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Sample records for international geomagnetic reference

  1. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Love, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    This is a set of five world charts showing the declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, vertical component, and total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at mean sea level at the beginning of 2005. The charts are based on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) main model for 2005 and secular change model for 2005-2010. The IGRF is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 ellipsoid. Additional information about the USGS geomagnetism program is available at: http://geomag.usgs.gov/

  2. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the third generation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    In August 1981 the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy revised the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). It is the second revision since the inception of the IGRF in 1968. The revision extends the earlier series of IGRF models from 1980 to 1985, introduces a new series of definitive models for 1965-1976, and defines a provisional reference field for 1975- 1980. The revision consists of: 1) a model of the main geomagnetic field at 1980.0, not continuous with the earlier series of IGRF models together with a forecast model of the secular variation of the main field during 1980-1985; 2) definitive models of the main field at 1965.0, 1970.0, and 1975.0, with linear interpolation of the model coefficients specified for intervening dates; and 3) a provisional reference field for 1975-1980, defined as the linear interpolation of the 1975 and 1980 main-field models.-from Author

  3. International geomagnetic reference field 1965.0 in dipole coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. D.

    1970-01-01

    Computer program transforming spherical harmonic coefficients into arbitrarily tilted coordinate systems, tabulating coefficients of International Geomagnetic Reference Field 1965 in dipole coordinate system

  4. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the twelfth generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher; The IGRF Working Group

    2015-04-01

    The IGRF is an internationally-agreed reference model of the Earth's magnetic field produced under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. The IGRF-12 is the latest update of this well-known model which is used each year by many thousands of users for both industrial and scientific purposes. In October 2014, ten institutions worldwide have made contributions to the IGRF. These models were evaluated and the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014. In this presentation, we will report on the IGRF activities, briefly describe the candidate models, summarize the evaluation of models performed by different independent teams, show how the IGRF-12 models were calculated and finally discuss some of the main magnetic features of this new model.

  5. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher C.; Beggan, Ciarán D.; Alken, Patrick; Aubert, Julien; Barrois, Olivier; Bertrand, Francois; Bondar, Tatiana; Boness, Axel; Brocco, Laura; Canet, Elisabeth; Chambodut, Aude; Chulliat, Arnaud; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Civet, François; Du, Aimin; Fournier, Alexandre; Fratter, Isabelle; Gillet, Nicolas; Hamilton, Brian; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Hulot, Gauthier; Jager, Thomas; Korte, Monika; Kuang, Weijia; Lalanne, Xavier; Langlais, Benoit; Léger, Jean-Michel; Lesur, Vincent; Lowes, Frank J.; Macmillan, Susan; Mandea, Mioara; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Maus, Stefan; Olsen, Nils; Petrov, Valeriy; Ridley, Victoria; Rother, Martin; Sabaka, Terence J.; Saturnino, Diana; Schachtschneider, Reyko; Sirol, Olivier; Tangborn, Andrew; Thomson, Alan; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Vigneron, Pierre; Wardinski, Ingo; Zvereva, Tatiana

    2015-05-01

    The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2010.0, a main field model for epoch 2015.0, and a linear annual predictive secular variation model for 2015.0-2020.0. Here, we present the equations defining the IGRF model, provide the spherical harmonic coefficients, and provide maps of the magnetic declination, inclination, and total intensity for epoch 2015.0 and their predicted rates of change for 2015.0-2020.0. We also update the magnetic pole positions and discuss briefly the latest changes and possible future trends of the Earth's magnetic field.

  6. A proposed International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1965- 1985.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Fabiano, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A set of spherical harmonic models describing the Earth's main magnetic field from 1965 to 1985 has been developed and is proposed as the next revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). A tenth degree and order spherical harmonic model of the main field was derived from Magsat data. A series of eighth degree and order spherical harmonic models of the secular variation of the main field was derived from magnetic observatory annual mean values. Models of the main field at 1965, 1970, 1975, and 1980 were obtained by extrapolating the main-field model using the secular variation models.-Authors spherical harmonic models Earth main magnetic field Magsat data

  7. Supplemental Summary of Cutoff Rigidities Calculated Using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field for Various Epochs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Rigidities Calculated Using the International -Geomagnetic Reference Field for Various Epochs M.A. SHEA D.F. SMART 1 NOVEMBER 1982 Approved for publie...SUMMARY OF CUTOFF Scientific. Interim. RIGIDITIES CALCULATED USING THE INTER -_ _________ NATIONAL GEOMAGNETIC REFERENCE FIELD 6 PERFORMING 01G. REPORT...n-b.’I Cosmic rays Cutoff rigidities Geomagnetic field 20 ABSTRACT (ContinuC0 e o, sid. it ---. 0, -,d id- 5,.- 550,5- Tables of cosmic-ray cutoff

  8. Analysis of geomagnetic secular variation during 1980-1985 and 1985- 1990, and geomagnetic models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during the periods 1980-1985 and 1985-1990 was analyzed in terms of spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree and order. Data from worldwide magnetic observatories and the Navy's Project MAGNET aerial surveys were used. The resulting pair of secular-variation models was used to update the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model for 1980, resulting in new mainfield models for 1985.0 and 1990.0. These, along with the secular-variation model for 1985-1990, were proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). -Author

  9. Evaluation of models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) comprises a definitive main-field model for 1985.0, a main-field model for 1990.0, and a forecast secular-variation model for the period 1990-1995. The five 1985.0 main-field models and five 1990.0 main-field models that were proposed have been evaluated by comparing them with one another, with magnetic observatory data, and with Project MAGNET aerial survey data. The comparisons indicate that the main-field models proposed by IZMIRAN, and the secular-variation model proposed jointly by the British Geological Survey and the US Naval Oceanographic Office, should be assigned relatively lower weight in the derivation of the new IGRF models. -Author

  10. International geomagnetic reference field 1980: a report by IAGA Division I working group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the recommendations of the working group, which suggested additions to IGRF because of the cumulative effect of the inevitable uncertainties in the secular variation models which had led to unacceptable inaccuracies in the IGRF by the late 1970's. The recommendations were accepted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy on August 15, 1981 at the 4th Scientific Assembly, Edinburgh. An extended table sets out spherical harmonic coefficients of the IGRF 1980.-R.House

  11. Assessment of models proposed for the 1985 revision of the international geomagnetic reference field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Zunde, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Geomagnetic measurements from land, marine and aerial surveys conducted in the years 1945-1964 were used to test the 14 models proposed as additions, for that period, to the series of definitive geomagnetic reference field (DGRF) models. Overall, NASA's 'SFAS' models and the BGS (British Geological Survey) models agree best with these data. Comparisons of the two proposed definitive main-field models for 1980.0, with each other and with the existing IGRF 1980 main-field model, show mostly close agreement, with the greatest absolute differences (several tens of nanotesla) occurring in the region of Antarctica. Comparison of the the three proposed forecast secular-variation models for 1985-1990 with estimates of recent rates of change at 148 magnetic observatories shows that the IZMIRAN (U.S.S.R.) and USGS models are in closest agreement with these data. ?? 1987.

  12. An assessment of the near-surface accuracy of the international geomagnetic reference field 1980 model of the main geomagnetic field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Zunde, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The new International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model of the main geomagnetic field for 1980 is based heavily on measurements from the MAGSAT satellite survey. Assessment of the accuracy of the new model, as a description of the main field near the Earth's surface, is important because the accuracy of models derived from satellite data can be adversely affected by the magnetic field of electric currents in the ionosphere and the auroral zones. Until now, statements about its accuracy have been based on the 6 published assessments of the 2 proposed models from which it was derived. However, those assessments were either regional in scope or were based mainly on preliminary or extrapolated data. Here we assess the near-surface accuracy of the new model by comparing it with values for 1980 derived from annual means from 69 magnetic observatories, and by comparing it with WC80, a model derived from near-surface data. The comparison with observatory-derived data shows that the new model describes the field at the 69 observatories about as accurately as would a model derived solely from near-surface data. The comparison with WC80 shows that the 2 models agree closely in their description of D and I near the surface. These comparisons support the proposition that the new IGRF 1980 main-field model is a generally accurate description of the main field near the Earth's surface in 1980. ?? 1985.

  13. Development of a Geomagnetic Storm Correction to the International Reference Ionosphere E-Region Electron Densities Using TIMED/SABER Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Fernandez, J. R.; Bilitza, D.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Auroral infrared emission observed from the TIMED/SABER broadband 4.3 micron channel is used to develop an empirical geomagnetic storm correction to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) E-region electron densities. The observation-based proxy used to develop the storm model is SABER-derived NO+(v) 4.3 micron volume emission rates (VER). A correction factor is defined as the ratio of storm-time NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER to a quiet-time climatological averaged NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER, which is linearly fit to available geomagnetic activity indices. The initial version of the E-region storm model, called STORM-E, is most applicable within the auroral oval region. The STORM-E predictions of E-region electron densities are compared to incoherent scatter radar electron density measurements during the Halloween 2003 storm events. Future STORM-E updates will extend the model outside the auroral oval.

  14. Geomagnetic Disturbances Caused by Internal Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneman, G.

    1984-01-01

    It is commonly believed that geomagnetic disturbances are caused by external influences connected with the solar wind. The 27-day recurrence of perturbations seems to be a strong hint for this interaction. But frequently geomagnetic disturbances occur without any relation to sunspot numbers or radiowave fluxes. This was one of the reasons for introducing hypothetical M-regions on the Sun and their relation to solar wind activities. Only one half of the variance of the geomagnetic AL-index could be related to the solar wind. Therefore it is concluded that internal processes of the magnetosphere were responsible for additional geomagnetic activity. Arguments, which might lead to the suggestion of geomagnetic disturbances as being caused by internal atmospheric dynamics are discussed and a rather preliminary scenario of those processes is proposed.

  15. The Egyptian geomagnetic reference field to the Epoch, 2010.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deebes, H. A.; Abd Elaal, E. M.; Arafa, T.; Lethy, A.; El Emam, A.; Ghamry, E.; Odah, H.

    2017-06-01

    The present work is a compilation of two tasks within the frame of the project ;Geomagnetic Survey & Detailed Geomagnetic Measurements within the Egyptian Territory; funded by the ;Science and Technology Development Fund agency (STDF);. The National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), has conducted a new extensive land geomagnetic survey that covers the whole Egyptian territory. The field measurements have been done at 3212 points along all the asphalted roads, defined tracks, and ill-defined tracks in Egypt; with total length of 11,586 km. In the present work, the measurements cover for the first time new areas as: the southern eastern borders of Egypt including Halayeb and Shlatin, the Quattara depresion in the western desert, and the new roads between Farafra and Baharia oasis. Also marine geomagnetic survey have been applied for the first time in Naser lake. Misallat and Abu-Simble geomagnetic observatories have been used to reduce the field data to the Epoch 2010. During the field measurements, whenever possible, the old stations occupied by the previous observers have been re-occupied to determine the secular variations at these points. The geomagnetic anomaly maps, the normal geomagnetic field maps with their corresponding secular variation maps, the normal geomagnetic field equations of the geomagnetic elements (EGRF) and their corresponding secular variations equations, are outlined. The anomalous sites, as discovered from the anomaly maps are, only, mentioned. In addition, a correlation between the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2010.0 and the Egyptian Geomagnetic Reference Field (EGRF) 2010 is indicated.

  16. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  17. International Reference Ionosphere -2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    The International Reference Ionosphere 2010 includes several important improvements and ad-ditions. This presentation introduces these changes and discusses their benefits. The electron and ion density profiles for the bottomside ionosphere will be significantly improved by using more ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional lower iono-sphere parameter IRI-2010 will include the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Net models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. At high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity. The homepage for the IRI project is at http://IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  18. Steady induction effects in geomagnetism. Part 1C: Geomagnetic estimation of steady surficial core motions: Application to the definitive geomagnetic reference field models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1993-01-01

    In the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core magnetic earth model, the non-linear inverse steady motional induction problem was solved using the method presented in Part 1B. How that method was applied to estimate steady, broad-scale fluid velocity fields near the top of Earth's core that induce the secular change indicated by the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) models from 1945 to 1980 are described. Special attention is given to the derivation of weight matrices for the DGRF models because the weights determine the apparent significance of the residual secular change. The derived weight matrices also enable estimation of the secular change signal-to-noise ratio characterizing the DGRF models. Two types of weights were derived in 1987-88: radial field weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the radial geomagnetic field component at Earth's surface implied by the DGRF's, and general weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the scalar potential specified by these models. The difference is non-trivial because not all the geomagnetic data represented by the DGRF's constrain the radial field component. For radial field weights (or general weights), a quantitatively acceptable explication of broad-scale secular change relative to the 1980 Magsat epoch must account for 99.94271 percent (or 99.98784 percent) of the total weighted variance accumulated therein. Tolerable normalized root-mean-square weighted residuals of 2.394 percent (or 1.103 percent) are less than the 7 percent errors expected in the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core approximation.

  19. The Development of a Dynamic Geomagnetic Cutoff Rigidity Model for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a computer model of geomagnetic vertical cutoffs applicable to the orbit of the International Space Station. This model accounts for the change in geomagnetic cutoff rigidity as a function of geomagnetic activity level. This model was delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center in July 1999 and tested on the Space Radiation Analysis Group DEC-Alpha computer system to ensure that it will properly interface with other software currently used at NASA JSC. The software was designed for ease of being upgraded as other improved models of geomagnetic cutoff as a function of magnetic activity are developed.

  20. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The International Reference Ionosphere - Status 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. IRI-2012 includes new models for the electron density and ion densities in the region below the F-peak, a storm-time model for the auroral E-region, an improved electron temperature model that includes variations with solar activity, and for the first time a description of auroral boundaries. In addition, the thermosphere model required for baseline neutral densities and temperatures was upgraded from MSIS-86 to the newer NRLMSIS-00 model and Corrected Geomagnetic coordinates (CGM) were included in IRI as an additional coordinate system for a better representation of auroral and polar latitudes. Ongoing IRI activities towards the inclusion of an improved model for the F2 peak height hmF2 are discussed as are efforts to develop a "Real-Time IRI". The paper is based on an IRI status report presented at the 2013 IRI Workshop in Olsztyn, Poland. The IRI homepage is at

  2. The International Reference Ionosphere - 45 Years of International Space Weather Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B. W.; Rawer, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project was started in 1970 when the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) joined forces to establish an internationally accepted reference model for the ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. Because of this operational needs both unions requested that IRI be based primarily on data using all available and reliable data sources from space and ground. Similar activities had been started for the Atmosphere with the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) model and for the Earth's magnetic field with the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). This presentation will give a brief overview over the IRI project and the progress made since its inception. An important milestone was reached early last year when IRI was voted to become the ISO standard for the ionosphere; the International Standardization Organization (ISO) is in charge of establishing and publishing international standards. This talk will discuss the most recent status of IRI activities including the development of a Real-Time IRI and the IRI 2015 Workshop, the first COSPAR Capacity Building Workshop on a Space Weather topic, that will be held in Bangkok from November 2 to 13. The IRI model is heavily used for a wide range of applications in science, engineering and education. We will discuss some of the more important ones of these applications and present measures of success that underline the superior performance of the model and the wide acceptance in the science community and science-interested public.

  3. Bulgarian Geomagnetic Reference Field (BulGRF) for 2015.0 and secular variation prediction model up to 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metodiev, Metodi; Trifonova, Petya

    2017-09-01

    The Bulgarian Geomagnetic Reference Field (BulGRF) for 2015.0 epoch and its secular variation model prediction up to 2020.0 is produced and presented in this paper. The main field model is based on the well-known polynomial approximation in latitude and longitude of the geomagnetic field elements. The challenge in our modelling strategy was to update the absolute field geomagnetic data from 1980.0 up to 2015.0 using secular measurements unevenly distributed in time and space. As a result, our model gives a set of six coefficients for the horizontal H, vertical Z, total field F, and declination D elements of the geomagnetic field. The extrapolation of BulGRF to 2020 is based on an autoregressive forecasting of the Panagyurishte observatory annual means. Comparison of the field values predicted by the model with Panagyurishte (PAG) observatory annual mean data and two vector field measurements performed in 2015 shows a close match with IGRF-12 values and some difference with the real (measured) values, which is probably due to the influence of crustal sources. BulGRF proves to be a reliable alternative to the global geomagnetic field models which together with its simplicity makes it a useful tool for reducing magnetic surveys to a common epoch carried out over the Bulgarian territory up to 2020.

  4. The second international reference preparation of lymecycline.

    PubMed

    Lightbown, J W; Thomas, A H; Berryman, I L

    1973-01-01

    The second International Reference Preparation of Lymecycline was established. Nine laboratories in 8 countries collaborated in assaying its potency in terms of the first International Reference Preparation, of which stocks had become exhausted. The best estimate of potency was taken to be 948 IU/mg, which was the unweighted geometric mean of a total of 124 assays. On this basis, the International Unit of lymecycline was defined as the activity contained in 0.0010548 mg of the second International Reference Preparation.

  5. Empirical Reference Models for COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, Douglas; Emmert, John; Picone, Michael

    Openly distributed atmospheric reference models are an essential tool for scientific research and operational activities. To meet the needs of all users, such models must utilize rigorous statistical methods and the most comprehensive and reliable data sets in their development. Two such models that meet these requirements are the Naval Research Laboratory, Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Extended (NRLMSISE-00) and Horizontal Wind Model (HWM-93) empirical reference models. The NRLMSISE-00 model and its predecessors are based on 35 years of empirical modeling experience and over 40 years of research measurements. These global models are well documented and extend from the ground to the exosphere, providing estimates of neutral temperature, density, and major neutral species composition as a function of geographic location, day of year, time of day, and geomagnetic and solar activity conditions. Relative to the most comprehensive span of datasets available these models have the smallest bias and root mean square deviations of any climatological reference model built to date, although there are a few limitations in the 80 to 120 km region. The less advanced HWM-93 model, based on the same statistical methodologies and general mathematical formulation of the NRLMSISE-00 model, provides climatological estimates of the horizontal wind fields over the same variables and range of conditions as the NRLMSISE-00 model. The availability of several new long term data sets, including satellite wind measurements from the WINDII instrument onboard the UARS satellite, as well as ground-based optical Fabery-Perot measurements, provide the opportunity to make significant refinements to the existing model. Initial results from an improved HWM will be shown for altitudes between 100 and 500 km. Improvement in the model's ability to represent the seasonal changes, solar forcing, geomagnetic forcing, diurnal variation, and vertical structure of horizontal winds of the region is

  6. The cascading effects of absolute reference frames and geomagnetic polarity timescales on global plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, S.; Seton, M.; Müller, R. D.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Global plate motion models use Africa and the Pacific as the base of plate rotation hierarchies, with many other plates moving relative to them. Relative plate motions in the Mesozoic are generally well resolved where seafloor spreading histories are preserved to the present-day. However, the choice of absolute reference frames, whether they are fixed-hotspot, moving-hotspot, true-polar wander-corrected or pure paleomagnetic, can have significant consequences for the absolute plate velocities of smaller plates that are at the mercy of the cascading effects of movement within a complex plate motion hierarchy. We use GPlates to sample plate velocities through time at equally spaced mesh nodes that are contained within continuously closing plate polygons. We calculate root-mean square plate velocities to isolate the effects of different absolute reference frames on absolute plate velocity trends. Apart from being a quality-control tool for the creation of global plate motion models, this approach allows us to track the source of plate velocity spikes, some of which may be indicative of plate reorganisation events. We use a similar approach to test whether alternative geomagnetic polarity time-scales introduce or help reduce anomalous plate velocity fluctuations in global plate motion models. The choice of timescales can affect the seafloor spreading rates partitioned across stage rotations and models of sea level change. Such a workflow may help test alternative timescales, in order to study the model-dependence and controversies that have recently surfaced regarding proposed plate reorganisation events and the mid-Cretaceous seafloor spreading pulse.

  7. The second international reference preparation of lymecycline*

    PubMed Central

    Lightbown, J. W.; Thomas, A. H.; Berryman, I. L.

    1973-01-01

    The second International Reference Preparation of Lymecycline was established. Nine laboratories in 8 countries collaborated in assaying its potency in terms of the first International Reference Preparation, of which stocks had become exhausted. The best estimate of potency was taken to be 948 IU/mg, which was the unweighted geometric mean of a total of 124 assays. On this basis, the International Unit of lymecycline was defined as the activity contained in 0.0010548 mg of the second International Reference Preparation. PMID:4541151

  8. Ionosphere over Africa: Results from Geomagnetic Field Measurements During International Heliophysical Year IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A. B.; Yumoto, K.; Falayi, E. O.; Bello, O. R.; Magdas/Cpmn Group

    2011-12-01

    Space Environment Research Centre of Kyushu University, Japan, installed 13 units of Magnetic Data Acquisition Systems MAGDAS over Africa during the International Heliophysical Year IHY. Magnetic records from 10 stations along the African 96o Magnetic Meridian (Geographical 30° - 40° East) were examined for Solar quiet daily Sq variations in the two geomagnetic field components H and D. Latitudinal variations of Sq in the geomagnetic components were examined. Signatures of equatorial electrojet and worldwide Sq were identified and studied in detail. H field experienced more variation within the equatorial electrojet zone. Diurnal variations of the geomagnetic variations in the two components were discussed. Sq H is expectedly consistently maximum within the electrojet zone as a result of EEJ. Sq D has maximum values at about -20ɛ (sunrise), -10ɛ (noon time) and +10ɛ (sunset). Levels of inter-relationships between the Sq and its variability in the two components were statistically derived and interpreted in line with the mechanisms responsible for the variations of the geomagnetic field. Data from 2 magnetic observatories within equatorial electrojet EEJ strip and 2 stations outside the EEJ strip were employed to evaluate and study the signatures of the Equatorial electrojet over the African sector. The transient variations of the EEJ at two almost parallel axes using Lagos-Ilorin (West Africa) and Nairobi-Addis Ababa (East Africa) pairs were examined. The eastern electrojet appeared stronger than the western. The latitudinal and longitudinal profiles of the Sq were examined and inferences drawn from observed results were discussed.

  9. New idea of geomagnetic monitoring through ENA detection from the International Space Station: ENAMISS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Anna; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Orsini, Stefano; Rubini, Alda; Evangelista, Yuri; Mura, Alessandro; Rispoli, Rosanna; Vertolli, Nello; Carrubba, Elisa; Donati, Alessandro; Di Lellis, Andrea Maria; Plainaki, Christina; Lazzarotto, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) in the Earth's environment has been proven to be a successful technique able to provide detailed information on the ring current plasma population at energies below 100 keV. Indeed, the existing space weather databases usually include a good coverage of Sun and solar wind monitoring. The global imaging of the Earth's magnetosphere/ ionosphere is usually obtained by the high-latitudes monitoring of aurorae, ground magnetic field variations and high-latitude radio emissions. The equatorial magnetic field variations on ground, from which the geomagnetic indices like Dst, Sym-H and Asym-H are derived, include the effects of all current systems (i.e. ring current, Chapman -Ferraro current, tails currents, etc...) providing a kind of global information. Nevertheless, the specific information related to the ring current cannot be easily derived from such indices. Only occasional local plasma data are available by orbiting spacecraft. ENA detection is the only way to globally view the ring current populations. Up-to-now this technique has been used mainly from dedicated high altitude polar orbiting spacecraft, which do not allow a continuous and systematic monitoring, and a discrimination of the particle latitude distribution. The Energetic Neutral Atoms Monitor on the International space Station (ENAMISS) project intends to develop an ENA imager and install it on the ISS for continuous monitoring of the spatially distributed ring current plasma population. ISS is the ideal platform to perform continuous ENA monitoring since its particular low altitude and medium/low latitude orbit allows wide-field ENA images of various magnetospheric regions. The calibrated ENA data, the deconvolved ion distributions and ad-hoc ENA-based new geomagnetic indices will be freely distributed to the space weather community. Furthermore, new services based on plasma circulation models, spacecraft surface charging models and radiation dose models

  10. The use of geomagnetic field models in magnetic surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, R. D.; Gain, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of global geomagnetic field models for the reduction of magnetic surveys is discussed. It is demonstrated that a numerical model with adequate secular variation correction, provides a suitable representation of the regional field. The limitations of the presently available models are reported, with emphasis on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field.

  11. The geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Roberts, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    Information available on the geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo is presented. Attention is given to the process of mapping the magnetic field, the last version of International Geomagnetic Reference Field Model, and maps of the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary and their interpretation. Particular consideration is given to the existing geodynamo theories, with special relation given to the Braginsky and Meytlis theory of core turbulence in which the turbulence differs fundamentally from classical turbulence of Kolmogorov type.

  12. Investigations of a simulated geomagnetic field experienced by the International Space Station on attentional performance.

    PubMed

    Del Seppia, Cristina; Mezzasalma, Lorena; Messerotti, Mauro; Cordelli, Alessandro; Ghione, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported that the exposure to an abnormal magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the International Space Station (ISS) orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli. Here we report the results of the second part of that study which tested whether this field also affects cognitive functions. Twenty-four volunteers participated in the study, 12 exposed to the natural geomagnetic field and 12 to the magnetic field encountered by ISS. The test protocol consisted of a set of eight tests chosen from a computerized test battery for the assessment of attentional performance. The duration of exposure was 90 min. No effect of exposure to ISS magnetic field was observed on attentional performance.

  13. The International Reference Preparation of Penicillin K

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.

    1954-01-01

    The International Reference Preparation of Penicillin K was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization at its fifth session, held in Geneva in 1951. Since the preparation is likely to be used for research only, no unit has been defined. The composition of the preparation, in terms of its activity against a strain of Bacillus subtilis, is penicillin K 89.9%, penicillin dihydro F 9.6%, and penicillin F 0.5%. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:13199652

  14. Drug Launch Timing and International Reference Pricing.

    PubMed

    Houy, Nicolas; Jelovac, Izabela

    2015-08-01

    This paper analyzes the timing decisions of pharmaceutical firms to launch a new drug in countries involved in international reference pricing. We show three important features of launch timing when all countries refer to the prices in all other countries and in all previous periods of time. First, there is no withdrawal of drugs in any country and in any period. Second, whenever the drug is sold in a country, it is also sold in all countries with larger willingness to pay. Third, there is no strict incentive to delay the launch of a drug in any country. We then show that the first and third results continue to hold when the countries only refer to the prices of a subset of all countries in a transitive way and in any period. We also show that the second result continues to hold when the reference is on the last period prices only. Last, we show that the seller's profits increase as the sets of reference countries decrease with respect to inclusion. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. International Reference Ionosphere: Plasma densities - Status 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawer, K.; Bilitza, D.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of the changes proposed in 1988 for the International Reference Ionosphere electron density profile, as well as the status of their implementation. The fully analytical profile function under development for the entire ionosphere can be achieved with a linear combination of several LAY functions. Although four LAY functions are required to describe the density features of the middle ionosphere, three LAY functions suffice to reproduce electron densities in both the topside ionosphere and lower ionosphere. Attention is given to the way in which the LAY parameters are computationally derivable from characteristic profile points.

  16. On the Usage of Geomagnetic Indices for Data Selection in Internal Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Morschhauser, A.; Olsen, N.; Finlay, C. C.; McPherron, R. L.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a review on geomagnetic indices describing global geomagnetic storm activity (Kp, am, Dst and dDst/dt) and on indices designed to characterize high latitude currents and substorms (PC and AE-indices and their variants). The focus in our discussion is in main field modelling, where indices are primarily used in data selection criteria for weak magnetic activity. The publicly available extensive data bases of index values are used to derive joint conditional Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) for different pairs of indices in order to investigate their mutual consistency in describing quiet conditions. This exercise reveals that Dst and its time derivative yield a similar picture as Kp on quiet conditions as determined with the conditions typically used in internal field modelling. Magnetic quiescence at high latitudes is typically searched with the help of Merging Electric Field (MEF) as derived from solar wind observations. We use in our PDF analysis the PC-index as a proxy for MEF and estimate the magnetic activity level at auroral latitudes with the AL-index. With these boundary conditions we conclude that the quiet time conditions that are typically used in main field modelling ( PC<0.8, Kp<2 and |Dst|<30 nT) correspond to weak auroral electrojet activity quite well: Standard size substorms are unlikely to happen, but other types of activations (e.g. pseudo breakups AL>-300 nT) can take place, when these criteria prevail. Although AE-indices have been designed to probe electrojet activity only in average conditions and thus their performance is not optimal during weak activity, we note that careful data selection with advanced AE-variants may appear to be the most practical way to lower the elevated RMS-values which still exist in the residuals between modeled and observed values at high latitudes. Recent initiatives to upgrade the AE-indices, either with a better coverage of observing stations and improved baseline corrections (the Super

  17. On the Usage of Geomagnetic Indices for Data Selection in Internal Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Morschhauser, A.; Olsen, N.; Finlay, C. C.; McPherron, R. L.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present a review on geomagnetic indices describing global geomagnetic storm activity ( Kp, am, Dst and dDst/dt) and on indices designed to characterize high latitude currents and substorms ( PC and AE-indices and their variants). The focus in our discussion is in main field modelling, where indices are primarily used in data selection criteria for weak magnetic activity. The publicly available extensive data bases of index values are used to derive joint conditional Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) for different pairs of indices in order to investigate their mutual consistency in describing quiet conditions. This exercise reveals that Dst and its time derivative yield a similar picture as Kp on quiet conditions as determined with the conditions typically used in internal field modelling. Magnetic quiescence at high latitudes is typically searched with the help of Merging Electric Field ( MEF) as derived from solar wind observations. We use in our PDF analysis the PC-index as a proxy for MEF and estimate the magnetic activity level at auroral latitudes with the AL-index. With these boundary conditions we conclude that the quiet time conditions that are typically used in main field modelling (PC<0.8, Kp<2 and |Dst|<30 nT) correspond to weak auroral electrojet activity quite well: Standard size substorms are unlikely to happen, but other types of activations (e.g. pseudo breakups AL>-300 nT) can take place, when these criteria prevail. Although AE-indices have been designed to probe electrojet activity only in average conditions and thus their performance is not optimal during weak activity, we note that careful data selection with advanced AE-variants may appear to be the most practical way to lower the elevated RMS-values which still exist in the residuals between modeled and observed values at high latitudes. Recent initiatives to upgrade the AE-indices, either with a better coverage of observing stations and improved baseline corrections (the Super

  18. The International Reference Ionosphere 2012 - a model of international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Zhang, Yongliang; Mertens, Chris; Truhlik, Vladimir; Richards, Phil; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Reinisch, Bodo

    2014-02-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project was established jointly by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) in the late sixties with the goal to develop an international standard for the specification of plasma parameters in the Earth's ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. At the request of COSPAR and URSI, IRI was developed as a data-based model to avoid the uncertainty of theory-based models which are only as good as the evolving theoretical understanding. Being based on most of the available and reliable observations of the ionospheric plasma from the ground and from space, IRI describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 km to 2000 km. A working group of about 50 international ionospheric experts is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. Over time as new data became available and new modeling techniques emerged, steadily improved editions of the IRI model have been published. This paper gives a brief history of the IRI project and describes the latest version of the model, IRI-2012. It also briefly discusses efforts to develop a real-time IRI model. The IRI homepage is at http://IRImodel.org.

  19. International linear collider reference design report

    SciTech Connect

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  20. Geomagnetic transmission of solar energetic protons during the geomagnetic disturbances of October 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boberg, P. R.; Tylka, A. J.; Adams J. H., JR.; Flueckiger, E. O.; Kobel, E.

    1995-01-01

    Orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission measurements during the large solar energetic particle events of October 1989 are presented using proton data from the NOAA-10 and GOES-7 satellies. The measurements are compared to geomagnetic transmission calculations determined by tracing particle trajectories through the combination of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model and the 1989 Tsyganenko magnetospheric magnetic field model. The effective 'ring current' parameter in the 1989 Tsyganenko model based on the Dst data. Results are compared to calculations employing only the IGRF and to a parameterization of geomagnetically quiet-time cutoff rigidities derived from Cosmos/intercosmos observations. The 3-hour orbit-averaged results have approximately 15% accuracy during the October 1989 events.

  1. Geomagnetic field variations induced by internal and surface waves in the four-layer model of the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, V. P.; Semkin, S. V.; Savchenko, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    The layered model of the marine environment, including the atmosphere, two seawater layers with different conductivity and density, and the bottom rock layer, has been considered. The geomagnetic field variations, generated by internal and surface waves with different frequency and propagation direction, have been found in the scope of this model. The effect of magnetic permeability and electric conductivity of bottom rocks on induced magnetic field has been taken into account. The transfer functions and spectral densities of these variations have been analytically determined and numerically estimated.

  2. 75 FR 34017 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM ) and its incorporation by reference in the... 20 International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final...: Issue 36 of the International Mail Manual was issued on May 11, 2009. It replaced all previous editions...

  3. Long-term seafloor geomagnetic station in the northwest Pacific: A possible candidate for a seafloor geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, H.; Hamano, Y.; Ichiki, M.

    2006-06-01

    For two years, geomagnetic variations have been measured at the seafloor in the northwest Pacific. The seafloor data consist of the geomagnetic vector field measured by a three-component fluxgate magnetometer and the absolute scalar total force measured by an Overhauser (1953) magnetometer with attitude measurements for both orientation and tilt. Using the attitude data, the geomagnetic data at a site in the northwest Pacific (41o06'08″N, 159°57'47″E, -5580 m), hereafter referred to as NWP, were converted into the same reference frame as land and satellite measurements. Short-period variations of the converted vector data were examined by Hamano's (2002) global time domain analysis method, which showed compatibility of the seafloor geomagnetic observatory data with the existing land observatory network. The smooth and gradual change of the Earth's main field (i.e., the geomagnetic secular variation) was also found consistent with those predicted by the latest International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-10; IAGA, 2005) and by Ørsted Satellite (Olsen, 2002) for not only the scalar field but also the vector field. This means that observation of the geomagnetic vector secular variation is now feasible on the seafloor.

  4. The International Reference Ionosphere: Model Update 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Altadill, David; Reinisch, Bodo; Galkin, Ivan; Shubin, Valentin; Truhlik, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is recognized as the official standard for the ionosphere (COSPAR, URSI, ISO) and is widely used for a multitude of different applications as evidenced by the many papers in science and engineering journals that acknowledge the use of IRI (e.g., about 11% of all Radio Science papers each year). One of the shortcomings of the model has been the dependence of the F2 peak height modeling on the propagation factor M(3000)F2. With the 2016 version of IRI, two new models will be introduced for hmF2 that were developed directly based on hmF2 measurements by ionosondes [Altadill et al., 2013] and by COSMIC radio occultation [Shubin, 2015], respectively. In addition IRI-2016 will include an improved representation of the ionosphere during the very low solar activities that were reached during the last solar minimum in 2008/2009. This presentation will review these and other improvements that are being implemented with the 2016 version of the IRI model. We will also discuss recent IRI workshops and their findings and results. One of the most exciting new projects is the development of the Real-Time IRI [Galkin et al., 2012]. We will discuss the current status and plans for the future. Altadill, D., S. Magdaleno, J.M. Torta, E. Blanch (2013), Global empirical models of the density peak height and of the equivalent scale height for quiet conditions, Advances in Space Research 52, 1756-1769, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.11.018. Galkin, I.A., B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, and D. Bilitza (2012), Assimilation of GIRO Data into a Real-Time IRI, Radio Science, 47, RS0L07, doi:10.1029/2011RS004952. Shubin V.N. (2015), Global median model of the F2-layer peak height based on ionospheric radio-occultation and ground-based Digisonde observations, Advances in Space Research 56, 916-928, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2015.05.029.

  5. The null magnetic field as reference for the study of geomagnetic directional effects in animals and man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beischer, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    Techniques for producing very low and zero magnetic fields are considered, giving attention to the compensation of the geomagnetic field by a Helmholtz coil system, approaches utilizing the shielding power of highly permeable alloys, and the complete exclusion of the geomagnetic field with the aid of a superconductive shield. Animal experiments in low magnetic fields are discussed, together with the exposure of man to 'null' magnetic fields and the Josephson junction as a possible biosensor of magnetic fields. It is found that neither the functions nor the behavior of man changes significantly during a two-week exposure to magnetic fields below 50 gammas.

  6. The null magnetic field as reference for the study of geomagnetic directional effects in animals and man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beischer, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    Techniques for producing very low and zero magnetic fields are considered, giving attention to the compensation of the geomagnetic field by a Helmholtz coil system, approaches utilizing the shielding power of highly permeable alloys, and the complete exclusion of the geomagnetic field with the aid of a superconductive shield. Animal experiments in low magnetic fields are discussed, together with the exposure of man to 'null' magnetic fields and the Josephson junction as a possible biosensor of magnetic fields. It is found that neither the functions nor the behavior of man changes significantly during a two-week exposure to magnetic fields below 50 gammas.

  7. Progress of Geomagnetism towards integration of data and services in EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, Simon; Hejda, Pavel; Chambodut, Aude; Curto, Juan-Jose; Matzka, Jürgen; Thomson, Alan; Korja, Toivo; Rasmussen, Thorkild; Smirnov, Maxim; Viljanen, Ari; Kauristie, Kirsti

    2017-04-01

    The geomagnetism community is involved in the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), a European Research Infrastructure through which science communities will offer a number of services that will integrate to simplify cross-disciplinary research. The Geomagnetism community will provide data from geomagnetic observatories, from producers of geomagnetic indices and events, from geomagnetic models and from magneto-telluric observations. A number of these services (data from the INTERMAGNET network and the World Data Centre, indices and events from the International Service of Geomagnetic Indices and the access to the International Geomagnetic Reference Field and World Magnetic Model) will be integrated into EPOS systems in the first wave of services to be connected. This poster will describe the contribution from geomagnetism to EPOS. It will include a description of the data and services that the geomagnetic community will provide and also discuss how metadata will be made available from the community to the EPOS core IT systems. Finally it will describe how the provision of geomagnetic services in EPOS will be guided and governed by members of the community .

  8. A model of geomagnetic secular variation for 1980-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Zunde, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    We developed an updated model of the secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during 1980 through 1983 based on annual mean values for that interval from 148 worldwide magnetic observatories. The model consists of a series of 80 spherical harmonics, up to and including those of degree and order 8. We used it to form a proposal for the 1985 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). Comparison of the new model, whose mean epoch is approximately 1982.0, with the Provisional Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1975-1980 (PGRF 1975), indicates that the moment of the centered-dipole part of the geomagnetic field is now decreasing faster than it was 5 years ago. The rate (in field units) indicated by PGRF 1975 was about -25 nT a-1, while for the new model it is -28 nT a-1. ?? 1987.

  9. The International Reference Sphere of the Earth: PRO and CONTRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafarend, E. W.

    2003-04-01

    In Gravitostatics, Electrostatics and Magnetostatics the scalar-valued potential external to the Earth Reference Body is expanded in scalar-valued external spherical harmonics. Such a harmonic space L^2(S^2_R) with respect to the International Reference Sphere S^2_R is analyzed. We review the physical theory of how to determine the Mean Sphere of the Earth. In particular, we discuss the PRO and CONTRA of such a reference sphere which thanks to Earth rotation is physically not admissible. A physical admissible reference figure is the International Reference Ellipsoid, an equipotential surface in the Somigliana-Pizzetti reference potential field.

  10. Reference Guide to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a great international, technological, and political achievement. It is the latest step in humankind's quest to explore and live in space. The research done on the ISS may advance our knowledge in various areas of science, enable us to improve life on this planet, and give us the experience and increased understanding that can eventually equip us to journey to other worlds. As a result of the Station s complexity, few understand its configuration, its design and component systems, or the complex operations required in its construction and operation. This book provides high-level insight into the ISS. The ISS is in orbit today, operating with a crew of three. Its assembly will continue through 2010. As the ISS grows, its capabilities will increase, thus requiring a larger crew. Currently, 16 countries are involved in this venture. This CD-ROM includes multimedia files and animations.

