is occurring, which causes repeated thinnings and recoveries of the plasma sheet. These are detected by ISEE, which is situated in the plasma sheet boundary layer, as periodic dropouts and reappearances of the plasma. Comparisons of the observations at ISEE with those at IMP-8, which for a time is engulfed by the plasma sheet, indicate that the activity is relatively localized in spatial extent. For this series of events it is clear that a global approach to magnetospheric dynamics, e.g., reconnection, is inappropriate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25685427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25685427"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> during solar cycle 23: Characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zerbo, Jean-Louis; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Ouattara, Frédéric</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>On the basis of more than 48 years of morphological analysis of yearly and monthly values of the sunspot number, the aa index, the solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field, we point out the particularities of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity during the period 1996-2009. We especially investigate the last cycle 23 and the long minimum which followed it. During this period, the lowest values of the yearly averaged IMF (3 nT) and yearly averaged solar wind speed (364 km/s) are recorded in 1996, and 2009 respectively. The year 2003 shows itself particular by recording the highest value of the averaged solar wind (568 km/s), associated to the highest value of the yearly averaged aa index (37 nT). We also find that observations during the year 2003 seem to be related to several coronal holes which are known to generate high-speed wind stream. From the long time (more than one century) study of solar variability, the present period is similar to the beginning of twentieth century. We especially present the morphological features of solar cycle 23 which is followed by a deep solar minimum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4084A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4084A"><span id="translatedtitle">The Livingston Island <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> and Ionospheric Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altadill, David; Marsal, Santiago; Blanch, Estefania; Miquel Torta, J.; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Germán Solé, J.; Cid, Òscar; José Curto, Juan; Ibáñez, Miguel; Segarra, Antoni; Lluís Pijoan, Joan; Juan, Juan Miguel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Ebre Observatory Institute manages a geophysical observatory installed at the Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS) Juan Carlos I. It was set up in 1995 and it has been updated yearly by our team throughout several projects carried out since then. Nowadays, it hosts a magnetic station providing 1-second data of the 3 components (X, Y, Z) and the total force (F) during the entire year, and an ionospheric station providing vertical and oblique data during austral summer. This observatory has provided long data series of high scientific value from this remote region of the Earth. They have been used to improve the knowledge of the climate and weather behavior of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and ionosphere in the area, and to model and expand the capacity of data transmission. This contribution aims to present a brief review of the instruments installed at SAS, the research results obtained from their data, and the developing activities under the current project. Finally, future perspectives are outlined with regard to adapting our geophysical observatory to the evolving needs of observatory practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4295039','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4295039"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> during solar cycle 23: Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zerbo, Jean-Louis; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Ouattara, Frédéric</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>On the basis of more than 48 years of morphological analysis of yearly and monthly values of the sunspot number, the aa index, the solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field, we point out the particularities of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity during the period 1996–2009. We especially investigate the last cycle 23 and the long minimum which followed it. During this period, the lowest values of the yearly averaged IMF (3 nT) and yearly averaged solar wind speed (364 km/s) are recorded in 1996, and 2009 respectively. The year 2003 shows itself particular by recording the highest value of the averaged solar wind (568 km/s), associated to the highest value of the yearly averaged aa index (37 nT). We also find that observations during the year 2003 seem to be related to several coronal holes which are known to generate high-speed wind stream. From the long time (more than one century) study of solar variability, the present period is similar to the beginning of twentieth century. We especially present the morphological features of solar cycle 23 which is followed by a deep solar minimum. PMID:25685427</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH53A2138Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH53A2138Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Major <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms in Solar Cycle 24</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Solar Cycle 24 has produced 11 major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms (where Dstmin < -100 nT) with three in 2011, six in 2012 and two in 2013 (as of 7 August 2013). Detailed analysis of each event will be given in terms of its solar driver(s): CME, coronal hole high speed solar wind stream (HSS), multiple CMEs or interactions between CME and HSS. While some of these storms are associated with a fast and wide CME, the few cases involving slow or common CMEs and interactions with HSS are particularly interesting. These events pose great challenges for accurate space weather forecasting, since operationally the slower or average CMEs tend to receive less attention and are sometimes overlooked altogether. The characteristics of such challenging, not-so-fast yet geoeffective CME events (such as their coronal signatures and interactions with surrounding solar wind structure(s), etc) will be examined in detail, with the goal of extracting common and telltale features, if any, of these CMEs that distinguish them from CMEs in a similar category.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP21A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP21A..06M"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-dimensional analysis of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morzfeld, M.; Fournier, A.; Hulot, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Low-dimensional models for Earth's magnetic dipole have attracted attention recently because they may be a powerful tool to study the dominant dynamics over geological time-scales, where direct numerical simulation remains challenging. We investigate the extent to which several low-dimensional models can explain the Earth's dipole dynamics by comparing them to the signed relative paleointensity over the past 2 million years. Our comparisons of models and data are done by Bayesian statistics, which allows us to incorporate nonlinearity and uncertainty into the computations. The comparison, or data assimilation, reveals the strengths and weaknesses of each low-dimensional model and suggests improvements to the low-dimensional models. We also investigate if low-dimensional models can predict dipole reversals by performing extensive numerical experiments, and by hind-casting the Laschamp event, the Bruhnes-Matuyama reversal, as well as four other reversals documented over the past two million years. Our analysis stresses the need for models of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals to faithfully account for the full spectrum of variability of paleomagnetic intensity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HGSS....6...65S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HGSS....6...65S"><span id="translatedtitle">History of the Munich-Maisach-Fürstenfeldbruck <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soffel, H. C.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The Munich-Maisach-Fürstenfeldbruck <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory is one of the observatories with the longest recordings of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. It started with hourly measurements on 1 August 1840. The founder of the observatory in Munich was Johann von Lamont (1805-1879), the Director of the Royal Bavarian Astronomical Observatory. He had been stimulated to build his own observatory by the initiative of the Göttingen Magnetic Union founded in 1834 by Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) and Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855). Before 1840 fewer than five observatories existed; the most prominent ones were those in London and Paris. At the beginning Lamont used equipment delivered by Gauss in Göttingen, but soon started to build instruments of his own design. Among them was a nonmagnetic theodolite which allowed precise <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements to be made also in the field. During the 1850s Lamont carried out <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> surveys and produced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> maps for Germany and many other European countries. At the end of the nineteenth century accurate <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements in Munich became more and more disturbed by the magnetic stray fields from electric tramways and industry. During this period the quality of the data suffered and the measurements had to be interrupted several times. After a provisional solution in Maisach, a village 25 km west of Munich, a final solution could be found in the vicinity of the nearby city of Fürstenfeldbruck. Here the measurements started again on 1 January 1939. Since the 1980s the observatory has been part of INTERMAGNET, an organization providing almost real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data of the highest quality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5371446','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5371446"><span id="translatedtitle">Infectious diseases prevalence, vaccination coverage, and diagnostic challenges in a population of <span class="hlt">internationally</span> adopted children <span class="hlt">referred</span> to a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sollai, Sara; Ghetti, Francesca; Bianchi, Leila; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa; Chiappini, Elena</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Infectious diseases are common in <span class="hlt">internationally</span> adopted children (IAC). With the objective to evaluate infectious diseases prevalence in a large cohort of IAC and to explore possible risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and parasitic infections, clinical and laboratory data at first screening visit of all IAC (<18 years) consecutively <span class="hlt">referred</span> to our Center in 2009 to 2015 were collected and analyzed. In total, 1612 children (median age: 5.40 years; interquartile range: 3.00–7.90) were enrolled, 123/1612 (7.60%) having medical conditions included in the special needs definition. The most frequent cutaneous infections were Molluscum contagiosum (42/1612; 2.60%) and Tinea capitis (37/1612; 2.30%). Viral hepatitis prevalence was <1% (hepatitis B virus [HBV]: 13 children, 0.80%; hepatitis C virus: 1 child, 0.10%; hepatitis A virus: 6 children, 0.40%). A parasitic infection was diagnosed in 372/1612 (23.10%) children. No risk factors for parasitosis were evidenced. Active TB was diagnosed in 4/1355 (0.3%) children, latent TB in 222/1355 (16.40%). Only 3.7% (51/1355) children had concordant positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) results. Risk factors for TST+/QFT-G-IT− results were previous Bacille de Calmette-Guérin vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.18; 96% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26–3.79; P = 0.006), and age ≥5 years (aOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.06–2.11; P = 0.02). The proportion of children with nonprotective titers for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) ranged from 15.70% (208/1323) for tetanus to 35.10% (469/1337) for HBV. Infectious diseases were commonly observed in our cohort. The high rate of discordant TST/QFT-G results brings up questions regarding the optimal management of these children, and suggests that, at least in children older than 5 years, only QFT-G-IT results may be reliable. The low proportion of children protected for VPD, confirms importance of a timely screening. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnGeo..35..139L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnGeo..35..139L"><span id="translatedtitle">A study of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations along the 80° S <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> parallel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lepidi, Stefania; Cafarella, Lili; Francia, Patrizia; Piancatelli, Andrea; Pietrolungo, Manuela; Santarelli, Lucia; Urbini, Stefano</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The availability of measurements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations in Antarctica at three sites along the 80° S <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> parallel, separated by approximately 1 h in magnetic local time, allows us to study the longitudinal dependence of the observed variations. In particular, using 1 min data from Mario Zucchelli Station, Scott Base and Talos Dome, a temporary installation during 2007-2008 Antarctic campaign, we investigated the diurnal variation and the low-frequency fluctuations (approximately in the Pc5 range, ˜ 1-7 mHz). We found that the daily variation is clearly ordered by local time, suggesting a predominant effect of the polar extension of midlatitude ionospheric currents. On the other hand, the pulsation power is dependent on magnetic local time maximizing around magnetic local noon, when the stations are closer to the polar cusp, while the highest coherence between pairs of stations is observed in the magnetic local nighttime sector. The wave propagation direction observed during selected events, one around local magnetic noon and the other around local magnetic midnight, is consistent with a solar-wind-driven source in the daytime and with substorm-associated processes in the nighttime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990EOSTr..71..755.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990EOSTr..71..755."><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">References</span> for marine science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>Standard and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials for Marine Science, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memo OMA-51 (2nd edition, 434 pp.), by A. Y. Cantillo, is now available. This compilation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials was prepared at the request of the Group of Experts on Standards and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials and was printed by NOAA. GESREM is sponsored by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Atomic Energy Agency, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the United Nations Program.<span class="hlt">Reference</span> materials are included on ashes, gases, instrument performance materials, oils, physical properties, rocks, sediments, sludges, tissues and waters. For each <span class="hlt">reference</span> material, source, description and preparation, analyses and values, cost, <span class="hlt">references</span>, and comments are given. Indices are included for elements, isotopes and organic compounds. Cross <span class="hlt">references</span> to Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers and alternate names and chemical structures of organic compounds are also provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMSH51B..02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMSH51B..02K"><span id="translatedtitle">Historically Large <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms and Potential Electric Power Grid Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kappenman, J. G.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>While recent work has been done to examine the possible Dst Intensity of historically large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, the impacts caused to modern day electric power grids from these storms occurs due to rapid rate-of-change of regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields which in most cases are driven by large ionospheric electrojet current intensifications. These temporally and spatially dynamic disturbance morphologies are not well-characterized by Dst or other broad <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm indices. For estimates of storm intensity that correctly scale the threat potential to electric power grids, it is necessary to describe the rate-of-change of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. The rate-of-change of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field (dB/dt usually measured in nT/min) creates at ground level a geoelectric field that causes the flow of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span>-induced currents (GIC) through ground connection points in electric power grids. Therefore in general, the larger the dB/dt, the larger the resulting geo-electric field and GIC in exposed power grid infrastructures and the greater the operational impact these induced currents will have on the power grid. Both extensive modeling analysis and recent operational experience suggests that power grids are becoming more vulnerable to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms as they grow in size and complexity. Also, large power grid blackouts have occurred at relatively low <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm intensities. For example, the regional disturbance intensity that triggered the Hydro Quebec collapse during the March 13, 1989 Superstorm only reached an intensity of 479 nT/min. Large numbers of power system impacts in the United States were also observed for intensities that ranged from 300 to 600 nT/min during this storm. Yet both recent and historical data indicate that storms with disturbance levels that range from 2000 nT/min to as much ~5000 nT/min may be possible over extensive regions at latitudes of concern for large continental power grids across North America and Europe. Large GIC have also been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EP%26S...65.1525Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EP%26S...65.1525Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavelet-based multiscale analysis of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaourar, N.; Hamoudi, M.; Mandea, M.; Balasis, G.; Holschneider, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The dynamics of external contributions to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field is investigated by applying time-frequency methods to magnetic observatory data. Fractal models and multiscale analysis enable obtaining maximum quantitative information related to the short-term dynamics of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field activity. The stochastic properties of the horizontal component of the transient external field are determined by searching for scaling laws in the power spectra. The spectrum fits a power law with a scaling exponent β, a typical characteristic of self-affine time-series. Local variations in the power-law exponent are investigated by applying wavelet analysis to the same time-series. These analyses highlight the self-affine properties of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> perturbations and their persistence. Moreover, they show that the main phases of sudden storm disturbances are uniquely characterized by a scaling exponent varying between 1 and 3, possibly related to the energy contained in the external field. These new findings suggest the existence of a long-range dependence, the scaling exponent being an efficient indicator of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and singularity detection. These results show that by using magnetogram regularity to reflect the magnetosphere activity, a theoretical analysis of the external <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field based on local power-law exponents is possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8343M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8343M"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory data in the South Atlantic Anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matzka, Jürgen; Morschhauser, Achim; Brando Soares, Gabriel; Pinheiro, Katia</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Swarm mission clearly proofs the benefit of coordinated <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements from a well-tailored constellation in order to recover as good as possible the contributions of the various <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field sources. A similar truth applies to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories. Their scientific value can be maximised by properly arranging the position of individual observatories with respect to the geometry of the external current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, with respect to regions of particular interest for secular variation, and with respect to regions of anomalous electric conductivity in the ground. Here, we report on our plans and recent efforts to upgrade <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories and to recover unpublished data from <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories at low latitudes in the South Atlantic Anomaly. In particular, we target the magnetic equator with the equatorial electrojet and low latitudes to characterise the Sq- and ring current. The observatory network that we present allows also to study the longitudinal structure of these external current systems. The South Atlantic Anomaly region is very interesting due to its secular variation. We will show newly recovered data and comparisons with existing data sets. On the technical side, we introduce low-power data loggers. In addition, we use mobile phone data transfer, which is rapidly evolving in the region and allows timely data access and quality control at remote sites that previously were not connected to the internet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036012','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036012"><span id="translatedtitle">Secular trends in storm-level <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Love, J.J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5043P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5043P"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional modelling of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field in Europe for the last 8000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pavon-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Osete, Maria Luisa; Miquel Torta, J.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>From a selected compilation of sedimentary and archaeomagnetic data a new low-degree regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> model for the European Continent valid for the period 6000 BC to 1000 BC has been developed. This model provides information about the direction (declination and inclination) and intensity of the Earth's Magnetic Field in Europe during 5000 years, from 6000 BC to 1000 BC. By connecting it with our SCHA.DIF.3K previous model valid from 1000 BC to 1900 AD and the IGRF, we furnish continuous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field information for the last 8000 years. The new model is called SCHA.DIF.8K. It has been developed using the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis in 2 Dimensions technique (R-SCHA2D, Thébault, 2008, GJI) and the norm of the Earth's Magnetic Field to constrain the inversion problem. The size of the cap is 22°. The maximum degree of the expansion is 2. The linearization problem has been solved using the truncation Taylor's series applied to the expressions of the relationship between the declination, inclination and intensity data and the Cartesian component of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. As initial or <span class="hlt">reference</span> we used the Geocentric Axial Dipole field. In time, we used the classical sliding overlapping window method. The size of the window was set to 100 years shifted 50 years. We have compared the model's prediction with the input data and with the global CALS7K.2 model. The regional model shows a better fitting to the input data than the global model, especially for the intensity data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3520839','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3520839"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable <span class="hlt">Internal</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes for the Normalization of Real-Time PCR in Different Sweetpotato Cultivars Subjected to Abiotic Stress Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ji, Chang Yoon; Park, Seyeon; Jeong, Jae cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for gene expression analysis, but its successful application depends on the stability of suitable <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes used for data normalization. In plant studies, the choice and optimal number of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes must be experimentally determined for the specific conditions, plant species, and cultivars. In this study, ten candidate <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) were isolated and the stability of their expression was analyzed using two algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. The samples consisted of tissues from four sweetpotato cultivars subjected to four different environmental stress treatments, i.e., cold, drought, salt and oxidative stress. The results showed that, for sweetpotato, individual <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes or combinations thereof should be selected for use in data normalization depending on the experimental conditions and the particular cultivar. In general, the genes ARF, UBI, COX, GAP and RPL were validated as the most suitable <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene set for every cultivar across total tested samples. Interestingly, the genes ACT and TUB, although widely used, were not the most suitable <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes in different sweetpotato sample sets. Taken together, these results provide guidelines for <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene(s) selection under different experimental conditions. In addition, they serve as a foundation for the more accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in various sweetpotato cultivars. PMID:23251557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol2-sec204-125.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title12-vol2-sec204-125.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR 204.125 - Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and supranational entities <span class="hlt">referred</span> to in §§ 204.2(c)(1)(iv)(E) and 204.8...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... Technology. Central American Monetary Stabilization Fund. East Caribbean Common Market. Latin American Free... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and supranational... DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.125 Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol2-sec204-125.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title12-vol2-sec204-125.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR 204.125 - Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and supranational entities <span class="hlt">referred</span> to in §§ 204.2(c)(1)(iv)(E) and 204.8...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... Technology. Central American Monetary Stabilization Fund. East Caribbean Common Market. Latin American Free... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and supranational... DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.125 Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol2-sec204-125.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title12-vol2-sec204-125.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">12 CFR 204.125 - Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and supranational entities <span class="hlt">referred</span> to in §§ 204.2(c)(1)(iv)(E) and 204.8...