  11. Reference Guide to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a great international, technological, and political achievement. It is the latest step in humankind's quest to explore and live in space. The research done on the ISS may advance our knowledge in various areas of science, enable us to improve life on this planet, and give us the experience and increased understanding that can eventually equip us to journey to other worlds. As a result of the Station s complexity, few understand its configuration, its design and component systems, or the complex operations required in its construction and operation. This book provides high-level insight into the ISS. The ISS is in orbit today, operating with a crew of three. Its assembly will continue through 2010. As the ISS grows, its capabilities will increase, thus requiring a larger crew. Currently, 16 countries are involved in this venture. This CD-ROM includes multimedia files and animations.

  12. Principles of major geomagnetic storms forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagnetko, Alexander; Applbaum, David; Dorman, Lev; Pustil'Nik, Lev; Sternlieb, Abraham; Zukerman, Igor

    According to NOAA Space Weather Scales, geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3-hour index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). To prevent these serious damages will be very important to forecast dangerous geomagnetic storms. In many papers it was shown that in principle for this forecasting can be used data on CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC of major geomagnetic storms accompanied by sufficient Forbush-decreases (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999). In this paper we consider all types of observed precursor effects in CR what can be used for forecasting of great geomagnetic storms and possible mechanisms of these precursor effects origin. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, 49A, 136-144 (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their pre-diction", Proc. of 26-th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, 6, 476-479 (1999).

  13. Developing an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel.

    PubMed

    De Soyza, Anthony; Hall, Amanda J; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Toth, Veronika; Coenye, Tom; Zlosnik, James E A; Burns, Jane L; Sá-Correia, Isabel; De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Kidd, Timothy J; Reid, David; Manos, Jim; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard; McClean, Siobhán; Winstanley, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and causes a wide range of infections among other susceptible populations. Its inherent resistance to many antimicrobials also makes it difficult to treat infections with this pathogen. Recent evidence has highlighted the diversity of this species, yet despite this, the majority of studies on virulence and pathogenesis focus on a small number of strains. There is a pressing need for a P. aeruginosa reference panel to harmonize and coordinate the collective efforts of the P. aeruginosa research community. We have collated a panel of 43 P. aeruginosa strains that reflects the organism's diversity. In addition to the commonly studied clones, this panel includes transmissible strains, sequential CF isolates, strains with specific virulence characteristics, and strains that represent serotype, genotype or geographic diversity. This focussed panel of P. aeruginosa isolates will help accelerate and consolidate the discovery of virulence determinants, improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of infections caused by this pathogen, and provide the community with a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapeutic agents.

  14. International reference preparations for standardization of biological medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Minor, P

    2014-10-01

    International standards are prepared as materials assigned an arbitrary unitage for a biological activity by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization. Working reference materials are calibrated against international standards giving a common unit of measurement between laboratories. The references are assessed by a collaborative study including all relevant assays rather than by a single reference method as in the SI (Le Système international d'unités) system and the unitage assigned is an arbitrary value derived from a consensus of all valid methods. The process has proved valuable in assaying the activity of therapeutic biological medicines and in standardizing certain types of diagnostics. Issues arise with maintaining the unit when the primary reference must be replaced and to some extent in assessing the commutability of the reference with real life analytes.

  15. International Relations: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvester, Elizabeth

    Intended for students, this annotated bibliography describes reference materials in International Relations that may be found in either the McLennan or Law Library of McGill University. Scope includes political science, international law, and related areas in the social and behavioral sciences, but titles which relate to the foreign relations of a…

  16. International Relations: A Student's Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvester, Elizabeth

    Intended for students, this annotated bibliography describes reference materials in International Relations that may be found in either the McLennan or Law Library of McGill University. Scope includes political science, international law, and related areas in the social and behavioral sciences, but titles which relate to the foreign relations of a…

  17. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS): Terms of Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husson, Van; Noll, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is an established Service within Section II , Advanced Space Technology, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). The primary objective of the ILRS is to provide a service to support, through Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging data and related products, geodetic and geophysical research activities as well as International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The service also develops the necessary standards/specifications and encourages international adherence to its conventions.

  18. Geomagnetism applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    The social uses of geomagnetism include the physics of the space environment, satellite damage, pipeline corrosion, electric power-grid failure, communication interference, global positioning disruption, mineral-resource detection, interpretation of the Earth's formation and structure, navigation, weather, and magnetoreception in organisms. The need for continuing observations of the geomagnetic field, together with careful archiving of these records and mechanisms for dissemination of these data, is emphasized.

  19. Challenges Handling Magnetospheric and Ionospheric Signals in Internal Geomagnetic Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, C. C.; Lesur, V.; Thébault, E.; Vervelidou, F.; Morschhauser, A.; Shore, R.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the Earth's magnetic field collected by low-Earth-orbit satellites such as Swarm and CHAMP, as well as at ground observatories, are dominated by sources in the Earth's interior. However these measurements also contain significant contributions from more rapidly-varying current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In order to fully exploit magnetic data to probe the physical properties and dynamics of the Earth's interior, field models with suitable treatments of external sources, and their associated induced signals, are essential. Here we review the methods presently used to construct models of the internal field, focusing on techniques to handle magnetospheric and ionospheric signals. Shortcomings of these techniques often limit the quality, as well as spatial and temporal resolution, of internal field models. We document difficulties in using track-by-track analysis to characterize magnetospheric field fluctuations, differences in internal field models that result from alternative treatments of the quiet-time ionospheric field, and challenges associated with rapidly changing, but spatially correlated, magnetic signatures of polar cap current systems. Possible strategies for improving internal field models are discussed, many of which are described in more detail elsewhere in this volume.

  20. Challenges Handling Magnetospheric and Ionospheric Signals in Internal Geomagnetic Field Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, C. C.; Lesur, V.; Thébault, E.; Vervelidou, F.; Morschhauser, A.; Shore, R.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of the Earth's magnetic field collected by low-Earth-orbit satellites such as Swarm and CHAMP, as well as at ground observatories, are dominated by sources in the Earth's interior. However these measurements also contain significant contributions from more rapidly-varying current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In order to fully exploit magnetic data to probe the physical properties and dynamics of the Earth's interior, field models with suitable treatments of external sources, and their associated induced signals, are essential. Here we review the methods presently used to construct models of the internal field, focusing on techniques to handle magnetospheric and ionospheric signals. Shortcomings of these techniques often limit the quality, as well as spatial and temporal resolution, of internal field models. We document difficulties in using track-by-track analysis to characterize magnetospheric field fluctuations, differences in internal field models that result from alternative treatments of the quiet-time ionospheric field, and challenges associated with rapidly changing, but spatially correlated, magnetic signatures of polar cap current systems. Possible strategies for improving internal field models are discussed, many of which are described in more detail elsewhere in this volume.

  1. The International Reference Preparation of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (Type A)

    PubMed Central

    Krag, P.; Bentzon, M. Weis

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes the international collaborative assay that led to the establishment in 1967 of the International Reference Preparation of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (Type A) and the studies completed during the following years on the use of the preparation for evaluating the haemagglutinin content of 46 influenza virus vaccines in terms of international units. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (1967) defined the International Unit as 0,09361 mg of the International Reference Preparation. Altogether 14 laboratories in 12 countries took part in one or both studies, using a total of 24 methods (HA titrations and, in a few cases CCA titrations). Major differences in the HA titres were found between laboratories, while the potencies (the haemagglutinin content values) relative to the International Reference Preparation were free from most of these differences. Haemagglutination titres varied over a range factor up to 50, while the corresponding relative ”potencies” varied with a factor of only 2. The CCA method used in a few laboratories gave results close to the lowest haemagglutination titres and showed relatively small variations between laboratories. The analyses of variance disclosed differences in the variation within laboratories, but for the majority of the laboratories the variation allowed an overall estimate of a standard error. The calculation of haemagglutinin content (in IU) from relative potencies is described. Advice is given on the selection, preparation, and titration of a local reference vaccine with a view to expressing its haemagglutinin content in international units. The test results with 46 local vaccines are also given. The deviations of the relative potencies from the average per vaccine showed a distribution with eight major discrepancies instead of the expected one. The background for these cases is discussed. PMID:5317082

  2. 77 FR 64724 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service announces the issuance of the Mailing Standards of the United States...

  3. 76 FR 50414 - International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 International Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal Service announces the issuance of the Mailing Standards of the United States...

  4. Observed Coupling Between the International Space Station PCU Plasma and a FPMU Langmuir Probe Facilitated by the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, William; Koontz, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is a matter of serious concern resulting from the possibility of vehicle arcing and electrical shock hazard to crew during extravehicular activity (EVA). A Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) was developed and integrated into ISS in order to control the ISS floating potential, thereby, minimize vehicle charging and associated hazards. One of the principle factors affecting ISS electrical charging is the ionosphere plasma state (i.e., electron temperature and density). To support ISS electrical charging studies a Floating Potential Monitoring Unit (FPMU) is also integrated into ISS in order to measure the ionosphere properties using Langmuir probes (LP). The FPMU was located on the Starboard side of ISS. The PCU is located near the center of ISS with its plasma exhaust pointed to port. From its integration on ISS in 2006 through November of 2009, the FPMU data exhibited nominal characteristics during PCU operation. On November 21, 2009 the FPMU was relocated from the Starboard location to a new Port location. After relocation significant enhanced noise was observed in both the LP current-voltage sweeps and the derived electron temperature data. The enhanced noise only occurred when the PCU was in discharge and at unique and repeatable locations of the ISS orbit. The cause of this enhanced noise was investigated. It was found that there is coupling occurring between the PCU plasma and the FPMU LP. In this paper we shall 1) present the on-orbit data and the presence of enhanced noise, 2) demonstrate that the coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU measurements is geomagnetically organized, 3) show that coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU is primarily due to and driven by particle-wave interaction and 4) show that the ionosphere conditions are adequate for Alfven waves to be generated by the PCU plasma.

  5. The 1995 revision of the joint US/UK geomagnetic field models - I. Secular variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macmillan, S.; Barraclough, D.R.; Quinn, J.M.; Coleman, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present the methods used to derive mathematical models of global secular variation of the main geomagnetic field for the period 1985 to 2000. These secular-variation models are used in the construction of the candidate US/UK models for the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field at 1990, the International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1995 to 2000, and the World Magnetic Model for 1995 to 2000 (see paper II, Quinn et al., 1997). The main sources of data for the secular-variation models are geomagnetic observatories and repeat stations. Over the areas devoid of these data secular-variation information is extracted from aeromagnetic and satellite data. We describe how secular variation is predicted up to the year 2000 at the observatories and repeat stations, how the aeromagnetic and satellite data are used, and how all the data are combined to produce the required models.

  6. Geomagnetic Disturbances.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Sheeley, Jr., and J.T. Hoeksema. Lund University, Lund , Sweden, August 1983 (Invited Talks): "The Structure of the Heliospheric Current Sheet: 1976...Society, San Franciso, California, January 13-16, 1980: "Geomagnetic Activity and Hale Sector Boundaries," Henrik Lundstedt. "Solar Oscillations with

  7. Magnetospheric effects of cosmic rays. 1. Long-term changes in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdevskii, B. B.; Abunin, A. A.; Kobelev, P. G.; Gushchina, R. T.; Belov, A. V.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Yanke, V. G.

    2016-07-01

    Vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are obtained for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors via trajectory calculations for each year of the period from 1950 to 2020. Geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are found from the model of the Earth's main field International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for 1950-2015, and the forecast until 2020 is provided. In addition, the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the same period are obtained by Tsyganenko model T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) with the average annual values of the Kp-index. In each case, the penumbra is taken into account in the approximation of the flat and power spectra of variations of cosmic rays. The calculation results show an overall decrease in geomagnetic cutoff rigidities, which is associated with the overall decrease and restructuring of the geomagnetic field during the reporting period, at almost all points.

  8. Johann von Lamont: A Pioneer in Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, Heinrich

    2006-06-01

    The 200th birthday of John Lamont (1805-1879, Figure 1), a pioneer in the study of geomagnetism, was marked on 13 December 2005. Lamont founded the Munich Geomagnetic Observatory in 1840 and was a member of the group of scientists including Carl Friedrich Gauss, Alexander von Humboldt, Eduard Sabine, Jonas Angstrøm, Humphret Lloyd, Adolf Kupffer, Karl Kreil, and Adolphe Quetelet who composed the Göttingen Magnetic Union. They organized an international network of geomagnetic observatories [Barraclough et al., 1992]. The present knowledge of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation is largely based on the data collected by the global network of geomagnetic observatories during the last 170 years. Lamont's talents and his dedication and enthusiasm for discovery are reflected in the depth and scope of his contributions to a broad variety of natural sciences such as astronomy, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geodesy. However, this article just touches on his merits in geomagnetism.

  9. Geomagnetic Jerks in the Swarm Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, William; Beggan, Ciaran; Macmillan, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The timely provision of geomagnetic observations as part of the European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm mission means up-to-date analysis and modelling of the Earth's magnetic field can be conducted rapidly in a manner not possible before. Observations from each of the three Swarm constellation satellites are available within 4 days and a database of close-to-definitive ground observatory measurements is updated every 3 months. This makes it possible to study very recent variations of the core magnetic field. Here we investigate rapid, unpredictable internal field variations known as geomagnetic jerks. Given that jerks represent (currently) unpredictable changes in the core field and have been identified to have happened in 2014 since Swarm was launched, we ask what impact this might have on the future accuracy of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). We assess the performance of each of the IGRF-12 secular variation model candidates in light of recent jerks, given that four of the nine candidates are novel physics-based predictive models.

  10. Preface: The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) at equatorial latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter

    2017-07-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research includes papers that report and discuss improvements of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). IRI is the international standard for the representation of the plasma in Earth's ionosphere and recognized as such by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Standardization Organization (ISO). As requested, particularly by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model relying on most of the available and reliable ground and space observations of the ionosphere. As new data become available and as older data sources are fully exploited the IRI model undergoes improvement cycles to stay as close to the existing data record as possible. The latest episode of this process is documented in the papers included in this issue using data from the worldwide network of ionosondes, from a few of the incoherent scatter radars, from the Alouette and ISIS topside sounders, and from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The focus of this issue is on the equatorial and low latitude region that is of special importance for ionospheric physics because it includes the largest densities and steep density gradients in the double hump latitudinal structure, the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), which is characteristic for this region.

  11. The International Reference Ionosphere: Rawer's IRI and its status today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, D.

    2014-11-01

    When the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) initiated the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) project in 1968 it wisely selected K. Rawer as its first Chairperson. With a solid footing and good contacts in both the ground-based and space-based ionospheric communities he was ideally suited to pull together colleagues and data from both communities to help build the first version of the IRI. He assembled a team of 20+ international ionospheric experts in the IRI Working Group and chaired and directed the group from 1968 to 1984. The working group has now grown to 63 members and the IRI model has undergone many revisions as new data became available and new modeling techniques were applied. This paper was presented during a special session of the Kleinheubach Tagung 2013 in honor of K. Rawer's 100th birthday. It will review the current status of the IRI model and project and the international recognition it has achieved. It is quite fitting that this year we not only celebrate K. Rawer's 100th birthday but also the exciting news that his favorite science endeavor, IRI, has been internationally recognized as an ISO (International Standardization Organization) standard. The IRI homepage is at http://irimodel.org.

  12. Vertical datum unification for the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Laura; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    The International Association of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of an International Height Reference System (IHRS). According to this resolution, the IHRS coordinates are potential differences referring to the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the IHRS realisation is the integration of the existing height systems into the global one; that is existing vertical coordinates should be referred to one and the same reference level realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, that is the potential differences between the local and the global reference levels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach. Those observation equations are then empirically evaluated for the vertical datum unification of the North American and South American height systems. In the first case, simulations performed in North America provide numerical estimates about the impact of omission errors and direct and indirect effects on the vertical datum parameters. In the second case, a combination of local geopotential numbers, ITRF coordinates, satellite altimetry observations, tide gauge registrations and high-resolution gravity field models is performed to estimate the level differences between the South American height systems and the global level W0. Results show that indirect effects vanish when a satellite-only gravity field model with a degree higher than n ≥ 180 is used for the solution of the GBVP. However, the component derived from satellite-only global gravity models has to be refined with terrestrial gravity data to minimise the omission error and its effect on the vertical datum parameter estimation

  13. Worldwide Geomagnetic Data Collection and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Papitashvili, Vladimir

    2009-11-01

    Geomagnetic data provided by different platforms piece together a global picture of Earth's magnetic field and its interaction with geospace. Furthermore, a great diversity of the geomagnetic field changes, from secular (over decades to centuries) to short time variations (down to minutes and seconds), can be detected only through continued observations. An international effort to watch and record geomagnetic changes first began in the 1830s with a network of scientific observers organized by Karl Friedrich Gauss in Germany, and this effort has continued since then. One of the most remarkable achievements in understanding the geomagnetic field morphology and time behavior was made possible by the International Geophysical Year (IGY), an exploration and research effort that lasted for 18 months, starting on 1 July 1957. The IGY encompassed 11 geoscience disciplines, including geomagnetism. The IGY has represented a giant step forward in the quality and quantity of worldwide geomagnetic measurements, as well as in the widespread interest in magnetic measurements. A half century of probing the geomagnetic field spatial and temporal variations has produced a number of outstanding results, and the interested reader can find recent reviews on various geomagnetic field topics (from measurements to modeling) in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism [Gubbins and Herrero-Bervera, 2007] or Treatise on Geophysics: Geomagnetism [Kono, 2007].

  14. On transformation between international celestial and terrestrial reference systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretagnon, P.; Brumberg, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    Based on the current IAU hierarchy of the relativistic reference systems, practical formulae for the transformation between barycentric (BCRS) and geocentric (GCRS) celestial reference systems are derived. BCRS is used to refer to ICRS, International Celestial Reference System. This transformation is given in four versions, dependent on the time arguments used for BCRS (TCB or TDB) and for GCRS (TCG or TT). All quantities involved in these formulae have been tabulated with the use of the VSOP theories (IMCCE theories of motion of the major planets). In particular, these formulae may be applied to account for the indirect relativistic third-body perturbations in motion of Earth's satellites and Earth's rotation problem. We propose to use the SMART theory (IMCCE theory of Earth's rotation) in constructing the Newtonian three-dimensional spatial rotation transformation between GCRS and ITRS, the International Terrestrial Reference System. This transformation is compared with two other versions involving extra angular variables currently used by IERS, the International Earth Rotation Service. It is shown that the comparison of these three forms of the same transformation may be greatly simplified by using the proposed composite rotation formula. Tables 1-20 of Appendix B containing the initial terms of the VSOP-based series for the BCRS<->GCRS transformation are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/387. The work on ICRS<->GCRS transformation with the use of VSOP theories was done in February-March 2002 during the stay of the second author in IMCCE. The authors hoped to complete the second part concerning GCRS<->ITRS transformation with the use of SMART theory in September 2002 during the visit of the first author to IAA. The grave disease of Pierre Bretagnon which tragically resulted in his death on November 17, 2002, did not permit us to complete

  15. New book discusses normal geomagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pochtarev, V.I.

    1984-07-01

    Material on the normal geomagnetic field and its gradients over the Earth's surface at different elevations is presented. Methods are developed for plotting the normal geomagnetic field and mathematical approximations of the geomagnetic field are presented. The nature of the Earth's normal magnetic field is investigated on the basis of an analysis of geophysical, geological and geochemical data and data on the internal structure of the Earth.

  16. Online calculators for geomagnetic models at the National Geophysical Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, J. P.; Nair, M.; Maus, S.; McLean, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center at Boulder provides online calculators for geomagnetic field models. These models provide current and past values of the geomagnetic field on regional and global spatial scales. These calculators are popular among scientists, engineers and the general public across the world as a resource to compute geomagnetic field elements. We regularly update both the web interfaces and the underlying geomagnetic models. We have four different calculators to compute geomagnetic fields for different user applications. The declination calculators optionally use our World Magnetic Model (WMM) or the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) to provide geomagnetic declination as well as its annual rate of change for the chosen location. All seven magnetic field components for a single day or for a range of years from 1900-present can obtained using our Magnetic Field Calculator IGRFWMM. Users can also compute magnetic field values (current and past) over an area using the IGRFGrid calculator. The USHistoric calculator uses a US declination model to compute the declination for the conterminous US from 1750 - present (data permitting). All calculators allow the user to enter the location either as a Zip Code or by specifying the geographic latitude and longitude.

  17. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  18. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  19. Geomagnetic transmission disturbances and heavy-ion fluences observed in low Earth orbit during the solar energetic particle events of October 1989.

    PubMed

    Boberg, P R; Tylka, A J; Adams, J H; Beahm, L P; Fluckiger, E O; Kleis, T; Kobel, E

    1996-01-01

    The large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and simultaneous large geomagnetic disturbances observed during October 1989 posed a significant, rapidly evolving space radiation hazard. Using data from the GOES-7, NOAA-10, IMP-8 and LDEF satellites, we determined the geomagnetic transmission, heavy ion fluences, mean Fe ionic charge state, and effective radiation hazard observed in low Earth orbit (LEO) for these SEPs. We modeled the geomagnetic transmission by tracing particles through the combination of the internal International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the Tsyganenko (1989) magnetospheric field models, extending the modeling to large geomagnetic disturbances. We used our results to assess the radiation hazard such very large SEP events would pose in the anticipated 52 degrees inclination space station orbit.

  20. Matching reference materials with AOAC International methods of analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, W R; DeVries, J; Ikins, W

    2001-10-01

    Proper implementation and use of validated analytical methodology with use of appropriate reference materials (RM) is a preferred means of helping to ensure equivalent analytical method performance in diverse laboratories. Choice of an appropriate RM that not only matches the analyte and matrix of the required determination, but also has been demonstrated to be within the applicability of a specific analytical method, are key factors. In response to numerous requests since its founding in 1993, the Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM), AOAC International is implementing a program for recognizing the matching of specific reference materials to specific AOAC methods of analysis. This recognition is accomplished by means of a thorough peer-reviewed selection system, under the auspices of the AOAC official methods board and the executive committee of the TDRM. Potential RM/method matching (RM/MM) proposals will be submitted to an RM/MM committee. After technical review of the suitability of the proposed RM by the RM/MM committee, acceptable matches are recommended for review by the current AOAC process responsible for review and recognition of new methods and modifications to existing AOAC methods of analysis. Several trial matches have been used to develop and test this system. The end product of this effort will ultimately be made available as either a stand-alone document, a section of the AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, or a site within the AOAC web site listing recognized matches.

  1. The End of the International Reference Pricing System?

    PubMed

    Persson, Ulf; Jönsson, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    All 28 EU member states except Sweden and the UK apply international reference pricing (IRP), international price comparison, external reference pricing or cross-reference pricing. The attractiveness of using prices of other countries as a benchmark for decisions within a national price control is obvious. Alternative models for price and reimbursement decision making such as value-based pricing (VBP), i.e. cost-effectiveness analyses, are more complicated. However, IRP provides incentives for stakeholders to take action not in line with optimal (welfare-maximizing) pricing. IRP is costly for two reasons. First, manufacturers are incentivised to limit or delay access to new innovative treatments in countries with small markets and/or a low income, which can be costly in terms of loss of health. Second, all countries also experience a loss of welfare (health) because IRP reduces the opportunities for differential pricing (Ramsey pricing), i.e. using the fact that the ability and willingness to pay differs between countries. Thus, IRP results in less sales revenue to finance research and development of new innovative drugs. We can now observe that payers and manufacturers are engaged in different types of risk-sharing schemes, price-volume negotiations, payback arrangements, confidential discounts, coverage with evidence developments, etc., all with the purpose of returning to the old model of price discrimination and Ramsey pricing. Shortly, real prices for use in IRP systems will cease to exist and, thus, we expect to soon see the end of IRP, a new system for price discrimination and an increasing demand for VBP.

  2. AOAC INTERNATIONAL's Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) Reference Materials Database.

    PubMed

    Zink, Donna

    2016-09-01

    The Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) of AOAC INTERNATIONAL recommends policy and criteria to facilitate the development and use of reference materials (RMs) in the validation, implementation, and routine use of AOAC INTERNATIONAL methods. To aid analysts in these areas, TDRM has developed a searchable online database to identify RMs suitable for use with AOAC Official Methods of Analysis(SM) (OMA). RMs can be queried by analyte, by analyte and matrix, or by the selection of an OMA, based on analytes and matrixes described within the scope of the selected method. Only essential information is included in the database, to maximize usefulness and minimize the effort required to keep information current. Additional information, such as measurement uncertainty and purchasing instructions, is available through a link to the producer's Web site, when that information is available online. Data sets are solicited on a voluntary basis from National Metrology Institutes and accredited producers. Consideration of ease-of-use and ease-of-operation is a guiding principle in this database, as is cost management.

  3. The quasi-biennial variation in the geomagnetic field: a global characteristics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin

    2016-04-01

    The periodicity of 1.5-3 years, namely the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), has been identified in the solar, geophysical, and atmospheric variability. Sugiura (1976) investigated the observatory annual means over 1900-1970 and confirmed the QBO in the geomagnetic field. At present, studying the quasi-biennial oscillation becomes substantial for separating the internal/external parts in the geomagnetic observations. For the internal field, two typical periodicities, namely the 6-year oscillation in the geomagnetic secular acceleration (SA) and the geomagnetic jerk (occurs in 1-2 years), have close period to the QBO. Recently, a global quasi-biennial fluctuation was identified in the geomagnetic core field model (Silva et al., 2012). Silva et al. speculated this 2.5 years signal to either external source remaining in the core field model or consequence of the methods used to construct the model. As more high-quality data from global observatories are available, it is a good opportunity to characterize the geomagnetic QBO in the global range. In this paper, we investigate the QBO in the observatory monthly geomagnetic field X, Y, and Z components spanning 1985-2010. We employ the observatory hourly means database from the World Data Center for Geomagnetism (WDC) for the investigation. Wavelet analysis is used to detect and identify the QBO, while Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis to obtain the statistics of the QBO. We apply the spherical harmonic analysis on QBO's amplitude, in order to quantify and separate internal and external sources. Three salient periods respectively at 2.9, 2.2, and 1.7 years, are identified in the amplitude spectrum over 1988-2008. The oscillation with the period of ~2.2 years is most prominent in all field components and further studied. In the X component the QBO is attenuated towards the polar regions, while in the Z component the amplitude of QBO increases with increasing of the geomagnetic latitude. At the high latitudes, the QBO

  4. Vertical datum unification for the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Laura; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYThe <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of an <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (IHRS). According to this resolution, the IHRS coordinates are potential differences <span class="hlt">referring</span> to the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the IHRS realisation is the integration of the existing height systems into the global one; i.e. existing vertical coordinates should be <span class="hlt">referred</span> to one and the same <span class="hlt">reference</span> level realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, i.e., the potential differences between the local and the global <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach. Those observation equations are then empirically evaluated for the vertical datum unification of the North American and South American height systems. In the first case, simulations performed in North America provide numerical estimates about the impact of omission errors and direct and indirect effects on the vertical datum parameters. In the second case, a combination of local geopotential numbers, ITRF coordinates, satellite altimetry observations, tide gauge registrations and high-resolution gravity field models is performed to estimate the level differences between the South American height systems and the global level W0. Results show that indirect effects vanish when a satellite-only gravity field model with a degree higher than n ≥ 180 is used for the solution of the GBVP. However, the component derived from satellite-only global gravity models has to be refined with terrestrial gravity data to minimise the omission error and its effect on the vertical datum parameter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996RaSc...31..893A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996RaSc...31..893A"><span>Equatorial F1 characteristics and the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adeniyi, J. O.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Average values of the F1 critical frequency (f0F1) and the height of the F1 ledge (hmF1) for Ibadan (Latitude 7.4°N, Longitude 3.9°E) were used for this study. Well-defined F1 characteristics are observed during winter at low solar activity. <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere (IRI) does not predict F1 parameters during this season. Deviation of predicted F1 electron density (NF1) by the IRI model from observed values are less than 10% for all seasons of low solar activity, when IRI predicts NF1. Higher percentage deviations are observed during summers of high solar activity. IRI overestimates hmF1. Deviations from experimental values vary from 4 to 35%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17058481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17058481"><span>Transportation of reagents, <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and samples: the <span class="hlt">international</span> perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearson, J E; Edwards, S</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Regulations for the transport of infectious substances, which could include reagents, <span class="hlt">reference</span> material and samples, are based on the 13th revision of the United Nations Model Regulations and are the standard for transport of infectious substances by all means of transportation. The 13th revision, effective January 2005 and further amended in March and July 2005, made major improvements in these shipping regulations. They specifically exempt certain substances, including those that have been neutralized or inactivated to destroy any pathogens and samples from "normal" animals. Infectious substances are divided into Category A, which includes primarily cultures of the more pathogenic agents and Category B, which includes all other substances that do not meet the Category A criteria. Tissue specimens, submitted for diagnosis, are included in Category B. Category A shipments must have a Dangerous Goods Certificate and meet other requirements; Category B shipments do not. The National requirements, such as import permits, and certain airline restrictions must also be met.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeIss...1...33S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeIss...1...33S"><span>Secular Variations of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sas-Uhrynowski, A.; Welker, E.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">international</span> project MagNetE (Magnetic Net For Europe) was undertaken in 2003. The project has been accepted by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Aeronomy of the IUGG. The common research on the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field space and time distribution in Europe, as well as collecting data and its analysis, constitutes the grounds for theoretical works on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models and their parameters. It is also the basis for studying the genesis of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field secular variations and its mechanism. The results of the project enable to increase the accuracy of models on the global, regional, and also on local scale. It has a vital meaning for the regions where the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data are not available or, where the existing data, because of their low accuracy, cannot be used. Information about the secular variations of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field makes it possible to update the magnetic data, which is needed in navigation, topography, telecommunication, geology and geophysics and other domains. The enclosed maps of isopors presented have been compiled using the results of measuring campaigns in the years 2004-2006 together with the archive data. They show the secular variations of the magnetic declination D, the length H of the horizontal intensity vector and the lenght F of the total intensity vector of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, in the intervals 1995-2000 and 2000-2005. The maps of isopors for Europe have been worked out using data from not only the magnetic observatories, but also from some hundred magnetic secular variation stations (repeated stations), located in 23 European countries. The secular variation differences between data obtained from terrestrial surveys and data from the IGRF model (<span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Field) have been presented in the form of maps and histograms. In several regions of Europe the unexpectedly large secular variation anomalies are visible. Anomalies of so high frequency and large amplitude cannot exist. They are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5492W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5492W"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame for Global Change Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Xiaoping; Altamimi, Zuheir; Chin, T. Mike; Gross, Richard</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Most geodetic and many geophysical quantities measured and used depend on the definition, realization and stability of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ITRF). These include geocentric site coordinates and motions, satellite orbits, geocenter motion, Earth orientation and its variations, mean sea level rise, and polar ice mass changes. In some cases, the dependences may be implicit and not obvious. As we are approaching the stage of millimeter-precision geodesy and near real time global change monitoring with a multitude of space and time scales, it is critical to have a modern and stable infrastructure for the maintenance and improvement of the ITRF. It is also essential to improve the concepts, understanding, methodology, and products of ITRF to be consistent with the higher precision and ever-changing nature of the Earth. With these in mind and from the viewpoint of users interested in studying surface mass load, we will review and discuss certain limitations and difficulties of the current ITRF status and approach, including the sparseness of data, linear motion model, and multi-yearly updates. New perspectives on <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame research and progress on our new experimental approach to a weekly ITRF realization will also be reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011988&hterms=ionosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dionosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011988&hterms=ionosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dionosphere"><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere Today and in the Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter; McKinnell, Lee-Ane; Reinisch, Bodo; Fuller-Rowell,Tim</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere (IRI) is the <span class="hlt">internationally</span> recognized and recommended standard for the specification of plasma parameters in Earth's ionosphere. It describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 to 1,500 km. A joint working group of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Union of Radio Science (URSI) is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. As requested by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model being based on most of the available and reliable data sources for the ionospheric plasma. The paper describes the latest version of the model and reviews efforts towards future improvements, including the development of new global models for the F2 peak density and height, and a new approach to describe the electron density in the topside and plasmasphere. Our emphasis will be on the electron density because it is the IRI parameter most relevant to geodetic techniques and studies. Annual IRI meetings are the main venue for the discussion of IRI activities, future improvements, and additions to the model. A new special IRI task force activity is focusing on the development of a real-time IRI (RT-IRI) by combining data assimilation techniques with the IRI model. A first RT-IRI task force meeting was held in 2009 in Colorado Springs. We will review the outcome of this meeting and the plans for the future. The IRI homepage is at http://www.IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011988&hterms=venue&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dvenue','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120011988&hterms=venue&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dvenue"><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere Today and in the Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter; McKinnell, Lee-Ane; Reinisch, Bodo; Fuller-Rowell,Tim</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere (IRI) is the <span class="hlt">internationally</span> recognized and recommended standard for the specification of plasma parameters in Earth's ionosphere. It describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 to 1,500 km. A joint working group of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Union of Radio Science (URSI) is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. As requested by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model being based on most of the available and reliable data sources for the ionospheric plasma. The paper describes the latest version of the model and reviews efforts towards future improvements, including the development of new global models for the F2 peak density and height, and a new approach to describe the electron density in the topside and plasmasphere. Our emphasis will be on the electron density because it is the IRI parameter most relevant to geodetic techniques and studies. Annual IRI meetings are the main venue for the discussion of IRI activities, future improvements, and additions to the model. A new special IRI task force activity is focusing on the development of a real-time IRI (RT-IRI) by combining data assimilation techniques with the IRI model. A first RT-IRI task force meeting was held in 2009 in Colorado Springs. We will review the outcome of this meeting and the plans for the future. The IRI homepage is at http://www.IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222311"><span><span class="hlt">Internal</span> dosimetry estimates using voxelized <span class="hlt">reference</span> phantoms for thyroid agents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoseinian-Azghadi, E; Rafat-Motavalli, L; Miri-Hakimabad, H</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This work presents <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry estimates for diagnostic procedures performed for thyroid disorders by relevant radiopharmaceuticals. The organ doses for (131)Iodine, (123)Iodine and (99m)Tc incorporated into the body were calculated for the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) <span class="hlt">reference</span> voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo transport method. A comparison between different thyroid uptakes of iodine in the range of 0-55% was made, and the effect of various techniques for administration of (99m)Tc on organ doses was studied. To investigate the necessity of calculating organ dose from all source regions, the major source organ and its contribution to total dose were specified for each target organ. Moreover, we compared effective dose in ICRP voxel phantoms with that in stylized phantoms. In our method, we directly calculated the organ dose without using the S values or SAFs, as is commonly done. Hence, a distribution of the absorbed dose to entire tissues was obtained. The chord length distributions (CLDs) were also computed for the selected source-target pairs to make comparison across the genders. The results showed that the S values for radionuclides in the thyroid are not sufficient for calculating the organ doses, especially for (123)I and (99m)Tc. The thyroid and its neighboring organs receive a greater dose as thyroid uptake increases. Our comparisons also revealed an underestimation of organ doses reported for the stylized phantoms compared with the values based on the ICRP voxel phantoms in the uptake range of 5-55%, and an overestimation of absorbed dose by up to 2-fold for Iodine administration using blocking agent and for (99m)Tc incorporation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4014150','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4014150"><span><span class="hlt">Internal</span> dosimetry estimates using voxelized <span class="hlt">reference</span> phantoms for thyroid agents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoseinian-Azghadi, E.; Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This work presents <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry estimates for diagnostic procedures performed for thyroid disorders by relevant radiopharmaceuticals. The organ doses for 131Iodine, 123Iodine and 99mTc incorporated into the body were calculated for the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) <span class="hlt">reference</span> voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo transport method. A comparison between different thyroid uptakes of iodine in the range of 0–55% was made, and the effect of various techniques for administration of 99mTc on organ doses was studied. To investigate the necessity of calculating organ dose from all source regions, the major source organ and its contribution to total dose were specified for each target organ. Moreover, we compared effective dose in ICRP voxel phantoms with that in stylized phantoms. In our method, we directly calculated the organ dose without using the S values or SAFs, as is commonly done. Hence, a distribution of the absorbed dose to entire tissues was obtained. The chord length distributions (CLDs) were also computed for the selected source–target pairs to make comparison across the genders. The results showed that the S values for radionuclides in the thyroid are not sufficient for calculating the organ doses, especially for 123I and 99mTc. The thyroid and its neighboring organs receive a greater dose as thyroid uptake increases. Our comparisons also revealed an underestimation of organ doses reported for the stylized phantoms compared with the values based on the ICRP voxel phantoms in the uptake range of 5–55%, and an overestimation of absorbed dose by up to 2-fold for Iodine administration using blocking agent and for 99mTc incorporation. PMID:24222311</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf"><span>39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf"><span>39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf"><span>39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title39-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title39-vol1-sec20-1.pdf"><span>39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......210B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......210B"><span>Restoration project of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> survey in Latvia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burlakovs, J.; Lembere, I.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p> framework of <span class="hlt">international</span> projects, e.g. IMAGE and INTERMAGNET; it will be important step towards the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observation network development in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AnGeo..32...19M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AnGeo..32...19M"><span>Correction of artificial jumps in the historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements of Coimbra Observatory, Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morozova, A. L.; Ribeiro, P.; Pais, M. A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Coimbra Magnetic Observatory (<span class="hlt">International</span> Association of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Aeronomy code COI) in Portugal has a long history of observation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, spanning almost 150 yr since the first <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements in 1866. These long instrumental <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> records provide very important information about variability of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> elements and indices, their trends and cycles, and can be used to improve our knowledge on the sources that drive variations of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field: liquid core dynamics (<span class="hlt">internal</span>) and solar forcing (external). However, during the long life of the Coimbra Observatory, some inevitable changes in station location, instrument's park and electromagnetic environment have taken place. These changes affected the quality of the data collected at COI causing breaks and jumps in the series of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field components and local K index. Clearly, these inhomogeneities, typically shift-like (step-like) or trend-like, have to be corrected or, at least, minimized in order for the data to be used in scientific studies or to be submitted to <span class="hlt">international</span> databases. In this study, the series of local K index and declination of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field are analysed: the former because it allows direct application of standard homogenization methods and the latter because it is the longest continuous series produced at COI. For the homogenization, visual and statistical tests (e.g. standard normal homogeneity test) have been applied directly to the local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> K index series (from 1951 to 2012). The homogenization of the monthly averages of declination (from 1867 to 2012) has been done using visual analysis and statistical tests applied to the time series of the first differences of declination values, as an approximation to the first time derivative. This allowed not only estimating the level of inhomogeneity of the studied series but also detecting the highly probable homogeneity break points. These points have been cross</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993nbi..book......','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993nbi..book......"><span>The national <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field <span class="hlt">reference</span> models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> initiative to define objectives and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018871','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018871"><span>The national <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field <span class="hlt">reference</span> models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> initiative to define objectives and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..58.2479M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..58.2479M"><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> DORIS Service contribution to the 2014 realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreaux, Guilhem; Lemoine, Frank G.; Capdeville, Hugues; Kuzin, Sergey; Otten, Michiel; Štěpánek, Petr; Willis, Pascal; Ferrage, Pascale</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In preparation of the 2014 realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ITRF2014), the <span class="hlt">International</span> DORIS Service delivered to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems Service a set of 1140 weekly solution files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. The data come from eleven DORIS satellites: TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, Envisat, Jason-1, Jason-2, Cryosat-2, Saral and HY-2A. In their processing, the six analysis centers which contributed to the DORIS combined solution used the latest time variable gravity models and estimated DORIS ground beacon frequency variations. Furthermore, all the analysis centers but one excepted included in their processing phase center variations for ground antennas. The main objective of this study is to present the combination process and to analyze the impact of the new modeling on the performance of the new combined solution. Comparisons with the IDS contribution to ITRF2008 show that (i) the application of the DORIS ground phase center variations in the data processing shifts the combined scale upward by nearly 7-11 mm and (ii) thanks to estimation of DORIS ground beacon frequency variations, the new combined solution no longer shows any scale discontinuity in early 2002 and does not present unexplained vertical discontinuities in any station position time series. However, analysis of the new series with respect to ITRF2008 exhibits a scale increase late 2011 which is not yet explained. A new DORIS Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame was computed to evaluate the intrinsic quality of the new combined solution. That evaluation shows that the addition of data from the new missions equipped with the latest generation of DORIS receiver (Jason-2, Cryosat-2, HY-2A, Saral), results in an <span class="hlt">internal</span> position consistency of 10 mm or better after mid-2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21880508"><span>Intended use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> products & WHO <span class="hlt">International</span> Standards/<span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagents in the development of similar biological products (biosimilars).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorpe, Robin; Wadhwa, Meenu</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Products and WHO <span class="hlt">International</span> Standards/<span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagents have roles to play in the development and characterization of similar biological products (SBPs). However, these roles are distinct and non-interchangeable. The uses of these materials and their limitations are considered in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080021242&hterms=review+international+studies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dreview%2Binternational%2Bstudies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080021242&hterms=review+international+studies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dreview%2Binternational%2Bstudies"><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854308"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> longitudinal pediatric <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards for bone mineral content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four <span class="hlt">international</span> sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P<0.05). Compared to White males, Asian males had 31.8 (6.8) g less WB BMC accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P<0.05). We provide a tool to calculate a child's BMC Z-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080021242&hterms=science+papers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dscience%2Bpapers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080021242&hterms=science+papers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dscience%2Bpapers"><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4132948','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4132948"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> Longitudinal Paediatric <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Standards for Bone Mineral Content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baxter-Jones, Adam DG; McKay, Heather; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four <span class="hlt">international</span> sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women’s Health Study (n=112) and Stanford’s Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement in predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P <0.05). Compared to White males, Asian males had 31.8 (6.8) g less WB BMC accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. Similar findings were found for PF and FN. Female models for all sites were similar with age, height and weight all independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P <0.05). We provide a tool to calculate a child’s BMC Z-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in paediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1531D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1531D"><span>NM-MT network and space dangerous phenomena, 1. Principles of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorman, L.; Pustil Nik, L.; Sternlieb, A.; Zukerman, I.</p> <p></p> <p>According to NOAA Space Weather Scales, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms of scales G5 (3- hour index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). To prevent these serious damages will be very important to forecast dangerous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. In many papers it was shown that in principle for this forecasting can be used data on CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms accompanied by sufficient Forbush-decreases (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999). In this paper we consider over 100 major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and for each case we analyze hourly data of many NM for 8 days with SC in the 4-st day of 8 days period (so before SC we have at least 3 full days). We- determine what part of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is accompanied CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC, and what part of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms does not show any features what can be used for forecasting. We estimate also how these parts depend from the index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity Kp. This research is partly supported by the INTAS grant 00-0810. <span class="hlt">REFERENCES</span>: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, 49A, 136-144 (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their prediction", Proc. of 26-th <span class="hlt">Intern</span>. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, 6, 476-479 (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6933H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6933H"><span>Incorporation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data and services into EPOS infrastructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hejda, Pavel; Chambodut, Aude; Curto, Juan-Jose; Flower, Simon; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Kubašta, Petr; Matzka, Jürgen; Tanskanen, Eija; Thomson, Alan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Monitoring of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field has a long history across Europe that dates back to 1830', and is currently experiencing an increased interest within Earth observation and space weather monitoring. Our goals within EPOS-IP are to consolidate the community, modernise data archival and distribution formats for existing services and create new services for magnetotelluric data and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> models. Specific objectives are: • Enhance existing services providing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data (INTERMAGNET- <span class="hlt">INTErnational</span> Real-time MAGnetic observatory NETwork; World Data Centre for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span>; IMAGE- <span class="hlt">International</span> Monitor for Auroral <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Effects) and existing services providing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices (ISGI - <span class="hlt">International</span> Service of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Indices). • Develop and enhance the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> community's metadata systems by creating a metadata database, filling it and putting in place processes to ensure that it is kept up to date in the future. • Develop and build access to magnetotelluric (MT) data including transfer functions and time series data from temporary, portable MT-arrays in Europe, as well as to lithospheric conductivity models derived from TM-data. • Develop common web and database access points to global and regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and conductivity models. • Establish links from the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data services, products and models to the Integrated Core Services. The immediate task in the current period is to identify data models of existing services, modify them and integrate into a common model of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Thematic Core Services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950057281&hterms=1989&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D1989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950057281&hterms=1989&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D1989"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> transmission disturbances and heavy-ion fluences observed in low Earth orbit during the solar energetic particle events of October 1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boberg, P. R.; Tylka, A. J.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Beahm, L. P.; Fluckiger, E. O.; Kleis, T.; Kobel, E.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and simultaneous large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances observed during October 1989 posed a significant, rapidly evolving space radiation hazard. Using data from the GOES-7, NOAA-10, IMP-8 and LDEF satellites, we determined the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> transmission, heavy ion fluences, mean Fe ionic charge state, and effective radiation hazard observed in low Earth orbit (LEO) for these SEPs. We modeled the geomagneitc transmission by tracing particles through the combination to the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Field (IGRF) and the Tsyganenko (1989) magnetospheric field models, extending the modeling to large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. We used our results to assess the radiation hazard such very large SEP events would pose in the anticipated 52 deg inclination space station orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/0177-97/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/0177-97/report.pdf"><span>On the watch for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, Arthur W.; Brown, William M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms, induced by solar activity, pose significant hazards to satellites, electrical power distribution systems, radio communications, navigation, and geophysical surveys. Strong storms can expose astronauts and crews of high-flying aircraft to dangerous levels of radiation. Economic losses from recent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms have run into hundreds of millions of dollars. With the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the lead agency, an <span class="hlt">international</span> network of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories monitors the onset of solar-induced storms and gives warnings that help diminish losses to military and commercial operations and facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ufo&pg=3&id=EJ555809','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ufo&pg=3&id=EJ555809"><span>UFOs, NGOs, or IGOs: Using <span class="hlt">International</span> Documents for General <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shreve, Catherine</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Discusses accessing and using documents from <span class="hlt">international</span> (intergovernmental) organizations. Profiles the United Nations, the European Union and other Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs). Discusses the librarian as "Web detective," notes questions to focus on, and presents examples to demonstrate navigation of IGO sites. Lists basic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=UFO&pg=3&id=EJ555809','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=UFO&pg=3&id=EJ555809"><span>UFOs, NGOs, or IGOs: Using <span class="hlt">International</span> Documents for General <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shreve, Catherine</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Discusses accessing and using documents from <span class="hlt">international</span> (intergovernmental) organizations. Profiles the United Nations, the European Union and other Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs). Discusses the librarian as "Web detective," notes questions to focus on, and presents examples to demonstrate navigation of IGO sites. Lists basic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.384B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.384B"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> excursions date early hominid migration to China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Atreyee</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Global-scale <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals, which are periods when the direction of Earth's magnetic field flips, leave imprints in magnetic minerals present in sediments. But so do smaller-scale, even local, changes in Earth's magnetic field direction. Paleomagnetists believe that the smaller-scale events represent “failed reversals” and <span class="hlt">refer</span> to them as “<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions.” Scientists use <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions in sedimentary basins as markers to tie together events of Earth's history across the globe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ICRC...12..425S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983ICRC...12..425S"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> and atmospheric effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoker, P. H.</p> <p>1983-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> and atmospheric processes affecting cosmic-ray earthbound spectrometry are analyzed. The topics discussed include: cutoff rigidities and asymptotic directions; cosmic ray secondaries in the atmosphere and magnetosphere; neutron counters without lead and neutron monitors; and coupling coefficients/yield functions and response functions of cosmic ray detectors. Theoretical simulations of the atmosphere and <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> are presented, taking into account such factors as <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> ring currents and meteorological effects. Diagrams and cutoff rigidity contours are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1033236','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1033236"><span>High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Routbort, Jules L [Hinsdale, IL; Singh, Dileep [Naperville, IL; Dutta, Prabir K [Worthington, OH; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy [North Royalton, OH; Spirig, John V [Columbus, OH; Akbar, Sheikh [Hilliard, OH</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11381840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11381840"><span>[Reproducibility of spirometry in Mexican workers and <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> values].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pérez-Padilla, J R; Regalado-Pineda, J; Vázquez-García, J C</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>To describe spirometric function and adjustment to foreign prediction equations in Mexican workers claiming work related disability. We reviewed 5771 spirometries done at the Mexican National Institute of Respiratory Diseases performed with equipment and methods proposed by the American Thoracic Society. With the spirometries we generated multiple regression equations separated for men and women based on age and height, compared to other in common use reported by Knudson and Hankinson in North America and by Quanjer in europeans. 80% of the tests were reproducible for FVC and FEV1 according to ATS, whereas 10% were reproducible for neither. Mean FVC in men was 12% above values reported by Quanjer, 22% above Knudson, 3% above Hankinson and 6% above Rodriguez-Reynaga, whereas similar values for women were 18%, 10%, 0% and 1%. Excluding obese and those who had less than 2 acceptable maneuvers, the numbers increase by 1-2%. FEV1 was also above predicted. Most workers requesting disability are able to generate a reproducible spirometry. However for the same gender, age and height, workers had a FEV1 and a FVC above normal values reported by Knudson and Quanjer and are more similar to those reported by Hankinson in Mexican-Americans. While a set of appropriate <span class="hlt">reference</span> values are obtained, regression equations obtained from the studied group will generate less error in the evaluation of disability in mexican workers. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050192563','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050192563"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI): Task Force Activity 2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The annual IRI Task Force Activity was held at the Abdus Salam <span class="hlt">International</span> Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy from July 10 to July 14. The participants included J. Adeniyi (University of Ilorin, Nigeria), D. Bilitza (NSSDC/RITSS, USA), D. Buresova (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Republic), B. Forte (ICTP, Italy), R. Leitinger (University of Graz, Austria), B. Nava (ICTP, Italy), M. Mosert (University National Tucuman, Argentina), S. Pulinets (IZMIRAN, Russia), S. Radicella (ICTP, Italy), and B. Reinisch (University of Mass. Lowell, USA). The main topic of this Task Force Activity was the modeling of the topside ionosphere and the development of strategies for modeling of ionospheric variability. Each day during the workshop week the team debated a specific modeling problem in the morning during informal presentations and round table discussions of all participants. Ways of resolving the specific modeling problem were devised and tested in the afternoon in front of the computers of the ICTP Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory using ICTP s computer networks and internet access.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JNuM..233.1601P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JNuM..233.1601P"><span>FENDL: <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> nuclear data library for fusion applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pashchenko, A. B.; Wienke, H.; Ganesan, S.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The IAEA Nuclear Data Section, in co-operation with several national nuclear data centres and research groups, has created the first version of an <span class="hlt">internationally</span> available Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL-1). The FENDL library has been selected to serve as a comprehensive source of processed and tested nuclear data tailored to the requirements of the engineering design activity (EDA) of the ITER project and other fusion-related development projects. The present version of FENDL consists of the following sublibraries covering the necessary nuclear input for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase: FENDL/A-1.1: neutron activation cross-sections, selected from different available sources, for 636 nuclides, FENDL/D-1.0: nuclear decay data for 2900 nuclides in ENDF-6 format, FENDL/DS-1.0: neutron activation data for dosimetry by foil activation, FENDL/C-1.0: data for the fusion reactions D(d,n), D(d,p), T(d,n), T(t,2n), He-3(d,p) extracted from ENDF/B-6 and processed, FENDL/E-1.0:data for coupled neutron—photon transport calculations, including a data library for neutron interaction and photon production for 63 elements or isotopes, selected from ENDF/B-6, JENDL-3, or BROND-2, and a photon—atom interaction data library for 34 elements. The benchmark validation of FENDL-1 as required by the customer, i.e. the ITER team, is considered to be a task of high priority in the coming months. The well tested and validated nuclear data libraries in processed form of the FENDL-2 are expected to be ready by mid 1996 for use by the ITER team in the final phase of ITER EDA after extensive benchmarking and integral validation studies in the 1995-1996 period. The FENDL data files can be electronically transferred to users from the IAEA nuclear data section online system through INTERNET. A grand total of 54 (sub)directories with 845 files with total size of about 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo...38..549I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo...38..549I"><span>Definition and Proposed Realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (IHRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ihde, Johannes; Sánchez, Laura; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Drewes, Hermann; Foerste, Christoph; Gruber, Thomas; Liebsch, Gunter; Marti, Urs; Pail, Roland; Sideris, Michael</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Studying, understanding and modelling global change require geodetic <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames with an order of accuracy higher than the magnitude of the effects to be actually studied and with high consistency and reliability worldwide. The <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of Geodesy, taking care of providing a precise geodetic infrastructure for monitoring the Earth system, promotes the implementation of an integrated global geodetic <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame that provides a reliable frame for consistent analysis and modelling of global phenomena and processes affecting the Earth's gravity field, the Earth's surface geometry and the Earth's rotation. The definition, realization, maintenance and wide utilization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System guarantee a globally unified geometric <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame with an accuracy at the millimetre level. An equivalent high-precision global physical <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame that supports the reliable description of changes in the Earth's gravity field (such as sea level variations, mass displacements, processes associated with geophysical fluids) is missing. This paper addresses the theoretical foundations supporting the implementation of such a physical <span class="hlt">reference</span> surface in terms of an <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System and provides guidance for the coming activities required for the practical and sustainable realization of this system. Based on conceptual approaches of physical geodesy, the requirements for a unified global height <span class="hlt">reference</span> system are derived. In accordance with the practice, its realization as the <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame is designed. Further steps for the implementation are also proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo..tmp....5I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SGeo..tmp....5I"><span>Definition and Proposed Realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (IHRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ihde, Johannes; Sánchez, Laura; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Drewes, Hermann; Foerste, Christoph; Gruber, Thomas; Liebsch, Gunter; Marti, Urs; Pail, Roland; Sideris, Michael</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Studying, understanding and modelling global change require geodetic <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames with an order of accuracy higher than the magnitude of the effects to be actually studied and with high consistency and reliability worldwide. The <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of Geodesy, taking care of providing a precise geodetic infrastructure for monitoring the Earth system, promotes the implementation of an integrated global geodetic <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame that provides a reliable frame for consistent analysis and modelling of global phenomena and processes affecting the Earth's gravity field, the Earth's surface geometry and the Earth's rotation. The definition, realization, maintenance and wide utilization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System guarantee a globally unified geometric <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame with an accuracy at the millimetre level. An equivalent high-precision global physical <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame that supports the reliable description of changes in the Earth's gravity field (such as sea level variations, mass displacements, processes associated with geophysical fluids) is missing. This paper addresses the theoretical foundations supporting the implementation of such a physical <span class="hlt">reference</span> surface in terms of an <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System and provides guidance for the coming activities required for the practical and sustainable realization of this system. Based on conceptual approaches of physical geodesy, the requirements for a unified global height <span class="hlt">reference</span> system are derived. In accordance with the practice, its realization as the <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame is designed. Further steps for the implementation are also proposed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6019323','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6019323"><span>Observations in the South Atlantic <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Anomaly with Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 during a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gogoshev, M.M.; Gogosheva, TS.N.; Kostadinov, I.N.; Markova, T.I.; Kisovski, S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The region of South Atlantic <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Anomaly was investigated by the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite, launched on August 7, 1981. On the basis of data obtained from 15 orbits during increased <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity in August 1981, a map of the Anomaly was elaborated. Two centers of activity were identified. By means of the EMO-5 electrophotometer on board the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite, the atmosphere glow in lines 5577 A, 6300 A and 4278 A was studied. 11 <span class="hlt">references</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27447645"><span>The Vector Matching Method in <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Aiding Navigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli</p> <p>2016-07-20</p> <p>In this paper, a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> matching navigation method that utilizes the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> entropy information in the matching region is small or the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> contour line's variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4970163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4970163"><span>The Vector Matching Method in <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Aiding Navigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Zhongguo; Zhang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Wenqi; Xi, Xiaoli</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> matching navigation method that utilizes the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> vector is developed, which can greatly improve the matching probability and positioning precision, even when the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> entropy information in the matching region is small or the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> contour line’s variety is obscure. The vector iterative closest contour point (VICCP) algorithm that is proposed here has better adaptability with the positioning error characteristics of the inertial navigation system (INS), where the rigid transformation in ordinary ICCP is replaced with affine transformation. In a subsequent step, a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> vector information fusion algorithm based on Bayesian statistical analysis is introduced into VICCP to improve matching performance further. Simulations based on the actual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> map have been performed for the validation of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27447645</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+languages&pg=3&id=EJ995384','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+languages&pg=3&id=EJ995384"><span>Standard Setting to an <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Standard setting theory has largely developed with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/47777','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/47777"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">internal</span> forest soil <span class="hlt">reference</span> samples and testing of digestion methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>J.E. Hislop; J.W. Hornbeck; S.W. Bailey; R.A. Hallett</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Our research requires determinations of total elemental concentrations of forest soils. The lack of certified forest soil <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials led us to develop <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> samples. Samples were collected from three soil horizons (Oa, B, and C) at three locations having forested, acidic soils similar to those we commonly analyze. A shatterbox was used to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference&pg=4&id=EJ995384','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference&pg=4&id=EJ995384"><span>Standard Setting to an <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Standard setting theory has largely developed with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=enthalpy&pg=6&id=EJ280055','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=enthalpy&pg=6&id=EJ280055"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> States and Relative Values of <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fredrickson, A. G.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Discusses two <span class="hlt">reference</span> states (pure chemical compounds and pure elements at specified condition of temperature and pressure) and the relation between these <span class="hlt">reference</span> states for <span class="hlt">internal</span> energy and enthalpy. Problem 5.11 from Modell and Reid's "Thermodynamics and its Applications" (p. 141) is used to apply the ideas discussed. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enthalpy&pg=6&id=EJ280055','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enthalpy&pg=6&id=EJ280055"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> States and Relative Values of <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fredrickson, A. G.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Discusses two <span class="hlt">reference</span> states (pure chemical compounds and pure elements at specified condition of temperature and pressure) and the relation between these <span class="hlt">reference</span> states for <span class="hlt">internal</span> energy and enthalpy. Problem 5.11 from Modell and Reid's "Thermodynamics and its Applications" (p. 141) is used to apply the ideas discussed. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1108740.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1108740.pdf"><span>The Generalized <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model: An Extension to Dimensional Comparison Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Möller, Jens; Müller-Kalthoff, Hanno; Helm, Friederike; Nagy, Nicole; Marsh, Herb W.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The dimensional comparison theory (DCT) focuses on the effects of <span class="hlt">internal</span>, dimensional comparisons (e.g., "How good am I in math compared to English?") on academic self-concepts with widespread consequences for students' self-evaluation, motivation, and behavioral choices. DCT is based on the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AdSpR..30..175A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AdSpR..30..175A"><span>New trends for the realization of the <span class="hlt">international</span> terrestrial <span class="hlt">reference</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altamimi, Zuheir; Boucher, Claude; Sillard, Patrick</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>With the advent of Space geodesy techniques in early eighties, global terrestrial <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames became available whose precision is still improving parallel to measuring and modeling advances. As a global <span class="hlt">reference</span>, the realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (ITRS), known as the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ITRF), maintained by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation Service, has sustained substantial improvement and enhancement. One of the major new trends is the 2000 ITRS realization, to be considered as a standard solution for a wide user community (geodesy, geophysics, astronomy, etc.). The ITRF2000 comprises on one hand primary core stations observed by VLBI, LLR, GPS, SLR and DORIS techniques and, on the other hand, significant extension provided by regional GPS networks for densifications as well as other useful geodetic markers tied to space geodetic ones. The ITRF2000 combination and implementation strategy are described in this paper. Important results in terms of datum definition as well as quality assessment of the ITRF2000 are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BrJPh..47..552O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BrJPh..47..552O"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> Induced Currents: Principles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliveira, Denny M.; Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The impact of CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field causing the occurrence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. Such extremely variable <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields trigger <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground. For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields generate intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced currents (GICs). Intense GICs can cause dramatic effects on man-made technological systems, such as damage to high-voltage power transmission transformers leading to interruption of power supply, and/or corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the 13-14 March 1989 extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985EOSTr..66..545B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985EOSTr..66..545B"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span>-Paleomagnetism Committee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Subir K.</p> <p></p> <p>I n response to strong member concerns about the future of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>, Neil D. Opdyke, President of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Paleomagnetism Section, has appointed an ad hoc Committee for the Future of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Paleomagnetism consisting of Subir K. Banerjee (chair; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), Joseph Cain (U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo.) and Rob Van der Voo (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor). The committee seeks, from the membership at large, perceptions of future directions of research, help in identifying a few expanding research areas that show a promise of delivering significant results in the next 5 to 10 years, and guidance in generating a strategy to bring these about.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ICRC....9.3516B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ICRC....9.3516B"><span>Major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and cosmic rays, 2. methods of CR using for forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belov, A. V.; Dorman, L. I.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Gushchina, R. T.; Iucci, N.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Villoresi, G.; Yanke, V. G.; Zukerman, I. G.</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>We present developing of methods (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999) to forecast on the basis of NM hourly on-line data (as well as on-line muon telescopes hourly data from different directions) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms of scales G5 (3-hour index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales). These <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). We show that for especially dangerous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms can be used global-spectrographic method if on-line will be available 35-40 NM and muon telescopes. In this case for each hour can be determined CR anisotropy vector, and the specifically behavior of this vector before SC of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms G5, G4 or G3 (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales) can be used as important factor for forecast. The second factor what can be used for SC forecast is specifically behavior of CR density (CR intensity) for about 30-15 hours before SC (caused mainly by galactic CR particles acceleration during interaction with shock wave moved from the Sun). We demonstrate developing methods on several examples of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. <span class="hlt">REFERENCES</span> Dorman L.I., Villoresi G., Belov A.V., Eroshenko E.A., Iucci N., Yanke V.G., Yudakhin K.F., Bavassano B., Ptitsyna N.G., Tyasto M.I., "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbushdecreases". Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 49A, pp. 136(1995). L.I.Dorman, N.Iucci, N.G.Ptitsyna, G.Villoresi, 1999. Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their prediction , Proc. of 26-th <span class="hlt">Intern</span>. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, Vol. 6, p.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5149058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5149058"><span>Validation of <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for relative quantitation studies of gene expression in human laryngeal cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Wang, Wei; Ren, Ming; Gao, Sujie; Zhao, Guanjie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background The aim of this study was to determine the expression stabilities of 12 common <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for the relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in human laryngeal cancer. Methods Hep-2 cells and 14 laryngeal cancer tissue samples were investigated. The expression characteristics of 12 <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene candidates (18S rRNA, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, RPL29, HMBS, PPIA, ALAS1, TBP, PUM1, GUSB, and B2M) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The data were analyzed by three commonly used software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results The use of the combination of four <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes was more appropriate than the use of a single <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene. The optimal combination was PPIA + GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 for both the cell line and tissues; while the most appropriate combination was GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 + HMBS for the tissues. Conclusions Our recommended <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes may improve the accuracy of relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by the RT-qPCR method in further gene expression research on laryngeal tumors. PMID:27957397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015jsrs.conf..191R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015jsrs.conf..191R"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> excitation of nutation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ron, C.; Vondrák, J.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We tested the hypothesis of Malkin (2013), who demonstrated that the observed changes of Free Core Nutation parameters (phase, amplitude) occur near the epochs of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks. We found that if the numerical integration of Brzeziński broad-band Liouville equations of atmospheric/oceanic excitations is re-initialized at the epochs of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks, the agreement between the integrated and observed celestial pole offsets is improved (Vondrák & Ron, 2014). Nevertheless, this approach assumes that the influence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks leads to a stepwise change in the position of celestial pole, which is physically not acceptable. Therefore we introduce a simple continuous excitation function that hypothetically describes the influence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks, and leads to rapid but continuous changes of pole position. The results of numerical integration of atmospheric/oceanic excitations and this newly introduced excitation are then compared with the observed celestial pole offsets, and prove that the agreement is improved significantly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2631881','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2631881"><span>Implementing a network for electronic surveillance reporting from public health <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories: an <span class="hlt">international</span> perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bean, N. H.; Martin, S. M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Electronic data reporting from public health laboratories to a central site provides a mechanism for public health officials to rapidly identify problems and take action to prevent further spread of disease. However, implementation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratory systems is much more complex than simply adopting new technology, especially in <span class="hlt">international</span> settings. We describe three major areas to be considered by <span class="hlt">international</span> organizations for successful implementation of electronic reporting systems from public health <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories: benefits of electronic reporting, planning for system implementation (e.g., support, resources, data analysis, country sovereignty), and components of system initiation (e.g., authority, disease definition, feedback, site selection, assessing readiness, problem resolution). Our experience with implementation of electronic public health laboratory data management and reporting systems in the United States and working with <span class="hlt">international</span> organizations to initiate similar efforts demonstrates that successful <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratory reporting can be implemented if surveillance issues and components are planned. PMID:11747687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68...23K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EP%26S...68...23K"><span>Morphology of the southern African <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field derived from observatory and repeat station survey observations: 2005-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotzé, P. B.; Korte, M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field data from four observatories and annual field surveys between 2005 and 2015 provide a detailed description of Earth's magnetic field changes over South Africa, Namibia and Botswana on time scales of less than 1 year. The southern African area is characterized by rapid changes in the secular variation pattern and lies in close proximity to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) where the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity is almost 30 % weaker than in other regions at similar latitudes around the globe. Several <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular acceleration (SA) pulses (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerks) around 2007, 2010 and 2012 could be identified over the last decade in southern Africa. We present a new regional field model for declination and horizontal and vertical intensity over southern Africa (Southern African REGional (SAREG)) which is based on field survey and observatory data and covering the time interval from 2005 to 2014, i.e. including the period between 2010 and 2013 when no low Earth-orbiting vector field satellite data are available. A comparative evaluation between SAREG and global field models like CHAOS-5, the CHAMP, Orsted and SAC-C model of the Earth's magnetic field and <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Field (IGRF-12) reveals that a simple regional field model based on a relatively dense ground network is able to provide a realistic representation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in this area. We particularly note that a global field model like CHAOS-5 does not always indicate similar short-period patterns in the field components as revealed by observatory data, while representing the general secular variation reasonably well during the time interval without near-Earth satellite vector field data. This investigation further shows the inhomogeneous occurrence and distribution of secular variation impulses in the different <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field components and at different locations in southern African.