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... Technology. Central American Monetary Stabilization Fund. East Caribbean Common Market. Latin American Free... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and supranational... DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.125 Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028813','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028813"><span id="translatedtitle">Airport <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> surveys in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Berarducci, A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the United States military have requirements for design, location, and construction of compass calibration pads (compass roses), these having been developed through collaboration with US Geological Survey (USGS) personnel. These requirements are detailed in the FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5300-13, Appendix 4, and in various military documents, such as Handbook 1021/1, but the major requirement is that the range of declination measured within 75 meters of the center of a compass rose be less than or equal to 30 minutes of arc. The USGS <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Group has developed specific methods for conducting a magnetic survey so that existing compass roses can be judged in terms of the needed standards and also that new sites can be evaluated for their suitability as potentially new compass roses. First, a preliminary survey is performed with a total-field magnetometer, with differences over the site area of less than 75nT being sufficient to warrant additional, more detailed surveying. Next, a number of survey points are established over the compass rose area and nearby, where declination is to be measured with an instrument capable of measuring declination to within 1 minute of arc, such as a Gurley transit magnetometer, DI Flux theodolite magnetometer, or Wild T-0. The data are corrected for diurnal and irregular effects of the magnetic field and declination is determined for each survey point, as well as declination range and average of the entire compass rose site. Altogether, a typical survey takes about four days to complete. ?? 2006 Springer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2319K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2319K"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Disturbances Caused by the Tunguska Event 1908</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuzmicheva, M. Yu.; Losseva, T. V.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The phenomena explaining the main features of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> perturbations caused by the Tunguska explosion: location, start time, and signs of disturbances of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field have been simulated. Azimuth of trajectory of the bolide has been defined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JASTP..80..312J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JASTP..80..312J"><span id="translatedtitle">foF2 correlation studies with solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices for two equatorial stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joshua, E. O.; Nzekwe, N. M.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The analysis of the contributions of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices on the critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer (foF2)-, for different seasons and two Nigerian equatorial stations- Ibadan (Lat. 7.4°N, Long. 3.9°N) and Ilorin (Lat. 8.5°N, Long. 4.55°E)- are presented. The data set was randomly sampled across three solar cycles of periods of low, moderate and high solar activities. Solar indices used in this work are Coviten solar flux (F10.7 cm), daily solar radio flux (dF10.7), <span class="hlt">International</span> Sunspot Number (ISSN), Smoothen Sunspot Number (SmSSN), and Sun Spot Number (SSN). The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices used are planetary indices Am, Aa, Ap, C9, Cp, and Kp. foF2 showed a non-linear trend with an average coefficient (R) of 0.70 across the various seasons. Regression lines for polynomials of degree n=1 to n=6 was fitted, for each data set. Am, Ap, Aa, SSN, ISSN, F10.7 cm, and dF10.7 with R values of 0.71,0.74,0.61,0.59,0.72,0.80, and 0.86, for the various <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and solar indices, had the highest contributions. We therefore advocate for SSN, ISSN, F10.7 cm, dF10.7 and Am, Ap or Aa in modeling foF2 for the African equatorial ionosphere. The results of this work are in line with the results of other works carried out at different equatorial stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800030845&hterms=Ankara&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAnkara','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800030845&hterms=Ankara&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DAnkara"><span id="translatedtitle">F layer positive response to a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm - June 1972</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, N. J.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Tulunay, Y. K.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A circulation model of neutral thermosphere-ionosphere coupling is used to interpret in situ spacecraft measurements taken during a topside midlatitude ionospheric storm. The data are measurements of electron density taken along the circular polar orbit of Ariel 4 at 550 km during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> disturbed period June 17-18, 1972. It is inferred that collisional momentum transfer from the disturbed neutral thermosphere to the ionosphere was the dominant midday process generating the positive F-layer storm phase in the summer hemisphere. In the winter hemisphere the positive storm phase drifted poleward in the apparent response to magnetospheric E x B drifts. A summer F-layer positive phase developed at the sudden commencement and again during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> main phase; a winter F-layer positive phase developed only during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> main phase. The observed seasonal differences in both the onsets and the magnitudes of the positive phases are attributed to the interhemispheric asymmetry in thermospheric dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750039638&hterms=Mead&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMead%2BG.','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750039638&hterms=Mead&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMead%2BG."><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetospheric mapping with a quantitative <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fairfield, D. H.; Mead, G. D.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Mapping the magnetosphere on a dipole <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model by projecting field and particle observations onto the model is described. High-latitude field lines are traced between the earth's surface and their intersection with either the equatorial plane or a cross section of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail, and data from low-altitude orbiting satellites are projected along field lines to the outer magnetosphere. This procedure is analyzed, and the resultant mappings are illustrated. Extension of field lines into the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail and low-altitude determination of the polar cap and cusp are presented. It is noted that while there is good agreement among the various data, more particle measurements are necessary to clear up statistical uncertainties and to facilitate comparison of statistical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23297205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23297205"><span id="translatedtitle">Midlatitude cooling caused by <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field minimum during polarity reversal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L; Sato, Hiroshi</p> <p>2013-01-22</p> <p>The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR-cloud connection suggests that variations in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to <40% of its present value, for which we estimate >40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ged..book.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ged..book.....H"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> elements in Denmark 1928-1980</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, H. A.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> surveys in Denmark from 1928 till 1980 are reported. The Danish Meteorological Institute initiated a new, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> survey of Denmark in 1928 by the establishment of 10 repeat statins for observation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span>, secular variation. The stations were visited again in 1930 and since then every fifth year. The general survey was started in 1939 and continued during the years 1946 to 1957 with the mapping of Northern Jutland. In 1967 the survey taken with a coarser spacing of the measured points during the following years succeeded in completing the mapping of the country with primary consideration to the declination. The observations on the repeat stations during the time 1928-1980 allowed development of mathematical formulas for the secular change of the magnetic elements D, H and Z at any arbitrary point in the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035944','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035944"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Maule, C.F.; Pedersen, L.W.; Berarducci, A.M.; Macmillan, S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Few <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? 05' S, 12?? 18' W, is therefore of crucial importance. We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions (Kp 2o or less) in 2004. The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models. Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> satellite data. Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission (2011-2014).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983RaRLR..29..505O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983RaRLR..29..505O"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous propagation of Omega VLF waves near the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> equator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohtani, A.; Kikuchi, T.; Nozaki, K.; Kurihara, N.; Kuratani, Y.; Ohse, M.</p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>Omega HAIKU, REUNION, and LIBERIA signals were received and anomalous propagation characteristics were obtained near the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> equator. Short-period fluctuations were found in the phase of the HAIKU 10.2 kHz signal in November 1979 and in the phase and amplitude of the HAIKU 13.6 kHz signal in November 1981. These cyclic fluctuations are in close correlation with the phase cycle slippings, which occur most frequently when the receiver is located at 6 S <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitude. On the basis of anisotropic waveguide mode theory indicating much less attenuation in WE propagation than in EW propagation at the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> equator, it is concluded that the short-period fluctuations in the phase and amplitude are due to interference between the short-path and the long-path signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1166/pdf/OF13-1166.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1166/pdf/OF13-1166.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Report of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsation indices for space weather applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Xu, Z.; Gannon, Jennifer L.; Rigler, Erin J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The phenomenon of ultra-low frequency <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations was first observed in the ground-based measurements of the 1859 Carrington Event and has been studied for over 100 years. Pulsation frequency is considered to be “ultra” low when it is lower than the natural frequencies of the plasma, such as the ion gyrofrequency. Ultra-low frequency pulsations are considered a source of noise in some geophysical analysis techniques, such as aeromagnetic surveys and transient electromagnetics, so it is critical to develop near real-time space weather products to monitor these <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations. The proper spectral analysis of magnetometer data, such as using wavelet analysis techniques, can also be important to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> Induced Current risk assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcGeo..64...26V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AcGeo..64...26V"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Model for Croatia at 2009.5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vujić, Eugen; Brkić, Mario; Kovács, Peter</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> data of north, east, and vertical components at Croatian repeat stations and ground survey sites, as well as European <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories and repeat stations, were used to obtain a regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> model over Croatia at 2009.5 epoch. Different models were derived, depending on input data, and three modelling techniques were used: Taylor Polynomial, Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis, and Spherical Harmonic Analysis. It was derived that the most accurate model over Croatia was the one when only Croatian data were used, and by using the Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis. Based on Croatian repeat stations' data in the interval 2007.5-2010.5, and a global Enhanced Magnetic Model, it was possible to estimate the crustal field at those sites. It was also done by taking into account the empirical adjustment for long-term external field variations. The higher crustal field values were found at those stations which are on or close to the Adriatic anomaly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5096709','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5096709"><span id="translatedtitle">Whole-Transcriptome Selection and Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Internal</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes for Expression Analysis in Protocorm Development of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>An, Hongqiang; Zhu, Qiankun; Pei, Wei; Fan, Jing; Liang, Yi; Cui, Yihui; Lv, Nan; Wang, Wanjun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dendrobium officinale Kimu et Migo has increased many researchers’ interest for its high medical and horticultural values and the molecular mechanism of its protocorm development remains unclear. In this study, 19 genes from 26 most stably expressed genes in whole transcriptome of protocorms and 5 housekeeping genes were used as candidate <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and screened with 4 application softwares (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder). The results showed that a few <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes could effectively normalize expression level of specific genes in protocorm development and the optimal top 2 <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes were ASS and APH1L. Meanwhile, validation of GNOM, AP2 and temperature induced gene (TIL) for normalization demonstrates the usefulness of the validated candidate <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes. The expression profiles of these genes varied under protocorms and temperature stress according to the stablest and unstablest <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes, which proved the importance of the choice of appropriate <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes. The first systematic evaluation of stably expressed genes will be very useful in the future analysis of specific genes expression in D. officinale. PMID:27814359</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1004148','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1004148"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">GEOMAGNETIC</span> REVERSALS DRIVEN BY ABRUPT SEA LEVEL CHANGES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Muller, R.A.; Morris, D.E.