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+concept+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ1045382','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+concept+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ1045382"><span>The Reciprocal <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model Using Grades and Test Scores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Santa+AND+Fe&pg=3&id=EJ625151','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Santa+AND+Fe&pg=3&id=EJ625151"><span>Faculty and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Librarians: A Virtual Dynamic Duo. An <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Educational Partnership for Learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Evans, Ruby</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Discusses how faculty and <span class="hlt">reference</span> librarians at Santa Fe Community College (Florida) formed an <span class="hlt">internal</span> educational partnership to incorporate the use of technology for enhancing teaching and learning. Describes efforts in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics, as well as the Web-based library instruction course. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internal+AND+waves&pg=2&id=EJ1045382','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internal+AND+waves&pg=2&id=EJ1045382"><span>The Reciprocal <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model Using Grades and Test Scores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+line&pg=5&id=EJ785515','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language+AND+line&pg=5&id=EJ785515"><span>Antecedents of Academic Emotions: Testing the <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model for Academic Enjoyment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.; Pekrun, Reinhard</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The present study focused on students' academic enjoyment as predicted by achievement in multiple academic domains. Assumptions were based on Marsh's <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external (I/E) frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions, and were tested in a sample of 1380 German students from grades 5 to 10. Students' academic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70095725','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70095725"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for isotope-ratio analysis (IUPAC Technical Report)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Prohaska, Thomas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since the early 1950s, the number of <span class="hlt">international</span> measurement standards for anchoring stable isotope delta scales has mushroomed from 3 to more than 30, expanding to more than 25 chemical elements. With the development of new instrumentation, along with new and improved measurement procedures for studying naturally occurring isotopic abundance variations in natural and technical samples, the number of <span class="hlt">internationally</span> distributed, secondary isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials with a specified delta value has blossomed in the last six decades to more than 150 materials. More than half of these isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials were produced for isotope-delta measurements of seven elements: H, Li, B, C, N, O, and S. The number of isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for other, heavier elements has grown considerably over the last decade. Nevertheless, even primary <span class="hlt">international</span> measurement standards for isotope-delta measurements are still needed for some elements, including Mg, Fe, Te, Sb, Mo, and Ge. It is recommended that authors publish the delta values of <span class="hlt">internationally</span> distributed, secondary isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials that were used for anchoring their measurement results to the respective primary stable isotope scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3332D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3332D"><span>Cosmic Ray Monitoring and Space Dangerous Phenomena, 1. Search of Features In Cosmic Rays What Can Be Used For Forecasting of Major <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorman, L. I.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Zukerman, I. G.</p> <p></p> <p>According to NOAA Space Weather Scales, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms of scales G5 (3- hour index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft oper- ations, on HF radio-communications and others). To prevent these serious damages will be very important to forecast dangerous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. In many papers it was shown that in principle for this forecasting can be used data on CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms accompanied by sufficient Forbush-decreases (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999). In this paper we con- sider over 100 major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and for each case we analyze hourly data of many NM for 8 days with SC in the 4-st day of 8-days period (that before SC we have at least 3 full days). We determine what part of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is accompanied CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC, and what part of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms does not show any features what can be used for forecast- ing. We estimate also how these parts depend from the index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activ- ity Kp. <span class="hlt">REFERENCES</span>: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 49A, pp. 136-144. (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their prediction", Proc. of 26-th <span class="hlt">Intern</span>. Cos- mic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, Vol. 6, p. 476-479, (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6823C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.6823C"><span>Chinese Mobile <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Monitoring Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Bin; Ni, Zhe; Chen, Shuanggui; Yuan, Jiehao</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>From 2010, we have set up Chinese Mobile <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Monitoring Array (CMGMA) gradually for seismic monitoring and forecasting. Today, the array includes 973 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> repeat survey stations, the mean intervals between adjacent 2 stations is about 70km in east of China and 150km in west, covers 7'680'000km2 monitoring eara. We measure total intensity (F), declination (D) and indensity (I) on each station one time every year, and then remove dural variation using minutely averages data on the nearest observatory and remove main field using "Chinese <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Field (CGRF) -Spherical Cap Harmonic model". After removing secular variation using a natural orthogonal component (NOC) model base hourly averages data from 1995 to now on 31 observatories in China, we calculate the variations of lithosphere magnetic field between each adjacent two years.After analyse the variations of lithoshpere magnetic field before all 25 earthquakes with magnitude bigger than 5 in our monitoring eara, 2 kinds of anomarlies were found during 1-18 months before 20 earthquakes of 25 samples. The first kind was typical called "Quiet Island", and the variant kind called "frozen area" or "quiet byland". The main character of these 2 kind anomalies is the variations of lithosphere magnetic field are smaller near the epicenter than surronding. When we draw the horizontal varistions (ΔBy, ΔBx) as an arrow at level, the variations are identical, scale and direction, in a wide range, as a liquid river flowing from one side to the other.However, the variations near the further epicenter show their difference, with low value and different dirction. Even we have picked these anomlies out before the earthquakes in each July, just soon after our field survey. We are not clear why these nomlies are there, and can not further propose a perfect idea about magnitude and original times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4214Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4214Y"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> disturbances imprints in ground and satellite altitude observatories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yahiat, Yasmina; Lamara, Souad; Zaourar, Naima; Hamoudi, Mohamed</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The temporal evolution of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and its variations have been repeatedly studied from both ground observatories and near-earth orbiting platforms. With the advent of the space ageand the launches of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> low altitude orbits satellites, a global coverage has been achieved. Since Magsat mission, more satellites were put into orbit and some of them are still collecting data enhancing the spatial and temporal descriptions of the field. Our study uses new data gathered by the latest SWARM satellite mission launched on November, 22nd 2013. It consists of a constellation of three identical satellites carrying on board high resolution and accuracy scientific equipment. Data from this constellation will allow better understanding the multiscale behavior of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. Our goal is to analyze and interpret the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data collected by this Swarm mission, for a given period and try to separate the external disturbances from <span class="hlt">internal</span> contributions. We consider in the study the variation of the horizontal component H, for different virtual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories at the satellite altitude. The analysis of data by Swarm orbital segments shows clearly the external disturbances of the magnetic field like that occurring on 27th of August 2014. This perturbation is shown on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indexes and is related to a coronal mass ejection (CME). These results from virtual observatories are confirmed, by the equivalent analysis using ground observatories data for the same geographic positions and same epochs. Key words: <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field, external field, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index, SWARM mission, virtual observatories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20338782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20338782"><span>The development and role of <span class="hlt">international</span> biological <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials in the diagnosis of anaemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorpe, Susan J</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Anaemia is a major global health problem. Although the main cause is iron deficiency, anaemia also results from other nutritional deficiencies (folate and vitamin B12), haemolytic disorders including haemoglobinopathies, and bone marrow disorders. Accurate diagnosis of anaemia is dependent on reliable diagnostic tests and <span class="hlt">reference</span> ranges, which in turn are dependent on effective standardisation. Standardisation is achieved through the availability of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedures. <span class="hlt">International</span> biological <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials have therefore been developed to standardise and control diagnostic tests for anaemia for a diverse range of analytes including total haemoglobin and haemoglobin types, ferritin, the serum transferrin receptor, serum vitamin B12 and folate, whole blood folate, and alloantibodies which mediate immune haemolytic anaemia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6329551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6329551"><span>A unifying <span class="hlt">reference</span> system for clinical enzymology: aspartate aminotransferase and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Clinical Enzyme Scale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bowers, G N; McComb, R B</p> <p>1984-07-01</p> <p>A review of methodology for determining aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT; EC 2.6.1.1), including recent national and <span class="hlt">international</span> recommendations, indicates that standardization of methodology alone will not bring interlaboratory compatibility of ASAT results. We propose that an additional component to standardization is needed, namely, enzyme <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. Furthermore, we suggest that stable, well-defined ASAT materials from human sources are currently available. These primary <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and the state-of-the-art IFCC <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Method for ASAT provide the basis for a unifying <span class="hlt">reference</span> system for ASAT. Given such a <span class="hlt">reference</span> system, we propose a practical way to promote compatibility of currently incompatible numerical results for ASAT through the use of one ASAT scale of units, the "<span class="hlt">International</span> Clinical Enzyme Scale." This scale-unification concept would permit all current methods, instruments, and temperature choices to be used for ASAT determinations in the daily working laboratory. We present illustrative examples and demonstrate the unique ability of this concept to promote compatibility of the ASAT results from numerous laboratories using many different ASAT methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917104S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917104S"><span>Towards a first realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (IHRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanchez, Laura; Ihde, Johannes; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Marti, Urs; Agren, Jonas; Sideris, Michael; Novak, Pavel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The IAG Resolution No. 1 released during the IUGG 2015 General Assembly outlines five conventions for the definition of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (IHRS). The definition is given in terms of potential parameters: the vertical coordinates are geopotential numbers <span class="hlt">referring</span> to an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realized by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. The spatial <span class="hlt">reference</span> of the position P for the potential W(P) = W(X) is given by coordinates X of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ITRF). This Resolution also states that parameters, observations, and data shall be related to the mean tidal system/mean crust. At present, the main challenge is the realization of the IHRS; i.e., the establishment of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (IHRF). It is expected that the IHRF follows the same structure as the ITRF: a global network with regional and national densifications, whose geopotential numbers <span class="hlt">referring</span> to the global IHRS are known. According to the GGOS objectives, the target accuracy of these global geopotential numbers is 1 x 10-2 m2s-2. In practice, the precise realization of the IHRS is limited by different aspects; for instance, no unified standards or methods for the determination of the potential values W(P); application of different conventions for the gravity field modelling and the estimation of the position vectors X; inhomogeneous distribution of the geodetic infrastructure; restricted accessibility to terrestrial gravity data to increase the GGM resolution; insufficient modelling of geodynamic phenomena, etc. This may restrict the expected accuracy of 1 x 10-2 m2s-2 to some orders lower (from 10 x 10-2 m2s-2 to 100 x 10-2 m2s-2). This contribution discusses the required steps to outline a sustainable realization of the IHRS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650870','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2650870"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials for Human Antiserum to Pertussis Antigens by an <span class="hlt">International</span> Collaborative Study ▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xing, Dorothy; Wirsing von König, Carl Heinz; Newland, Penny; Riffelmann, Marion; Meade, Bruce D.; Corbel, Michael; Gaines-Das, Rose</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been widely used to evaluate antibody responses to pertussis vaccination and infection. A common <span class="hlt">reference</span> serum is essential for the standardization of these assays. However, no <span class="hlt">internationally</span> recognized <span class="hlt">reference</span> serum is available. At the request of the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), a set of four candidate <span class="hlt">international</span> standards has been prepared. These candidate materials have been assessed for suitability and compared to the widely used U.S. <span class="hlt">reference</span> pertussis antiserum (human) lot 3, lot 4, and lot 5 by 22 laboratories from 15 countries in an <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study. Laboratories measured immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae (Fim2&3) using their established immunoassays. The results of this study showed each of the four candidates to be suitable as an <span class="hlt">international</span> standard. With the agreement of the participants, a recommendation has been made to the ECBS that the candidate material coded 06/140 be established as the First <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard for pertussis antiserum (human), with the following assigned <span class="hlt">international</span> units (IU): IgG anti-PT, 335 IU/ampoule; IgA anti-PT, 65 IU/ampoule; IgG anti-FHA, 130 IU/ampoule; IgA anti-FHA, 65 IU/ampoule; IgG anti-PRN, 65 IU/ampoule; and IgA anti-PRN, 42 IU/ampoule. No formal units have been proposed for anti-Fim2&3 because most assays used a mixture of fimbrial antigens. In addition, the candidate material coded 06/142 has been proposed as a WHO working preparation for characterization of assay systems. PMID:19109448</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013124"><span>Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-<span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The classical <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard qNMR method. In this new method, the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard method is retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050236278&hterms=data+mining+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddata%2Bmining%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050236278&hterms=data+mining+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddata%2Bmining%2Bmodel"><span>Data Assimilation as a Tool for Developing a Mars <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Houben, Howard</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A new paradigm for a Mars <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Atmosphere is proposed. In general, as is certainly now the case for Mars, there are sufficient observational data to specify what the full atmospheric state was under a variety of circumstances (season, dustiness, etc.). There are also general circulation models capable of deter- mining the evolution of these states. If these capabilities are combined-using data assimilation techniques-the resulting analyzed states can be probed to answer a wide variety of questions, whether posed by scientists, mission planners, or others. This system would fulfill all the purposes of an <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> atmosphere and would make the scientific results of exploration missions readily available to the community. Preliminary work on a website that would incorporate this functionality has begun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA548342','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA548342"><span>Recent and Anticipated Changes to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems Service (IERS) Conventions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>object, it must utilize the five Earth orientation parameters (EOPs): polar motion (2 angles), UT1-UTC, and nutation (2 angles) (see Seidelmann...Recent and Anticipated Changes to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems Service (IERS) Conventions Brian Luzum, U.S. Naval...the Earth Orientation Parameters Combination and Prediction Division in the USNO Earth Orientation Department. He is also the co-director of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9567308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9567308"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards: antibody standards for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wright, P F; Tounkara, K; Lelenta, M; Jeggo, M H</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> standards are used to calibrate similar assay systems against an <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> protocol and to provide a template for the preparation of secondary and/or working standards. Three <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards are recommended for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: a strong positive standard, a weak positive standard and a negative serum standard. The negative standard should be derived from a single serum or from a serum pool which exhibits typical background activity in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> protocol. The strong and weak positive standards should be derived from a single serum or from a serum pool which typifies the humoral response (antibody) to natural infection. Suitable candidates for the positive <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards should exhibit dose/response curves in the mid-range of antibody activity. The strong and weak positive standards should each be prepared from a one-time dilution in the negative standard, to yield antibody activities which are defined by specific points on the linear portion of the dose/response curve. The strong positive standard should represent an antibody activity (absorbance value) midway between the upper and central points and the weak positive standard should represent an antibody activity midway between the central and lower points of the linear portion of the curve. Owing to inherent differences among assay systems, antibody activities should be expressed in relative rather than in absolute terms. It is recommended that the antibody activity of the strong positive standard should denote 100% positivity. The activities of the weak positive and negative standards should then be expressed as relative percentages. Every set of <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards should be accompanied by an information sheet which includes, among other things, a plot of the dose/response curve and an indication of the dilutions used to prepare the standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84..586H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EOSTr..84..586H"><span>Introduction to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hinze, William J.</p> <p></p> <p>Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span>, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1530B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1530B"><span>NM-MT network and space dangerous phenomena, 2. Examples of cosmic ray using for forecasting of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belov, A.; Dorman, L.; Eroshenko, E.; Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.; Pustil Nik, L.; Sternlieb, A.; Villoresi, G.; Yanke, V.; Zukerman, I.</p> <p></p> <p>We present developing of methods (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999) for forecasting on the basis of neutron monitor hourly on-line data (as well as on-line muon telescopes hourly data from different directions) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms of scales G5 (3- hour index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales). These <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). We show that for especially dangerous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms can be used global-spectrographic method if on-line will be available 35-40 NM and muon telescopes. In this case for each hour can be determined CR anisotropy vector, and the specifically behavior of this vector before SC of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms G5, G4 or G3 (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales) can be used as important factor for forecast. The second factor what can be used for SC forecast is specifically behavior of CR density (CR intensity) for about 30-15 hours before SC (caused mainly by galactic CR particles acceleration during interaction with shock wave moved from the Sun). The third factor is effect of cosmic ray pre-decreasing, caused by magnetic connection of the Earth with the region behind the shock wave. We demonstrate developing methods on several examples of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. This research is partly supported by the INTAS grant 00-0810. <span class="hlt">REFERENCES</span>: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, 49A, 136-144 (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their prediction", Proc. of 26-th <span class="hlt">Intern</span>. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, 6, 476-479 (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol30-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol30-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf"><span>40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - <span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—<span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The <span class="hlt">reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">internal</span> olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27987641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27987641"><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Decision Support Initiative <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Case for Economic Evaluation: An Aid to Thought.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilkinson, Thomas; Sculpher, Mark J; Claxton, Karl; Revill, Paul; Briggs, Andrew; Cairns, John A; Teerawattananon, Yot; Asfaw, Elias; Lopert, Ruth; Culyer, Anthony J; Walker, Damian G</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Policymakers in high-, low-, and middle-income countries alike face challenging choices about resource allocation in health. Economic evaluation can be useful in providing decision makers with the best evidence of the anticipated benefits of new investments, as well as their expected opportunity costs-the benefits forgone of the options not chosen. To guide the decisions of health systems effectively, it is important that the methods of economic evaluation are founded on clear principles, are applied systematically, and are appropriate to the decision problems they seek to inform. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, a major funder of economic evaluations of health technologies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), commissioned a "<span class="hlt">reference</span> case" through the <span class="hlt">International</span> Decision Support Initiative (iDSI) to guide future evaluations, and improve both the consistency and usefulness to decision makers. The iDSI <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Case draws on previous insights from the World Health Organization, the US Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health Care, and the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Comprising 11 key principles, each accompanied by methodological specifications and reporting standards, the iDSI <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Case also serves as a means of identifying priorities for methods research, and can be used as a framework for capacity building and technical assistance in LMICs. The iDSI <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Case is an aid to thought, not a substitute for it, and should not be followed slavishly without regard to context, culture, or history. This article presents the iDSI <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Case and discusses the rationale, approach, components, and application in LMICs. Copyright © 2016 <span class="hlt">International</span> Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4962895','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4962895"><span>Special Report on Electrical Standards: New <span class="hlt">Internationally</span> Adopted <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Standards of Voltage and Resistance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taylor, B. N.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This report provides the background for and summarizes the main results of the 18th meeting of the Consultative Committee on Electricity (CCE) of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) held in September 1988. Also included are the most important implications of these results. The principal recommendations originating from the meeting, which were subsequently adopted by the CIPM, establish new <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards of voltage and resistance based on the Josephson effect and the quantum Hall effect, respectively. The new standards, which are to come into effect starting January 1, 1990, will result in improved uniformity of electrical measurements worldwide and their consistency with the <span class="hlt">International</span> System of Units or SI. To implement the CIPM recommendations in the U.S. requires that, on January 1, 1990, the value of the U.S. representation of the volt be increased by about 9.26 parts per million (ppm) and the value of the U.S. representation of the ohm be increased by about 1.69 ppm. The resulting increases in the U.S. representations of the ampere and watt will be about 7.57 ppm and 16.84 ppm, respectively. The CCE also recommended a particular method, affirmed by the CIPM, of reporting calibration results obtained with the new <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards that is to be used by all national standards laboratories. PMID:28053403</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917697B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917697B"><span>Contribution of the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere to the progress of the ionospheric representation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI), a joint project of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Union of Radio Science (URSI), is a data-based <span class="hlt">reference</span> model for the ionosphere and since 2014 it is also recognized as the ISO (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standardization Organization) standard for the ionosphere. The model is a synthesis of most of the available and reliable observations of ionospheric parameters combining ground and space measurements. This presentation reviews the steady progress in achieving a more and more accurate representation of the ionospheric plasma parameters accomplished during the last decade of IRI model improvements. Understandably, a data-based model is only as good as the data foundation on which it is built. We will discuss areas where we are in need of more data to obtain a more solid and continuous data foundation in space and time. We will also take a look at still existing discrepancies between simultaneous measurements of the same parameter with different measurement techniques and discuss the approach taken in the IRI model to deal with these conflicts. In conclusion we will provide an outlook at development activities that may result in significant future improvements of the accurate representation of the ionosphere in the IRI model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28053403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28053403"><span>Special Report on Electrical Standards: New <span class="hlt">Internationally</span> Adopted <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Standards of Voltage and Resistance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, B N</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This report provides the background for and summarizes the main results of the 18th meeting of the Consultative Committee on Electricity (CCE) of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) held in September 1988. Also included are the most important implications of these results. The principal recommendations originating from the meeting, which were subsequently adopted by the CIPM, establish new <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards of voltage and resistance based on the Josephson effect and the quantum Hall effect, respectively. The new standards, which are to come into effect starting January 1, 1990, will result in improved uniformity of electrical measurements worldwide and their consistency with the <span class="hlt">International</span> System of Units or SI. To implement the CIPM recommendations in the U.S. requires that, on January 1, 1990, the value of the U.S. representation of the volt be increased by about 9.26 parts per million (ppm) and the value of the U.S. representation of the ohm be increased by about 1.69 ppm. The resulting increases in the U.S. representations of the ampere and watt will be about 7.57 ppm and 16.84 ppm, respectively. The CCE also recommended a particular method, affirmed by the CIPM, of reporting calibration results obtained with the new <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards that is to be used by all national standards laboratories.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EOSTr..80...39J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EOSTr..80...39J"><span>Foundations of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, Andy</p> <p></p> <p>The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span>? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014158','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014158"><span>On regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> charts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Alldredge, L.R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>When regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034360','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034360"><span>OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> CELESTIAL <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> FRAME (ICRF) RADIO SOURCES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Titov, O.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, H. M.; Hunstead, R. W.; Christensen, L.</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>We present the results of spectroscopic observations of the optical counterparts of 47 southern radio sources from the candidate <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Catalogue as part of a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame, especially in the south. We made the observations with the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope. We obtained redshifts for 30 quasars and one radio galaxy, with a further seven objects being probable BL Lac objects with featureless spectra. Of the remainder, four were clear misidentifications with Galactic stars and five had low signal-to-noise spectra and could not be classified. These results, in combination with new VLBI data of the radio sources with redshifts more than 2, add significantly to the existing data needed to refine the distribution of source proper motions over the celestial sphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413799S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413799S"><span>Research activities for the DORIS contribution to the next <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soudarin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Ferrage, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame solutions. These efforts include (i) assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2 (2008-2011), (ii) individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and scale, and (iii) improving orbit dynamics (atmospheric loading effects, satellite surface force modeling…). We report on the preliminary results from these research activities, review the status of the IDS combination which is now routinely generated from the contributions of the IDS analysis centers, and discuss the prospects for continued improvement in the DORIS contribution to the next <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009841','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009841"><span>Research Activities for the DORIS Contribution to the Next <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Soudarin, L.; Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F.; Willis, P.; Stepanek, P.; Otten, M.; Govind, R.; Kuzin, S.; Ferrage, P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>For the preparation of ITRF2008, the IDS processed data from 1993 to 2008, including data from TOPEX/Poseidon, the SPOT satellites and Envisat in the weekly solutions. Since the development of ITRF2008, the IDS has been engaged in a number of efforts to try and improve the <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame solutions. These efforts include (i) assessing the contribution of the new DORIS satellites, Jason-2 and Cryosat2 (2008-2011), (ii) individually analyzing the DORIS satellite contributions to geocenter and scale, and (iii) improving orbit dynamics (atmospheric loading effects, satellite surface force modeling. . . ). We report on the preliminary results from these research activities, review the status of the IDS combination which is now routinely generated from the contributions of the IDS analysis centers, and discuss the prospects for continued improvement in the DORIS contribution to the next <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118743"><span>OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> CELESTIAL <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Pursimo, T.; Jauncey, David L.; Maslennikov, K.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the <span class="hlt">International</span> VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C"><span>On extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of extreme storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to extreme storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AJ....153..157T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AJ....153..157T"><span>Optical Spectra of Candidate <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Titov, O.; Pursimo, T.; Johnston, Helen M.; Stanford, Laura M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Jauncey, David L.; Zenere, Katrina A.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ˜160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871718','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871718"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> Standards and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials for Quantitative Molecular Infectious Disease Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Madej, Roberta M.; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J.; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of <span class="hlt">international</span> standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives. PMID:20075208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6435863','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6435863"><span>Comparison of San Diego observations (March 1992) with IRI parameters. [IRI (<span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paul, A.K.; Sprague, R.A.; Moision, W.K.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>During the month of March 1992, the new four channel ionosonde at NRaD was used to obtain ionograms at five minute intervals. Using the method of Paul, the standard F2 layer parameters (HmF2 and foF2) were extracted from the data at fifteen minute intervals. In this paper the authors present a comparison of these experimentally determined parameters to those predicted, for the same time and conditions, by the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere....Electromagnetic, Propagation, Electro-optics, Atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010008','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010008"><span>Representation of the Auroral and Polar Ionosphere in the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This issue of Advances in Space Research presents a selection of papers that document the progress in developing and improving the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI), a widely used standard for the parameters that describe the Earths ionosphere. The core set of papers was presented during the 2010 General Assembly of the Committee on Space Research in Bremen, Germany in a session that focused on the representation of the auroral and polar ionosphere in the IRI model. In addition, papers were solicited and submitted from the scientific community in a general call for appropriate papers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20075208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20075208"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> standards and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for quantitative molecular infectious disease testing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Madej, Roberta M; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of <span class="hlt">international</span> standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18039162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18039162"><span>Introduction to the JPA special supplement on <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Samples for the Rorschach Comprehensive System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; Meyer, Gregory J</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Introduction provides an overview to the JPA Special Supplement on <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Samples for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2001). It contains a history of this project and a table including all of the lead authors, their country and the type and size of their sample. Suggestions for conducting this type of research are offered, including information on normative vs. nonpatient samples, inclusion/exclusion criteria, the use of collateral instruments, and concerns relative to representativeness. Reliability and coding concerns are addressed, and information on the Popular response in Japan are reviewed. Finally, trends within and across the data are highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22128359"><span>Realistic <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult and paediatric phantom series for <span class="hlt">internal</span> and external dosimetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stabin, M G; Emmons, M A; Segars, W P; Fernald, M J</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>A new generation of realistic, image-based anthropomorphic phantoms has been developed based on the <span class="hlt">reference</span> masses and organ definitions given in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 89. Specific absorbed fractions for <span class="hlt">internal</span> radiation sources have been calculated for photon and electron sources for many body organs. Values are similar to those from the previous generation of 'stylized' (mathematical equation-based) models, but some differences are seen, particularly at low particle or photon energies, due to the more realistic organ geometries, with organs generally being closer together, and with some touching and overlapping. Extension of this work, to use these phantoms in Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation codes with external radiation sources, is an important area of investigation that should be undertaken.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6297E..0FK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6297E..0FK"><span>Efficient and versatile <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> sources for remote sensing space telescopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kintner, Eric C.; Wong, Wallace K.; Jacobs, Eric S.; Cucchiaro, Paul J.; Koshel, R. John</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Access to an <span class="hlt">internal</span> calibration <span class="hlt">reference</span> system during flight is an important requirement for contemporary remote sensing missions. L-3 Communications SSG-Tinsley has designed, built, and tested a novel <span class="hlt">internal</span> calibration source based on ribbon sources. Via a flip-in mirror, the source assembly couples light through the field stop of an off-axis reimaging telescope to provide a reliable test of the following optics and electronics. Non-imaging illumination design principles assure uniform illumination of the sensor focal plane at levels adjustable over a very wide dynamic range. The source assembly can be packaged into a compact, lightweight, and efficient flight unit for convenient installation at an accessible location on the telescope. While the prototype source was specifically designed to match the GIFTS telescope as a representative example of an off-axis re-imaging telescope, the design principles are flexible to allow optimization for any comparable telescope system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836685"><span>A study to establish <span class="hlt">international</span> diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels for paediatric computed tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vassileva, J; Rehani, M; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Al-Naemi, H M; Al Suwaidi, J S; Arandjic, D; Bashier, E H O; Kodlulovich Renha, S; El-Nachef, L; Aguilar, J G; Gershan, V; Gershkevitsh, E; Gruppetta, E; Hustuc, A; Jauhari, A; Kharita, Mohammad Hassan; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N; Khosravi, H R; Khoury, H; Kralik, I; Mahere, S; Mazuoliene, J; Mora, P; Muhogora, W; Muthuvelu, P; Nikodemova, D; Novak, L; Pallewatte, A; Pekarovič, D; Shaaban, M; Shelly, E; Stepanyan, K; Thelsy, N; Visrutaratna, P; Zaman, A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The article reports results from the largest <span class="hlt">international</span> dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes <span class="hlt">international</span> diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDIw, CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and <span class="hlt">international</span> DRLs were established at rounded 75th percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. <span class="hlt">International</span> DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the <span class="hlt">reference</span> values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910018318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910018318"><span>Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 31: <span class="hlt">Reference</span> models of trace species for the COSPAR <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keating, G. M. (Editor)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A set of preliminary <span class="hlt">reference</span> atmosphere models of significant trace species which play important roles in controlling the chemistry, radiation budget, and circulation patterns of the atmosphere were produced. These models of trace species distributions are considered to be <span class="hlt">reference</span> models rather than standard models; thus, it was not crucial that they be correct in an absolute sense. These <span class="hlt">reference</span> models can serve as a means of comparison between individual observations, as a first guess in inversion algorithms, and as an approximate representation of observations for comparison to theoretical calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998ApJ...506L..93S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998ApJ...506L..93S"><span>New Observations Testing the Adopted HIPPARCOS Link to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stone, Ronald C.</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>This paper tests the Hipparcos link to the extragalactic <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame by using new data obtained after the release of the catalog, thereby providing an external check on the accuracy of the established link process. The new data consist of 689 positions of Hipparcos stars determined in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF) from CCD observations taken with the Flagstaff Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope (FASTT). A comparison of the FASTT and Hipparcos catalog star positions observed in common finds that the axial rotations between the Hipparcos and ICRF <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames are, respectively, (εx, εy, εz) = (-2.2+/-3.3, -2.2+/-3.3, 3.3+/-2.9) (s.e.) mas at epoch 1996.5. All of these rotations are small and insignificant with respect to their errors (εx and εy are less than 1 σ detections whereas εz is only a 1.1 σ detection). Hence, this paper finds that the Hipparcos link to the ICRF was well determined and is not seriously degrading with time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17617044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17617044"><span>Proposal of a candidate <span class="hlt">international</span> conventional <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedure for free thyroxine in serum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thienpont, Linda M; Beastall, Graham; Christofides, Nicholas D; Faix, James D; Ieiri, Tamio; Jarrige, Véronique; Miller, W Greg; Miller, Richard; Nelson, Jerald C; Ronin, Cathérine; Ross, H Alec; Rottmann, Michael; Thijssen, Jos H; Toussaint, Brigitte</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the present paper the IFCC WG-STFT recommends and provides the rationale to establish metrological traceability of serum free thyroxine (FT4) measurements to a candidate <span class="hlt">international</span> conventional <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedure. It is proposed that this procedure be based on equilibrium dialysis combined with determination of thyroxine in the dialysate with a trueness-based <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedure. The measurand is thus operationally defined as "thyroxine in the dialysate from equilibrium dialysis of serum prepared under defined conditions". With regard to the trueness-based <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedure, the WG-STFT recommends use of an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/tandem MS) procedure for total thyroxine that has been optimized towards measurement at picomolar concentration levels and that is listed in the database of the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM). For calibration, the purified thyroxine material IRMM-468 (resulting from a project funded by the European Commission and recently submitted to the JCTLM) is proposed. The WG-STFT stresses that according to this recommendation it is a prerequisite to strictly adhere to the defined equilibrium dialysis procedure, whereas it is permissible to introduce variants in the ID-LC/tandem MS procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28725713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28725713"><span>Observational study: microgravity testing of a phase-change <span class="hlt">reference</span> on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Topham, T Shane; Bingham, Gail E; Latvakoski, Harri; Podolski, Igor; Sychev, Vladimir S; Burdakin, Andre</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Orbital sensors to monitor global climate change during the next decade require low-drift rates for onboard thermometry, which is currently unattainable without on-orbit recalibration. Phase-change materials (PCMs), such as those that make up the ITS-90 standard, are seen as the most reliable <span class="hlt">references</span> on the ground and could be good candidates for orbital recalibration. Space Dynamics Lab (SDL) has been developing miniaturized phase-change <span class="hlt">references</span> capable of deployment on an orbital blackbody for nearly a decade. Improvement of orbital temperature measurements for long duration earth observing and remote sensing. To determine whether and how microgravity will affect the phase transitions, SDL conducted experiments with ITS-90 standard material (gallium, Ga) on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) and compared the phase-change temperature with earth-based measurements. The miniature on-orbit thermal <span class="hlt">reference</span> (MOTR) experiment launched to the ISS in November 2013 on Soyuz TMA-11M with the Expedition 38 crew and returned to Kazakhstan in March 2014 on the Soyuz TMA-10 spacecraft. MOTR tested melts and freezes of Ga using repeated 6-h cycles. Melt cycles obtained on the ground before and after launch were compared with those obtained on the ISS. To within a few mK uncertainty, no significant difference between the melt temperature of Ga at 1 g and in microgravity was observed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5515497','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5515497"><span>Observational study: microgravity testing of a phase-change <span class="hlt">reference</span> on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Topham, T Shane; Bingham, Gail E; Latvakoski, Harri; Podolski, Igor; Sychev, Vladimir S; Burdakin, Andre</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Orbital sensors to monitor global climate change during the next decade require low-drift rates for onboard thermometry, which is currently unattainable without on-orbit recalibration. Phase-change materials (PCMs), such as those that make up the ITS-90 standard, are seen as the most reliable <span class="hlt">references</span> on the ground and could be good candidates for orbital recalibration. Space Dynamics Lab (SDL) has been developing miniaturized phase-change <span class="hlt">references</span> capable of deployment on an orbital blackbody for nearly a decade. Aims: Improvement of orbital temperature measurements for long duration earth observing and remote sensing. Methods: To determine whether and how microgravity will affect the phase transitions, SDL conducted experiments with ITS-90 standard material (gallium, Ga) on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) and compared the phase-change temperature with earth-based measurements. The miniature on-orbit thermal <span class="hlt">reference</span> (MOTR) experiment launched to the ISS in November 2013 on Soyuz TMA-11M with the Expedition 38 crew and returned to Kazakhstan in March 2014 on the Soyuz TMA-10 spacecraft. Results: MOTR tested melts and freezes of Ga using repeated 6-h cycles. Melt cycles obtained on the ground before and after launch were compared with those obtained on the ISS. Conclusions: To within a few mK uncertainty, no significant difference between the melt temperature of Ga at 1 g and in microgravity was observed. PMID:28725713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999BAAA...43...17M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999BAAA...43...17M"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF): mantenimiento y extensión</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, C.; Arias, E. F.; Eubanks, T.; Fey, A. L.; Gontier, A.-M.; Jacobs, C. S.; Sovers, O. J.; Archinal, B. A.; Charlot, P.</p> <p></p> <p>A partir de enero de 1998 el sistema de referencia celeste convencional está representado por el <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (ICRS) y materializado a través de las coordenadas VLBI del conjunto de radiofuentes extragalácticas que conforman el <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF). La primera realización del ICRF, fue elaborada en 1995 por un grupo de expertos designado por la IAU, la que encomendó al <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation Service el mantenimiento del ICRS, del ICRF y del vínculo con marcos de referencia en otras frecuencias. Una primera extensión del ICRF se realizó entre abril y junio de 1999, con el objetivo primario de proveer posiciones de radiofuentes extragalácticas observadas a partir de julio de 1995 y de mejorar las posiciones de las fuentes ``candidatas" con la inclusión de observaciones adicionales. Objetivos secundarios fueron monitorear a las radiofuentes para verificar que siguen siendo adecuadas para realizar al ICRF y mejorar las técnicas de análisis de datos. Como resultado del nuevo análisis se obtuvo una solución a partir de la cual se construyó la primera extensión del ICRF, denominada ICRF - Ext.1. Ella representa al ICRS, sus fuentes de definición se mantienen con las mismas posiciones y errores que en la primera realización del ICRF; las demás radiofuentes tienen coordenadas mejor determinadas que en ICRF; el marco de referencia se densificó con el agregado de 59 nuevas radiofuentes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18184639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18184639"><span>Dosimetry calculations for <span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources using a Korean <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult stylised phantom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, S; Lee, J K; Lee, C; Lee, C</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for <span class="hlt">internally</span> deposited electron were calculated using a Korean <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult stylised phantom, where a total of 15 <span class="hlt">internal</span> organ volumes and external body dimension were designed to match average Korean adult male. The walls of oesophagus, stomach, colon and urinary bladder were additionally divided into the mucosal layer and residual wall to accommodate dose calculation for weakly penetrating electron. The mucosal wall thicknesses were determined by the data reported in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 89 and other literature resources and by direct measurements. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX (version 2.5.0) was employed to calculate the electron energy deposited. The SAFs and AFs for monoenergetic electrons with the energies ranging from 10 keV to 2 MeV were calculated. The results were compared with those of the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory phantoms and showed considerable differences up to 150% in SAFs, whereas no substantial differences were observed in the AFs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183765.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183765.pdf"><span>Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health <span class="hlt">References</span>. <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa</p> <p></p> <p>Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=supply+AND+demand+AND+nurses&pg=5&id=ED183766','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=supply+AND+demand+AND+nurses&pg=5&id=ED183766"><span>Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Health Manpower Planning. Volume 3: Health Manpower Planning <span class="hlt">References</span>. <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>White (E.H.) Co., San Francisco, CA.</p> <p></p> <p>Intended as a companion piece to volume 3 in the Method Series, Health Manpower Planning (CE 024 231), this third of six volumes in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with health manpower planning for developing countries. The review identifies literature relevant…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21587322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21587322"><span>Establishment of the first WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> genetic <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel for Prader Willi and Angelman syndromes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyle, Jennifer; Hawkins, Malcolm; Barton, David E; Meaney, Karen; Guitart, Miriam; O'Grady, Anna; Tobi, Simon; Ramsden, Simon C; Elles, Rob; Gray, Elaine; Metcalfe, Paul; Hawkins, J Ross</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Prader Willi and Angelman syndromes are clinically distinct genetic disorders both mapping to chromosome region 15q11-q13, which are caused by a loss of function of paternally or maternally inherited genes in the region, respectively. With clinical diagnosis often being difficult, particularly in infancy, confirmatory genetic diagnosis is essential to enable clinical intervention. However, the latter is challenged by the complex genetics behind both disorders and the unmet need for characterised <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials to aid accurate molecular diagnosis. With this in mind, a panel of six genotyping <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for Prader Willi and Angelman syndromes was developed, which should be stable for many years and available to all diagnostic laboratories. The panel comprises three Prader Willi syndrome materials (two with different paternal deletions, and one with maternal uniparental disomy (UPD)) and three Angelman syndrome materials (one with a maternal deletion, one with paternal UPD or an epigenetic imprinting centre defect, and one with a UBE3A point mutation). Genomic DNA was bulk-extracted from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines established from consenting patients, and freeze-dried as aliquots in glass ampoules. In total, 37 laboratories from 26 countries participated in a collaborative study to assess the suitability of the panel. Participants evaluated the blinded, triplicate materials using their routine diagnostic methods against in-house controls or externally sourced uncertified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. The panel was established by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization as the first <span class="hlt">International</span> Genetic <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Panel for Prader Willi and Angelman syndromes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843917','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24843917"><span>Diffusion-controlled toluene <span class="hlt">reference</span> material for VOC emissions testing: <span class="hlt">international</span> interlaboratory study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Liu, Zhe; Cox, Steven; Leber, Dennis; Samarov, Dan; Little, John C</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building products and materials by manufacturers and testing laboratories, and the use of the test results for labeling programs, continue to expand. One issue that hinders wide acceptance for chamber product testing is the lack of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material to validate test chamber performance. To meet this need, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Virginia Tech (VT) have developed a prototype <span class="hlt">reference</span> material that emits a single VOC similar to the emissions of a diffusion-controlled building product source with a dynamic emissions profile. The prototype material has undergone extensive testing at NIST and a pilot interlaboratory study (ILS) with four laboratories. The next development step is an evaluation of the prototype source in multiple-sized chambers of 14 laboratories in seven countries. Each laboratory was provided duplicate specimens and a test protocol. Study results identified significant issues related to the need to store the source at a subzero Celsius temperature until tested and possible inconsistencies in large chambers. For laboratories using a small chamber and meeting all the test method criteria, the results were very encouraging with relative standard deviations ranging from 5% to 10% across the laboratories. Currently, the chamber performance of laboratories conducting product VOC emissions testing is assessed through interlaboratory studies (ILS) using a source with an unknown emission rate. As a result, laboratory proficiency can only be based on the mean and standard deviation of emission rates measured by the participating ILS laboratories. A <span class="hlt">reference</span> material with a known emission rate has the potential to provide an independent assessment of laboratory performance as well as improve the quality of interlaboratory studies. Several <span class="hlt">international</span> laboratories with different chamber testing systems demonstrated the ability to measure the emission rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162674','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162674"><span>Hazards of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Herzog, D.C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BTSNU..51...23S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BTSNU..51...23S"><span>Operational <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Forecast Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Semeniv, O.; Polonska, A.; Parnowski, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The operational forecasting service for real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices Dst and Kp was described. The warning time for the Earth to the intersection of the Dst index is 1-4 hours, for the Kp index - 3 hours. The skillscore parameter, which is defined as a decrease of the relative mean square error with respect to the trivial model, was approximately 40% for Dst and 15% for Kp. The service works on-line freely available through STAFF http://www.staff.oma.be/ browser.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMSH13A1109C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMSH13A1109C"><span>Origins of the Wolf Sunspot Number Series: <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Underpinning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cliver, E. W.; Svalgaard, L.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Wolf or <span class="hlt">International</span> sunspot number (SSN) series is based on the work of Swiss astronomer Rudolf Wolf (1816-1893). Following the discovery of the sunspot cycle by Schwabe in 1843, Wolf culled sunspot counts from journals and observatory reports and combined them with his own observations to produce a SSN series that extended from 1700-1893. Thereafter the SSN record has been maintained by the Zurich Observatory and, since 1981, by the Royal Observatory of Belgium. The 1700-1893 SSN record constructed by Wolf has not been modified since his death. Here we show that Wolf's SSNs were not based solely on reports of sunspots but were calibrated by <span class="hlt">reference</span> to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> range observations which closely track the sunspot number. Nor were these corrections small; for example Wolf multiplied the long series (1749-1796) of sunspot counts obtained by Staudacher by factors of 2.0 and 1.25, in turn, to obtain the numbers in use today. It is not surprising then that a competing SSN series obtained by Hoyt and Schatten based on group sunspot numbers is different, generally lower than that of Wolf. Comparison of the <span class="hlt">International</span> number with current magnetic range observations indicates that, as Wolf found, the magnetic range (specifically, the average annual Y-component of mid-latitude stations) can be used as an independent check on the validity and stability of the SSN series. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> range series, which in itself is a long-term proxy of solar EUV emission, can be used to resolve discrepancies between the Wolf and Group SSN series during the 19th century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE2343P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE2343P"><span>Magnetosphere of Earth: <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Tail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pulkkinen, T.; Murdin, P.</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail is an elongated region of the MAGNETOSPHERE OF EARTH extending from the near-Earth space in the antisunward direction. It acts as a giant energy reservoir for the magnetosphere and is therefore an important participant in dynamic processes such as <span class="hlt">GEOMAGNETIC</span> STORMS and substorms (see MAGNETOSPHERE OF EARTH: SUBSTORMS)....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19619877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19619877"><span>The learning experiences of <span class="hlt">international</span> doctoral students with particular <span class="hlt">reference</span> to nursing students: a literature review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, Catrin; Stevenson, Keith</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>One of the key challenges for the advancement of nursing globally is the development of doctorally prepared educators and leaders in a context where there is a shortage of provision of doctoral nursing programmes. For the short term future, many nurses wishing to undertake a doctorate will need to complete this education in the USA, the UK or Australia. Very little is known however about the nature of their learning experiences in these countries. This paper presents a literature review on the <span class="hlt">international</span> doctoral student experience, with specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> to nursing. A thorough review of the literature from 1990 to 2009 was undertaken which yielded only three empirical studies related to nursing. The review was then expanded to include subjects other than nursing which yielded 16 studies in total. This paper presents key themes that appear to be generic to <span class="hlt">international</span> doctoral students, and draws out specific implications for nursing. The review found that <span class="hlt">international</span> doctoral students' learning experiences were strongly influenced by the extent to which they could engage with three key elements of doctoral programmes: The first months represented a critical time of transition and most <span class="hlt">international</span> students seemed to want and expect considerable support and structured in-put during this period. Most studies concluded that there was a need for greater institutional support and supervisor training. The three nursing-specific papers were entirely consistent with these themes. The existing evidence is extremely heterogeneous and of variable methodological quality. In order to ensure that doctoral nursing students are getting a high quality and appropriate PhD experience, there is a need for more research specifically with this group. There is also a need to investigate the different stages of the doctoral process in nursing, including, for example, writing up and examination processes and post-doctoral career outcomes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860059486&hterms=heat+ionosphere&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bionosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860059486&hterms=heat+ionosphere&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bionosphere"><span>Heat balance of the ionosphere - Implications for the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Theoretical considerations can be helpful tools in modeling ionospheric parameters in regions and for times where not enough experimental data are available. This study asks whether results of heat balance calculations should be introduced to supplement the data base for the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere. The present status of the theoretical understanding is discussed and the influence of the following unresolved or neglected times are examined: (1) electron heating rate, (2) electron cooling by fine structure excitation of atomic oxygen, and (3) height-dependent Coulomb Logarithm. The ambiguity introduced by these terms leads to up to 30 percent uncertainty in the electron temperature of the lower ionosphere. The electron temperature in the upper ionosphere is largely determined by heat conduction from above and depends critically on the conditions assumed at the boundary between ionosphere and plasmasphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34...67W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34...67W"><span>Mapping of steady-state electric fields and convective drifts in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields - Part 2: The IGRF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, A. D. M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A method of mapping electric fields along <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field lines is applied to the IGRF (<span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Field) model. The method involves integrating additional sets of first order differential equations simultaneously with those for tracing a magnetic field line. These provide a measure of the rate of change of the separation of two magnetic field lines separated by an infinitesimal amount. From the results of the integration Faraday's law is used to compute the electric field as a function of position along the field line. Examples of computations from a software package developed to implement the method are presented. This is expected to be of use in conjugate studies of magnetospheric phenomena such as SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar) observations of convection in conjugate hemispheres, or comparison of satellite electric field observations with fields measured in the ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AJ....129.2907A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AJ....129.2907A"><span>Astrometry of <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame Sources Using the Second US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Assafin, M.; Monken Gomes, P. T.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Andrei, A. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Teixeira, R.; Benevides-Soares, P.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>We present results of a pilot investigation on the astrometry of <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF) sources using small- to medium-sized telescopes and the second US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC2). For this purpose, 31 ICRF sources were observed, mostly south of the equator, during 1997-2000. We used the automated 0.6 and 1.6 m Cassegrain telescopes equipped with CCD detectors located at Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Brazil. The source positions were <span class="hlt">referred</span> to UCAC2, with fainter 0.6 m telescope stars serving as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame to the reductions of the 1.6 m telescope CCD fields. Observations were made in the V band in a compromise between the 579-643 nm bandpass (between V and R) of UCAC2 and the bluer ICRF sources. To ensure that UCAC2, with its magnitude bandpass system, is a reliable <span class="hlt">reference</span> catalog for our V-band CCD frame reductions, we have also compared it against an independent set of star positions with similar characteristics obtained in the V band with the Valinhos CCD Meridian Circle, Brazil. Average values and errors for the optical-radio position offsets using the 0.6 m telescope were +4+/-8 mas (41 mas) and +1+/-8 mas (42 mas) for right ascension and declination, respectively. (Parenthetical values <span class="hlt">refer</span> to standard deviation, i.e., to the typical error of a single measurement given the quantity of sources.) For the 1.6 m telescope, offsets were -12+/-9 mas (45 mas) and +8+/-9 mas (46 mas). An expected random error that increases with magnitude and affects the positions of the fainter 0.6 m telescope secondary stars is verified. No systematic errors were found within the attained position precision, including differential color refraction. External comparisons with independent telescope/catalog sets of precise source positions were also made, showing consistent results within the respective errors. Based on observations obtained at Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA), Rua Estados Unidos, 154 Bairro</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U13A0026P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U13A0026P"><span>Proterozoic <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panzik, J. E.; Evans, D. A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Pre-Mesozoic continental reconstructions and paleoclimatic inferences from paleomagnetism rely critically upon the assumption of a time-averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field. We have been testing the GAD assumption and localized non-dipole components in a different manner, by observing directional variations within the Matachewan, Mackenzie and Franklin dyke swarms. Large dyke swarms, commonly emplaced within a few million years, provide the necessary broad areal coverage to perform a test of global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field geometry. Our analysis varies the quadrupole and octupole values of the generalized paleolatitude equation to determine a minimal angular dispersion and maximum precision of paleopoles from each dyke swarm. As a control, paleomagnetic data from the central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP) show the sensitivities of our method to non-GAD contributions to the ancient <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. Within the uncertainties, CAMP data are consistent with independent estimates of non-GAD contributions derived from global tectonic reconstructions (Torsvik & Van der Voo, 2002). Current results from the three Proterozoic dyke swarms all have best fits that are non-dipolar, but they differ in their optimal quadrupole/ octupole components. Treated together under the hypothesis of a static Proterozoic field geometry, the data allow a pure GAD geodynamo within the uncertainty of the method. Current results were performed using Fisherian statistics, but Bingham statistics will be included to account for the ellipticity of data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4561O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4561O"><span>Space-time structure of the 2003 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerk at Mid-Eastern Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin; Xu, Wenyao; Yang, Dongmei</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The 2003 jerk has an abrupt change in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation (SV), and was recognized as a local phenomenon of <span class="hlt">internal</span> origin from the satellite observations (Olsen and Mandea, 2007). Notable strength of the 2003 jerk is located at Mid-Eastern Asia. The temporal and spatial features at this area are important to resolve the Earth's core fluid flow dynamics at local scale (e.g. Wardinski et al., 2008). We investigate the temporal-spatial development of the 2003 jerk in more detail at Mid-Eastern Asia with the ground-based observations and CHAOS-3 core field model. We select the data in the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> quiet days to calculate the monthly means. In order to reduce the influence of the external field, we adopt a function comprising the terms associated with the indices of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, and the terms of the periodic signals on the observatory monthly means data (Stewart and Whaler, 1992). We then use an empirical AR-2 model to represent the <span class="hlt">internal</span> field signals in the observatory data. The extreme detection is applied to identify the jerk in the SV time series. The onset time and the strength of the 2003 jerk are obtained through the detection for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field component, X, Y and Z. The maximum of the strength of the 2003 jerk is located under the Indian mainland. The onset time of this jerk propagates approximately southeastward. Two jerks in 2001 and 2003 for the Z component are further compared and they are confirmed as independent processes. We suggest the jerk in 2001 identical to the well known 1999 jerk in Europe (Mandea et al., 2000). Our results reveal the fine structures of the 2003 jerk that corroborate the conclusions in previous studies. The larger scale time-spatial structure given by the AR-2 model constructed from ground observatory data (monthly values) is consistent with the results from the CHAOS-3 model. This structure can be applied for further inversion of the local core surface fluid flow motions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol30-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol30-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf"><span>40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - <span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The <span class="hlt">reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">internal</span> olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment toxicity discharge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol29-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf"><span>40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - <span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... Drilling Fluid Formulation 8 Appendix 8 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation The <span class="hlt">reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">internal</span> olefin drilling fluid used to determine the drilling fluid sediment toxicity ratio and compliance with the BAT sediment toxicity discharge...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28833709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28833709"><span>Grain-scale stable carbon and oxygen isotopic variations of the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> calcite, IAEA-603.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nishida, Kozue; Ishimura, Toyoho</p> <p>2017-08-22</p> <p>The new <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> material IAEA-603 (calcite) for stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ(13) C and δ(18) O values) was released in 2016 to replace the previous <span class="hlt">reference</span> material, NBS19 (exhausted). We examined the grain-scale isotopic variations of IAEA-603 for application to microscale isotopic analysis of carbonate samples. Individual grains of IAEA-603 were analyzed with an IsoPrime100 isotope ratio mass spectrometer with a customized continuous-flow gas preparation system (MICAL3c). The individual grains of IAEA-603 were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and their observational characteristics (grain color and size) were compared with their stable isotope compositions. Translucent grains (main component of IAEA-603; grain weight, 4-132 μg) had homogeneous isotopic ratios, comparable with the grain-scale isotopic homogeneity of NBS 19. Their average δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were the same as the recommended values determined by the IAEA. Opaque (whitish) grains (1-2 per 100 grains; grain weight, 8-63 μg) were significantly more depleted in (13) C and (18) O than the translucent grains. Low abundance opaque grains (1-2 grains of 100 translucent grains) have lower δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, suggesting that these grains should be eliminated when using IAEA-603 for single grain (microscale) isotope analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410284"><span>Domino model for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reversals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mori, N; Schmitt, D; Wicht, J; Ferriz-Mas, A; Mouri, H; Nakamichi, A; Morikawa, M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We solve the equations of motion of a one-dimensional planar Heisenberg (or Vaks-Larkin) model consisting of a system of interacting macrospins aligned along a ring. Each spin has unit length and is described by its angle with respect to the rotational axis. The orientation of the spins can vary in time due to spin-spin interaction and random forcing. We statistically describe the behavior of the sum of all spins for different parameters. The term "domino model" in the title <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the interaction among the spins. We compare the model results with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reversals and dynamo simulations and find strikingly similar behavior. The aggregate of all spins keeps the same direction for a long time and, once in a while, begins flipping to change the orientation by almost 180 degrees (mimicking a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversal) or to move back to the original direction (mimicking an excursion). Most of the time the spins are aligned or antialigned and deviate only slightly with respect to the rotational axis (mimicking the secular variation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pole with respect to the geographic pole). Reversals are fast compared to the times in between and they occur at random times, both in the model and in the case of the Earth's magnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5798199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5798199"><span>Response of the high-latitude thermosphere to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rees, D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Fuller-Rowell and Rees (1980) and Roble et al. (1982) have developed three-dimensional, time-dependent models which simulate the structure and dynamics of the thermosphere with considerable realism. These models are particularly useful for the evaluation of the individual contributions of the many distinct elements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> forcing of the polar thermosphere. A description is given of simulations of the steady-state structure and dynamics of the thermosphere for a level of moderately high solar activity, at the December and June solstices, and for moderately quiet and rather disturbed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions. In the present paper, the simulations are used for <span class="hlt">reference</span> purposes. Attention is given to time-dependent simulations of the thermospheric response to large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. 24 <span class="hlt">references</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22981761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22981761"><span>Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards to the USDA veterinary <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D</p> <p>2012-11-06</p> <p>Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> vaccines are based on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary <span class="hlt">reference</span> 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741052"><span>Complete <span class="hlt">internal</span> audit of a mammography service in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> institution for breast imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Badan, Gustavo Machado; Roveda Júnior, Décio; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; de Noronha Junior, Ozeas Alves</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Undertaking of a complete audit of the service of mammography, as recommended by BI-RADS(®), in a private <span class="hlt">reference</span> institution for breast cancer diagnosis in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and comparison of results with those recommended by the literature. Retrospective, analytical and cross-sectional study including 8,000 patients submitted to mammography in the period between April 2010 and March 2011, whose results were subjected to an <span class="hlt">internal</span> audit. The patients were followed-up until December 2012. The radiological classification of 7,249 screening mammograms, according to BI-RADS, was the following: category 0 (1.43%), 1 (7.82%), 2 (80.76%), 3 (8.35%), 4 (1.46%), 5 (0.15%) and 6 (0.03%). The breast cancer detection ratio was 4.8 cases per 1,000 mammograms. Ductal carcinoma in situ was found in 22.8% of cases. Positive predictive values for categories 3, 4 and 5 were 1.3%, 41.3% and 100%, respectively. In the present study, the sensitivity of the method was 97.1% and specificity, 97.4%. The complete <span class="hlt">internal</span> audit of a service of mammography is essential to evaluate the quality of such service, which reflects on an early breast cancer detection and reduction of mortality rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4337155','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4337155"><span>Complete <span class="hlt">internal</span> audit of a mammography service in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> institution for breast imaging*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Badan, Gustavo Machado; Roveda Júnior, Décio; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; de Noronha Junior, Ozeas Alves</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Undertaking of a complete audit of the service of mammography, as recommended by BI-RADS®, in a private <span class="hlt">reference</span> institution for breast cancer diagnosis in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and comparison of results with those recommended by the literature. Materials and Methods Retrospective, analytical and cross-sectional study including 8,000 patients submitted to mammography in the period between April 2010 and March 2011, whose results were subjected to an <span class="hlt">internal</span> audit. The patients were followed-up until December 2012. Results The radiological classification of 7,249 screening mammograms, according to BI-RADS, was the following: category 0 (1.43%), 1 (7.82%), 2 (80.76%), 3 (8.35%), 4 (1.46%), 5 (0.15%) and 6 (0.03%). The breast cancer detection ratio was 4.8 cases per 1,000 mammograms. Ductal carcinoma in situ was found in 22.8% of cases. Positive predictive values for categories 3, 4 and 5 were 1.3%, 41.3% and 100%, respectively. In the present study, the sensitivity of the method was 97.1% and specificity, 97.4%. Conclusion The complete <span class="hlt">internal</span> audit of a service of mammography is essential to evaluate the quality of such service, which reflects on an early breast cancer detection and reduction of mortality rates. PMID:25741052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752096','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22752096"><span>Exposure limits for nanoparticles: report of an <span class="hlt">international</span> workshop on nano <span class="hlt">reference</span> values.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Broekhuizen, Pieter; van Veelen, Wim; Streekstra, Willem-Henk; Schulte, Paul; Reijnders, Lucas</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>This article summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the <span class="hlt">international</span> workshop on nano <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (NRVs), which was organized by the Dutch trade unions and employers' organizations and hosted by the Social Economic Council in The Hague in September 2011. It reflects the discussions of 80 <span class="hlt">international</span> participants representing small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), large companies, trade unions, governmental authorities, research institutions, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from many European countries, USA, India, and Brazil. Issues that were discussed concerned the usefulness and acceptability of precaution-based NRVs as a substitute for health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs) and derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). Topics concerned the metrics for measuring NPs, the combined exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and process-generated NPs, the use of the precautionary principle, the lack of information about the presence of nanomaterials, and the appropriateness of soft regulation for exposure control. The workshop concluded that the NRV, as an 8-h time-weighted average, is a comprehensible and useful instrument for risk management of professional use of MNMs with a dispersible character. The question remains whether NRVs, as advised for risk management by the Dutch employers' organization and trade unions, should be under soft regulation or that a more binding regulation is preferable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412927B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412927B"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere - A tool for Space Weather Applications: Recent Developments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, D.; McKinnell, L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We will present the latest developments regarding the COSPAR and URSI sponsored <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI). IRI is a widely used standard for the specification of ionospheric densities and temperatures recommended by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Standardization Organization (ISO) and the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECCS). With the latest version of the model, IRI-2012, significant improvements and new parameters have been introduced in the model and will be discussed in this talk. Recent comparisons and applications of the model will be briefly reviewed. Of special interest is the performance of IRI during the recent, highly unusual solar minimum of cycle 23/24. Measurements by the CHAMP, GRACE, and C/NOFS satellites have found large discrepancies with IRI predictions during the minimum while ionosonde data show good agreement at the F2 peak. We will discuss these results and investigate possible causes. An exciting new activity are the efforts towards the development of a Real-Time IRI based on data assimilation and model updating with real-time data. We will give a progress report following the special IRI-RT workshops in Colorado Springs (May 2009) and Prague (March 2012).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E2396A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E2396A"><span>Evolution of the Proposed <span class="hlt">International</span> Tropical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Atmosphere up to 2000 km</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ananthasayanam, M.</p> <p></p> <p>There is a compelling need in many aerospace, remote sensing, and other applications to propose a global <span class="hlt">reference</span> atmosphere encompassing the whole of the tropics, due to the following reasons among others. The tropics cover a large area and the atmospheric conditions there are quite different from those in the midlatitudes represented by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Atmosphere. Though the dictionary definition of the tropics is between 230 28' N and 230 28' S, there can be no sharp dividing line between the tropics and extra tropics, and dynamical considerations suggest 30 0 N and 300 S as more appropriate approximate boundaries. (During summer tropical conditions prevail up to about 350 N). The early work of Ramanathan in 1929 pointed out that a break in the temperature distribution occurs around 16 km at low latitudes, whereas it occurs at much lower altitudes (around 11 km) in the temperate zone. He also showed that the coldest air over the earth (temperature about 1850 K) is in the form of a flat ring at a height of some 17 km over the equator; thus while mean temperatures are higher at sea level in the tropics, they are lower at altitudes around 15 km. Pisharoty suggested in 1959 two standard atmospheres one for the Asiatic tropics and another called Universal up to 20 km. The slight differences between these two turned out to be not valid from later measurements. Based on the presently available data showing weak longitudinal variations, it indeed turns out to be possible to provide an <span class="hlt">International</span> Tropical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Atmosphere (ITRA) representative of the whole of the tropical region in both the northern and southern hemispheres (Ananthasayanam and Narasimha 1990). This proposal is also consistent with the mean monthly <span class="hlt">reference</span> atmospheres for the northern hemisphere by Cole and Kantor (1978) and for the southern hemisphere by Koshelkov (1985) and also the Nimbus satellite data of Barnett and Corney (1985) from sea level up to 80 km. For ITRA, either the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013iag..confE...1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013iag..confE...1H"><span>The ICRF-3: A Proposed Roadmap to the Next Generation <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heinkelmann, Robert; Jacobs, Christopher S.; Arias, F.; Boboltz, D.; Boehm, J.; Bolotin, S.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; de Witt, A.; Fey, A.; Gaume, R.; Gordon, D.; Lambert, S.; Ma, C.; Malkin, Z.; Nothnagel, A.; Seitz, M.; Skuikhina, E.; Souchay, J.; Titov, O.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame's current realization, the ICRF-2 (Ma et al, 2009), has the potential to be improved in several ways. In order to achieve this potential in time for comparisons with ESA's optical Gaia mission, the IAU has formed the ICRF-3 working group with the goal of producing the next generation ICRF by its 2018 General Assembly. With Gaia aiming for sub-100 μas precision for quasars in its frame, our goal for the ICRF-3 is to achieve sub-100 μas precision in the radio for as many sources at as many observing bands as possible. This talk will review the intiatives underway which collectively form our roadmap for achieving these goals. VCS-II: Noting that ~2/3 of the ICRF-2's 3414 sources have been observed in only 1 or 2 sessions (mostly the VLBA Calibrator Survey (VCS)) which produced median precisions of 620/ 1120 μas in RAcosDec/ Dec, respectively, we have instigated a collaboration to re-observe the VCS sources using modern systems which are 5 times more sensitive than the original VCS system. This will allow the VCS sources to have precision more nearly comparable to the other ICRF sources. High Frequency radio: Noting that comparison of radio frame to the Gaia optical frame will require an accurate undersanding of frequency dependent changes in source morphology (source structure) and frequency dependent opacity effects (core shift), we are encouraging the construction of 100 μas precision radio frames at multple radio frequencies such as X/Ka (8.4/32 Ghz), K-band (~24 GHz) and Q-band (43 GHz). Southern coverage: Noting that all current radio frames have poorer spatial covereage and precision in the southern hemisphere, we are encouraging increased astrometric observations from the southern hemisphere. Observations using stations from Australia, South Africa, and Argentina are currently being organized. Frame consistency: Noting that Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frames are often used in combination with other frames such as the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1402M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1402M"><span>Effects of magnetic fields produced by simulated and real <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms on rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In this paper we report experiments of arterial pressure (AP) measurements of ten Wistar rats subjected to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field changes and to artificially stimulated magnetic field variations. Environmental electromagnetic effects were screened using a semianechoic chamber, which allowed us to discern the effects associated with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. We stimulated the subjects with a linear magnetic profile constructed from the average changes of sudden storm commencement (SSC) and principal phases of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms measured between 1996 and 2008 with Dst ⩽ -100 nT. Although we found no statistically significant AP variations, statistically significant AP changes were found when a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurred during the experimental period. Using the observed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm variations to construct a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> profile to stimulate the rats, we found that the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations associated to the SSC day were capable of increasing the subjects AP between 7% and 9% from the <span class="hlt">reference</span> value. Under this magnetic variation, the subjects presented a notably restless behavior not seen under other conditions. We conclude that even very small changes in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field associated with a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm can produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880061822&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880061822&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span>Bayesian inference in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Backus, George E.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The inverse problem in empirical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> modeling is investigated, with critical examination of recently published studies. Particular attention is given to the use of Bayesian inference (BI) to select the damping parameter lambda in the uniqueness portion of the inverse problem. The mathematical bases of BI and stochastic inversion are explored, with consideration of bound-softening problems and resolution in linear Gaussian BI. The problem of estimating the radial magnetic field B(r) at the earth core-mantle boundary from surface and satellite measurements is then analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the selection of lambda in the studies of Gubbins (1983) and Gubbins and Bloxham (1985). It is argued that the selection method is inappropriate and leads to lambda values much larger than those that would result if a reasonable bound on the heat flow at the CMB were assumed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28960367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28960367"><span>Enlargement of the WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> repository for platelet transfusion-relevant bacteria <span class="hlt">reference</span> strains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spindler-Raffel, E; Benjamin, R J; McDonald, C P; Ramirez-Arcos, S; Aplin, K; Bekeredjian-Ding, I; de Korte, D; Gabriel, C; Gathof, B; Hanschmann, K-M; Hourfar, K; Ingram, C; Jacobs, M R; Keil, S D; Kou, Y; Lambrecht, B; Marcelis, J; Mukhtar, Z; Nagumo, H; Niekerk, T; Rojo, J; Marschner, S; Satake, M; Seltsam, A; Seifried, E; Sharafat, S; Störmer, M; Süßner, S; Wagner, S J; Yomtovian, R</p> <p>2017-09-27</p> <p>Interventions to prevent and detect bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) have reduced, but not eliminated the sepsis risk. Standardized bacterial strains are needed to validate detection and pathogen reduction technologies in PCs. Following the establishment of the First <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Repository of Platelet Transfusion-Relevant Bacterial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Strains (the 'repository'), the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation (ECBS) endorsed further repository expansion. Sixteen bacterial strains, including the four repository strains, were distributed from the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI) to 14 laboratories in 10 countries for enumeration, identification and growth measurement on days 2, 4 and 7 after low spiking levels [10-25 colony-forming units (CFU)/PC bag]. Spore-forming (Bacillus cereusPEI-B-P-07-S, Bacillus thuringiensisPEI-B-P-57-S), Gram-negative (Enterobacter cloacaePEI-B-P-43, Morganella morganiiPEI-B-P-74, PEI-B-P-91, Proteus mirabilisPEI-B-P-55, Pseudomonas fluorescensPEI-B-P-77, Salmonella choleraesuisPEI-B-P-78, Serratia marcescensPEI-B-P-56) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureusPEI-B-P-63, Streptococcus dysgalactiaePEI-B-P-71, Streptococcus bovisPEI-B-P-61) strains were evaluated. Bacterial viability was conserved after transport to the participating laboratories with one exception (M. morganiiPEI-B-P-74). All other strains showed moderate-to-excellent growth. Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. fluorescens, S. marcescens, S. aureus and S. dysgalactiae grew to >10(6) CFU/ml by day 2. Enterobacter cloacae, P. mirabilis, S. epidermidis, S. bovis and S. pyogenes achieved >10(6) CFU/ml at day 4. Growth of S. choleraesuis was lower and highly variable. The WHO ECBS approved all bacterial strains (except M. morganiiPEI-B-P-74 and S. choleraesuisPEI-B-P-78) for repository enlargement. The strains were stable, suitable for spiking with low CFU numbers, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004057"><span>Fit-for-purpose shellfish <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for <span class="hlt">internal</span> and external quality control in the analysis of phycotoxins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hess, Philipp; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The need for <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for quality control of analysis of foodstuffs has been stressed frequently. This has been particularly true in the phycotoxins field, where there is a great shortage of both pure calibration standards and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. Worldwide there are very few independent bodies that produce certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for phycotoxins, the main producers currently being the National Research Council Canada and the Japanese Food Research Laboratory. Limited availability of contaminated shellfish and algae, as well as the time and knowledge necessary for the production of adequate <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, continuously lead to limited editions of certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and even more limited production of in-house <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. The restricted availability of in-house quality control materials promotes the rapid use of the limited certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, which in turn hampers the production of the suite of materials required globally for complete protection of public health. This paper outlines the various options that analysts can pursue in the use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for <span class="hlt">internal</span> and external quality control, with a view to optimising the efforts of both <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials users and <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials producers. For this purpose, the logical sequence is reviewed from the discovery of a new bioactive compound in shellfish, through initial method development up to regulation for food safety purposes including accepted <span class="hlt">reference</span> methods. Subsequently, the requirements for and efforts typically spent in the production and characterisation of laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and other test materials used in inter-laboratory studies or proficiency testing, in the area of marine biotoxins are evaluated. Particular emphasis is put on practical advice for the preparation of in-house <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. The intricate link between <span class="hlt">reference</span> material characterisation and method performance is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.6109A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.6109A"><span>ITRF2014: A new release of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame modeling nonlinear station motions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Métivier, Laurent; Collilieux, Xavier</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>For the first time in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ITRF) history, the ITRF2014 is generated with an enhanced modeling of nonlinear station motions, including seasonal (annual and semiannual) signals of station positions and postseismic deformation for sites that were subject to major earthquakes. Using the full observation history of the four space geodetic techniques (very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS)), the corresponding <span class="hlt">international</span> services provided reprocessed time series (weekly from SLR and DORIS, daily from GNSS, and 24 h session-wise from VLBI) of station positions and daily Earth Orientation Parameters. ITRF2014 is demonstrated to be superior to past ITRF releases, as it precisely models the actual station trajectories leading to a more robust secular frame and site velocities. The ITRF2014 long-term origin coincides with the Earth system center of mass as sensed by SLR observations collected on the two LAGEOS satellites over the time span between 1993.0 and 2015.0. The estimated accuracy of the ITRF2014 origin, as reflected by the level of agreement with the ITRF2008 (both origins are defined by SLR), is at the level of less than 3 mm at epoch 2010.0 and less than 0.2 mm/yr in time evolution. The ITRF2014 scale is defined by the arithmetic average of the implicit scales of SLR and VLBI solutions as obtained by the stacking of their respective time series. The resulting scale and scale rate differences between the two solutions are 1.37 (±0.10) ppb at epoch 2010.0 and 0.02 (±0.02) ppb/yr. While the postseismic deformation models were estimated using GNSS/GPS data, the resulting parametric models at earthquake colocation sites were applied to the station position time series of the three other techniques, showing a very high level of consistency which enforces more the link</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080511"><span>Quantitative 2D HSQC NMR determination of polymer structures by selecting suitable <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard <span class="hlt">references</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Liming; Gellerstedt, Göran</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A new analytical method based on the 2D HSQC NMR sequence is presented, which can be applied for quantitative structural determination of complicated polymers. The influence of T1 and T2 relaxations, off-resonance effects, coupling constants and homonuclear couplings are discussed. It was found that the T2 values measured on polymeric samples with the conventional HSQC-CPMG sequence could not be used to correct the errors caused by T2 relaxations during the polarization transfer delay. A unique way of selecting the proper <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> signal(s) is therefore proposed to eliminate the major errors caused by T2 relaxations, resonance offsets, coupling constant deviations and homonuclear couplings. Two polymer samples, a cellulose triacetate and an acetylated lignin, have been used to illustrate the principles. The methodology developed in this work is robust to instrument miss-setting and it can find wide-spread applications in areas where a quantitative analysis of structurally complicated polymers is necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.129..111Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.129..111Z"><span>F region electron density profile inversion from backscatter ionogram based on <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Peng; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Yuannong; Yang, Guobin; Jiang, Chunhua; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Ionospheric backscatter sounding transmits HF (3-30 MHz) radio wave obliquely into ionosphere and receives echoes backscattered from remote ground. Due to the focusing effect, the echoes form leading edge on the swept frequency backscatter ionogram (BSI). This kind of backscatter ionogram contains plentiful ionospheric information, such as electron density, radio wave propagation modes and maximum usage frequency (MUF). By inversion algorithm, the backscatter ionogram can provide two-dimensional electron density profile (EDP) down range. In this paper, we propose an ionospheric F2 region EDP inversion algorithm. By utilizing the F2 bottomside electron density profile represented by the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) model and ray tracing techniques, this approach inverts the leading edge of the backscatter ionogram to two dimensional F region EDP. Results of validation experiments demonstrate that the inverted ionospheric EDPs show good agreement with the results of vertical ionosonde and provide reliable information of ionosphere. Thus the proposed inversion algorithm provide an effective and accurate method for achieving large scale and remote ionospheric electron density structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22325125J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22325125J"><span>The ICRF3 Roadmap to the next generation <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Christopher S.; Arias, F.; Boboltz, D.; Boehm, J.; Bolotin, S.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; de Witt, A.; Fey, A.; Gaume, R.; Gordon, D.; Heinkelmann, R.; Lambert, S.; Ma, C.; Malkin, Z.; Nothnagel, A.; Seitz, M.; Skurikhina, E.; Souchay, J.; Titov, O.; ICRF-3 working Group</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We propose a 3rd generation radio-based <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF-3) to improve upon the highly successful ICRF-2. Our goals are to improve the precision, spatial and frequency coverages relative to the ICRF-2 by 2018. This date is driven by the desire to create radio frames early enough to test the Gaia optical frame during its construction. Several specific actions are underway. A collaboration has been started to improve S/X-band precision of the 2000+ VLBA Calibrator Survey sources which are typically 5 times less precise than the rest of the ICRF-2. S/X-band southern precision improvements are planned from observations with southern antennas such as the AuScope and HartRAO, S. Africa. We seek to improve radio frequency coverage with X/Ka and K- band work. An X/Ka frame of 631 sources now has full sky coverage from the addition of a 2nd southern station in Argentina which should strengthen the southern hemisphere in general. A K-band collaboration has formed with similar coverage and southern precision goals. On the analysis front, special attention will be given to combination techniques both of VLBI catalogs and of multiple data types (e.g. VLBI+GPS). Finally, work is underway to identify and pinpoint sources bright enough in both radio and optical to allow for a robust frame tie between VLBI and Gaia optical frames.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013jsrs.confE...1J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013jsrs.confE...1J"><span>The ICRF-3: Proposed Roadmap to the Next Generation <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Christopher S.; Arias, F.; Boboltz, D.; Boehm, J.; Bolotin, S.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; de Witt, A.; Fey, A.; Gaume, R.; Gordon, D.; Heinkelmann, R.; Lambert, S.; Ma, C.; Malkin, Z.; Nothnagel, A.; Seitz, M.; Skurikhina, E.; Souchay, J.; Titov, O.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We propose a 3rd generation radio-based <span class="hlt">International</span> Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ICRF- 3) to improve upon the highly successful ICRF-2. Our goals are to improve the precision, spatial and frequency coverages relative to the ICRF-2 by 2018. This date is driven by the desire to create radio frames early enough to test the Gaia optical frame during its construction. Several specific actions are underway. A collaboration has been started to improve S/X-band precision of the 2000+ VLBA Calibrator Survey sources which are typically 5 times less precise than the rest of the ICRF-2. S/X-band southern precision improvements are planned from observations with southern antennas such as the AuScope and HartRAO, S. Africa. We seek to improve radio frequency coverage with X/Ka and K- band work. An X/Ka frame of 631 sources now has full sky coverage from the addition of a 2nd southern station in Argentina which should strengthen the southern hemisphere in general. A K-band collaboration has formed with similar coverage and southern precision goals. On the analysis front, special attention will be given to combination techniques both of VLBI catalogs and of multiple data types (e.g. VLBI+GPS). Finally, work is underway to identify and pinpoint sources bright enough in both radio and optical to allow for a robust frame tie between VLBI and Gaia optical frames.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27396652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27396652"><span>Absolute Quantification of Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins by Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Using Removable <span class="hlt">Internal</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Substance with SI Traceability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kato, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Maki; Nagae, Mika; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Tomoji; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Inagaki, Minoru</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Okadaic acid (OA), a lipophilic shellfish toxin, was accurately quantified using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance with <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards for the development of an authentic <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard. Pyridine and the residual proton in methanol-d4 were used as removable <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards to limit any contamination. They were calibrated based on a maleic acid certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> material. Thus, the concentration of OA was traceable to the SI units through accurate quantitative NMR with an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance. Signals from the protons on the oxygenated and unsaturated carbons of OA were used for quantification. A reasonable accuracy was obtained by integrating between the lower and upper (13)C satellite signal range when more than 4 mg of OA was used. The best-determined purity was 97.4% (0.16% RSD) when 20 mg of OA was used. Dinophysistoxin-1, a methylated analog of OA having an almost identical spectrum, was also quantified by using the same methodology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NCimC..11..353M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NCimC..11..353M"><span>Solar, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and seismic activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazzarella, A.; Palumbo, A.</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>An 11-yr modulation of large Italian earthquakes has been successfully identified and found to be positively linked to sunspot activity. The seismic activity appears to be modulated by the 11-yr sunspot cycle through the coherent variation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. It is proposed that the two phenomena are linked by the influence of a magnetostriction process on stresses in the crust. An implication of this model is that <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms may directly trigger large earthquakes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP23A1279H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP23A1279H"><span>Correlation Based <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holschneider, M.; Mauerberger, S.; Lesur, V.; Baerenzung, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a new method for determining <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models. It is based on the construction of an a priori correlation structure derived from our knowledge about characteristic length scales and sources of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. The magnetic field measurements are then seen as correlated random variables too and the inversion process amounts to compute the a posteriori correlation structure using Bayes theorem. We show how this technique allows the statistical separation of the various field contributions and the assessment of their uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16526406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16526406"><span>Comparison of in vitro and in vivo <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for <span class="hlt">internal</span> standardization of real-time PCR data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilsbach, Ralf; Kouta, Mina; Bönisch, Heinz; Brüss, Michael</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Real-time PCR is a powerful technique for gene expression studies, which have become increasingly important in a large number of clinical and scientific fields. The significance of the obtained results strongly depends on the normalization of the data to compensate for differences between the samples. The most widely used approach is to use endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes (housekeeping genes) as <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards. This approach is controversially discussed in the literature because none of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes is stably expressed throughout all biological samples. Therefore, candidate <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes have to be validated for each experimental condition. In our studies, we introduced and evaluated an in vitro synthesized <span class="hlt">reference</span> cRNA for <span class="hlt">internal</span> standardization of relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns. This <span class="hlt">reference</span>, consisting of the in vitro transcribed coding sequence of aequorin, a jellyfish protein, was incorporated in the extracted RNA. The experimental significance of this approach was representatively tested for the expression of the neurotrophin-3 mRNA in distinct regions of mouse brains. A comparison to three stably expressed <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes [beta-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1)] gave evidence that the spiking of template RNA with in vitro transcribed cRNA is a valuable tool for <span class="hlt">internal</span> standardization of real-time PCR experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26088387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26088387"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Values for Bone Speed of Sound in Pediatric Populations: Meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rivas-Ruiz, R; Méndez-Sánchez, L; Castelán-Martínez, O D; Clark, P; Tamayo, J; Talavera, J O; Huitrón, G; Salmerón-Castro, J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to compare <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (RV) for tibial and radial speed of sound (SoS) assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in pediatric populations. These values were compared by age and country of origin in a systematic review with meta-analysis from studies published on QUS (Sunlight Omnisense). A search was carried out in electronic databases. Nine studies with 6963 patients were included in the meta-analysis. For the newborn populations, 3 studies (from Italy, Portugal, and Israel) were used. These studies included subjects with 27-42 wk gestational age. The mean difference (Portugal-Israel) was found to be 23.62 m/s [95% confidence interval [CI] 6.29, 40.95]. Additionally, no difference was found between Italy-Portugal (p = 0.69), or Italy-Israel (p = 0.28). In pediatric populations, we compared 8 studies from Canada, Mexico, Israel, Greece, Portugal, and Turkey. No significant differences found for SoS RV between Israel-Turkey, Israel-Greece, or Israel-Canada (p > 0.05). Significant differences were found in Mexico-Israel -105.29 m/s (95% CI -140.05, -70.54) (p < 0.001); Mexico-Portugal -115.14 m/s (95% CI -164.86, -65.42) (p < 0.001); Mexico-Greece: -239.14 m/s (95% CI -267.67, -210.62) (p < 0.001); Mexico-Turkey: -115.14 m/s (95% CI -164.86, -65.42) (p < 0.001); Mexico-Canada: -113.51 m/s (95% CI -140.25, -86.77) (p < 0.001).This study demonstrates that there are differences in SoS-RV obtained by tibial and radial QUS in pediatric populations between Mexico and other countries (Israel, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, and Canada). Copyright © 2016 The <span class="hlt">International</span> Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GGG....15.2515P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GGG....15.2515P"><span>Intensity of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in Europe for the last 3 ka: Influence of data quality on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Gómez-Paccard, Miriam; Hervé, Gwenaël.; Osete, María. Luisa; Chauvin, Annick</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>of the main challenges of paleomagnetic research is to obtain high-resolution <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity reconstructions. For the last millennia, these reconstructions are mostly based on archeomagnetic data. However, the quality of the intensity data available in the databases is very variable, and the high scatter observed in the records clearly suggests that some of them might not be reliable. In this work we investigate how the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity reconstructions and, hence, our present knowledge of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in the past, are affected by the quality of the data selected for modeling the Earth's magnetic field. For this purpose we rank the European archeointensity data in four quality categories following widely accepted paleomagnetic criteria based on the methodology used during the laboratory treatment of the samples and on the number of specimens retained to calculate the mean intensities. Four <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field regional models have been implemented by applying the revised spherical cap harmonic analysis to these four groups of input data. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field models strongly depend on the used data set. The model built using all the available data (without any preselection) appears to be the less accurate, indicating some <span class="hlt">internal</span> inconsistencies of the data set. In addition, some features of this model are clearly dominated by the less reliable archeointensity data, suggesting that such features might not reflect real variations of the past <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. On the contrary, the regional model built on selected high-quality intensity data shows a very consistent intensity pattern at the European scale, confirming that the main intensity changes observed in Europe in the recent history of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field occurred at the continental scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4079017','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4079017"><span>Applicability of Two <span class="hlt">International</span> Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Center in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garofallo, Silvia Bueno; Machado, Daniel Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Bordim, Odemir; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Portal, Vera Lúcia</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The applicability of <span class="hlt">international</span> risk scores in heart surgery (HS) is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe. Objective To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients undergoing HS at a <span class="hlt">reference</span> hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP). Methods Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve (AUC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP. Results Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74), and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80). The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99) and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79). Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery. PMID:25004415</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24953631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24953631"><span>The reciprocal <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model using grades and test scores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects on subsequent mathematics and VACH and academic self-concept within domains but have negative effects across domains. The main purpose is to validate the RI/EM and extend it using objective achievement indicators and grades. Two waves of data collection from grade 5 to grade 9 with N = 1,045 secondary school students were used. Test scores, grades, and self-concept data were obtained. The main analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modelling. The positive longitudinal effects of grades and test scores on subsequent grades, test scores and academic self-concept within domains and the negative effects of grades and test scores on subsequent academic self-concept across domains supported the RI/EM. The effects of academic self-concept on subsequent grades and test scores across domains were near zero when prior achievement indicators were controlled for. Overall, the results using school grades as achievement measures were replicated using standardized achievement test scores. The results serve to highlight the importance of the combination of common theories, which are mostly investigated individually, to enhance our understanding of the complexity of within- and across-domain relations between academic self-concepts and achievement using grades as well as test scores. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HGSS....1...77S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010HGSS....1...77S"><span>Georg von Neumayer and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schröder, W.; Wiederkehr, K.-H.; Schlegel, K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Neumayer was a prominent figure in the development of geophysics in the 19th century from a scientific as well as from an organisational point of view. In this paper we review and highlight his activities and efforts in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research within five different aspects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>: regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> surveys, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> work in German naval observatories, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> investigations during the First Polar Year 1882/83, modifications of the Gaussian theory, and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> charts. In each field Neumayer was a researcher, a thinker, and a stimulating coordinator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002RvGeo..40.1007S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002RvGeo..40.1007S"><span>a Millennium of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stern, David P.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>The history of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> began around the year 1000 with the discovery in China of the magnetic compass. Methodical studies of the Earth's field started in 1600 with William Gilbert's De Magnete [Gilbert, 1600] and continued with the work of (among others) Edmond Halley, Charles Augustin de Coulomb, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Edward Sabine. The discovery of electromagnetism by Hans Christian Oersted and André-Marie Ampére led Michael Faraday to the notion of fluid dynamos, and the observation of sunspot magnetism by George Ellery Hale led Sir Joseph Larmor in 1919 to the idea that such dynamos could sustain themselves naturally in convecting conducting fluids. From that came modern dynamo theory, of both the solar and terrestrial magnetic fields. Paleomagnetic studies revealed that the Earth's dipole had undergone reversals in the distant past, and these became the critical evidence in establishing plate tectonics. Finally, the recent availability of scientific spacecraft has demonstrated the intricacy of the Earth's distant magnetic field, as well as the existence of magnetic fields associated with other planets and with satellites in our solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NeuL..400..197D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006NeuL..400..197D"><span>Simulation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field experienced by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station in its revolution around the Earth: Effects on psychophysiological responses to affective picture viewing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Del Seppia, C.; Mezzasalma, L.; Messerotti, M.; Cordelli, A.; Ghione, S.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F|2,36 = 22.927; p = 0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16529860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16529860"><span>Simulation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field experienced by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station in its revolution around the Earth: effects on psychophysiological responses to affective picture viewing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Del Seppia, Cristina; Mezzasalma, Lorena; Messerotti, Mauro; Cordelli, Alessandro; Ghione, Sergio</p> <p>2006-06-12</p> <p>There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F(2,36)=22.927; p=0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED423772.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED423772.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> in the Self-Concept Development of Higher Education Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Lau, Ivy Cheuk-yin</p> <p></p> <p>This study examined the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external (I/E) frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model of self-concept (Marsh, 1986) with higher education students in Hong Kong (n=274). Structural equation models relating English and math achievement (both requirements for university entrance) to English and math self-concepts replicated the I/E model in that paths leading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22References+to%22+AND+Physics&pg=2&id=EJ781905','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22References+to%22+AND+Physics&pg=2&id=EJ781905"><span>An Extension to the <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model to Two Verbal and Numerical Domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moller, Jens; Streblow, Lilian; Pohlmann, Britta; Koller, Olaf</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Beside interindividual social comparisons, intraindividual dimensional comparisons in which students compare their achievements in one subject with their achievements in other subjects have an impact on their academic self-concepts. The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> (I/E) model by Marsh (1986) assumes that dimensional comparisons lead to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ789056','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ789056"><span>The <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model Revisited: Incorporating General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brunner, Martin; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986) is a highly influential model of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E model do not typically incorporate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012855','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012855"><span>MoSST DAS: The First Working <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Data Assimilation System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuang, Weijia; Wei, Zigang; Tangborn, Andrew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Earth possesses an <span class="hlt">internal</span> magnetic field (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field) generated by convection in the outer core (geodynamo). Previous efforts have been focused along two distinct paths: (1) numerical geodynamo modeling to understand the origin of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, and the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variations (SV); and (2) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling to map the spatial/temporal variations of the field from <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data, and to derive core properties, e.g. inversion of core flow near the core-mantle boundary (CMB). <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> data assimilation is a new approach emerged over the past 5 years: surface observations are assimilated with geodynamo models for better understanding of the core dynamical state, and accurately prediction of SV. In collaboration with several <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research groups, we have developed the first working <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation system, Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent, and Three-dimensional (MoSST) DAS, that includes the MoSST numerical dynamo model; 7000 years of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field maps from several field models utilizing satellite and ground observatory data, historical magnetic records and archeo/paleo magnetic data; and an ensemble based optimal interpolation (01) assimilation algorithm. With this system, we have demonstrated clearly that the assimilated core dynamical state is substantially different from those of pure geodynamo simulations. Ensemble assimilation runs also show the convergence of the assimilated solutions inside the core, suggesting that the simulation state is pulled closer to the truth via data assimilation. The forecasts from this system are also very accurate: the 5-year forecast of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field agrees very well with the observations; and the 5-year secular variation forecast is more accurate than the IGRF SV forecast models in the past. Using <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> records up to 2009, we have made an SV forecast for the period from 2010-2015, and is a candidate SV model for IGRF-11.