</p> <p>1986-10-01</p> <p>Changes in the moment of inertia of the earth, brought about by the redistribution of ocean water from the tropics to ice at high latitudes, couple energy from the spin of the earth into convection in the liquid core. This mechanism may help provide the driving energy for the earth's dynamo. Sufficiently rapid ocean level changes can disrupt the dynamo, resulting (in half of the cases) in a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reversal. The model can account for the previously mysterious correlation reported between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals and mass extinctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..922S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..922S"><span id="translatedtitle">H-alpha response to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbed activity at Arecibo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, Pedrina; Kerr, R.; Noto, J.; Brum, Christiano; Gonzalez, Sixto</p> <p></p> <p>Configured with a spectral resolution of 0.0086 nm at 6563A, the low resolution Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) installed at Arecibo Observatory sampled the geocoronal Balmer-alpha emission for sixty nights during new moon periods from September 2006 to September 2007. In this work two of these periods are analyzed according to the variability with the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. With this purpose, the effect of the shadow height, local time and solar flux depen-dencies were found and isolated and only the possible variations due the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity were evaluated. The residuos of the relative H-alpha intensity and temperature are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5099107','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5099107"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm on thermospheric circulation. Master's thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brinkman, D.G.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The motions of the thermosphere and its interactions with the ionosphere during a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm are of current interest to space scientists. A two-dimensional model was used to simulate the thermospheric response to the impulsive high-latitude heating associated with a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. The storm-induced motions can be characterized by an initial period of transient waves followed by the development of a mean circulation. These motions generate an electrical-current system that is on the same order of magnitude as, and in the opposite sense to the normal s/sub q/ current system. Model-simulated winds and electrical currents were then compared to observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986RvGeo..24...75B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986RvGeo..24...75B"><span id="translatedtitle">Poloidal and toroidal fields in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Backus, G.</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p>The application of surface operator theory to poloidal and toroidal fields in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling is described. Surface operators are obtained for the dimensionless surface gradient; the dimensionless surface curl; the dimensionless surface Laplacian, as well as for the Funk-Hecke operators, integral operators, and axisymmetric kernels. Methods are given for interpreting satellite measurements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field B, assuming B is can vary significantly and rapidly with time, and there are electric fields in the sample. Approximation schemes for ionospheric currents are also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18228166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18228166"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">international</span> face of sports science through the window of the Journal of Sports Sciences--with a special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to kinanthropometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reilly, Thomas</p> <p>2008-02-15</p> <p>The history of the Journal of Sports Sciences is traced from the antecedents of its initiation to the current time. The developments of the sports sciences at large are reflected in the content of the journal. Its links with the <span class="hlt">international</span> agenda are described, and related to landmark publications. Special attention is given to the relationships with <span class="hlt">international</span> bodies, the <span class="hlt">International</span> Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry and the World Commission of Science and Sports. The expansion of sport and exercise sciences, both nationally and <span class="hlt">internationally</span>, was reflected in the increased frequency of publication of the journal. Key areas in the kinanthropometric content are identified and placed in context. The review culminates in the highlighting of likely areas for future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5368969','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5368969"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field in West Africa: First Absolute Intensity Results from Burkina Faso</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kapper, Lisa; Donadini, Fabio; Serneels, Vincent; Tema, Evdokia; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Julio Morales, Juan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We present absolute <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensities from iron smelting furnaces discovered at the metallurgical site of Korsimoro, Burkina Faso. Up to now, archaeologists recognized four different types of furnaces based on different construction methods, which were related to four subsequent time periods. Additionally, radiocarbon ages obtained from charcoal confine the studied furnaces to ages ranging from 700–1700 AD, in good agreement with the archaeologically determined time periods for each type of furnace. Archaeointensity results reveal three main groups of Arai diagrams. The first two groups contain specimens with either linear Arai diagrams, or slightly curved diagrams or two phases of magnetization. The third group encompasses specimens with strong zigzag or curvature in their Arai diagrams. Specimens of the first two groups were accepted after applying selection criteria to guarantee the high quality of the results. Our data compared to palaeosecular variation curves show a similar decreasing trend between 900–1500 AD. However, they reveal larger amplitudes at around 800 AD and 1650 AD than the <span class="hlt">reference</span> curves and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models. Furthermore, they agree well with archaeomagnetic data from Mali and Senegal around 800 AD and with volcanic data around 1700 AD. PMID:28350006</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1989/4196/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1989/4196/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Humic Substances Society standard and <span class="hlt">reference</span> fulvic and humic acids by solution state carbon-13 (13C) and hydrogen-1 (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thorn, Kevin A.; Folan, Daniel W.; MacCarthy, Patrick</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Standard and <span class="hlt">reference</span> samples of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Humic Substances Society have been characterized by solution state carbon-13 and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Samples included the Suwannee River, soil, and peat standard fulvic and humic acids, the Leonardite standard humic acid, the Nordic aquatic <span class="hlt">reference</span> fulvic and humic acids, and the Summit Hill soil <span class="hlt">reference</span> humic acid. Aqueous-solution carbon-13 NMR analyses included the measurement of spin-lattice relaxation times, measurement of nuclear Overhauser enhancement factors, measurement of quantitative carbon distributions, recording of attached proton test spectra, and recording of spectra under nonquantitative conditions. Distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer carbon-13 NMR spectra also were recorded on the Suwannee River fulvic acid in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide. Hydrogen-1 NMR spectra were recorded on sodium salts of the samples in deuterium oxide. The carbon aromaticities of the samples ranged from 0.24 for the Suwannee River fulvic acid to 0.58 for the Leonardite humic acid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=4&id=EJ486764','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=4&id=EJ486764"><span id="translatedtitle">Ready <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 1994</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Three articles provide publishers' and distributors' telephone numbers; information on how to obtain an ISBN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Book Number); and information on how to obtain an ISSN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Serial Number). (LRW)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52..853P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52..853P"><span id="translatedtitle">A statistical analysis of low frequency <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field pulsations at two Antarctic <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories in the polar cap region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pietrolungo, M.; Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Di Mauro, D.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of low frequency (˜0.5-5 mHz) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations as recorded at two Antarctic stations within the polar cap: the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB) and the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC) in order to investigate the spatial extension and propagation characteristics of the phenomena observed at very high latitude. The stations have approximately the same geographic latitude, but a very different corrected <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitude, being DMC close to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pole and TNB closer to the auroral oval. Our study focused on power spectra, coherence and phase difference between low frequency fluctuations analyzing the horizontal H component measured during the entire year 2006. The fluctuation power behavior during the day can be explained according to the positions of the stations with respect to the polar cap; indeed in the dayside sector it is higher in the cusp region, while in the nightside sector it is higher close to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pole. Furthermore the study of coherent fluctuations, focusing on their phase difference, indicated that the propagation direction within the cap is variable during the day: in the dayside and nightside regions it is from the auroral oval toward the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pole, while in the magnetic local morning and afternoon sectors it is from the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pole toward the dawn-dusk meridian. Finally the analysis of two individual pulsation events, consisting of short duration wave packets, is shown; it confirms the statistical considerations on the propagation direction and allows to estimate the wave number and apparent phase velocity, whose values are of the order of 3-4 and 30-15 km/s, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP53A3753A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP53A3753A"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and Temporal Variations in the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Determined From the Paleomagnetism of Sediment Cores From Scientific Ocean Drilling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Acton, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of the main <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field at Earth's surface is important for understanding underlying geodynamo processes and conditions near the core-mantle boundary. Much of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variability, known as secular variation, occurs on timescales of tens of years to many thousands of years, requiring the use of paleomagnetic observations to derive continuous records of the ancient field, <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as paleosecular variation (PSV) records. Marine depositional systems where thick sedimentary sections accumulate at high sedimentation rates provide some of the best locations for obtaining long continuous PSV records that can reveal both the short- and long-term changes in the field. Scientific ocean drilling has been successful at recovering many such sections and the paleomagnetic records from these reveal how the amplitude of PSV differs between sites and through time. In this study, several such records cored during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), and other cruises from high, mid, and low latitudes will be used to quantify time intervals of low and high PSV, to examine time-average properties of the field, to map spatial variations in the angular dispersion of the virtual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pole (VGP), and to assess whether the spatial variation in angular dispersion changes with time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA11B3939M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA11B3939M"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid-latitude Ionospheric Disturbances Due to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms at ISS Altitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Minow, J. I.; Willis, E. M.; Parker, L. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Spacecraft charging of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) is dominated by the interaction of the high voltage US solar arrays with the F2-region ionospheric plasma environment. We are working to fully understand the charging behavior of the ISS solar arrays and determine how well future charging behavior can be predicted from in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature. One aspect of this work is a need to characterize the magnitude of electron density and temperature variations that may be encountered at ISS orbital altitudes (~400 km), the latitudes over which they occur, and the time periods for which the disturbances persist. We will present preliminary results from a study of ionospheric disturbances in the "mid-latitude" region defined as the ~30 degree to ~60 degree extra-equatorial magnetic latitudes sampled by ISS. The study is focused on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm periods because they are well known drivers for disturbances in the high-latitude and mid-latitude ionospheric plasma. Changes in the F2 peak electron density obtained from ground based ionosonde records are compared to in-situ electron density and temperature measurements from the CHAMP and ISS spacecraft at altitudes near, or above, the F2 peak. Results from a number of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms will be presented and their potential impact on ISS charging will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002545','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002545"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Disturbances Due to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms at ISS Altitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Parker, Linda Neergaard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Spacecraft charging of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) is dominated by the interaction of the high voltage US solar arrays with the F2-region ionospheric plasma environment. We are working to fully understand the charging behavior of the ISS solar arrays and determine how well future charging behavior can be predicted from in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature. One aspect of this work is a need to characterize the magnitude of electron density and temperature variations that may be encountered at ISS orbital altitudes (approximately 400 km), the latitudes over which they occur, and the time periods for which the disturbances persist. We will present preliminary results from a study of ionospheric disturbances in the "mid-latitude" region defined as the approximately 30 - 60 degree extra-equatorial magnetic latitudes sampled by ISS. The study is focused on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm periods because they are well known drivers for disturbances in the high-latitude and mid-latitude ionospheric plasma. Changes in the F2 peak electron density obtained from ground based ionosonde records are compared to in-situ electron density and temperature measurements from the CHAMP and ISS spacecraft at altitudes near, or above, the F2 peak. Results from a number of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms will be presented and their potential impact on ISS charging will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6342106','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6342106"><span id="translatedtitle">Membrane <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.</p> <p>1988-01-21</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material inside in contact with an <span class="hlt">internal</span> voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866884','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866884"><span id="translatedtitle">Membrane <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material inside in contact with an <span class="hlt">internal</span> voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5325532','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5325532"><span id="translatedtitle">Selection of <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis in the rumen epithelium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.; Li, Robert; Oh, Sunghee; Li, Congjun; Connor, Erin E.; Ranilla, Maria-Jose</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The rumen is lined on the luminal side by a stratified squamous epithelium that is responsible for not only absorption, but also transport, extensive short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism and protection. Butyrate has been demonstrated to initiate the differentiation of the tissue following introduction of solid feed to the weaning neonate as well as affecting the metabolism of other nutrients and absorption of nutrients in in vitro experiments. The objective of the present study was to validate expression stability of eight putative <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes bovine rumen, considering the intrinsic heterogeneity of bovine rumen with regard to different luminal characteristics due to direct infusion of butyrate to double the intra-ruminal content of the rumen liquor. Our focus was on identifying stable <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes which are suitable to normalize real-time RT-qPCR experiments from rumen samples collected from clinical assays, irrespective of localization within the organ and the across physiological state. The most stably expressed genes included: ACTB, UXT, DBNDD2, RPS9, DDX54 and HMBS. Their high stability values suggest these <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes will facilitate better evaluation of variation of across an array of conditions including: localization within the rumen, differences among cattle fed an array of rations, as well as response to development in the weaning animal. Moreover, we anticipate these <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes may be useful for expression studies in other ruminants. PMID:28234977</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047671','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047671"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface electric fields for North America during historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To better understand the impact of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036301','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036301"><span id="translatedtitle">An empirical model of the quiet daily <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M.G.; Fraser, B.J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J.Y.; Lynn, K.J.W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Otadoy, R.E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B.M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An empirical model of the quiet daily <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variation has been constructed based on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet daily <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.3414K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.3414K"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible helio-<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity influence on cardiological cases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katsavrias, Christos</p> <p></p> <p>Eruptive solar events as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occur during solar activ-ity periods. Energetic particles, fast solar wind plasma and electromagnetic radiation pass through interplanetary space, arrive on Earth's ionosphere-magnetosphere and produce various disturbances. It is well known the negative influence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> substorms on the human technological applications on geospace. During the last 25 years, many studies concerning the possible influence on the human health are published. Increase of the Acute Coronary Syn-dromes and disorders of the Cardiac Rhythm, increase of accidents as well as neurological and psychological disorders (e.g. increase of suicides) during or near to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms time interval are reported. In this study, we research the problem in Greece, focusing on patients with Acute Myocardial Infraction, hospitalized in the 2nd Cardiological Department of the General Hospital of Nikaea (Piraeus City), for the time interval 1997-2007 (23rd solar cycle) and also to the arrival of emergency cardiological cases to Emergency Department of two greek hospitals, the General Hospital of Lamia City and the General Hospital of Veria City during the selected months, with or without helio-<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, of the 23rd solar cycle. Increase of cases is recorded during the periods with increase helio-<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. The necessity of continuing the research for a longer period and with a bigger sample is high; so as to exact more secure conclusions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SpWea..11..451W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SpWea..11..451W"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface electric fields for North America during historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nicole; Gannon, Jennifer L.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>To better understand the impact of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms—the 1989 "Quebec" storm and the 2003 "Halloween" storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11540027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11540027"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> cutoffs: a review for space dosimetry applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smart, D F; Shea, M A</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>The earth's magnetic field acts as a shield against charged particle radiation from interplanetary space, technically described as the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff. The cutoff rigidity problem (except for the dipole special case) has "no solution in closed form". The dipole case yields the Stormer equation which has been repeatedly applied to the earth in hopes of providing useful approximations of cutoff rigidities. Unfortunately the earth's magnetic field has significant deviations from dipole geometry, and the Stormer cutoffs are not adequate for most applications. By application of massive digital computer power it is possible to determine realistic <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoffs derived from high order simulation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. Using this technique, "world-grids" of directional cutoffs for the earth's surface and for a limited number of satellite altitudes have been derived. However, this approach is so expensive and time consuming it is impractical for most spacecraft orbits, and approximations must be used. The world grids of cutoff rigidities are extensively used as lookup tables, normalization points and interpolation aids to estimate the effective <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff rigidity of a specific location in space. We review the various options for estimating the cutoff rigidity for earth-orbiting satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMSH42A0499A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMSH42A0499A"><span id="translatedtitle">ISS Plasma Contactor Units Operations During Strong <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alred, J.; Mikatarian, R.; Barsamian, H.; Minow, J.; Koontz, S.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The large structure and high voltage arrays of the ISS represent a complex system that interacts with the Earth's ionosphere. To mitigate spacecraft charging problems on the ISS, two Plasma Contactor Units discharge ionized xenon gas to "clamp" the potential of the ISS with respect to the low Earth orbit plasma. The Plasma Interaction Model, a model of ISS plasma interaction developed from the basic physics of the interaction phenomena, includes magnetic induction effects, plasma temperature and density effects, interaction of the high voltage solar arrays with ionospheric plasma, and accounts for other conductive areas on the ISS. To augment this model, the PCU discharge current has been monitored for the ISS in a variety of flight attitudes as well as during the annual seasons. A review of the PCU discharge currents shows a correlation to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. The variation in the PCU discharge current during strong <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity will be presented. Also, the PCU discharge currents during periods of low <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a comparison of satellite plasma measurements during different stages of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37..713D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37..713D"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Activity, Different <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar</p> <p></p> <p>Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms with different intensities. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5670M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5670M"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of Dispersion Relations For The <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Transfer Functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marcuello, A.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J. J.</p> <p></p> <p>The magnetotelluric responses are complex magnitudes, where real and imaginary parts contain the same information on the geoelectrical structure. It seems possible, from very general hypotheses on the geoelectrical models (causality, stability and passivity), to apply the Kramers-Krönig dispersion relations to the magnetotelluric responses (impedance, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> transfer functions,...). In particular, the applica- bility of these relations to the impedance is a current point of discussion, but there are not many examples of their application to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> transfer functions (tipper). The aim of this paper is to study how the relations of dispersion are applied to the real and imaginary part of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> transfer functions, and to check its validity. For this reason, we have considered data (or responses) from two- and three-dimensional structures, and for these data, we have taken two situations: 1.- Responses that have been synthetically generated from numerical modelling, that allows us to control the quality of the data. 2.- Responses obtained from fieldwork, that are affected by exper- imental error. Additionally, we have also explored the use of these relations to extrap- olate the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> transfer functions outside the interval of measured frequencies, in order to obtain constrains on the values of these extrapolated data. The results have shown that the dispersion relations are accomplished for the geomag- netic transfer functions, and they can offer information about how these responses are behaved outside (but near) the range of measured frequencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15880899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15880899"><span id="translatedtitle">On statistical relationship of solar, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and human activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alania, M V; Gil, A; Modzelewska, R</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Data of galactic cosmic rays, solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activities and solar wind parameters on the one side and car accident events (CAE) in Poland on the other have been analyzed in order to reveal the statistical relationships among them for the period of 1990-2001. Cross correlation and cross spectrum of the galactic cosmic ray intensity, the solar wind (SW) velocity, Kp index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and CAE in Poland have been carried out. It is shown that in some epochs of the above-mentioned period there is found a reliable relationship between CAE and solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activities parameters in the range of the different periodicities, especially, 7 days. The periodicity of 7 days revealed in the data of the CAE has the maximum on Friday without any exception for the minimum and maximum epochs of solar activity. However, the periodicity of 7 days is reliably revealed in other parameters characterizing galactic cosmic rays, SW, solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activities, especially for the minimum epoch of solar activity. The periodicity of 3.5 days found in the series of CAE data more or less can be completely ascribed to the social effects, while the periodicity of 7 days can be ascribed to the social effect or/to the processes on the Sun, in the interplanetary space and in the Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JASS...25..157K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JASS...25..157K"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical Relationship between Sawtooth Oscillations and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Dae-Young; Choi, Cheong-Rim; Her, Young-Tae; Han, Jin-Wook; Hong, Sun-Hak</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>We have investigated a statistical relationship between sawtooth oscillations and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms during 2000-2004. First of all we selected a total of 154 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms based on the Dst index, and distinguished between different drivers such as Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR). Also, we identified a total of 48 sawtooth oscillation events based on geosynchronous energetic particle data for the same 2000-2004 period. We found that out of the 154 storms identified, 47 storms indicated the presence of sawtooth oscillations. Also, all but one sawtooth event identified occurred during a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm interval. It was also found that sawtooth oscillation events occur more frequently for storms driven by CME (˜62%) than for storms driven by CIR (˜30%). In addition, sawtooth oscillations occurred mainly (˜82%) in the main phase of storms for CME-driven storms while they occurred mostly (˜78%) during the storm recovery phase for CIR-driven storms. Next we have examined the average characteristics of the Bz component of IMF, and solar wind speed, which were the main components for driving <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. We found that for most of the sawtooth events, the IMF Bz corresponds to --15 to 0 nT and the solar wind speed was in the range of 400˜700 km/s. We found that there was a weak tendency that the number of teeth for a given sawtooth event interval was proportional to the southward IMF Bz magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036601&hterms=feynman&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfeynman','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036601&hterms=feynman&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dfeynman"><span id="translatedtitle">(abstract) A <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Contribution to Climate Change in this Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feynman, J.; Ruzmaikin, A.; Lawrence, J.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>There is a myth that all solar effects can be parameterized by the sun spot number. This is not true. For example, the level of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity during this century was not proportional to the sunspot number. Instead there is a large systematic increase in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, not reflected in the sunspot number. This increase occurred gradually over at least 60 years. The 11 year solar cycle variation was superimposed on this systematic increase. Here we show that this systematic increase in activity is well correlated to the simultaneous increase in terrestrial temperature that occurred during the first half of this century. We discuss these findings in terms of mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">geomagnetics</span> can be coupled to climate. These mechanisms include possible changes in weather patterns and cloud cover due to increased cosmic ray fluxes, or to increased fluxes of high energy electrons. We suggest that this systematic increase in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity contributed (along with anthropogenic effects and possible changes in solar irradiance) to the changes in climate recorded during this period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956479','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956479"><span id="translatedtitle">New insights on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms from observations and modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jordanova, Vania K</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the response at Earth of the Sun's varying energy output and forecasting <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity is of central interest to space science, since intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms may cause severe damages on technological systems and affect communications. Episodes of southward (Bz<O) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) which lead to disturbed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions are associated either with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and possess long and continuous negative IMF Bz excursions, or with high speed solar wind streams (HSS) whose geoeffectiveness is due to IMF Bz profiles fluctuating about zero with various amplitudes and duration. We show examples of ring current simulations during two <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms representative of each interplanetary condition with our kinetic ring current atmosphere interactions model (RAM), and investigate the mechanisms responsible for trapping particles and for causing their loss. We find that periods of increased magnetospheric convection coinciding with enhancements of plasma sheet density are needed for strong ring current buildup. During the HSS-driven storm the convection potential is highly variable and causes small sporadic injections into the ring current. The long period of enhanced convection during the CME-driven storm causes a continuous ring current injection penetrating to lower L shells and stronger ring current buildup.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrEaS...4...71B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FrEaS...4...71B"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating dynamical complexity of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks using various entropy measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balasis, Georgios; Potirakis, Stelios; Mandea, Mioara</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Recently, many novel concepts originated in dynamical systems or information theory have been developed, partly motivated by specific research questions linked to geosciences, and found a variety of different applications. This continuously extending toolbox of nonlinear time series analysis highlights the importance of the dynamical complexity to understand the behavior of the complex Earth's system and its components. Here, we propose to apply such new approaches, mainly a series of entropy methods to the time series of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. Two datasets provided by Chambon la Foret (France) and Niemegk (Germany) observatories are considered for analysis to detect dynamical complexity changes associated with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks, the abrupt changes in the second temporal derivative of the Earth's magnetic field. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of Shannon and Tsallis entropies as well as Fisher information to detect events in a regional manner having identified complexities lower than the background in time intervals when <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks have already been reported in the literature. Additionally, these information measures are directly applicable to the original data without having to derive the secular variation or acceleration from the observatory monthly means. The strength of the proposed analysis to reveal dynamical complexity features associated with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks can be utilized for analyzing not only ground measurements, but also satellite data, as those provided by the current magnetic field mission of Swarm.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21702699','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21702699"><span id="translatedtitle">IFCC primary <span class="hlt">reference</span> procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C. Part 9: <span class="hlt">reference</span> procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alkaline phosphatase <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Scientific Division, Committee on <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems of Enzymes (C-RSE) (1)).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schumann, Gerhard; Klauke, Rainer; Canalias, Francesca; Bossert-Reuther, Steffen; Franck, Paul F H; Gella, F-Javier; Jørgensen, Poul J; Kang, Dongchon; Lessinger, Jean-Marc; Panteghini, Mauro; Ceriotti, Ferruccio</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Abstract This paper is the ninth in a series dealing with <span class="hlt">reference</span> procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes at 37 °C and the certification of <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations. Other parts deal with: Part 1. The concept of <span class="hlt">reference</span> procedures for the measurement of catalytic activity concentrations of enzymes; Part 2. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of creatine kinase; Part 3. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of lactate dehydrogenase; Part 4. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of alanine aminotransferase; Part 5. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of aspartate aminotransferase; Part 6. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of γ-glutamyltransferase; Part 7. Certification of four <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for the determination of enzymatic activity of γ-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase at 37 °C; Part 8. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> procedure for the measurement of catalytic concentration of α-amylase. The procedure described here is derived from the previously described 30 °C IFCC <span class="hlt">reference</span> method. Differences are tabulated and commented on in Appendix 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.442..173S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.442..173S"><span id="translatedtitle">Large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field anomalies revealed in Bronze to Iron Age archeomagnetic data from Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor, Israel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Ron, Hagai; Ebert, Yael; Zuckerman, Sharon; Finkelstein, Israel; Agnon, Amotz</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field measurements from the past few centuries show heightened secular variation activity in the southern hemisphere associated with the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). It is uncertain whether <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomalies at a similar scale have existed in the past owing to limited coverage and uncertainties in the paleomagnetic database. Here we provide new evidence from archaeological sources in the Levant suggesting a large positive northern hemisphere anomaly, similar in magnitude to the SAA during the 9th-8th centuries BCE, called ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly;. We also report an additional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> spike in the 8th century. The new dataset comprises 73 high precision paleointensity estimates from ca. 3000 BCE to 732 BCE, and five directional measurements between the 14th and the 9th centuries BCE. Well-dated pottery and cooking ovens were collected from twenty archaeological strata in two large contemporaneous stratigraphical mounds (tells) in Israel: Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor. The new data are combined with previously published data and interpreted automatically using the PmagPy Thellier GUI program. The Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor data sets demonstrate excellent <span class="hlt">internal</span> consistency and remarkable agreement with published data from Mesopotamia (Syria). The data illustrate the evolution of an extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> high that culminated in at least two spikes between the 11th and the 8th centuries BCE (Iron Age in the Levant). The paleomagnetic directional data of the 9th century BCE show positive inclination anomalies, and deviations of up to 22° from the averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) direction. From comparison of the Levantine archaeomagnetic data with IGRF model for 2015 we infer the ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly; between the 10th and the 8th centuries BCE is a local positive anomaly. The eastward extent of the anomaly is currently unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SpWea..14..481N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SpWea..14..481N"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of extreme values in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and geoelectric field variations for Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikitina, L.; Trichtchenko, L.; Boteler, D. H.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Disturbances of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field produced by space weather events can have an impact on power systems and other critical infrastructure. To mitigate these risks it is important to determine the extreme values of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity that can occur. More than 40 years of 1 min magnetic data recorded at 13 Canadian <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories have been analyzed to evaluate extreme levels in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and geoelectric activities in different locations of Canada. The hourly ranges of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations and hourly maximum in rate of change of the magnetic variations have been used as measures of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. Geoelectric activity is estimated by the hourly peak amplitude of the geoelectric fields calculated with the use of Earth resistivity models specified for different locations in Canada. A generalized extreme value distribution was applied to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and geoelectric indices to evaluate extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and geoelectric disturbances, which could happen once per 50 and once per 100 years with 99% confidence interval. Influence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitude and Earth resistivity models on the results for the extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and geoelectric activity is discussed. The extreme values provide criteria for assessing the vulnerability of power systems and other technology to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity for design or mitigation purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SSRv..155..247F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SSRv..155..247F"><span id="translatedtitle">An Introduction to Data Assimilation and Predictability in <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fournier, Alexandre; Hulot, Gauthier; Jault, Dominique; Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew; Gillet, Nicolas; Canet, Elisabeth; Aubert, Julien; Lhuillier, Florian</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Data assimilation in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> designates the set of inverse methods for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data analysis which rely on an underlying prognostic numerical model of core dynamics. Within that framework, the time-dependency of the magnetohydrodynamic state of the core need no longer be parameterized: The model trajectory (and the secular variation it generates at the surface of the Earth) is controlled by the initial condition, and possibly some other static control parameters. The primary goal of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation is then to combine in an optimal fashion the information contained in the database of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations and in the dynamical model, by adjusting the model trajectory in order to provide an adequate fit to the data. The recent developments in that emerging field of research are motivated mostly by the increase in data quality and quantity during the last decade, owing to the ongoing era of magnetic observation of the Earth from space, and by the concurrent progress in the numerical description of core dynamics. In this article we review briefly the current status of our knowledge of core dynamics, and elaborate on the reasons which motivate <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation studies, most notably (a) the prospect to propagate the current quality of data backward in time to construct dynamically consistent historical core field and flow models, (b) the possibility to improve the forecast of the secular variation, and (c) on a more fundamental level, the will to identify unambiguously the physical mechanisms governing the secular variation. We then present the fundamentals of data assimilation (in its sequential and variational forms) and summarize the observations at hand for data assimilation practice. We present next two approaches to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation: The first relies on a three-dimensional model of the geodynamo, and the second on a quasi-geostrophic approximation. We also provide an estimate of the limit of the predictability of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.4350L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.4350L"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical evidence for latitude dependence and asymmetry of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> spatial variation in mainland China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Shikun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Xihai; Liu, Daizhi; Wang, Xiqin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variation is a significant research topic of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> and space physics. Generated by convection and flows within the fluid outer core, latitude dependence and asymmetry, as the inherent spatiotemporal properties of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, have been extensively studied. We apply and modify an extension of existing method, Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is an efficient tool for modeling the statistical properties of time series. Based on ground magnetic measurement data set in mainland China, first, we find the parameters of HMM can be used as the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> statistical signature to represent the spatiotemporal <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations for each site. The results also support the existence of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitude dependence more apparently. Furthermore, we provide solid empirical evidence for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> asymmetry relying on such ground magnetic measurement data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040082342','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040082342"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Possibilities of Predicting <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Secular Variation with Geodynamo Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuang, Wei-Jia; Tangborn, Andrew; Sabaka, Terrance</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We use our MoSST core dynamics model and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) continued downward from surface observations to investigate possibilities of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation, so that model results and current <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations can be used to predict <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation in future. As the first attempt, we apply data insertion technique to examine evolution of the model solution that is modified by <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> input. Our study demonstrate that, with a single data insertion, large-scale poloidal magnetic field obtained from subsequent numerical simulation evolves similarly to the observed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variation, regardless of the initial choice of the model solution (so long it is a well developed numerical solution). The model solution diverges on the time scales on the order of 60 years, similar to the time scales of the torsional oscillations in the Earth's core. Our numerical test shows that <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation is promising with our MoSST model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rabies&pg=2&id=ED393519','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rabies&pg=2&id=ED393519"><span id="translatedtitle">Dimensions of the Community College: <span class="hlt">International</span>, Intercultural, and Multicultural Perspectives. Garland Studies in Higher Education, Volume 6. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 1075.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Raby, Rosalind Latiner, Ed.; Tarrow, Norma, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This two-part monograph provides a theoretical and practical analyses of intercultural and multicultural education programs. The first part describes inter- and multicultural educational programs in the United States and Canada and includes the following eight chapters: "<span class="hlt">International</span>, Intercultural, and Multicultural Dimensions of Community…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stefania+AND+biagioni&id=EJ610044','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stefania+AND+biagioni&id=EJ610044"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property [and] The ERCIM Technical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Digital Library [and] <span class="hlt">International</span> Information Gateway Collaboration [and] The Standards Fora for Online Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gladney, Henry M.; Andreoni, Antonella; Baldacci, Maria Bruna; Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Castelli, Donatella; Pagano, Pasquale; Peters, Carol; Pisani, Serena; Dempsey, Lorcan; Gardner, Tracy; Day, Michael; van der Werf, Titia; Bacsich, Paul; Heath, Andy; Lefrere, Paul; Miller, Paul; Riley, Kevin</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Includes four articles that discuss the impact of the emerging digital information infrastructure on intellectual property; the implementation of a digital library for a European consortium of national research institutions; an <span class="hlt">international</span> information gateway collaboration; and developing standards for the description and sharing of educational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED063130.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED063130.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An Inventory of <span class="hlt">International</span> Clearing House Services in Population/Family Planning With Special <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Audio-Visual Aids and Educational Materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Radel, David</p> <p></p> <p>This paper provides an inventory and summary of current and planned <span class="hlt">international</span> information clearing house services in the field of population/family planning, worldwide. Special emphasis is placed on services relating to audio-visual aids, educational materials, and information/education/communication support, as these items and activities have…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSWSC...6A..35Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSWSC...6A..35Y"><span id="translatedtitle">High-latitude ion temperature climatology during the <span class="hlt">International</span> Polar Year 2007-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Y.; Kosch, M. J.; Ogawa, Y.; Themens, D. R.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>This article presents the results of an ion temperature climatology study that examined ionospheric measurements from the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) Svalbard Radar (ESR: 78.2° N, 16.0° E) and the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR: 65.1° N, 212.6° E) during the year-long campaign of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Polar Year (IPY) from March 2007 to February 2008. These observations were compared with those of the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM), as well as the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012). Fairly close agreement was found between the observations and TIE-GCM results. Numerical experiments revealed that the daily variation in the high-latitude ion temperature, about 100-200 K, is mainly due to ion frictional heating. The ion temperature was found to increase in response to elevated <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity at both ESR and PFISR, which is consistent with the findings of previous studies. At ESR, a strong response occurred during the daytime, which was interpreted as a result of dayside-cusp heating. Neither TIE-GCM nor IRI-2012 reproduced the strong <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity response at ESR, underscoring the need for improvement in both models at polar latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19572081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19572081"><span id="translatedtitle">Point-of-care monitoring of oral anticoagulation therapy in children. Comparison of the CoaguChek XS system with venous INR and venous INR using an <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Thromboplastin preparation (rTF/95).