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI51B2625I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI51B2625I"><span>Total <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Survey on Suruga Bay, on the Pacific cost, Shizuoka, Japan, the second series report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ichinose, S.; Baba, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In 2009 to 2014, total <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and geological surveys by School of Marine Science & Technology, Tokai University, were conducted on Suruga Bay, located on the Pacific coast of Honshu in Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, where a large thrust earthquake, often <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the Tokai earthquake, has been supposed to occur soon (Ishibashi, 1981). Suruga Bay area, where the Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath Japan, had some local magnetic anomalies on the overriding plate side. The past investigation of ship-borne survey conducted in Suruga Bay area is <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly data of the Hydrographic Department of the Maritime Safety Agency in 1997. Detailed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> surveys carried out in the Suruga Bay area, is 50 km x 35km in S-N and W-E, respectively. Total <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly values range from +100nT to +600nT. In this report, we carried out newly <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> survey lines which costal region on Suruga Bay. The following results were found. (1) The costal region of Izu Peninsula in Northern part of Izu-Ogasawara arc is indicated high <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly. This cause is regarded as something to come near to some volcanos. (2) And costal region of the Fujigawa fault system in the Sourath Fossa Magna region is indicated high <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly. We present features of total <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomalies on and around Suruga Bay with the results of inversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...23K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPS....3...23K"><span>Extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We propose an emergency alert framework for <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746667"><span>Molecular self-assembly of two-terminal, voltammetric microsensors with <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">references</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hickman, J J; Ofer, D; Laibinis, P E; Whitesides, G M; Wrighton, M S</p> <p>1991-05-03</p> <p>Self-assembly of a ferrocenyl thiol and a quinone thiol onto Au microelectrodes forms the basis for a new microsensor concept: a two-terminal, voltammetric microsensor with <span class="hlt">reference</span> and sensor functions on the same electrode. The detection is based on measurement of the potential difference of current peaks for oxidation and reduction of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> (ferrocene) and indicator (quinone) in aqueous electrolyte in a two-terminal, linear sweep voltammogram in which a counterelectrode of relatively large surface area is used. The quinone has a half-wave potential, E((1/2)), that is pH-sensitive and can be used as a pH indicator; the ferrocene center has an E(1/2) that is a pH-insensitive <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The key advantages are that such sensors require no separate <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode and function as long as current peaks can be located for <span class="hlt">reference</span> and indicator molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Sci...252..688H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Sci...252..688H"><span>Molecular Self-Assembly of Two-Terminal, Voltammetric Microsensors with <span class="hlt">Internal</span> <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hickman, James J.; Ofer, David; Laibinis, Paul E.; Whitesides, George M.; Wrighton, Mark S.</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Self-assembly of a ferrocenyl thiol and a quinone thiol onto Au microelectrodes forms the basis for a new microsensor concept: a two-terminal, voltammetric microsensor with <span class="hlt">reference</span> and sensor functions on the same electrode. The detection is based on measurement of the potential difference of current peaks for oxidation and reduction of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> (ferrocene) and indicator (quinone) in aqueous electrolyte in a two-terminal, linear sweep voltammogram in which a counterelectrode of relatively large surface area is used. The quinone has a half-wave potential, E1/2, that is pH-sensitive and can be used as a pH indicator; the ferrocene center has an E1/2 that is a pH-insensitive <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The key advantages are that such sensors require no separate <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode and function as long as current peaks can be located for <span class="hlt">reference</span> and indicator molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25.1011J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25.1011J"><span>Persistently anomalous Pacific <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Catherine L.; Constable, Catherine G.</p> <p></p> <p>A new average <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model for the past 3kyr (ALS3K) helps bridge a large temporal sampling gap between historical models and more traditional paleomagnetic studies spanning the last 5 Myr. A quasi-static feature seen historically in the central Pacific has the opposite sign in ALS3K; its structure is similar to, but of larger amplitude than, that in the time-averaged <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field for the last 5 Myr. Anomalous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields exist beneath the Pacific over timescales ranging from 10²-106 years. It is unlikely that bias over such long time scales arises from electromagnetic screening, but conceivable that the Lorentz force is influenced by long wavelength thermal variations and/or localized regions of increased electrical conductivity (associated with compositional anomalies and possibly partial melt). This is consistent with recent seismic observations of the lower mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950029538&hterms=geomagnetic+storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgeomagnetic%2Bstorm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950029538&hterms=geomagnetic+storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgeomagnetic%2Bstorm"><span>What is a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, W. D.; Joselyn, J. A.; Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H. W.; Rostoker, G.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Vasyliunas, V. M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>After a brief review of magnetospheric and interplanetary phenomena for intervals with enhanced solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, an attempt is made to define a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm as an interval of time when a sufficiently intense and long-lasting interplanetary convection electric field leads, through a substantial energization in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, to an intensified ring current sufficiently strong to exceed some key threshold of the quantifying storm time Dst index. The associated storm/substorm relationship problem is also reviewed. Although the physics of this relationship does not seem to be fully understood at this time, basic and fairly well established mechanisms of this relationship are presented and discussed. Finally, toward the advancement of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm research, some recommendations are given concerning future improvements in monitoring existing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices as well as the solar wind near Earth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8933910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8933910"><span>The relationship between anthropometric indices derived from the CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macfarlane, S B</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the relationship between the standard deviation scores of weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) calculated using the CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The pattern of WHZ with age is explored for CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> children following set paths for WAZ and HAZ, and the nature of the regression of WAZ on HAZ and WHZ is examined for the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data (1988). <span class="hlt">Reference</span> children with heights and weights at the lower end of the range for their population showed discrepancies in their WHZ indices. A marked discontinuity between 23 and 24 months reflected the junction between the two data sets from which the CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> was derived. There was also clear curvature in the values for WHZ between 3 and 23 months, particularly apparent for children with weights and heights well below the <span class="hlt">reference</span> median. While the regression equation for the Ghanaian data was similar to that already described by Keller in 1983, marked curvature was observed in the residual plot for children under 2 years. Consistency with age is a prerequisite for a weight-for-height index. The peculiarities of this index as based on the CDC/WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> undermine the validity of its use in measuring malnutrition among young children in developing countries. It is suggested that serious consideration is given to the use of an alternative index of wasting and to the development of alternative <span class="hlt">reference</span> figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150020858','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150020858"><span>Solar Influences on <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> and Related Phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vestine, E. H.</p> <p>1961-01-01</p> <p>A discussion of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> effects of streams of electromagnetic and particular radiation from the sun. The interplay of forces between the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and solar streams is outlined; and the theoretical relationship between these, the solar storms, the trapped Van Allen radiations, the polar aurora, and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field distortion are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PCE....23..703L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PCE....23..703L"><span>Keith's early work in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lowes, F. J.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes how Runcorn was started on his geophysical career by a chance combination of circumstances, when in 1947 he was given the job of measuring the variation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field with depth inside the Earth, down British coal mines. It then shows how his interest in the semi-conduction of the lower mantle led to attempts to detect DC earth currents, at first again in mines, but later using discarded trans-Pacific telegraph cables. It ends by briefly discussing the “fifth force” measurements he instigated, which, though not a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> problem, had many similarities with the original mine experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730030036&hterms=Mead&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMead%2BG.','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730030036&hterms=Mead&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMead%2BG."><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> response to solar activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mead, G. D.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between solar activity and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations is discussed in the light of spacecraft data obtained during the last decade. The effects of centers of solar activity responsible for producing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on earth are believed to be transmitted through the solar wind, and there is usually a delay of two or three days before the onset of magnetic activity. Attempts to make a one-to-one correspondence between specific solar events and specific magnetic storms, however, are usually unsuccessful, because of the complex and indirect processes linking the two phenomena. Normally, only statistical tendencies can be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/121243','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/121243"><span>What is a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gonzales, W.D.; Joselyn, J.A.; Kamide, Y.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>The authors present a review of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm research. They examine the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. They argue that a storm results from the extended interaction of the solar wind/magnetosphere when a strong convection electric field is generated, which is able to perturb the ring current above some threshold level, triggering the event. They touch on interrelationships of the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere as it bears on this problem, and offer ideas for continuing research directions to address the origin of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036040&hterms=heflin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dheflin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036040&hterms=heflin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dheflin"><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> GPS Service (IGS) as a Continuous <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System for Precise GPS Positioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neilan, Ruth; Heflin, Michael; Watkins, Michael; Zumberge, James</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) is an organization which operates under the auspices of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of Geodesy (IAG) and has been operational since January 1994. The primary objective of the IGS is to provide precise GPS data and data products to support geodetic and geophysical research activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...71a2020S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...71a2020S"><span>Development of discrete choice model considering <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> points and their effects in travel mode choice context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarif; Kurauchi, Shinya; Yoshii, Toshio</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>In the conventional travel behavior models such as logit and probit, decision makers are assumed to conduct the absolute evaluations on the attributes of the choice alternatives. On the other hand, many researchers in cognitive psychology and marketing science have been suggesting that the perceptions of attributes are characterized by the benchmark called “<span class="hlt">reference</span> points” and the relative evaluations based on them are often employed in various choice situations. Therefore, this study developed a travel behavior model based on the mental accounting theory in which the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> points are explicitly considered. A questionnaire survey about the shopping trip to the CBD in Matsuyama city was conducted, and then the roles of <span class="hlt">reference</span> points in travel mode choice contexts were investigated. The result showed that the goodness-of-fit of the developed model was higher than that of the conventional model, indicating that the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> points might play the major roles in the choice of travel mode. Also shown was that the respondents seem to utilize various <span class="hlt">reference</span> points: some tend to adopt the lowest fuel price they have experienced, others employ fare price they feel in perceptions of the travel cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17536156"><span>Collaborative study for the calibration of HCV RNA, HBV DNA and HIV RNA <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations against the relative <span class="hlt">international</span> standards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pisani, Giulio; Marino, Francesco; Cristiano, Karen; Bisso, Guillermo Mario; Mele, Caludio; Luciani, Francesca; Wirz, Maria; Gentili, Giuliano</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We organised a collaborative study to calibrate three new ISS <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations (ISS: Istituto Superiore di Sanità), one for HCV RNA, one for HIV RNA and one for HBV DNA, to be used for nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) in blood testing. Serial dilution of the ISS <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations and the respective <span class="hlt">international</span> standards were tested in different days by each participating laboratory using two commercial NAT assays. Data were collected by the ISS for statistical analysis. Based on the mean potency of the HCV RNA and HIV RNA preparations, calculated from the results provided by the 12 participating laboratories, a definitive concentrations of 5700 IU/mL and 4000 IU/mL, respectively, were assigned to the <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. On the contrary, it was not possible to obtain a consensus titre for the HBV DNA <span class="hlt">reference</span> material. These new Italian <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations (HCV RNA ISS/1005 and HIV RNA ISS/1005) calibrated against the respective <span class="hlt">international</span> standards are available free of charge to any laboratory upon request.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19559895','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19559895"><span>Correction of self-absorption effect in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy by an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Lanxiang; Yu, Haibin</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>A simplified procedure for correcting self-absorption effect was proposed in calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS). In typical LIBS measurement conditions, the plasma produced is often optically thick, especially for the strong lines of major elements. The selection of self-absorption lines destroys the performance of CF-LIBS, and the familiar correction method based on the curve of growth is complex in implementation. The procedure we proposed, named <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> for self-absorption correction (IRSAC), first chose an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> line for each species, then compared other spectral line intensity of the same species with the <span class="hlt">reference</span> line to estimate the self-absorption degrees of other spectral lines, and finally achieved an optimal correction by a regressive algorithm. The self-absorption effect of the selected <span class="hlt">reference</span> line can be ignored, since the <span class="hlt">reference</span> line with high excitation energy of the upper level is slightly affected by the self-absorption. Through the IRSAC method, the points on the Boltzmann plot become more regular, and the evaluations of the plasma temperature and material composition are more accurate than the basic CF-LIBS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7516M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7516M"><span>Cosmic rays flux and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations at midlatitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morozova, Anna; Ribeiro, Paulo; Tragaldabas Collaboration Team</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>It is well known that the cosmic rays flux is modulated by the solar wind and the Earth's magnetic field. The Earth's magnetic field deflects charged particles in accordance with their momentum and the local field strength and direction. The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoffs depend both on the <span class="hlt">internal</span> and the external components of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, therefore reflecting the geodynamo and the solar activity variations. A new generation, high performance, cosmic ray detector Tragaldabas was recently installed at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). The detector has been acquiring test data since September 2013 with a rate of about 80 events/s over a solid angle of ~5 srad. around the vertical direction. To take full advantage of this new facility for the study of cosmic rays arriving to the Earth, an <span class="hlt">international</span> collaboration has been organized, of about 20 researchers from 10 laboratories of 5 European countries. The Magnetic Observatory of Coimbra (Portugal) has been measuring the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field components for almost 150 years since the first measurements in 1866. It is presently equipped with up-to-date instruments. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the global cosmic ray fluxes acquired by the new Tragaldabas detector in relation to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations measured by the Coimbra observatory. We also compare the data from the new cosmic rays detector with results obtained by the Castilla-La Mancha Neutron Monitor (CaLMa, Gadalajara, Spain) that is in operation since October 2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4080M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4080M"><span>First results from the first Croatian <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandic, Igor; Herak, Davorka; Heilig, Balazs</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The first Croatian <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory was established in the area of the Nature Park Lonjsko Polje, after a century of sporadic efforts originating from the proposals of Andrija Mohorovicic. The location was chosen after exhaustive surveys of possible sites. It is located far enough from sources of civilization noise, and was found to be an area without magnetic anomalies and with a low field gradient. The construction of the observatory buildings was completed in the autumn of 2011. The furnishing and installation of instruments and test measurements were completed by the beginning of summer 2012, ever since we have continuous recordings of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> elements. In the beginning of December 2012 the fluxgate magnetometer LEMI-035 (H,D,Z orientation) has been installed under the framework of the PLASMON project in cooperation with the Tihany Observatory (Hungary). Permanent data of high quality from our observatory will contribute to the monitoring of the Earth's magnetic field on the regional and global levels, thus enabling further development of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> in Croatia through collaboration with scientists from the other countries, participation in the <span class="hlt">international</span> projects, eventual membership in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), etc. The field elements for the epoch 2012,75 and the baselines are presented together with highlights of some recorded <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> events so far. Furthermore, the comparison between the variation data recorded by the dIdD and the fluxgate LEMI-035 magnetometer is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3001A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3001A"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> inverse problem and data assimilation: a progress report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubert, Julien; Fournier, Alexandre</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In this presentation I will present two studies recently undertaken by our group in an effort to bring the benefits of data assimilation to the study of Earth's magnetic field and the dynamics of its liquid iron core, where the geodynamo operates. In a first part I will focus on the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> inverse problem, which attempts to recover the fluid flow in the core from the temporal variation of the magnetic field (known as the secular variation). <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> data can be downward continued from the surface of the Earth down to the core-mantle boundary, but not further below, since the core is an electrical conductor. Historically, solutions to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> inverse problem in such a sparsely observed system were thus found only for flow immediately below the core mantle boundary. We have recently shown that combining a numerical model of the geodynamo together with magnetic observations, through the use of Kalman filtering, now allows to present solutions for flow throughout the core. In a second part, I will present synthetic tests of sequential <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation aiming at evaluating the range at which the future of the geodynamo can be predicted, and our corresponding prospects to refine the current <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> predictions. Fournier, Aubert, Thébault: Inference on core surface flow from observations and 3-D dynamo modelling, Geophys. J. Int. 186, 118-136, 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05037.x Aubert, Fournier: Inferring <span class="hlt">internal</span> properties of Earth's core dynamics and their evolution from surface observations and a numerical geodynamo model, Nonlinear Proc. Geoph. 18, 657-674, 2011, doi:10.5194/npg-18-657-2011 Aubert: Flow throughout the Earth's core inverted from <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations and numerical dynamo models, Geophys. J. Int., 2012, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggs051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026773','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026773"><span>Estimating the change in asymptotic direction due to secular changes in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Flueckiger, E. O.; Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; Gentile, L. C.; Bathurat, A. A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The concept of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> optics, as described by the asymptotic directions of approach, is extremely useful in the analysis of cosmic radiation data. However, when changes in cutoff occur as a result of evolution in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, there are corresponding changes in the asymptotic cones of acceptance. A method is introduced of estimating the change in the asymptotic direction of approach for vertically incident cosmic ray particles from a <span class="hlt">reference</span> set of directions at a specific epoch by considering the change in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990032411&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990032411&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span>On <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Paleomagnetism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Voorhies, Coerte V.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A statistical description of Earth's broad scale, core-source magnetic field has been developed and tested. The description features an expected, or mean, spatial magnetic power spectrum that is neither "flat" nor "while" at any depth, but is akin to spectra advanced by Stevenson and McLeod. This multipole spectrum describes the magnetic energy range; it is not steep enough for Gubbins' magnetic dissipation range. Natural variations of core multipole powers about their mean values are to be expected over geologic time and are described via trial probability distribution functions that neither require nor prohibit magnetic isotropy. The description is thus applicable to core-source dipole and low degree non-dipole fields despite axial dipole anisotropy. The description is combined with main field models of modem satellite and surface <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements to make testable predictions of: (1) the radius of Earth's core, (2) mean paleomagnetic field intensity, and (3) the mean rates and durations of both dipole power excursions and durable axial dipole reversals. The predicted core radius is 0.7% above the 3480 km seismologic value. The predicted root mean square paleointensity (35.6 mu T) and mean Virtual Axial Dipole Moment (about 6.2 lx 1022 Am(exp 2)) are within the range of various mean paleointensity estimates. The predicted mean rate of dipole power excursions, as defined by an absolute dipole moment <20% of the 1980 value, is 9.04/Myr and 14% less than obtained by analysis of a 4 Myr paleointensity record. The predicted mean rate of durable axial dipole reversals (2.26/Myr) is 2.3% more than established by the polarity time-scale for the past 84 Myr. The predicted mean duration of axial dipole reversals (5533 yr) is indistinguishable from an observational value. The accuracy of these predictions demonstrates the power and utility of the description, which is thought to merit further development and testing. It is suggested that strong stable stratification</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100025855&hterms=global+strategy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bstrategy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100025855&hterms=global+strategy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bstrategy"><span>An <span class="hlt">International</span> Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100025855&hterms=study+strategies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dstudy%2Bstrategies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100025855&hterms=study+strategies&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dstudy%2Bstrategies"><span>An <span class="hlt">International</span> Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34..887O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34..887O"><span>Can the comprehensive model phase 4 (CM4) predict the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> diurnal field for days away from quiet time?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Onovughe, Elvis</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The most recent comprehensive model (CM4) of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field (Sabaka et al., 2004) has been used in conjunction with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> ground observatory station data to analyse and study the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> diurnal variation field for days away from quiet time and the CM4 prediction for these times. Even though much has been learnt about many components of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, the diurnal variation field behaviour for days away from quiet time (moderately disturbed time) has not been intensively studied. Consequently, we analyse these, and the predictive ability of the CM4 for ground variations, and whether the CM4 prediction of the diurnal variation (whether at quiet time or away from quiet time) is valid outside the period of <span class="hlt">reference</span> that from which the data were used in modelling. In carrying out the study, we compared the observatory station data and the CM4 prediction directly. Using the CM4 code, well-characterised <span class="hlt">internal</span> and magnetospheric components were subtracted from the data, plots and global maps of the residual field generated and then compared with the CM4 to see how well the model performed in predicting the data at moderately disturbed time (Kp ≤ 5). The results show that the CM4 is valid and produces useful predictions outside the period covering the timespan of the model and during moderately disturbed time, despite the lack of active data in the original model dataset. The model predictability of the data increases as we move to higher spherical harmonic degree truncation, as the model-data misfit is reduced, but with increased roughness as a result of small-scale features incorporated. The observed results show that this relationship between the increase in spherical harmonic degree truncation and reduction in misfit can be restricted by data quality or quantity and global coverage or spread.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120..778C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120..778C"><span>Long-duration <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm effects on the D region of the ionosphere: Some case studies using VLF signal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choudhury, Abhijit; De, Barin Kumar; Guha, Anirban; Roy, Rakesh</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>present work investigates the effects of long-duration <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms on VLF signal during ionospheric sunrise time, commonly known as D Layer Preparation Time (DLPT) depth. The VLF signal at 19.8 kHz transmitted from Northwest Cape, Australia, and received at a low-latitude station, Tripura, India, is used for the present analysis. The data for the analysis are selected from November 2008 to October 2011. In the active period of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, the average DLPT depth is found to have a negative correlation coefficient of 0.91 with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Ap index. It is also found that with each 10 unit increase of Ap index, the DLPT depth (the day and night asymmetry level) changes by 1.25 dB. The results are supported with modeled <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) electron density data and DLPT depth at 71 km height for the three positions, namely, receiver position, signal hop position, and the transmitter position along the total Great Circle Path. It is found that the receiver position electron density is the main controlling factor for DLPT depth. The correlation between IRI electron density and DLPT depth increases from -0.13 at transmitter position to -0.33 at the first hop position, to -0.46 at the receiver position, respectively. The percentage change of post storm electron density, at 71 km height, is found to increase by more than 100% at the receiver position. The results are discussed on the basis of the electron density changes over the signal propagation path, mainly caused by the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGP24E..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGP24E..03P"><span>Eliminating large-scale magnetospheric current perturbations from long-term <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pick, L.; Korte, M. C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Magnetospheric currents generate the largest external contribution to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field observed on Earth. Of particular importance is the solar-driven effect of the ring current whose fluctuations overlap with <span class="hlt">internal</span> field secular variation (SV). Recent core field models thus co-estimate this effect but their validity is limited to the last 15 years offering satellite data. We aim at eliminating magnetospheric modulation from the whole <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory record from 1840 onwards in order to obtain clean long-term SV that will enhance core flow and geodynamo studies.The ring current effect takes form of a southward directed external dipole field aligned with the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> main field axis. Commonly the Dst index (Sugiura, 1964) is used to parametrize temporal variations of this dipole term. Because of baseline instabilities, the alternative RC index was derived from hourly means of 21 stations spanning 1997-2013 (Olsen et al., 2014). We follow their methodology based on annual means from a reduced station set spanning 1960-2010. The absolute level of the variation so determined is "hidden" in the static lithospheric offsets taken as quiet-time means. We tackle this issue by subtracting crustal biases independently calculated for each observatory from an inversion of combined Swarm satellite and observatory data.Our index reproduces the original annual RC index variability with a reasonable offset of -10 nT in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> time window 2000-2010. Prior to that it depicts a long-term trend consistent with the external dipole term from COV-OBS (Gillet et al., 2013), being the only long-term field model available for comparison. Sharper variations that are better correlated with the Ap index than the COV-OBS solution lend support to the usefulness of our initial modeling approach. Following a detailed sensitivity study of station choice future work will focus on increasing the resolution from annual to hourly means.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGP51A0940G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGP51A0940G"><span>Climate determinism or <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> determinism?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.; Le Goff, M.; Fluteau, F.; Courtillot, V.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A number of episodes of sharp <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations (in both intensity and direction), lasting on the order of a century, have been identified in archeomagnetic records from Western Eurasia and have been called "archeomagnetic jerks". These seem to correlate well with multi-decadal cooling episodes detected in the North Atlantic Ocean and Western Europe, suggesting a causal link between both phenomena. A possible mechanism could be a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> modulation of the cosmic ray flux that would control the nucleation rate of clouds. We wish to underline the remarkable coincidence between archeomagnetic jerks, cooling events in Western Europe and drought periods in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the northern hemisphere. The latter two can be interpreted in terms of global teleconnections among regional climates. It has been suggested that these climatic variations had caused major changes in the history of ancient civilizations, such as in Mesopotamia, which were critically dependent on water supply and particularly vulnerable to lower rainfall amounts. This is one of the foundations of "climate determinism". Our studies, which suggest a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> origin for at least some of the inferred climatic events, lead us to propose the idea of a "<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> determinism" in the history of humanity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ge%26Ae..56..342S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ge%26Ae..56..342S"><span>Klimovskaya: A new <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soloviev, A. A.; Sidorov, R. V.; Krasnoperov, R. I.; Grudnev, A. A.; Khokhlov, A. V.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In 2011 Geophysical Center RAS (GC RAS) began to deploy the Klimovskaya <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory in the south of Arkhangelsk region on the territory of the Institute of Physiology of Natural Adaptations, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPNA UB RAS). The construction works followed the complex of preparatory measures taken in order to confirm that the observatory can be constructed on this territory and to select the optimal configuration of observatory structures. The observatory equipping stages are described in detail, the technological and design solutions are described, and the first results of the registered data quality control are presented. It has been concluded that Klimovskaya observatory can be included in INTERMAGNET network. The observatory can be used to monitor and estimate <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, because it is located at high latitudes and provides data in a timely manner to the scientific community via the web-site of the Russian-Ukrainian <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Data Center. The role of ground observatories such as Klimovskaya remains critical for long-term observations of secular variation and for complex monitoring of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in combination with low-orbiting satellite data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1033060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1033060"><span>18O-Labeled Proteome <span class="hlt">Reference</span> as Global <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Standards for Targeted Quantification by Selected Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Jong Seo; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Liu, Tao; Robinson, Errol W.; Hossain, Mahmud; Champion, Boyd L.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun</p> <p>2011-10-11</p> <p>Selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) is an emerging technology for high throughput targeted protein quantification and verification in biological and biomarker discovery studies; however, the cost associated with the use of stable isotope labeled synthetic peptides as <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards is prohibitive for quantitatively screening large numbers of candidate proteins as often required in the pre-verification phase of biomarker discovery. Herein we present the proof-of-concept experiments of using an 18O-labeled 'universal' <span class="hlt">reference</span> as comprehensive <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards for quantitative SRM-MS analysis. With an 18O-labeled whole proteome sample as <span class="hlt">reference</span>, every peptide of interest will have its own corresponding heavy isotope labeled <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard, thus providing an ideal approach for quantitative screening of a large number of candidates using SRM-MS. Our results showed that the 18O incorporation efficiency using a recently improved protocol was >99.5% for most peptides investigated, a level comparable to 13C/15N labeled synthetic peptides in terms of heavy isotope incorporation. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantification were further assessed based on known ratios of standard proteins spiked into mouse plasma with an 18O-labeled mouse plasma <span class="hlt">reference</span>. A dynamic range of four orders of magnitude in relative concentration was obtained with high reproducibility (i.e., coefficient of variance <10%) based on the 16O/18O peak area ratios. Absolute and relative quantification of C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen were demonstrated by coupling an 18O-labeled <span class="hlt">reference</span> with standard additions of protein standards. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the use of 18O-labeled <span class="hlt">reference</span> provides a convenient and effective strategy for quantitative SRM screening of large number of candidate proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5206374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5206374"><span>Clinical importance of duodenal recesses with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rana, Kum Kum; Kakar, Arun; Aggarwal, Satish; Aggrawal, Anil; Kakar, Smita; Borkar, Nitinkumar</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The detailed knowledge of the peritoneal recesses has great significance with respect to <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernias. The recesses are usually related to rotation and adhesion of abdominal viscera to the posterior abdominal wall and/or the presence of retroperitoneal vessels which raises the serosal fold. The duodenal recesses are usually related to the 3rd and 4th parts of the duodenum. <span class="hlt">Internal</span> hernias with respect to these recesses are difficult to diagnose clinically and usually noticed at the time of laparotomy. So, the knowledge of these recesses can be valuable to abdominal surgeons. Material and methods The present study was conducted in 100 cases including 10 cadavers, 45 post mortem cases and 45 cases undergoing laparotomy. Results We found superior and inferior duodenal recesses in 28% and 52% respectively, paraduodenal in 12%, mesentericoparietal in 3%, retroduodenal in 2% and duodenojejunal in 18% of cases. Two abnormal duodenojejunal recesses were found, one on the right (instead of the left) of the abdominal aorta, and in the other the opening was directed upwards instead of downwards. The incidence of <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernias was 3%. Conclusions Thus it was observed that there is low incidence of superior and inferior duodenal recesses, and high incidence of paraduodenal recess. The abnormal recesses might be due to malrotation of the gut. In laparotomy cases, the <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernia was noticed when the abdomen was opened for intestinal obstruction. The incidence of <span class="hlt">internal</span> hernia was found to be high. PMID:28144266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28955262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28955262"><span>Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Activity Predicts <span class="hlt">Internalizing</span> and Externalizing Behaviors in Non-<span class="hlt">referred</span> Boys.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wei; Fagan, Shawn E; Gao, Yu</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Atypical respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a biomarker of emotion dysregulation, is associated with both externalizing and <span class="hlt">internalizing</span> behaviors. In addition, social adversity and gender may moderate this association. In this study, we investigated if RSA (both resting RSA and RSA reactivity in an emotion regulation task) predicts externalizing and/or <span class="hlt">internalizing</span> behaviors and the extent to which social adversity moderates this relationship. Two hundred and fifty-three children (at Time 1, mean age = 9.05, SD = 0.60, 48% boys) and their caregivers from the community participated in this study. Resting RSA and RSA reactivity were assessed, and caregivers reported children's externalizing and <span class="hlt">internalizing</span> behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later). We found that lower resting RSA (but not RSA reactivity) at Time 1 was associated with increased externalizing and <span class="hlt">internalizing</span> behaviors at Time 2 in boys, even after controlling for the effects of Time 1 behavioral problems and Time 2 age. Moreover, there was a significant interaction effect between Time 1 resting RSA and social adversity such that lower resting RSA predicted higher externalizing and <span class="hlt">internalizing</span> behaviors in boys only under conditions of high social adversity. Follow-up analyses revealed that these predictive effects were stronger for externalizing behavior than for <span class="hlt">internalizing</span> behavior. No significant effects were found for girls. Our findings provide further evidence that low resting RSA may be a transdiagnostic biomarker of emotion dysregulation and a predisposing risk factor for both types of behavior problems, in particular for boys who grow up in adverse environments. We conclude that biosocial interaction effects and gender differences should be considered when examining the etiological mechanisms of child psychopathology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.887a2010X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.887a2010X"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> matching navigation algorithm based on robust estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Weinan; Huang, Liping; Qu, Zhenshen; Wang, Zhenhuan</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The outliers in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> survey data seriously affect the precision of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> matching navigation and badly disrupt its reliability. A novel algorithm which can eliminate the outliers influence is investigated in this paper. First, the weight function is designed and its principle of the robust estimation is introduced. By combining the relation equation between the matching trajectory and the <span class="hlt">reference</span> trajectory with the Taylor series expansion for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> information, a mathematical expression of the longitude, latitude and heading errors is acquired. The robust target function is obtained by the weight function and the mathematical expression. Then the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> matching problem is converted to the solutions of nonlinear equations. Finally, Newton iteration is applied to implement the novel algorithm. Simulation results show that the matching error of the novel algorithm is decreased to 7.75% compared to the conventional mean square difference (MSD) algorithm, and is decreased to 18.39% to the conventional iterative contour matching algorithm when the outlier is 40nT. Meanwhile, the position error of the novel algorithm is 0.017° while the other two algorithms fail to match when the outlier is 400nT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rem&pg=3&id=EJ947749','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=rem&pg=3&id=EJ947749"><span>The Reciprocal <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model: An Integration of Models of Relations between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moller, Jens; Retelsdorf, Jan; Koller, Olaf; Marsh, Herb W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The reciprocal <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (RI/EM) combines the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model and the reciprocal effects model. The RI/EM predicts positive effects of mathematics and verbal achievement and academic self-concepts (ASC) on subsequent mathematics and verbal achievements and ASCs within domains and negative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fish&pg=3&id=EJ1001855','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fish&pg=3&id=EJ1001855"><span>Differential School Contextual Effects for Math and English: Integrating the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and the <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and the big-fish-little-pond effect are two major models of academic self-concept formation which have considerable theoretical and empirical support. Integrating the domain specific and compensatory processes of the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model with the big-fish-little-pond effect suggests a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internal+AND+waves&pg=2&id=EJ947749','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internal+AND+waves&pg=2&id=EJ947749"><span>The Reciprocal <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model: An Integration of Models of Relations between Academic Achievement and Self-Concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moller, Jens; Retelsdorf, Jan; Koller, Olaf; Marsh, Herb W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The reciprocal <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (RI/EM) combines the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model and the reciprocal effects model. The RI/EM predicts positive effects of mathematics and verbal achievement and academic self-concepts (ASC) on subsequent mathematics and verbal achievements and ASCs within domains and negative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ1001855','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ulrich+AND+model&pg=2&id=EJ1001855"><span>Differential School Contextual Effects for Math and English: Integrating the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and the <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and the big-fish-little-pond effect are two major models of academic self-concept formation which have considerable theoretical and empirical support. Integrating the domain specific and compensatory processes of the <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model with the big-fish-little-pond effect suggests a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED101748.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED101748.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Library Associations. A Selected List of <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cambio, Edward P., Comp.</p> <p></p> <p>Prepared in anticipation of the 40th session of the General Council of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), this bibliography cites materials issued by or under the auspices of the federation and its council, sections, and committees, as well as selected works about IFLA and its various subdivisions. The citations are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED053054.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED053054.pdf"><span>Education for <span class="hlt">International</span> Understanding and Peace, with Special <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Moral and Civic Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).</p> <p></p> <p>This report covers the committee's views and recommendations toward strengthening the contribution of education to <span class="hlt">international</span> understanding and peace. Suggestions are aimed at every level, from Unesco officials, to heads of government, to the individual classroom teacher. The report is divided into several major sections: General Observations,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=composites&pg=3&id=EJ1036081','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=composites&pg=3&id=EJ1036081"><span>Script Concordance Testing in Continuing Professional Development: Local or <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Panels?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pleguezuelos, E. M.; Hornos, E.; Dory, V.; Gagnon, R.; Malagrino, P.; Brailovsky, C. A.; Charlin, B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Context: The PRACTICUM Institute has developed large-scale <span class="hlt">international</span> programs of on-line continuing professional development (CPD) based on self-testing and feedback using the Practicum Script Concordance Test© (PSCT). Aims: To examine the psychometric consequences of pooling the responses of panelists from different countries (composite…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=size+AND+mexico&id=EJ1036081','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=size+AND+mexico&id=EJ1036081"><span>Script Concordance Testing in Continuing Professional Development: Local or <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Panels?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pleguezuelos, E. M.; Hornos, E.; Dory, V.; Gagnon, R.; Malagrino, P.; Brailovsky, C. A.; Charlin, B.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Context: The PRACTICUM Institute has developed large-scale <span class="hlt">international</span> programs of on-line continuing professional development (CPD) based on self-testing and feedback using the Practicum Script Concordance Test© (PSCT). Aims: To examine the psychometric consequences of pooling the responses of panelists from different countries (composite…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cambio&pg=2&id=ED101748','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cambio&pg=2&id=ED101748"><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Library Associations. A Selected List of <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cambio, Edward P., Comp.</p> <p></p> <p>Prepared in anticipation of the 40th session of the General Council of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), this bibliography cites materials issued by or under the auspices of the federation and its council, sections, and committees, as well as selected works about IFLA and its various subdivisions. The citations are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5240017','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5240017"><span>Development and evaluation of a secondary <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel for BCR-ABL1 quantification on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cross, N C P; White, H E; Ernst, T; Welden, L; Dietz, C; Saglio, G; Mahon, F-X; Wong, C C; Zheng, D; Wong, S; Wang, S-S; Akiki, S; Albano, F; Andrikovics, H; Anwar, J; Balatzenko, G; Bendit, I; Beveridge, J; Boeckx, N; Cerveira, N; Cheng, S-M; Colomer, D; Czurda, S; Daraio, F; Dulucq, S; Eggen, L; El Housni, H; Gerrard, G; Gniot, M; Izzo, B; Jacquin, D; Janssen, J J W M; Jeromin, S; Jurcek, T; Kim, D-W; Machova-Polakova, K; Martinez-Lopez, J; McBean, M; Mesanovic, S; Mitterbauer-Hohendanner, G; Mobtaker, H; Mozziconacci, M-J; Pajič, T; Pallisgaard, N; Panagiotidis, P; Press, R D; Qin, Y-Z; Radich, J; Sacha, T; Touloumenidou, T; Waits, P; Wilkinson, E; Zadro, R; Müller, M C; Hochhaus, A; Branford, S</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Molecular monitoring of chronic myeloid leukemia patients using robust BCR-ABL1 tests standardized to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Scale (IS) is key to proper disease management, especially when treatment cessation is considered. Most laboratories currently use a time-consuming sample exchange process with <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories for IS calibration. A World Health Organization (WHO) BCR-ABL1 <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel was developed (MR1–MR4), but access to the material is limited. In this study, we describe the development of the first cell-based secondary <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel that is traceable to and faithfully replicates the WHO panel, with an additional MR4.5 level. The secondary panel was calibrated to IS using digital PCR with ABL1, BCR and GUSB as <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and evaluated by 44 laboratories worldwide. Interestingly, we found that >40% of BCR-ABL1 assays showed signs of inadequate optimization such as poor linearity and suboptimal PCR efficiency. Nonetheless, when optimized sample inputs were used, >60% demonstrated satisfactory IS accuracy, precision and/or MR4.5 sensitivity, and 58% obtained IS conversion factors from the secondary <span class="hlt">reference</span> concordant with their current values. Correlation analysis indicated no significant alterations in %BCR-ABL1 results caused by different assay configurations. More assays achieved good precision and/or sensitivity than IS accuracy, indicating the need for better IS calibration mechanisms. PMID:27109508</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSWSC...6A..37E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSWSC...6A..37E"><span>Effects of substorm electrojet on declination along concurrent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitudes in the northern auroral zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edvardsen, Inge; Johnsen, Magnar G.; Løvhaug, Unni P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field often experiences large fluctuations, especially at high latitudes in the auroral zones. We have found, using simulations, that there are significant differences in the substorm signature, in certain coordinate systems, as a function of longitude. This is confirmed by the analysis of real, measured data from comparable locations. Large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fluctuations pose challenges for companies involved in resource exploitation since the Earth's magnetic field is used as the <span class="hlt">reference</span> when navigating drilling equipment. It is widely known that <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity increases with increasing latitude and that the largest fluctuations are caused by substorms. In the auroral zones, substorms are common phenomena, occurring almost every night. In principle, the magnitude of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances from two identical substorms along concurrent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitudes around the globe, at different local times, will be the same. However, the signature of a substorm will change as a function of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> longitude due to varying declination, dipole declination, and horizontal magnetic field along constant <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitudes. To investigate and quantify this, we applied a simple substorm current wedge model in combination with a dipole representation of the Earth's magnetic field to simulate magnetic substorms of different morphologies and local times. The results of these simulations were compared to statistical data from observatories and are discussed in the context of resource exploitation in the Arctic. We also attempt to determine and quantify areas in the auroral zone where there is a potential for increased space weather challenges compared to other areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8149615"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardization project for measurements of apolipoproteins A-I and B. IV. Comparability of apolipoprotein B values by use of <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marcovina, S M; Albers, J J; Kennedy, H; Mei, J V; Henderson, L O; Hannon, W H</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>We performed temporal and thermal stability studies on SP3-07, a liquid-stabilized <span class="hlt">reference</span> material for apolipoprotein (apo) B, selected during the previous phase of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Clinical Chemistry project on standardization of apolipoprotein measurements. Results indicate that SP3-07 stored at -70 degrees C has the long-term stability required for a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material. We assigned an accuracy-based apo B value of 1.22 g/L to SP3-07, using a nephelometric method that was calibrated with freshly isolated low-density lipoprotein for which the apo B mass value was determined by a standardized sodium dodecyl sulfate-Lowry procedure. Using a common protocol, the study participants transferred the assigned mass value from SP3-07 to the individual calibrators of the analytical systems and measured the apo B concentration of 20 fresh-frozen samples obtained from individual donors and covering a clinically relevant range of apo B values. The among-laboratory CV on these samples, analyzed by 25 analytical systems, ranged from 3.1% to 6.7%. These results demonstrate the lack of matrix effects of SP3-07 and its ability to provide accurate and comparable apo B values in a variety of immunochemical methods. On the basis of the outcome of these studies, the World Health Organization has endorsed SP3-07 as the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material for Apolipoprotein B.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988777"><span>18O-labeled proteome <span class="hlt">reference</span> as global <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards for targeted quantification by selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Jong-Seo; Fillmore, Thomas L; Liu, Tao; Robinson, Errol; Hossain, Mahmud; Champion, Boyd L; Moore, Ronald J; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-MS is an emerging technology for high throughput targeted protein quantification and verification in biomarker discovery studies; however, the cost associated with the application of stable isotope-labeled synthetic peptides as <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards can be prohibitive for screening a large number of candidate proteins as often required in the preverification phase of discovery studies. Herein we present a proof of concept study using an (18)O-labeled proteome <span class="hlt">reference</span> as global <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards (GIS) for SRM-based relative quantification. The (18)O-labeled proteome <span class="hlt">reference</span> (or GIS) can be readily prepared and contains a heavy isotope ((18)O)-labeled <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard for every possible tryptic peptide. Our results showed that the percentage of heavy isotope ((18)O) incorporation applying an improved protocol was >99.5% for most peptides investigated. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantification were further assessed based on known ratios of standard proteins spiked into the labeled mouse plasma <span class="hlt">reference</span>. Reliable quantification was observed with high reproducibility (i.e. coefficient of variance <10%) for analyte concentrations that were set at 100-fold higher or lower than those of the GIS based on the light ((16)O)/heavy ((18)O) peak area ratios. The utility of (18)O-labeled GIS was further illustrated by accurate relative quantification of 45 major human plasma proteins. Moreover, quantification of the concentrations of C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen was illustrated by coupling the GIS with standard additions of purified protein standards. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the use of (18)O-labeled proteome <span class="hlt">reference</span> as GIS provides a convenient, low cost, and effective strategy for relative quantification of a large number of candidate proteins in biological or clinical samples using SRM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3237067','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3237067"><span>18O-Labeled Proteome <span class="hlt">Reference</span> as Global <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Standards for Targeted Quantification by Selected Reaction Monitoring-Mass Spectrometry*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Jong-Seo; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Liu, Tao; Robinson, Errol; Hossain, Mahmud; Champion, Boyd L.; Moore, Ronald J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-MS is an emerging technology for high throughput targeted protein quantification and verification in biomarker discovery studies; however, the cost associated with the application of stable isotope-labeled synthetic peptides as <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards can be prohibitive for screening a large number of candidate proteins as often required in the preverification phase of discovery studies. Herein we present a proof of concept study using an 18O-labeled proteome <span class="hlt">reference</span> as global <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards (GIS) for SRM-based relative quantification. The 18O-labeled proteome <span class="hlt">reference</span> (or GIS) can be readily prepared and contains a heavy isotope (18O)-labeled <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard for every possible tryptic peptide. Our results showed that the percentage of heavy isotope (18O) incorporation applying an improved protocol was >99.5% for most peptides investigated. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantification were further assessed based on known ratios of standard proteins spiked into the labeled mouse plasma <span class="hlt">reference</span>. Reliable quantification was observed with high reproducibility (i.e. coefficient of variance <10%) for analyte concentrations that were set at 100-fold higher or lower than those of the GIS based on the light (16O)/heavy (18O) peak area ratios. The utility of 18O-labeled GIS was further illustrated by accurate relative quantification of 45 major human plasma proteins. Moreover, quantification of the concentrations of C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen was illustrated by coupling the GIS with standard additions of purified protein standards. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the use of 18O-labeled proteome <span class="hlt">reference</span> as GIS provides a convenient, low cost, and effective strategy for relative quantification of a large number of candidate proteins in biological or clinical samples using SRM. PMID:21988777</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750017288','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750017288"><span>Interplanetary field and plasma during initial phase of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Patel, V. L.; Wiskerchen, M. J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Twenty-three <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm events during 1966 to 1970 were studied by using simultaneous interplanetary magnetic field and plasma parameters. Explorer 33 and 35 field and plasma data were analyzed on large-scale (hourly) and small-scale (3 min.) during the time interval coincident with the initial phase of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. The solar-ecliptic Bz component turns southward at the end of the initial phase, thus triggering the main phase decrease in Dst <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. The By component also shows large fluctuations along with Bz. When there are no clear changes in the Bz component, the By shows abrupt changes at the main phase onset. On the small-scale, behavior of the magnetic field and electric field were studied in detail for the three events; it is found that the field fluctuations in By, Bz and Ey and Ez are present in the initial phase. In the large-scale, the behavior field remains quiet because the small-scale variations are averaged out. It appears that large as well as small time scale fluctuations in the interplanetary field and plasma help to alter the <span class="hlt">internal</span> electromagnetic state of the magnetosphere so that a ring current could causing a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm decrease.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810230P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810230P"><span>The risk characteristics of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Podolska, Katerina</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The main aim of this contribution is a deeper analysis of the influence of solar activity which is expected to have an impact on human health, and therefore on mortality, in particular civilization and degenerative diseases. We have constructed the characteristics that represent the risk of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on human health on the basis of our previous analysis of association between the daily numbers of death on diseases of the nervous system and diseases of the circulatory system and solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity in the Czech Republic during the years 1994 - 2013. We used long period daily time series of numbers of deaths by cause, long period time series of solar activity indices (namely R and F10.7), <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indicies (Kp planetary index, Dst) and ionospheric parameters (foF2 and TEC). The ionospheric parameters were related to the geographic location of the Czech Republic and adjusted for middle geographic latitudes. The risk characteristics were composed by cluster analysis in time series according to the phases of the solar cycle resp. the seasonal insolation at mid-latitudes or the daily period according to the impact of solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on mortality by cause of death from medical cause groups of death VI. Diseases of the nervous system and IX. Diseases of the circulatory system mortality by 10th Revision of <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Diseases WHO (ICD-10).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SoPh..291.1447V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SoPh..291.1447V"><span>Extreme <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms - 1868 - 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present the first large statistical study of extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cfbg.conf..117P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cfbg.conf..117P"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Reversals and Life on the Earth in Phanerozoic Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pechersky, D. M.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Global paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data are generalized. As a result it is found out that the direct connection between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals, biozones and maxima of mass extinction of a biota is absent. At the same time it is noted close to a synchronous total picture of consistent changes of biozones and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> polarity. It is explained by the general source - the Earth's diurnal rotation. The reversal polarity of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field prevailed during the Phanerozoic that is agreed with the Earth's counterclockwise rotation. Change of polarity of a field, most likely, is connected with acceleration or deceleration of rotation speed of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> core relative to the Earth's mantle. Lack of direct interrelation between changes in the biosphere and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field indicate a lack of influence of a field on life evolution on Earth. It follows also from the fact that life on Earth developed from primitive unicellular forms to mammals and the man and diversity of biota was grew against a close condition of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field during ~2,5 billion years and irrespective of numerous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals. Main conclusion: evolutionary development of life on Earth doesn't depend both on large changes of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, and on the extreme catastrophic events conducting to mass extinction of a biota.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12139047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12139047"><span>An <span class="hlt">international</span> evaluation of holmium oxide solution <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for wavelength calibration in molecular absorption spectrophotometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Travis, John C; Zwinkels, Joanne C; Mercader, Flora; Ruíz, Arquímedes; Early, Edward A; Smith, Melody V; Noël, Mario; Maley, Marissa; Kramer, Gary W; Eckerle, Kenneth L; Duewer, David L</p> <p>2002-07-15</p> <p>Commercial spectrophotometers typically use absorption-based wavelength calibration <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials to provide wavelength accuracy for their applications. Low-mass fractions of holmium oxide (Ho2O3) in dilute acidic aqueous solution and in glass matrixes have been favored for use as wavelength calibration materials on the basis of spectral coverage and absorption band shape. Both aqueous and glass Ho2O3 <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials are available commercially and through various National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). Three NMIs of the North American Cooperation in Metrology (NORAMET) have evaluated the performance of Ho3-(aq)-based Certified <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials (CRMs) under "routine" operating conditions using commercial instrumentation. The study was not intended to intercompare national wavelength scales but to demonstrate comparability of wavelength measurements among the participants and between two versions of the CRMs. It was also designed to acquire data from a variety of spectrophotometers for use in a NIST study of wavelength assignment algorithms and to provide a basis for a possible reassessment of NIST-certified Ho3+(aq) band locations. The resulting data show a substantial level of agreement among laboratories, instruments, CRM preparations, and peak-location algorithms. At the same time, it is demonstrated that the wavelength comparability of the five participating instruments can actually be improved by calibrating all of the instruments to the consensus Ho3+(aq) band locations. This finding supports the value of absorption-based wavelength standards for calibrating absorption spectrophotometers. Coupled with the demonstrated robustness of the band position values with respect to preparation and measurement conditions, it also supports the concept of extending the present approach to additional NMIs in order to certify properly prepared dilute acidic Ho2O3 solution as an intrinsic wavelength standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8869M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8869M"><span>Predicting <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals via data assimilation: a feasibility study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morzfeld, Matthias; Fournier, Alexandre; Hulot, Gauthier</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The system of three ordinary differential equations (ODE) presented by Gissinger in [1] was shown to exhibit chaotic reversals whose statistics compared well with those from the paleomagnetic record. We explore the geophysical relevance of this low-dimensional model via data assimilation, i.e. we update the solution of the ODE with information from data of the dipole variable. The data set we use is 'SINT' (Valet et al. [2]), and it provides the signed virtual axial dipole moment over the past 2 millions years. We can obtain an accurate reconstruction of these dipole data using implicit sampling (a fully nonlinear Monte Carlo sampling strategy) and assimilating 5 kyr of data per sweep. We confirm our calibration of the model using the PADM2M dipole data set of Ziegler et al. [3]. The Monte Carlo sampling strategy provides us with quantitative information about the uncertainty of our estimates, and -in principal- we can use this information for making (robust) predictions under uncertainty. We perform synthetic data experiments to explore the predictive capability of the ODE model updated by data assimilation. For each experiment, we produce 2 Myr of synthetic data (with error levels similar to the ones found in the SINT data), calibrate the model to this record, and then check if this calibrated model can reliably predict a reversal within the next 5 kyr. By performing a large number of such experiments, we can estimate the statistics that describe how reliably our calibrated model can predict a reversal of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. It is found that the 1 kyr-ahead predictions of reversals produced by the model appear to be accurate and reliable. These encouraging results prompted us to also test predictions of the five reversals of the SINT (and PADM2M) data set, using a similarly calibrated model. Results will be presented and discussed. <span class="hlt">References</span> Gissinger, C., 2012, A new deterministic model for chaotic reversals, European Physical Journal B, 85:137 Valet, J</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=4&id=EJ601929','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=4&id=EJ601929"><span>Ready <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koltay, Emery</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Includes the following ready <span class="hlt">reference</span> information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019377','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019377"><span>Types and Characteristics of Data for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A. (Editor); Baldwin, R. T. (Editor)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Given here is material submitted at a symposium convened on Friday, August 23, 1991, at the General Assembly of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) held in Vienna, Austria. Models of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field are only as good as the data upon which they are based, and depend upon correct understanding of data characteristics such as accuracy, correlations, systematic errors, and general statistical properties. This symposium was intended to expose and illuminate these data characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..347L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..347L"><span>A new model for the (<span class="hlt">geo)magnetic</span> power spectrum, with application to planetary dynamo radii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langlais, Benoit; Amit, Hagay; Larnier, Hugo; Thébault, Erwan; Mocquet, Antoine</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We propose two new analytical expressions to fit the Mauersberger-Lowes <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field spectrum at the core-mantle boundary. These can be used to estimate the radius of the outer liquid core where the geodynamo operates, or more generally the radius of the planetary dynamo regions. We show that two sub-families of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field are independent of spherical harmonics degree n at the core-mantle boundary and exhibit flat spectra. The first is the non-zonal field, i.e., for spherical harmonics order m different from zero. The second is the quadrupole family, i.e., n+m even. The flatness of their spectra is motivated by the nearly axisymmetric time-average paleomagnetic field (for the non-zonal field) and the dominance of rotational effects in core dynamics (for the quadrupole family). We test our two expressions with two approaches using the <span class="hlt">reference</span> case of the Earth. First we estimate at the seismic core radius the agreement between the actual spectrum and the theoretical one. Second we estimate the magnetic core radius, where the spectrum flattens. We show that both sub-families offer a better agreement with the actual spectrum compared with previously proposed analytical expressions, and predict a magnetic core radius within less than 10 km of the Earth's seismic core radius. These new expressions supersede previous ones to infer the core radius from <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field information because the low degree terms are not ignored. Our formalism is then applied to infer the radius of the dynamo regions on Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The axisymmetric nature of the magnetic field of Saturn prevents the use of the non-zonal expression. For the three other planets both expressions converge and offer independent constraints on the <span class="hlt">internal</span> structure of these planets. These non-zonal and quadrupole family expressions may be implemented to extrapolate the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field spectrum beyond observable degrees, or to further regularize magnetic field models</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930009779','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930009779"><span>Ice ages and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Patrick</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM..ED21C03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM..ED21C03S"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> in High School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stern, D. P.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>Many high school curricula include a one-year course in Earth Sciences, often in the 9th grade (essentially pre-algebra). That is a good time to teach about <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>. Not only are dipole reversals and sea-floor magnetization central to this subject, but this is a good opportunity to introduce students to magnetism and its connection to electric currents. The story of Oersted and Faraday give a fascinating insight into the uneven path of scientific discovery, the magnetic compass and William Gilbert provide a view of the beginnings of the scientific revolution, and even basic concepts of dynamo theory and its connection to solar physics can be included. A resource including all the suitable material now exists on the world-wide web at http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/earthmag/demagint.htm (home page). A 1-month unit on <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> will be outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24675788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24675788"><span>Identification of <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for gene expression normalization between the two sexes in dioecious white Campion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes in a wide diversity of species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6052652','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6052652"><span>Correlative comparison of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and auroral substorms using <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indeces. Master's thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cade, W.B.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Partial contents include the following: (1) <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storm and substorm processes; (2) Magnetospheric structure; (3) Substorm processes; (4) Data description; (5) <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> indices; and (6) Data period and data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707301','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707301"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> actors and population policies in India, with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to contraceptive policies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ollila, E; Koivusalo, M; Hemminki, E</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">international</span> population policy agenda has traditionally been dominated by demographically driven population control policies. However, in the population policy development that preceded the <span class="hlt">International</span> Conference on Population and Development in 1994, people's reproductive needs and rights received more emphasis. The aim of this study was to analyze how the new emphasis in population policies has been interpreted at the country level. In analyzing population policy rhetoric and its practical interpretations in India in 1994, the authors found that the rhetoric was broadening to encompass women's empowerment and reproductive health and that the use of direct method-specific monetary incentives and disincentives for accepting family planning methods was disapproved. However, population policy options were still considered mainly in terms of their ability to reduce fertility. Furthermore, the increased emphasis on the general market agenda was more important than that on reproductive needs and rights in molding population policies, as was evident in the greater stress on cost-recovery systems and nongovernmental actors. The findings suggest that the broader agenda for population policies and reproductive rights has been interpreted so that it can serve the aims of population-growth control and be implemented in the context of more market-oriented social policies and trade liberalization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53C1608W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T53C1608W"><span>Investigations on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation anomalies through tectonomagnetic monitoring in the seismoactive zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament, Central India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waghmare, S. Y.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Data from repeated <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations at exactly same location on the five profiles i.e. Katangi-Mandla (AA'), Mandla-Lakhnadon (BB'), Lakhnadon-Narsimhapur (CC'), Narsimhapur-Jabalpur (DD') and Jabalpur-Seoni (EE') have revealed secular variation of the total <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in the tectonically/seismically active zone of the Narmada-Son Lineament (NSL), Central India. The seismicity in NSL, associated with the activation of boundary fault near Jabalpur, might have been responsible for the release of stress accumulated due to continuous northward movement of the Indian plate. The external magnetic field contributions (ionospheric/magnetospheric currents) as well as <span class="hlt">internal</span> (secular trend of main field due to Earth's core electric currents) have been eliminated due to the operation of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> base station within study area at Seismic Observatory Jabalpur. Proton Precession Magnetometers (PPMs) with sensitivity 0.1 nT were used simultaneously for measuring the total <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity at the repeated-survey stations and <span class="hlt">reference</span> station. The survey sites were visited annually wherein seven cycles of repeated observations were performed from 2003 to 2009. The simple difference method was used in data analysis and the residuals have been calculated as secular variations of the total <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field with values ranging from ±0.1 nT/yr to ±9.5 nT/yr at different stations. However, measurable seismic activity was not registered during the repeated survey period. It is proposed that secular changes originate from stress and tension on the NSL fault system and crustal blocks as a tectonomagnetic effect. However, the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Depth Sounding (GDS) experiment in Jabalpur area revealed high electrical conductivity anomaly (Satpura conductor) which has been interpreted due to fluids/saline water in the crust. There is a possibility for the fluids to flow through the porous rocks thereby generating electric currents to produce the electrokinetic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2c..33L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016STP.....2c..33L"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> effects caused by rocket exhaust jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lipko, Yuriy; Pashinin, Aleksandr; Khakhinov, Vitaliy; Rahmatulin, Ravil</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In the space experiment Radar-Progress, we have made 33 series of measurements of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations during ignitions of engines of Progress cargo spacecraft in low Earth orbit. We used magneto-measuring complexes, installed at observatories of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and magnetotelluric equipment of a mobile complex. We assumed that engine running can cause <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances in flux tubes crossed by the spacecraft. When analyzing experimental data, we took into account space weather factors: solar wind parameters, total daily mid-latitude <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity index Kp, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> auroral electrojet index AE, global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. The empirical data we obtained indicate that 18 of the 33 series showed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations in various time ranges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGP31C1323X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGP31C1323X"><span>Application of Chinese <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Survey and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Model for 2005-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, R.; Gu, Z.; Yuan, J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In order to compile <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> map of China, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> three component survey (including the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> declination , the inclination and the total intensity ) and the research of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> model calculation have been carried out in China since 2002. At the same time, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> map of China for 2005.0 and 2010.0 were finished respectively. Relying on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> map of China for 2005.0 and 2010.0, seismological and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> surveillance zones were established in North-South seismic belt and North China, and the new model of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> three component survey is used in research of earthquake precursor and monitoring. In this paper, the survey model of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> map, the method of model calculation, compilation <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> map of China and seismo-magnetic research results in seismological and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> surveillance zone are introduced in detail. Basing on the research results of recent earthquake cases in seismological and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> surveillance zone, some conclusions have been drawn as follows: the information of seismo-magnetic precursor is reflected by not only the total intensity but also other <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> elements, such as the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> declination and horizontal component . The model of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> three component survey, which overcomes the limitations of traditional total intensity monitoring model, helps to increase the amount of information, expand research space and enhance the capabilities of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> monitoring. Meanwhile, this model has unique advantages in the medium and long term earthquake prediction, especially for forecasting localities of potential of earthquakes. The mode is also an effective method of earthquake monitoring and prediction, which is well worth exploring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040021339','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040021339"><span>The <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field During a Reversal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heirtzler, James R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field during a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820047244&hterms=core+magnetic+field+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bmagnetic%2Bfield%2Bcrust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820047244&hterms=core+magnetic+field+crust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcore%2Bmagnetic%2Bfield%2Bcrust"><span>A <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field spectrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A spherical harmonic model of the earth's <span class="hlt">internal</span> magnetic field of degree and order 23 is derived from selected Magsat data, and its power spectrum, computed with terms developed by Mauersberger (1956) and Lowes (1974), is found to exhibit a change of a slope at n = 14 which is interpreted as an indication that the core field dominates at values lower than 13 while the crust field dominates above a value of 15. The representations of the two portions of the spectrum obtained can be used to establish order-of-magnitude inaccuracies due to both crustal fields and the inability to observe core field wavelengths beyond n = 13, at which point they are obscured by the crustal field, in core field models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041462&hterms=solar+storms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bstorms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041462&hterms=solar+storms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bstorms"><span>The Causes of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms During Solar Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>One of the oldest mysteries in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is the linkage between solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms were first noted by Sabine (1852).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041462&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041462&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span>The Causes of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms During Solar Maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>One of the oldest mysteries in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is the linkage between solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms were first noted by Sabine (1852).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7350K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7350K"><span>Seismic zoning (first approximation) using data of the main <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khachikyan, Galina; Zhumabayev, Beibit; Toyshiev, Nursultan; Kairatkyzy, Dina; Seraliyev, Alibek; Khassanov, Eldar</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Seismic zoning is among the most complicated and extremely important problems of modern seismology. In solving this problem, a very important parameter is maximal possible earthquake magnitude (Mmax) which is believed at present depends on horizontal size of geoblocks. At the same time, it was found by Khachikyan et al. [2012, IJG, doi: 10.4236/ijg.2012.35109] that Mmax value in any seismic region may be determined using Z_GSM value that is <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Z-component in this region estimated in geocentric solar-magnetosphere coordinate system (GSM). On the base of the global seismological catalog NEIC with M≥4.5 for 1973-2010 years, and the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Field (IGRF) model, an empirical relation was obtained as follows: Mmax= a + b {log[abs(Z_GSM)]}. For the case of the whole planet, obtained empirical coefficients are as follows: a = (5,22 ± 0,17), and b = (0,78 ± 0,06) with correlation coefficient R=0.91, standard deviation SD=0.56, and probability 95%. Further investigations showed that the coefficients of the regression equation are different for different seismically active regions of the planet. For example, to the territory of the San Andreas Fault, defined by the coordinates 30-45N, 105-135W obtained values are as follows: a = (4,04 ± 0.38) and b = (0.7 ± 0.13) with correlation coefficient R = 0.91, standard deviation SD = 0.34, and probability of 95%. For territory of inland seismicity in Eurasia defined by the coordinates 30-45N, 0-110E, a = (12.44 ± 0.48) and b = (1,15 ± 0.2) with correlation coefficient R = 0.87, standard deviation SD = 0.98, and probability of 95%, and for the territory of the strongest seismicity in the world defined by the coordinates 20S-20N, 90-150E, obtained values of a = (- 17.5 ± 1,5) and b = (5,7 ± 0.4) with correlation coefficient R = 0.97, standard deviation SD = 0.4, and probability of 95%. The relationship between the intensity of the main <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and released seismic energy is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233434','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233434"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Internal</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes for Quantitative Expression Analysis by Real-Time PCR in Ovine Whole Blood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peletto, Simone; Bertuzzi, Simone; Campanella, Chiara; Modesto, Paola; Maniaci, Maria Grazia; Bellino, Claudio; Ariello, Dario; Quasso, Antonio; Caramelli, Maria; Acutis, Pier Luigi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes is commonly accepted as the most reliable approach to normalize qRT-PCR and to reduce possible errors in the quantification of gene expression. The most suitable <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes in sheep have been identified for a restricted range of tissues, but no specific data on whole blood are available. The aim of this study was to identify a set of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for normalizing qRT-PCR from ovine whole blood. We designed 11 PCR assays for commonly employed <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes belonging to various functional classes and then determined their expression stability in whole blood samples from control and disease-stressed sheep. SDHA and YWHAZ were considered the most suitable <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls as they were stably expressed regardless of disease status according to both geNorm and NormFinder software; furthermore, geNorm indicated SDHA/HPRT, YWHAZ/GAPDH and SDHA/YWHAZ as the best <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene combinations in control, disease-stressed and combined sheep groups, respectively. Our study provides a validated panel of optimal control genes which may be useful for the identification of genes differentially expressed by qRT-PCR in a readily accessible tissue, with potential for discovering new physiological and disease markers and as a tool to improve production traits (e.g., by identifying expression Quantitative Trait Loci). An additional outcome of the study is a set of intron-spanning primer sequences suitable for gene expression experiments employing SYBR Green chemistry on other ovine tissues and cells. PMID:22174628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1799c0002T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1799c0002T"><span>Malaysian alternative to <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> bentonite buffer in underground nuclear waste repository</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tadza, Mohd Yuhyi Mohd; Azmi, Nor Syafiqah Mohd; Mustapha, Roslanzairi; Desa, Nor Dalilah; Samuding, Kamarudin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The performance of bentonite as buffer material in underground nuclear waste repository has been extensively being investigated all over the world. Over the years, almost exclusively, naturally occurring Wyoming sodium based bentonite (MX80) was tested as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> buffer material. Other alternatives such as calcium and mixed based bentonites from all over the world were also examined for this specific application in respective countries. In Malaysia, the potential of naturally occurring bentonites have not clearly documented and may be considered for the application of buffer material in underground nuclear waste repository. In the context of underground radioactive waste storage, bentonite from Sabah volcanic formation, namely Andrassy bentonite was characterized in the laboratory and compared with MX80 and Deponit Ca-N bentonites. The geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, particle size distribution, specific gravity, cation exchange capacity, specific surface area and swelling potential were carefully determined. In addition, the water retention characteristics were established using a chilled-mirror dew-point potentiometer. Test results indicated that the Andrassy bentonite may be selected as the key component in the country's future development of deep underground radioactive waste facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/434335','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/434335"><span>CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Experiments (FALSIRE II)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA`s Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 <span class="hlt">reference</span> fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4060G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4060G"><span>On the shape of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Tail at Lunar distances: Preliminary Resuts from Artemis Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gencturk Akay, Iklim; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Sibeck, David G.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> tail is one of the least investigated regions of the magnetosphere behind the Earth owing to the limited number of spacecraft and observations. It is the region where the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dipole field lines of the Earth are organized by the solar wind stretching. The characteristics of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail and its response to IMF were studied by the missions, ISEE-3, IMP-8, Wind, Geotail, visited <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail at different distances. The structure of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail is controlled by the IMF orientation and its own <span class="hlt">internal</span> dynamics. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> tail has different regions where the plasma and magnetic field characteristics are largely depend on the IMF orientation. These characteristics show differences at different tail distances. For example it is determined that the tail twists as result of the reconnection with IMF By and this twist is higher as one move away from the Earth toward the distant tail. Like a windsock, it is expected that the IMF control will increase toward the distant tail. Twisting also displaces the north and south lobes on the dawn and dusk sides. Tail length and the shape are also different for different IMF orientations. Flattening of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail cross-section occurs during the strong IMF Bys. It becomes an ellipse in the yz plane as the IMF By stress causes the tail to be flattened on the top and bottom. Models estimate that the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail length can be 165 Re while Pioneer spacecraft detected <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail as long as 100 Re. These findings are based on the very limited data from brief <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail encounters of the spacecraft. Since August 2011, with the repositioning of the two of THEMIS spacecraft pair, ARTEMIS is giving a new opportunity to study the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail at the lunar distances, 60 Re. Using these observations, we will investigate the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field shape and its IMF dependence at 60 Re. Based on the magnetopause locations at 60 Re, we will study the shape of the tail on the xy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3474B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3474B"><span>Sparkling <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field: Involving Schools in <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bailey, Rachel; Leonhardt, Roman; Leichter, Barbara</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Solar activity will be reaching a maximum in 2013/2014 as the sun reaches the end of its cycle, bringing with it an opportunity to study in greater detail the effect of solar wind or "space weather" on our planet's magnetic field. Heightened solar activity leads to a larger amount of clouds of energetic particles bombarding the Earth. Although the Earth's magnetic field shields us from most of these particles, the field becomes distorted and compacted by the solar wind, which leads to magnetic storms that we detect from the surface. These storms cause aurorae at higher latitudes and can lead to widespread disruption of communication and navigation equipment all over the Earth when sufficiently strong. This project, "Sparkling <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field," is a part of Austria's Sparkling Science programme, which aims to involve schools in active scientific research to encourage interest in science from a young age. Researchers from the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in Vienna have worked hand-in-hand with three schools across Austria to set up regional <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> stations consisting of state-of-the-art scalar and vector magnetometers to monitor the effects of the solar wind on the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. The students have been an active part of the research team from the beginning, first searching for a suitable location to set up the stations as well as later overseeing the continued running of the equipment and analysing the data output. Through this project the students will gain experience in contemporary scientific methods: data processing and analysis, field work, as well as equipment setup and upkeep. A total of three stations have been established with schools in Innsbruck, Tamsweg and Graz at roughly equal distances across Austria to run alongside the already active station in the Conrad Observatory near Vienna. Data acquisition runs through a data logger and software developed to deliver data in near realtime. This network allows for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18442244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18442244"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study of the endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene LAT52 used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of genetically modified tomato.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing</p> <p>2008-05-28</p> <p>One tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) gene, LAT52, has been proved to be a suitable endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene for genetically modified (GM) tomato detection in a previous study. Herein are reported the results of a collaborative ring trial for <span class="hlt">international</span> validation of the LAT52 gene as endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene and its analytical systems; 14 GMO detection laboratories from 8 countries were invited, and results were finally received from 13. These data confirmed the species specificity by testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, less allelic variation and stable single copy number of the LAT52 gene, among 12 different tomato cultivars. Furthermore, the limit of detection of LAT52 qualitative PCR was proved to be 0.1%, which corresponded to 11 copies of haploid tomato genomic DNA, and the limit of quantification for the quantitative PCR system was about 10 copies of haploid tomato genomic DNA with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Additionally, the bias between the test and true values of 8 blind samples ranged from 1.94 to 10.64%. All of these validated results indicated that the LAT52 gene is suitable for use as an endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene for the identification and quantification of GM tomato and its derivates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP12A..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP12A..02C"><span>Recent developments in the global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chulliat, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Magnetic observatories provide precise and continuous measurements of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations over time scales ranging from one second to more than a century. They have been an essential observational infrastructure for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research for about 170 years. A large fraction of magnetic observatories belong to INTERMAGNET (<span class="hlt">International</span> Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network), a global network founded in the late 1980s which now includes about 115 observatories in 45 countries. INTERMAGNET magnetic observatories comply with strict data quality and timeliness standards and distribute their data through an integrated data information system. Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the global network: new observatories have been installed in remote locations, such as oceanic islands (St Helena, Easter Island, Tristan da Cunha) or Antarctica (Dome C); ancient observatories have been upgraded to <span class="hlt">international</span> standards (for example in China and Siberia). This has been prompted by the need to have a more geographically homogeneous network. In parallel, new data products (one second data and quasi-definitive data) are being made available, addressing a wide variety of research needs, and real timeliness is being improved for operational purposes such as space weather monitoring and forecasting. This presentation will provide an overview of these recent developments, focusing on those most relevant to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> modeling community, and discuss their expected scientific benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3614345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3614345"><span>An old method facing a new challenge: re-visiting housekeeping proteins as <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> control for neuroscience research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Rena; Shen, Yong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Study of specific target protein expression is often performed by western blotting, a commonly used method to measure the protein expression in neuroscience research by specific antibodies. Housekeeping proteins are used as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> control for protein loading as well as <span class="hlt">reference</span> in the western blotting analysis. This practice is based on the belief that such housekeeping genes are considered to be ubiquitously and constitutively expressed in every tissue and produce the minimal essential transcripts necessary for normal cellular function. The most commonly used housekeeping proteins are β-actin, β-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, recent studies have shown significant variation in some housekeeping genes both at the mRNA and protein levels in various neuropathological events, such as spinal cord injury and Alzheimer's diseases. Changes of housekeeping genes are also induced by non-neuronal diseases in various tissues. Therefore, these discoveries raise a potential concern regarding whether using a housekeeping protein as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard for target protein analysis is an appropriate practice. This mini review will focus on (I) the effects of neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, experimental condition, and tissues-specific roles on alteration of housekeeping genes, and (II) alternative <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards for gene and protein expression analysis. PMID:23454168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23454168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23454168"><span>An old method facing a new challenge: re-visiting housekeeping proteins as <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> control for neuroscience research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Rena; Shen, Yong</p> <p>2013-04-19</p> <p>The study of specific target protein expression is often performed by western blotting, a commonly used method to measure the protein expression in neuroscience research by specific antibodies. Housekeeping proteins are used as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> control for protein loading as well as <span class="hlt">reference</span> in the western blotting analysis. This practice is based on the belief that such housekeeping genes are considered to be ubiquitously and constitutively expressed in every tissue and produce the minimal essential transcripts necessary for normal cellular function. The most commonly used housekeeping proteins are β-actin, β-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). However, recent studies have shown significant variation in some housekeeping genes both at the mRNA and protein levels in various neuropathological events, such as spinal cord injury and Alzheimer's diseases. Changes of housekeeping genes are also induced by non-neuronal diseases in various tissues. Therefore, these discoveries raise a potential concern regarding whether using a housekeeping protein as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> standard for target protein analysis is an appropriate practice. This minireview will focus on (I) the effects of neuronal and non-neuronal diseases, experimental condition, and tissue-specific roles on alteration of housekeeping genes, and (II) alternative <span class="hlt">internal</span> standards for gene and protein expression analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810060080&hterms=solar+wind+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bwind%2Bpower','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810060080&hterms=solar+wind+power&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bwind%2Bpower"><span>Solar wind control of auroral zone <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clauer, C. R.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Searls, C.; Kivelson, M. G.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Solar wind magnetosphere energy coupling functions are analyzed using linear prediction filtering with 2.5 minute data. The relationship of auroral zone <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity to solar wind power input functions are examined, and a least squares prediction filter, or impulse response function is designed from the data. Computed impulse response functions are observed to have characteristics of a low pass filter with time delay. The AL index is found well related to solar wind energy functions, although the AU index shows a poor relationship. High frequency variations of auroral indices and substorm expansions are not predictable with solar wind information alone, suggesting influence by <span class="hlt">internal</span> magnetospheric processes. Finally, the epsilon parameter shows a poorer relationship with auroral <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity than a power parameter, having a VBs solar wind dependency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH51C1248L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH51C1248L"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Effect Caused by 1908 Tunguska Event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Losseva, T. V.; Kuzmicheva, M. Y.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> results of this current system shows that an unique azimuth of trajectory of the body exists, for which the variations of all three components of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field do not contradict to the observation data. This azimuth is equal to 306 degrees, while other estimates are in the range of 290-344 degrees. This idea of the atmospheric plume ejected along the trajectory and ionization in the upper atmosphere, caused by the following atmospheric oscillations, could explain the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> effect both in general and locally in Irkutsk observatory: the time delay and the variations of all magnetic field components. Binding of simulation results of observation data also allows us to select the unique trajectory azimuth for Tunguska body. <span class="hlt">References</span>: [1] Ivanov K.G. The <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> phenomena, which were being observed on the Irkutsk magnetic observatory, following the explosion of the Tunguska meteorite //Meteoritika. 1961. Iss. XXI. P.46-49 (in Russian). [2] Losseva T., Merkin V., Nemtchinov I. Estimations of the Aeronomical and Electromagnetic Disturbances in the E-layer of the Ionosphere, caused by Tunguska Event // AGU Fall Meeting. 1999. SA32A-09.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=grenada&pg=5&id=ED410166','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=grenada&pg=5&id=ED410166"><span>Social Justice and Third World Education. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 37. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 1130.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scrase, Timothy J., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The impact of <span class="hlt">international</span> social change is having a marked effect on developing nations' <span class="hlt">internal</span> policies, budgets, and development programs. This collection of articles addresses the importance of education in the creation of social policies and development policies; the effect of <span class="hlt">international</span> changes on education; the investment of limited…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5985934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5985934"><span>Electric utility industry experience with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. ); Taylor, E.R. Jr. ); Tesche, F.M.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10108452','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10108452"><span>Electric utility industry experience with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.</p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11605399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11605399"><span>[Severe trauma rate during planet <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuleshova, V P; Pulinets, S A</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The growth of the diurnal frequency of appearance of heavy traumas during planetary <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is shown and statistically justified. No effect of short-term <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances of natural and technogenic nature on the occurrence of acute mental and cardiovascular pathologies was detected on the basis of diurnal data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814404','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814404"><span>Electric Utility Industry Experience with <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, P.R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASTRA...7..373P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASTRA...7..373P"><span>The effect of cosmic ray intensity variations and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances on the physiological state of aviators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Kudela, K.; Stetiarova, J.; Dimitrova, S.; Giannaropoulou, E.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Over the last few years various researches have reached the conclusion that cosmic ray variations and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances are related to the condition of the human physiological state. In this study medical data regarding 4018 Slovak aviators were analyzed in relation to daily variations of cosmic ray and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. Specifically daily data concerning mean values of heart rate which were registered during the medical examinations of the Slovak aviators, were related to daily variations of cosmic ray intensity, as measured by the Neutron Monitor Station on Lomnicky Stit (http://neutronmonitor.ta3.sk/realtime.php3) and the high resolution neutron monitor database (http://www.nmdb.eu) and daily variations of Dst and Ap <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices. All subjects were men in good health of age 18-60 yrs. This particular study <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the time period from 1 January 1994 till 31 December 2002. Statistical methods were applied to establish a statistical significance of the effect of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity levels and cosmic ray intensity variations on the aforementioned physiological parameters for the whole group. The Pearson r-coefficients were calculated and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method was applied to establish the statistical significance levels (p-values) of the effect of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and cosmic ray intensity variations on heart rate up to three days before and three days after the respective events. Results show that there is an underlying effect of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and cosmic ray intensity variations on the cardiovascular functionality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029489','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029489"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> Linear Collider <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab</p> <p>2011-11-14</p> <p>The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the <span class="hlt">International</span> Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic and weak</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..852A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..852A"><span>A new regard about Surlari National <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asimopolos, Laurentiu; Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Pestina, Agata-Monica</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field study in Romanian stations has started with irregular measurements in late XIXth century. In 1943, the foundation of Surlari National <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory (SNGO) marks the beginning of a new era in the systematic study of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field by a continuous registration of its variations and by carrying out standard absolute measurements in a fundamental station. The location of the observatory meets the highest exigencies, being situated in physical-geological conditions of a uniform local field, at a reasonably long distance from human activities. Its laboratories observe strict conditions of non-magnetism, ensuring the possibility of absolute standard measurements (national magnetic standards) for all the units in the country, civil or military, which are endowed with equipment based on <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> metrology. These basic conditions have allowed the observatory to become by developing its initial preoccupations a centre of complex <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> research, constantly involved in national and <span class="hlt">international</span> issues, promoting new themes in our country and bringing significant contributions. During the last two decades, infrastructure and equipment used in monitoring <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field at European and planetary level have experienced a remarkable development. New registering techniques have allowed a complete to automate of data acquisition, and sampling step and their precision increased by two classes of size. Systems of transmitting these data in real time to world collecting centres have resulted in the possibility of approaching globalize studies, suitable for following some phenomena at planetary scale. At the same time, a significant development in the procedures of processing primary data has been registered, based on standardized programmes. The new stage of this fundamental research, largely applicable in various fields, is also marked by the simultaneous observation of space-time distribution of terrestrial electromagnetic field by means of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AdSpR..44.1107S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AdSpR..44.1107S"><span>Fifty years of progress in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff rigidity determinations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>This paper is a review of the progress made in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff rigidity calculations over the past 50 years. Determinations of cosmic ray trajectories, and hence cutoff rigidities, using digital computers began in 1956 and progressed slowly until 1962 when McCracken developed an efficient computer program to determine cosmic ray trajectories in a high degree simulation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. The application of this cosmic ray trajectory technique was limited by the available computer power. As computers became faster it was possible to determine vertical cutoff rigidity values for cosmic ray stations and coarse world grids; however, the computational effort required was formidable for the computers of the 1960s. Since most cosmic ray experiments were conducted on the surface of the Earth, the vertical cutoff rigidity was adopted as a standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> value. The effective cutoff value derived from trajectory calculations appeared to be adequate for ordering cosmic ray data from latitude surveys. As the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field evolution became more apparent, it was found necessary to update the world grid of cutoff rigidity values using more accurate descriptions of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. In the 1970s and 1980s it became possible to do experimental verification of the accuracy of these cosmic ray cutoff determinations and also to design experiments based on these cutoff rigidity calculations. The extensive trajectory calculations done in conjunction with the HEAO-3 satellite and a comparison between these experimental measurements and the trajectory calculations verified the Störmer theory prediction regarding angular cutoff variations and also confirmed that the structure of the first order penumbra is very stable and could be used for isotope separation. Contemporary work in improving cutoff rigidities seems to be concentrating on utilizing improved magnetospheric models in an effort to determine more accurate <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff values. When using <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1226/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1226/"><span>Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition, and Processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Love, Jeffrey J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The thirteenth biennial <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Aeronomy (IAGA) Workshop on <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing was held in the United States for the first time on June 9-18, 2008. Hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program, the workshop's measurement session was held at the Boulder Observatory and the scientific session was held on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. More than 100 participants came from 36 countries and 6 continents. Preparation for the workshop began when the USGS <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program agreed, at the close of the twelfth workshop in Belsk Poland in 2006, to host the next workshop. Working under the leadership of Alan Berarducci, who served as the chairman of the local organizing committee, and Tim White, who served as co-chairman, preparations began in 2007. The Boulder Observatory was extensively renovated and additional observation piers were installed. Meeting space on the Colorado School of Mines campus was arranged, and considerable planning was devoted to managing the many large and small issues that accompany an <span class="hlt">international</span> meeting. Without the devoted efforts of both Alan and Tim, other <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program staff, and our partners at the Colorado School of Mines, the workshop simply would not have occurred. We express our thanks to Jill McCarthy, the USGS Central Region Geologic Hazards Team Chief Scientist; Carol A. Finn, the Group Leader of the USGS <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program; the USGS <span class="hlt">International</span> Office; and Melody Francisco of the Office of Special Programs and Continuing Education of the Colorado School of Mines. We also thank the student employees that the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> Program has had over the years and leading up to the time of the workshop. For preparation of the proceedings, thanks go to Eddie and Tim. And, finally, we thank our sponsors, the USGS, IAGA, and the Colorado School of Mines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880064410&hterms=Brace&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBrace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880064410&hterms=Brace&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBrace"><span>Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere with the large AE-C and DE2 data bases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, D.; Hoegy, W. R.; Brace, L. H.; Theis, R. F.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Empirical models such as the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) are synthesized from large data bases. They can be viewed as analytical tools to facilitate accessing information stored in the data banks. However, in establishing the models, one has to apply smoothing and averaging procedures that in effect reduce the original information content. This study evaluates the agreement between the data base and the model at two opposite extremes of time resolution. Electron densities and temperatures in the altitude range of 300 to 400 km predicted by the IRI and measured by the AE-C and DE 2 satellites on the level of individual orbits as well as on the level of mission averages are compared. Whereas the averages show excellent agreement, the comparison for individual measurements indicates the limitations of empirical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001684','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001684"><span>History of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Doell, Richard R.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>Direct measurements of the direction and strength of the earth's magnetic field have provided a knowledge of the field's form and behavior during the last few hundreds of years. For older times, however, it has been necessary to measure the magnetism of certain rocks to learn what the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field was like. For example, when a lava flow solidifies (at temperatures near 1000??C) and cools through the Curie point of the magnetic minerals contained in it (around 500??C) it acquires a remanent magnetism that is (1) very weak, (2) very stablel, (3) paralle to the direction of the ambient <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, and (4) proportional in intensity to the ambient field. Separating, by various analytical means, this magnetization from other 'unwanted' magnetizations has allowed paleomagnetists to study the historical and prehistorical behavior of the earth's field. It has been learned, for example, that the strength of the field was almost twice its present value 2000 years ago and that it has often completely reversed its polarity. Paleo-magnetists have also confirmed that most oceans are, geologically speaking, relatively new features, and that the continents have markedly changed their positions over the surface of the earth. ?? 