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenway, Anthea; Ignjatovic, Vera; Summerhayes, Robyn; Newall, Fiona; Burgess, Janet; DeRosa, Lydia; Monagle, Paul</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Point-of-care (POC) monitoring of oral anticoagulation has been widely adopted in both paediatric and adult patients. A new POC system, the CoaguChek XS has recently been developed to measure the <span class="hlt">international</span> normalised ratio (INR) and may offer significant advantages. The CoaguChek XS utilises a new method of electrochemical clot detection based on thrombin generation. This system has not been previously evaluated in children with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the laboratory gold standard, the prothrombin time using <span class="hlt">reference</span> thromboplastin. It was the objective to compare values obtained by the CoaguChek XS system with both the venous INR and the gold standard for anticoagulant monitoring, prothrombin time with <span class="hlt">reference</span> thromboplastin (rTF/95). To evaluate the impact of testing using the CoaguChek XS on clinical anticoagulant dosing decisions. Fifty paired venous INR and capillary CoaguChek XS results were obtained from 31 children (aged up to 16 years). The laboratory gold standard, a manual prothrombin time with <span class="hlt">reference</span> thromboplastin (rTF/95) was additionally performed on 26 samples. Correlation between the CoaguChek XS result and the venous INR was r = 0.810. Agreement between the CoaguChek XS result and the <span class="hlt">reference</span> INR was shown to be higher (r=0.95), in the subset analysed by this method. Correlation between the venous INR and <span class="hlt">reference</span> INR was r=0.90. Despite changes to the methodology of testing with the CoaguChek XS POC monitoring system, the accuracy of this method when compared with both the venous INR and gold standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> INR was satisfactory. This resulted in infrequent changes to clinical decision making regarding anticoagulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SunGe...4...72D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SunGe...4...72D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms and Acute Myocardial Infarctions Morbidity in Middle Latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dimitrova, S.; Babayev, E. S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Stoilova, I.; Taseva, T.; Georgieva, K.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Results of collaborative studies on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity (GMA) and pre-hospital acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data from Bulgaria and Azerbaijan. Bulgarian data, covering the period from 01.12.1995 to 31.12.2004, concerned daily distribution of number of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia Region on the day of admission at the hospital. Azerbaijani data contained 4479 pre-hospital AMI incidence cases for the period 01.01.2003-31.12.2005 and were collected from 21 emergency and first medical aid stations in Grand Baku Area (including Absheron Economical Region with several millions of inhabitants). Data were "cleaned" as much as possible from social and other factors and were subjected to medical and mathematical/statistical analysis. Medical analysis showed reliability of the used data. Method of ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms - those caused by magnetic clouds (MC) and by high speed solar wind streams (HSSWS) - on AMI incidences. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results were outlined for both considered data. Results obtained for the Sofia data showed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI occurrence. ANOVA revealed that AMI incidence number was significantly increased from the day before till the day after <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms with different intensities. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day for the period 1995-2004. Results obtained for the Baku data revealed trends similar to those obtained for Sofia data. AMI morbidity increment was observed on the days with higher GMA intensity and after these days</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoJI.143..545D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GeoJI.143..545D"><span id="translatedtitle">A global analysis of the 1991 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Michelis, Paola; Cafarella, Lili; Meloni, Antonio</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>A recent examination of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> annual mean values for the European magnetic observatories has shown the existence of a sudden change in the secular acceleration in about 1991 (Cafarella & Meloni 1995; Macmillan 1996). Using first differences of the Y (east <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field component) mean values from 74 observatories, the worldwide character of the 1991 impulse has been determined (De Michelis et al. 1998). Using data from 109 observatories widely distributed all over the world, the structure of the secular variation for the X (north) and Z (vertical) magnetic field intensities around 1990 was investigated, and evidence of this most recent jerk was found. External effects were removed from the annual mean data by comparing the long-term variations of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field components at individual observatories with the long-term variations of two <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices, aa and Dst, and of a solar index, the Wolf number R. A careful analysis has been carried out on the amplitude of the external disturbance, on its dependence on latitude, and on the weights of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices in the evaluation of the resulting external field. The secular variation has been evaluated from the corrected annual means. Around 1990, the secular variation can be fitted at many observatories by two straight lines with a sudden and marked change in slope. In this manner the jerk occurrence time and the intensity of the step in the second time derivative (ΔX'', ΔY'' and ΔZ'') were computed. Maps of ΔX'', ΔY'' and ΔZ'' provide information on the worldwide intensity distribution of the examined event. Maps of the jerk occurrence-time distributions are also given. The mean jerk occurrence time is 1990.1+/-0.6. Finally, a spherical harmonic analysis was used to complete the quantitative description of this phenomenon in order to study the trend of the energy density spectrum as a function of the harmonic degree n.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.6821L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.6821L"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of the equatorial thermosphere anomaly: <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> activity modulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Luan, Xiaoli; Dou, Xiankang; Burns, Alan G.; Solomon, Stanley C.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The modulation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) in thermospheric temperature under the high solar activity condition is investigated using the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model simulations. The model simulations during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> disturbed interval, when the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) oscillates between southward and northward directions, are analyzed and also compared with those under the quiet time condition. Our results show that ionospheric electron densities increase greatly in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest region and decrease around the magnetic equator during the storm time, resulting from the enhanced eastward electric fields. The impact of both the direct heat deposition at high latitudes and the modulation of the storm time enhanced EIA crests on the ETA are subsequently studied. The increased plasma densities over the EIA crest region enhance the field-aligned ion drag that accelerates the poleward meridional winds and consequently their associated adiabatic cooling effect. This process alone produces a deeper temperature trough over the magnetic equator as a result of the enhanced divergence of meridional winds. Moreover, the enhanced plasma-neutral collisional heating at higher latitudes associated with the ionospheric positive storm effect causes a weak increase of the ETA crests. On the other hand, strong changes of the neutral temperature are mainly confined to higher latitudes. Nevertheless, the changes of the ETA purely due to the increased plasma density are overwhelmed by those associated with the storm time heat deposition, which is the major cause of an overall elevated temperature in both the ETA crests and trough during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> active period. Associated with the enhanced neutral temperature at high latitudes due to the heat deposition, the ETA crest-trough differences become larger under the minor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bunge&pg=4&id=EJ599794','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bunge&pg=4&id=EJ599794"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bunge, Charles A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Discusses library <span class="hlt">reference</span> services. Topics include the historical development of <span class="hlt">reference</span> services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Flanagan&pg=2&id=EJ885392','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Flanagan&pg=2&id=EJ885392"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bivens-Tatum, Wayne</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of <span class="hlt">reference</span> assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual <span class="hlt">reference</span>, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oclc&pg=4&id=EJ573844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oclc&pg=4&id=EJ573844"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Revolutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mason, Marilyn Gell</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic <span class="hlt">reference</span> services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050709&hterms=attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dattention','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050709&hterms=attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dattention"><span id="translatedtitle">Representation of magnetic fields in space. [special attention to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> fields and Magnetospheric models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stern, D. P.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Several mathematical methods which are available for the description of magnetic fields in space are reviewed. Examples of the application of such methods are given, with particular emphasis on work related to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, and their individual properties and associated problems are described. The methods are grouped in five main classes: (1) methods based on the current density, (2) methods using the scalar magnetic potential, (3) toroidal and poloidal components of the field and spherical vector harmonics, (4) Euler potentials, and (5) local expansions of the field near a given <span class="hlt">reference</span> point. Special attention is devoted to models of the magnetosphere, to the uniqueness of the scalar potential as derived from observed data, and to the L parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10665038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10665038"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXXVII. Effects of synthetic and natural <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> patterns on maze learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKay, B E; Persinger, M A</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>12 normal male albino rats were exposed or not exposed in their home cages for 5 min. and 50 sec. once every hour 8 times per night to a 7-Hz square-wave magnetic field whose amplitudes were shifted by about 50 nT approximately every 10 sec. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for numbers of working errors, numbers of <span class="hlt">reference</span> errors, or speed during the acquisition of an Olton (8-arm) maze, the strength of the group differences (F ratios) for daily working errors was reduced (rho = .70) if there had been enhanced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity during the time of the night when the experimental fields were present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960048010','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960048010"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical Technique for Intermediate and Long-Range Estimation of 13-Month Smoothed Solar Flux and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Niehuss, K. O.; Euler, H. C., Jr.; Vaughan, W. W.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This report documents the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) 13-month smoothed solar flux (F(sub 10.7)) and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index (A(sub p)) intermediate (months) and long-range (years) statistical estimation technique, <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the MSFC Lagrangian Linear Regression Technique (MLLRT). Estimates of future solar activity are needed as updated input to upper atmosphere density models used for satellite and spacecraft orbital lifetime predictions. An assessment of the MLLRT computer program's products is provided for 5-year periods from the date estimates were made. This was accomplished for a number of past solar cycles.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>