1969 The American Institute of Physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380508','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380508"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study for the calibration of the Ph. Eur. somatropin chemical <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance batches 3 and 4 (BSP108).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Girard, M; Rautmann, G; Lorbetskie, B; Joly, M-A; Daas, A; Terao, E</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study was carried out for the establishment of replacement batches for the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Somatropin Chemical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Substance (CRS) batch 2. The study was organised within the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the Council of Europe and the European Commission. Seventeen laboratories from Europe, North America, South America and Australia took part in the collaborative study. The study aimed at calibrating the somatropin content of 2 candidate preparations and demonstrating their suitability to serve as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> substance in the tests for identification, for related proteins, for dimers and related substances of higher molecular mass (HMM), for charged variants distribution and for the assay of somatropin, as prescribed by the current Ph. Eur. monographs 0950 Somatropin bulk solution, 0951 Somatropin and 0952 Somatropin for injection. Based on the results summarised herein the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted in January 2012 candidate preparation b (cCRS-b, Sample D) as somatropin CRS batch 3 with an assigned content of 3.86 mg of somatropin monomer per vial, and candidate preparation a (cCRS-a, Sample C) as somatropin CRS batch 4 with an assigned content of 2.59 mg of somatropin monomer per vial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031953&hterms=representation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drepresentation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031953&hterms=representation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drepresentation"><span>TOPLA: A New Empirical Representation of the F-Region Topside and Plasmasphere for the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B.; Gallagher, D.; Huang, X.; Truhlik, V.; Nsumei, P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this LWS tools effort is the development of a new data-based F-region TOpside and PLAsmasphere (TOPLA) model for the electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) for inclusion in the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) model using newly available satellite data and models for these regions. The IRI model is the de facto <span class="hlt">international</span> standard for specification of ionospheric parameters and is currently being considered as an ISO Technical Specification for the ionosphere. Our effort is directed towards improving the topside part of the model and extending it into the plasmasphere. Specifically we are planning to overcome the following shortcomings of the current IRI topside model: (I) overestimation of densities above 700 km by a factor of 2 and more, (3) unrealistically steep density profiles at high latitudes during very high solar activities, (4) no solar cycle variations and no semi-annual variations for the electron temperature, (5) discontinuities or unphysical gradients when merging with plasmaspheric models. We will report on first accomplishments and on the current status of the project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3335B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3335B"><span>Cosmic Ray Monitoring and Space Dangerous Phenomena, 2. Methods of Cosmic Ray Using For Forecasting of Major <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belov, A. V.; Dorman, L. I.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Iucci, N.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Villoresi, G.; Yanke, V. G.; Zukerman, I. G.</p> <p></p> <p>We present developing of methods (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999) for forecasting on the basis of neutron monitor hourly on-line data (as well as on-line muon tele- scopes hourly data from different directions) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms of scales G5 (3- hour index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales). These <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms are dangerous for peo- ple technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). We show that for especially dangerous geo- magnetic storms can be used global-spectrographic method if on-line will be avail- able 35-40 NM and muon telescopes. In this case for each hour can be determined CR anisotropy vector, and the specifically behavior of this vector before SC of ge- omagnetic storms G5, G4 or G3 (according to NOAA Space Weather Scales) can be used as important factor for forecast. The second factor what can be used for SC forecast is specifically behavior of CR density (CR intensity) for about 30-15 hours before SC (caused mainly by galactic CR particles acceleration during interaction with shock wave moved from the Sun). The third factor is effect of cosmic ray pre- decreasing, caused by magnetic connection of the Earth with the region behind the shock wave. We demonstrate developing methods on several examples of major ge- omagnetic storms. <span class="hlt">REFERENCES</span>: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting fea- tures for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 49A, pp. 136-144. (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their prediction", Proc. of 26-th <span class="hlt">Intern</span>. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, Vol. 6, p. 476-479, (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897136"><span>An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female-<span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Reilly, Shannon E; DeWeese, Lindsay S; Maynard, Matthew R; Rajon, Didier A; Wayson, Michael B; Marshall, Emily L; Bolch, Wesley E</p> <p>2016-12-21</p> <p>An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for <span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow). Each of these limitations was addressed in the present study. Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to both active and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the University of Florida <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female. The skeletal macrostructure and microstructure were modeled separately. The bone macrostructure was based on the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of <span class="hlt">reference</span> models, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 years-old female cadaver. The active and shallow marrow are typically adopted as surrogate tissue regions for the hematopoietic stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Source tissues included active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume, and cortical bone surfaces. Marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. All other sources were run at the defined ICRP Publication 70 cellularity for each bone site. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or analytically modeled. The method of combining skeletal macrostructure and microstructure absorbed fractions assessed using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model applied to the UF adult male skeletal dosimetry model. Calculated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.8794O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.8794O"><span>An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female—<span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Reilly, Shannon E.; DeWeese, Lindsay S.; Maynard, Matthew R.; Rajon, Didier A.; Wayson, Michael B.; Marshall, Emily L.; Bolch, Wesley E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for <span class="hlt">internal</span> electron sources was created for the ICRP-defined <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female. Many previous skeletal dosimetry models, which are still employed in commonly used <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry software, do not properly account for electron escape from trabecular spongiosa, electron cross-fire from cortical bone, and the impact of marrow cellularity on active marrow self-irradiation. Furthermore, these existing models do not employ the current ICRP definition of a 50 µm bone endosteum (or shallow marrow). Each of these limitations was addressed in the present study. Electron transport was completed to determine specific absorbed fractions to both active and shallow marrow of the skeletal regions of the University of Florida <span class="hlt">reference</span> adult female. The skeletal macrostructure and microstructure were modeled separately. The bone macrostructure was based on the whole-body hybrid computational phantom of the UF series of <span class="hlt">reference</span> models, while the bone microstructure was derived from microCT images of skeletal region samples taken from a 45 years-old female cadaver. The active and shallow marrow are typically adopted as surrogate tissue regions for the hematopoietic stem cells and osteoprogenitor cells, respectively. Source tissues included active marrow, inactive marrow, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surfaces, cortical bone volume, and cortical bone surfaces. Marrow cellularity was varied from 10 to 100 percent for active marrow self-irradiation. All other sources were run at the defined ICRP Publication 70 cellularity for each bone site. A total of 33 discrete electron energies, ranging from 1 keV to 10 MeV, were either simulated or analytically modeled. The method of combining skeletal macrostructure and microstructure absorbed fractions assessed using MCNPX electron transport was found to yield results similar to those determined with the PIRT model applied to the UF adult male skeletal dosimetry model. Calculated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH24A..01Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH24A..01Y"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Anomalies Related to Earthquakes at Pisco Peru 2007 (M=8.0) and at Taiwan 2009 (M= 6.4) (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yumoto, K.; Takla, E.; Ishitsuka, J.; Rosales, D.; Dutra, S. L.; Liu, J. G.; Kakinami, Y.; Uozumi, T.; Abe, S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University deployed the MAGnetic Data Acqusition System (MAGDAS) at 53 stations along the 210- and 96-degree magnetic meridians (MM) and the magnetic Dip equator, and three FM-CW radars along the 210-degree MM during the <span class="hlt">International</span> Heliophysical Year (IHY) period of 2005-2009 (see http://magdas.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/ and http://magdas2.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/). By analyzing these new MAGDAS data, we can perform a real-time monitoring for understanding the plasma and electromagnetic environment changes in geospace and lithosphere. In the present paper, we will introduce <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomalies associated with larger earthquakes (EQs), observed at the MAGDAS stations. The first event is the Pisco earthquake (M=8.0) on August 15, 2007, which was the largest shallow earthquake and affected the coastal area south of Lima for 250 years. This occurred at the boundary between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> data from the MAGDAS Ancon (ANC; about 180 km from the epicenter), the INTERMAGNET Huancayo (HUA;about 190 km from the epicenter) and the MAGDAS Eusebio (EUS; about 39°east from ANC) stations were analyzed to clarify if there is a relation between the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations and the tectonic activities at Peru during 2007. Our results indicate both long- (several months) and short-term (daily) anomalous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations (H and Z components) in relation with these seismic activities. In addition, there were anomalous signals of Pc 3 polarization (Z/H) a few months before the onset of seismic activities. The second event is the Taiwan earthquake of M=6.4 on the Richter scale, which occurred at depth ≈ 45 km, on 19th of December 2009. The epicenter was located about 20 Km away from our MAGDAS Hualien (HLN) station. The MAGDAS Amami-ohshima (AMA) station in Japan was used as a remote <span class="hlt">reference</span> station. The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> components (H, D and Z) at the HLN station showed baseline fluctuations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940024991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940024991"><span>ASSIST <span class="hlt">internals</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST) program was developed at NASA LaRC in order to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. A user manual was developed to detail its use. Certain technical specifics are of no concern to the end user, yet are of importance to those who must maintain and/or verify the correctness of the tool. This document takes a detailed look into these technical issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162557','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162557"><span>Improved <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing in the Arctic environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poedjono, B.; Beck, N.; Buchanan, A. C.; Borri, L.; Maus, S.; Finn, Carol; Worthington, Bill; White, Tim</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing uses the Earth’s magnetic field to determine accurate wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs, either as an alternative or a complement to north-seeking gyroscopic referencing. However, fluctuations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, especially at high latitudes, make the application of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise crustal mapping and the monitoring of real-time variations by nearby magnetic observatories is crucial to achieving the required <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing accuracy. The Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate, real-time data to the oilfield drilling industry. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing is enhanced with real-time data from DED and other observatories, and has been successfully used for accurate wellbore positioning. The availability of real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements leads to significant cost and time savings in wellbore surveying, improving accuracy and alleviating the need for more expensive surveying techniques. The correct implementation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing is particularly critical as we approach the increased activity associated with the upcoming maximum of the 11-year solar cycle. The DED observatory further provides an important service to scientific communities engaged in studies of ionospheric, magnetospheric and space weather phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRA..111.8209M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRA..111.8209M"><span>Centennial increase in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity: Latitudinal differences and global estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mursula, K.; Martini, D.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>We study here the centennial change in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity using the newly proposed Inter-Hour Variability (IHV) index. We correct the earlier estimates of the centennial increase by taking into account the effect of the change of the sampling of the magnetic field from one sample per hour to hourly means in the first years of the previous century. Since the IHV index is a variability index, the larger variability in the case of hourly sampling leads, without due correction, to excessively large values in the beginning of the century and an underestimated centennial increase. We discuss two ways to extract the necessary sampling calibration factors and show that they agree very well with each other. The effect of calibration is especially large at the midlatitude Cheltenham/Fredricksburg (CLH/FRD) station where the centennial increase changes from only 6% to 24% caused by calibration. Sampling calibration also leads to a larger centennial increase of global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity based on the IHV index. The results verify a significant centennial increase in global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, in a qualitative agreement with the aa index, although a quantitative comparison is not warranted. We also find that the centennial increase has a rather strong and curious latitudinal dependence. It is largest at high latitudes. Quite unexpectedly, it is larger at low latitudes than at midlatitudes. These new findings indicate interesting long-term changes in near-Earth space. We also discuss possible <span class="hlt">internal</span> and external causes for these observed differences. The centennial change of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity may be partly affected by changes in external conditions, partly by the secular decrease of the Earth's magnetic moment whose effect in near-Earth space may be larger than estimated so far.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013947','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013947"><span>Space Weather Monitoring for ISS <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storm Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN31D..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN31D..08L"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory Data for Real-Time Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Love, J. J.; Finn, C. A.; Rigler, E. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The global network of magnetic observatories represents a unique collective asset for the scientific community. Historically, magnetic observatories have supported global magnetic-field mapping projects and fundamental research of the Earth's interior and surrounding space environment. More recently, real-time data streams from magnetic observatories have become an important contributor to multi-sensor, operational monitoring of evolving space weather conditions, especially during magnetic storms. In this context, the U.S. Geological Survey (1) provides real-time observatory data to allied space weather monitoring projects, including those of NOAA, the U.S. Air Force, NASA, several <span class="hlt">international</span> agencies, and private industry, (2) collaborates with Schlumberger to provide real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data needed for directional drilling for oil and gas in Alaska, (3) develops products for real-time evaluation of hazards for the electric-power grid industry that are associated with the storm-time induction of geoelectric fields in the Earth's conducting lithosphere. In order to implement strategic priorities established by the USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area and the National Science and Technology Council, and with a focus on developing new real-time products, the USGS is (1) leveraging data management protocols already developed by the USGS Earthquake Program, (2) developing algorithms for mapping <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, a collaboration with NASA and NOAA, (3) supporting magnetotelluric surveys and developing Earth conductivity models, a collaboration with Oregon State University and the NSF's EarthScope Program, (4) studying the use of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity maps and Earth conductivity models for real-time estimation of geoelectric fields, (5) initiating geoelectric monitoring at several observatories, (6) validating real-time estimation algorithms against historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and geoelectric data. The success of these long-term projects is subject to funding constraints</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013899','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013899"><span>Space Weather Monitoring for ISS <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storm Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Neergaard</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.437....9D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.437....9D"><span>Frequency of Proterozoic <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> superchrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Driscoll, Peter E.; Evans, David A. D.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Long-term geodynamo evolution is expected to respond to inner core growth and changing patterns of mantle convection. Three <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> superchrons, during which Earth's magnetic field maintained a near-constant polarity state through tens of Myr, are known from the bio/magnetostratigraphic record of Phanerozoic time, perhaps timed according to supercontinental episodicity. Some geodynamo simulations incorporating a much smaller inner core, as would have characterized Proterozoic time, produce field reversals at a much lower rate. Here we compile polarity ratios of site means within a quality-filtered global Proterozoic paleomagnetic database, according to recent plate kinematic models. Various smoothing parameters, optimized to successfully identify the known Phanerozoic superchrons, indicate 3-10 possible Proterozoic superchrons during the 1300 Myr interval studied. Proterozoic geodynamo evolution thus appears to indicate a relatively narrow range of reversal behavior through the last two billion years, implying either remarkable stability of core dynamics over this time or insensitivity of reversal rate to core evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037751&hterms=confidence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dconfidence','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037751&hterms=confidence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dconfidence"><span>Minimax confidence intervals in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stark, Philip B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037751&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037751&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span>Minimax confidence intervals in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stark, Philip B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013786','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013786"><span>Range indices of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stuart, W.F.; Green, A.W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The simplest index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity is the range in nT from maximum to minimum value of the field in a given time interval. The hourly range R was recommended by IAGA for use at observatories at latitudes greater than 65??, but was superceded by AE. The most used <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index K is based on the range of activity in a 3 h interval corrected for the regular daily variation. In order to take advantage of real time data processing, now available at many observatories, it is proposed to introduce a 1 h range index and also a 3 h range index. Both will be computed hourly, i.e. each will have a series of 24 per day, the 3 h values overlapping. The new data will be available as the range (R) of activity in nT and also as a logarithmic index (I) of the range. The exponent relating index to range in nT is based closely on the scale used for computing K values. The new ranges and range indices are available, from June 1987, to users in real time and can be accessed by telephone connection or computer network. Their first year of production is regarded as a trial period during which their value to the scientific and commercial communities will be assessed, together with their potential as indicators of regional and global disturbances' and in which trials will be conducted into ways of eliminating excessive bias at quiet times due to the rate of change of the daily variation field. ?? 1988.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RvGeo..54..410V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RvGeo..54..410V"><span>Deciphering records of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Polarity reversals of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field are a major feature of the Earth's dynamo. Questions remain regarding the dynamical processes that give rise to reversals and the properties of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field during a polarity transition. A large number of paleomagnetic reversal records have been acquired during the past 50 years in order to better constrain the structure and geometry of the transitional field. In addition, over the past two decades, numerical dynamo simulations have also provided insights into the reversal mechanism. Yet despite the large paleomagnetic database, controversial interpretations of records of the transitional field persist; they result from two characteristics inherent to all reversals, both of which are detrimental to an ambiguous analysis. On the one hand, the reversal process is rapid and requires adequate temporal resolution. On the other hand, weak field intensities during a reversal can affect the fidelity of magnetic recording in sedimentary records. This paper is aimed at reviewing critically the main reversal features derived from paleomagnetic records and at analyzing some of these features in light of numerical simulations. We discuss in detail the fidelity of the signal extracted from paleomagnetic records and pay special attention to their resolution with respect to the timing and mechanisms involved in the magnetization process. Records from marine sediments dominate the database. They give rise to transitional field models that often lead to overinterpret the data. Consequently, we attempt to separate robust results (and their subsequent interpretations) from those that do not stand on a strong observational footing. Finally, we discuss new avenues that should favor progress to better characterize and understand transitional field behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183767.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED183767.pdf"><span>Selected Bibliographies and State-of the-Art Review for Socio-cultural Factors in Health. Volume 4: Socio-cultural Factors in Health <span class="hlt">References</span>. <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa</p> <p></p> <p>Intended as a companion picce to volume 4 in the Method Series, Sociocultural Factors in Health Planning (CE 024 232), this fourth of six volumes in the <span class="hlt">International</span> Health Planning <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with social, cultural, and behavioral aspects of delivering, planning, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPD....48.0703P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPD....48.0703P"><span>The Complexity of Solar and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pesnell, W. Dean</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>How far in advance can the sunspot number be predicted with any degree of confidence? Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Statistical and timeseries analyses of the sunspot number are often used to predict solar activity. These methods have not been completely successful as the solar dynamo changes over time and one cycle's sunspots are not a faithful predictor of the next cycle's activity. In some ways, using these techniques is similar to asking whether the stock market can be predicted. It has been shown that the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) can be more accurately predicted during periods when it obeys certain statistical properties than at other times. The Hurst exponent is one such way to partition the data. Another measure of the complexity of a timeseries is the fractal dimension. We can use these measures of complexity to compare the sunspot number with other solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices. Our concentration is on how trends are removed by the various techniques, either <span class="hlt">internally</span> or externally. Comparisons of the statistical properties of the various solar indices may guide us in understanding how the dynamo manifests in the various indices and the Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24126457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24126457"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> recommendations for the assessment of autoantibodies to cellular antigens <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as anti-nuclear antibodies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Damoiseaux, Jan; Kallenberg, Cees; Sack, Ulrich; Witte, Torsten; Herold, Manfred; Bossuyt, Xavier; Musset, Lucille; Cervera, Ricard; Plaza-Lopez, Aresio; Dias, Carlos; Sousa, Maria José; Radice, Antonella; Eriksson, Catharina; Hultgren, Olof; Viander, Markku; Khamashta, Munther; Regenass, Stephan; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho; Wiik, Allan; Tincani, Angela; Rönnelid, Johan; Bloch, Donald B; Fritzler, Marvin J; Chan, Edward K L; Garcia-De La Torre, I; Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Lahita, Robert; Wilson, Merlin; Vainio, Olli; Fabien, Nicole; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Meroni, Pierluigi; Shoenfeld, Yehuda</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are fundamental for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, and have been determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) for decades. As the demand for ANA testing increased, alternative techniques were developed challenging the classic IIFA. These alternative platforms differ in their antigen profiles, sensitivity and specificity, raising uncertainties regarding standardisation and interpretation of incongruent results. Therefore, an <span class="hlt">international</span> group of experts has created recommendations for ANA testing by different methods. Two groups of experts participated in this initiative. The European autoimmunity standardization initiative representing 15 European countries and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Union of Immunologic Societies/World Health Organization/Arthritis Foundation/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autoantibody standardising committee. A three-step process followed by a Delphi exercise with closed voting was applied. Twenty-five recommendations for determining ANA (1-13), anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (14-18), specific antibodies (19-23) and validation of methods (24-25) were created. Significant differences between experts were observed regarding recommendations 24-25 (p<0.03). Here, we formulated recommendations for the assessment and interpretation of ANA and associated antibodies. Notably, the roles of IIFA as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> method, and the importance of defining nuclear and cytoplasmic staining, were emphasised, while the need to incorporate alternative automated methods was acknowledged. Various approaches to overcome discrepancies between methods were suggested of which an improved bench-to-bedside communication is of the utmost importance. These recommendations are based on current knowledge and can enable harmonisation of local algorithms for testing and evaluation of ANA and related autoantibodies. Last but not least, new more appropriate terminologies have been suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1253M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1253M"><span>Comparison of Ionospheric TEC Derived from GPS and IRI 2012 Model during <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms at Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marlia, Dessi; Wu, Falin</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the variations of vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) at Manado, Indonesia (geographic coordinates : lat 1.34 ° S and long 124.82 ° E) for period 2013. The GPS measured TEC is compared with the TEC derived from the IRI (<span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere) 2012 model. Vertical TEC measurements obtained from dual frequency GPS receiver that is GISTM (GPS Ionospheric Scintillations and TEC monitor). Variation of TEC validate to IRI 2012 model at Manado station has been compared with the model for three different topside of electron density namely NeQuick, IRI-01-Corr and IRI2001.There is a need to investigation on diurnal, seasonal variations, solar activity dependence of TEC and including effects of space weather related events to TEC and modeling of TEC. In this paper, diurnal and seasonal variations of VTEC and the effect of VTEC due to space weather events like <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms are analyzed. The result show that the TEC prediction using IRI-2001 model overestimated the GPS TEC measurements, while IRI-NeQuick and IRI-01-corr show a tendency to underestimates the observed TEC during the day time particularly in low latitude region in the maximum solar activity period (2013). The variations of VTEC during 17th March, 2013, 29th June, 2013 storms are analyzed. During 17th March,2013 storm enhancement in VTEC with Kp value 6 and Disturbance storm index (DST) -132 nT. During 29th June, 2013 storm VTEC depletion with value 7 and DST -98 nT. Significant deviations in VTEC during the main phase of the storms are observed. It is found that the response of ionospheric TEC consist of effects of both enhancement and depletions in ionospheric structures (positive and negative storm). Keywords: TEC ionosphere, GPS, GISTM, IRI 2012 model, solar activity, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Qualitative+AND+Research+AND+Evaluation+AND+Methods+AND+Integrating+AND+Theory+AND+Practice&id=ED415132','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Qualitative+AND+Research+AND+Evaluation+AND+Methods+AND+Integrating+AND+Theory+AND+Practice&id=ED415132"><span>Qualitative Educational Research in Developing Countries: Current Perspectives. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 35. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 927.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crossley, Michael, Ed.; Vulliamy, Graham, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This book contains 11 essays that offer in-depth accounts of qualitative research in developing countries. Each chapter focuses upon a specific method and considers related theoretical and practical issues with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to recent experiences in selected developing countries. Key issues addressed include: (1) the identification of appropriate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interchange+AND+students+AND+book&id=ED420542','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interchange+AND+students+AND+book&id=ED420542"><span>Education and Social Change in Korea. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 513; <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 23.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adams, Don; Gottlieb, Esther E.</p> <p></p> <p>This book provides students and scholars with an introduction to Korean education and the dynamics of interchange between the educational system and the rapidly changing Korean society. Attention is given only to the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and includes only English language works of <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The book contains six chapters: (1)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=research+AND+dilemmas%3a+AND+paradigms%2c+AND+methods+AND+methodology&id=ED415132','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=research+AND+dilemmas%3a+AND+paradigms%2c+AND+methods+AND+methodology&id=ED415132"><span>Qualitative Educational Research in Developing Countries: Current Perspectives. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 35. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 927.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crossley, Michael, Ed.; Vulliamy, Graham, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This book contains 11 essays that offer in-depth accounts of qualitative research in developing countries. Each chapter focuses upon a specific method and considers related theoretical and practical issues with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to recent experiences in selected developing countries. Key issues addressed include: (1) the identification of appropriate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/20600','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/20600"><span>Global energy and water cycle experiment (GEWEX) continental-scale <span class="hlt">international</span> project (GCIP); <span class="hlt">reference</span> data sets CD-ROM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rea, Alan; Cederstrand, Joel R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The data sets on this compact disc are a compilation of several geographic <span class="hlt">reference</span> data sets of interest to the global-change research community. The data sets were chosen with input from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-Scale <span class="hlt">International</span> Project (GCIP) Data Committee and the GCIP Hydrometeorology and Atmospheric Subpanels. The data sets include: locations and periods of record for stream gages, reservoir gages, and meteorological stations; a 500-meter-resolution digital elevation model; grid-node locations for the Eta numerical weather-prediction model; and digital map data sets of geology, land use, streams, large reservoirs, average annual runoff, average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, average annual heating and cooling degree days, hydrologic units, and state and county boundaries. Also included are digital index maps for LANDSAT scenes, and for the U.S. Geological Survey 1:250,000, 1:100,000, and 1:24,000-scale map series. Most of the data sets cover the conterminous United States; the digital elevation model also includes part of southern Canada. The stream and reservoir gage and meteorological station files cover all states having area within the Mississippi River Basin plus that part of the Mississippi River Basin lying within Canada. Several data-base retrievals were processed by state, therefore many sites outside the Mississippi River Basin are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18330312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18330312"><span>[Determination of Sb and Bi in 24 <span class="hlt">international</span> geological <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Zhao-chu; Gao, Shan; Liu, Xiao-ming; Yuan, Hong-lin; Liu, Ye; Diwu, Chun-rong</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The authors studied in detail the memory effect of Bi, Sb, As and Te in ICP-MS. The produced memory effects of these element were in the order of Bi>Sb>Te>As. Bi was seriously adsorbed by the polypropylene sample storing bottle and the sample introduction system in the low nitric acid medium (0.01%-1% HNO3). The washout effect of 0.1% HF was found to be better than those of 6% HNO3 and 0.1% HClO4. Under the given experiment conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.001 and 0.0001 ng x mL(-1) for Sb and Bi, respectively. The authors report the determination of Sb and Bi in 24 <span class="hlt">international</span> geological <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials by using pressurized acid digestion-ICP-MS (including AGV-2, BHVO-2, BCR-2, etc.). Most of the results were found to be in reasonable agreement with the reported values in the literature. The authors' determined values of Sb for GSR-1 (granite; 0.30 microg x g(-1)) and JP-1 (peridotite; 0.045 microg x g(-1)) are obviously higher than those reported values. This is attributed to the efficient pressurized acid digestion, which is generally much more efficient than conventional wet digestions for insoluble minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26788975"><span>The <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model Revisited: Incorporating General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunner, Martin; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986 ) is a highly influential model of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E model do not typically incorporate general cognitive ability or general academic self-concept. This article investigates alternative measurement models for domain-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities and academic self-concepts within an extended I/E model framework using representative data from 25,301 9th-grade students. Empirical support was found for the external validity of a new measurement model for academic self-concepts with respect to key student characteristics (gender, school satisfaction, educational aspirations, domain-specific interests, grades). Moreover, the basic predictions of the I/E model were confirmed, and the new extension of the traditional I/E model permitted meaningful relations to be drawn between domain-general cognitive ability and domain-general academic self-concept as well as between the domain-specific elements of the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62.1885V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PMB....62.1885V"><span><span class="hlt">Internal</span> dosimetry with the Monte Carlo code GATE: validation using the ICRP/ICRU female <span class="hlt">reference</span> computational model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Villoing, Daphnée; Marcatili, Sara; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bardiès, Manuel</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The purpose of this work was to validate GATE-based clinical scale absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine dosimetry. GATE (version 6.2) and MCNPX (version 2.7.a) were used to derive dosimetric parameters (absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values) for the <span class="hlt">reference</span> female computational model proposed by the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP report 110. Monoenergetic photons and electrons (from 50 keV to 2 MeV) and four isotopes currently used in nuclear medicine (fluorine-18, lutetium-177, iodine-131 and yttrium-90) were investigated. Absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions and S-values were generated with GATE and MCNPX for 12 regions of interest in the ICRP 110 female computational model, thereby leading to 144 source/target pair configurations. Relative differences between GATE and MCNPX obtained in specific configurations (self-irradiation or cross-irradiation) are presented. Relative differences in absorbed fractions, specific absorbed fractions or S-values are below 10%, and in most cases less than 5%. Dosimetric results generated with GATE for the 12 volumes of interest are available as supplemental data. GATE can be safely used for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry at the clinical scale. This makes GATE a viable option for Monte Carlo modelling of both imaging and absorbed dose in nuclear medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34..751M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34..751M"><span>An evaluation of <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere electron density in the polar cap and cusp using EISCAT Svalbard radar measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merete Bjoland, Lindis; Belyey, Vasyl; Løvhaug, Unni Pia; La Hoz, Cesar</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Incoherent scatter radar measurements are an important source for studies of ionospheric plasma parameters. In this paper the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR) long-term database is used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) model. The ESR started operations in 1996, and the accumulated database up to 2012 thus covers 16 years, giving an overview of the ionosphere in the polar cap and cusp during more than one solar cycle. Data from ESR can be used to obtain information about primary plasma parameters: electron density, electron and ion temperature, and line-of-sight plasma velocity from an altitude of about 50 and up to 1600 km. Monthly averages of electron density and temperature and ion temperature and composition are also provided by the IRI model from an altitude of 50 to 2000 km. We have compared electron density data obtained from the ESR with the predicted electron density from the IRI-2016 model. Our results show that the IRI model in general fits the ESR data well around the F2 peak height. However, the model seems to underestimate the electron density at lower altitudes, particularly during winter months. During solar minimum the model is also less accurate at higher altitudes. The purpose of this study is to validate the IRI model at polar latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21258850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21258850"><span>Vocational rehabilitation from the client's perspective using the <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glässel, Andrea; Finger, Monika E; Cieza, Alarcos; Treitler, Christine; Coenen, Michaela; Escorpizo, Reuben</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION A mixed-methods (qualitative-quantitative), multicenter study was conducted using a focus group design to explore the lived experiences of persons in vocational rehabilitation (VR) with regard to functioning and contextual factors using six open-ended questions related to the ICF components. The results were classified by using the <span class="hlt">International</span> Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span>. METHODS The meaningful concepts within the transcribed data were identified and linked to ICF categories according to established linking rules. RESULTS The seven focus groups with 26 participants yielded a total of 4,813 relevant concepts which were linked to a total of 160 different second-level ICF categories. From the client perspective, the ICF components (a) body functions, (b) activities and participation and (c) environmental factors were equally represented, while (d) body structures appeared less frequently. Out of the total number of concepts, 864 concepts (18%) were assigned to the ICF component personal factors which is not yet classified but could indicate important aspects of resource management and strategy development of patients in VR. CONCLUSION Therefore, VR of patients must not be limited to anatomical and pathophysiologic changes, but should also consider a more comprehensive view which includes client's demands, strategies and resources in daily life and the context around the individual and social circumstances of their work situation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013010','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013010"><span>How the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field vector reverses polarity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Coe, R.S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860011526','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860011526"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> main field modeling using magnetohydrodynamic constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Estes, R. H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The influence of physical constraints are investigated which may be approximately satisfied by the Earth's liquid core on models of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> main field and its secular variation. A previous report describes the methodology used to incorporate nonlinear equations of constraint into the main field model. The application of that methodology to the GSFC 12/83 field model to test the frozen-flux hypothesis and the usefulness of incorporating magnetohydrodynamic constraints for obtaining improved <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21055496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21055496"><span>Report of an <span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study to establish the first WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagents for BCG vaccines of three different sub-strains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Mei M; Markey, Kevin; Rigsby, Peter; Hockley, Jason; Corbel, Michael J</p> <p>2011-01-10</p> <p>The WHO First <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Preparation for BCG vaccine is over forty years old and is no longer available for distribution due to stock depletion and its significant loss of viability. <span class="hlt">International</span> consultations identified a demand for replacement with sub-strain specific BCG preparations. An <span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study was carried out to evaluate three candidates for WHO <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagent for BCG vaccine of Danish 1331, Russian BCG-I and Tokyo 172-1 sub-strains. These candidates were quantified for viability using both cultural viable count and modified ATP assays. The proposal for the establishment of these First WHO <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagents for BCG vaccines was discussed in the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization meeting, October 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23055085"><span>Trial-by-trial updating of an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> in discrimination tasks: evidence from effects of stimulus order and trial sequence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dyjas, Oliver; Bausenhart, Karin M; Ulrich, Rolf</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>In psychophysics, participants are often asked to discriminate between a constant standard and a variable comparison. Previous studies have shown that discrimination performance is better when the comparison follows, rather than precedes, the standard. Prominent difference models of psychophysics and decision making cannot easily explain this order effect. However, a simple extension of this model class involving dynamical updating of an <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> accounts for this order effect. In addition, this <span class="hlt">Internal</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model (IRM) predicts sequential response effects. We examined the predictions of IRM in two duration discrimination experiments. The obtained results are in agreement with the predictions of IRM, suggesting that participants update their <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> on every trial. Additional simulations show that IRM also accounts for the negative sequential effects observed in single-stimulus paradigms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rust&pg=6&id=ED419723','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rust&pg=6&id=ED419723"><span>Teachers and Teaching in the Developing World. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 8. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 617.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rust, Val D., Ed.; Dalin, Per, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This book is an outgrowth of an <span class="hlt">international</span> seminar held in Bali, Indonesia in 1986 entitled "Improving the Quality of Teaching in the Developing World: Alternative Models." The book contains essays written by 20 authors and coauthors from 12 different countries and is divided into five sections, plus a preface. The focus of section 1,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Japanese+AND+Nationalism&pg=5&id=ED417999','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Japanese+AND+Nationalism&pg=5&id=ED417999"><span>Three Decades of Peace Education around the World: An Anthology. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 600. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 24.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burns, Robin J., Ed.; Aspeslagh, Robert, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The Peace Education Commission (PEC) of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Peace Research Association (IPRA) has been the forum for peace educators to come together, to exchange and to share ideas, materials and experiences over three decades. This book draws from key papers from different areas and times of peace education work to show the richness of ideas and…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dreamers&pg=6&id=ED417999','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dreamers&pg=6&id=ED417999"><span>Three Decades of Peace Education around the World: An Anthology. Garland <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library of Social Science, Volume 600. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books in <span class="hlt">International</span> Education, Volume 24.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burns, Robin J., Ed.; Aspeslagh, Robert, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The Peace Education Commission (PEC) of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Peace Research Association (IPRA) has been the forum for peace educators to come together, to exchange and to share ideas, materials and experiences over three decades. This book draws from key papers from different areas and times of peace education work to show the richness of ideas and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6046690','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6046690"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> disturbance effects on power systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Albertson, V.D.; Bozoki, B.; Feero, W.E.; Kappenman, J.G.; Larsen, E.V.; Nordell, D.E.; Ponder, J.; Prabhakara, F.S.; Thompson, K.; Walling, R.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>In the northern hemisphere, the aurora borealis is visual evidence of simultaneous fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field). These <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances (GMD's), or <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms, can affect a number of man-made systems, including electric power systems. The GMD's are caused by the electromagnetic interaction of the solar wind plasma of protons and electrons with the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. These dynamic impulses in the solar wind are due to solar flares, coronal holes, and disappearing filaments, and reach the earth from one to six days after being emitted by a solar event. Instances of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms affecting telegraph systems were noted in England in 1846, and power system disturbances linked to GMD's were first reported in the United States in 1940. This Working Group report is a summary of the state of knowledge and research activity to the present time, and covers the GMD/<span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span>-induced currents (GIC) phenomena, transformer effects, the impact on generators, protective relay effects, and communication system effects. It also summarizes modeling and predicting GIC, measuring and monitoring GIC, mitigation methods, system operating guidelines during GMD's, and alerting and forecasting procedures and needs for the power industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1466O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1466O"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storm Main Phase effect on the Equatorial Ionosphere as measured from GPS observations at Ile-Ife</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olabode, Ayomide; Ariyibi, Emmanuel</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The effect of the main phase of two intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm events which occurred on August 5-6 and September 26-27, 2011 on the equatorial ionosphere have been investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) data obtained from an Ile-Ife station (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> lat. 9.84°N, long. 77.25°E). The WinTEC-P and GPS-TEC analysis software programs were used to process the GPS data to obtain Total Electron Content (TEC) and Scintillation Index (S4). TEC profiles during the main phase of the two <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> disturbed days were compared with quiet time average profiles to examine the response of the equatorial ionosphere. <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 TEC model was also obtained from Virtual Ionosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere Observatory (VITMO) and the extents of deviation from measured GPS-derived TEC were examined for the main phase of the storm events. The results showed that the intensity of both storm events during the main phase which occurred at night-time correlated well with a strong southward direction of the z-component of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF-Bz) and Solar Wind Speed (Vsw), with the Disturbance storm time (Dst) profile showing multiple step development. TEC depletion was observed during the main phase of the August 5-6, 2011 storm event with TEC recording a maximum value of 9.31 TECU. A maximum TEC value of 55.8 TECU was recorded during the main phase of the September 26-27, 2011 storm event depicting TEC enhancement. Significant scintillation index value of 0.57 was observed when the main phase started on August 5-6, 2011 followed by a prolonged suppression while there was less significant scintillation impact on September 26-27, 2011 with a maximum value of 0.33. The study concluded that the intensification of the ring current during the main phase of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm events was responsible for the intensity of the storm events causing large variations in TEC and significant scintillation phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=3&id=EJ639605','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ISBN&pg=3&id=EJ639605"><span>Ready <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koltay, Emery</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Includes four articles that relate to ready <span class="hlt">reference</span>, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (<span class="hlt">International</span> Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28636777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28636777"><span>Biological effects related to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and possible mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krylov, Viacheslav V</p> <p>2017-06-21</p> <p>This review presents contemporary data on the biological effects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. Correlations between <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices and biological parameters and experimental studies that used simulated <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms to detect possible responses of organisms to these events in nature are discussed. Possible mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity influences organisms are also considered. Special attention is paid to the idea that <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity is perceived by organisms as a disruption of diurnal <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variation. This variation, in turn, is viewed by way of a secondary zeitgeber for biological circadian rhythms. Additionally, we discuss the utility of cryptochrome as a biological detector of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. The possible involvement of melatonin and protein coding by the CG8198 gene in the biological effects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity are discussed. Perspectives for studying mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms affect organisms are suggested. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;9999:1-14. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Natur.444...51E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Natur.444...51E"><span>Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field from evaporite palaeolatitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, David A. D.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Palaeomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields and palaeoclimate zones. Proterozoic glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial palaeomagnetic latitudes can be explained by `snowball Earth' episodes, high orbital obliquity or markedly non-uniformitarian <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields. Here I present a global palaeomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly remains the most viable model for low-latitude Proterozoic ice ages. Efforts to reconstruct Proterozoic supercontinents are strengthened by this demonstration of a consistently axial and dipolar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame, which itself implies stability of geodynamo processes on billion-year timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17080082"><span>Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field from evaporite palaeolatitudes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evans, David A D</p> <p>2006-11-02</p> <p>Palaeomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields and palaeoclimate zones. Proterozoic glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial palaeomagnetic latitudes can be explained by 'snowball Earth' episodes, high orbital obliquity or markedly non-uniformitarian <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields. Here I present a global palaeomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly remains the most viable model for low-latitude Proterozoic ice ages. Efforts to reconstruct Proterozoic supercontinents are strengthened by this demonstration of a consistently axial and dipolar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame, which itself implies stability of geodynamo processes on billion-year timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SpWea..15..820L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SpWea..15..820L"><span>Real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> monitoring for space weather-related applications: Opportunities and challenges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>An examination is made of opportunities and challenges for enhancing global, real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> monitoring that would be beneficial for a variety of operational projects. This enhancement in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> monitoring can be attained by expanding the geographic distribution of magnetometer stations, improving the quality of magnetometer data, increasing acquisition sampling rates, increasing the promptness of data transmission, and facilitating access to and use of the data. Progress will benefit from new partnerships to leverage existing capacities and harness multisector, cross-disciplinary, and <span class="hlt">international</span> interests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730042176&hterms=Palestine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPalestine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730042176&hterms=Palestine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPalestine"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff rigidities and particle fluxes below <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff near Palestine, Texas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pennypacker, C. R.; Smoot, G. F.; Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>We report a high-statistics magnetic spectrometer measurement of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff rigidity and related effects at Palestine, Texas. The effective cutoffs we observe are in agreement with computer-calculated cutoffs. We also report measured spectra of albedo and atmospheric secondary particles that come below <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP31A1386O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP31A1386O"><span>Fine structure of the 2003 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerk near China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ou, J.; Du, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The 2003 jerk has an abrupt change in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation (SV), and was recognized as a local phenomenon of <span class="hlt">internal</span> origin from the satellite observations (Olsen and Mandea, 2007). Notable strength of the 2003 jerk is located near China. The temporal and spatial features at this area are important to resolve the Earth's core fluid flow dynamics at local scale (e.g. Wardinski et al., 2008). We investigate the temporal-spatial development of the 2003 jerk in more detail near China with the ground-based observations and CHAOS-3 core field model. We select the data in the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> quiet days to calculate the monthly means. In order to reduce the influence of the external field, we adopt a function comprising the terms associated with the indices of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity, and the terms of the periodic signals on the observatory monthly means data (Stewart and Whaler, 1992). We then use an empirical AR-2 model to represent the <span class="hlt">internal</span> field signals in the observatory data. The extreme detection is applied to identify the jerk in the SV time series. The onset time and the strength of the 2003 jerk are obtained through the detection for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field component, X, Y and Z. The maximum of the strength of the 2003 jerk is located under the Indian mainland. The onset time of this jerk propagates approximately southeastward. Two jerks in 2001 and 2003 for the Z component are further compared and they are confirmed as independent processes. We suggest the jerk in 2001 identical to the well known 1999 jerk in Europe (Mandea et al., 2000). Our results reveal the fine structures of the 2003 jerk that corroborate the conclusions in previous studies. The larger scale time-spatial structure given by the AR-2 model constructed from ground observatory data (monthly values) is consistent with the results from the CHAOS-3 model. This structure can be applied for further inversion of the local core surface fluid flow motions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3077K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.3077K"><span>Advantage of wavelet technique to highlight the observed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> perturbations linked to the Chilean tsunami (2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klausner, V.; Mendes, Odim; Domingues, Margarete O.; Papa, Andres R. R.; Tyler, Robert H.; Frick, Peter; Kherani, Esfhan A.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The vertical component (Z) of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field observed by ground-based observatories of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network has been used to analyze the induced magnetic fields produced by the movement of a tsunami, electrically conducting sea water through the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. We focus on the survey of minutely sampled <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations induced by the tsunami of 27 February 2010 at Easter Island (IPM) and Papeete (PPT) observatories. In order to detect the tsunami disturbances in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data, we used wavelet techniques. We have observed an 85% correlation between the Z component variation and the tide gauge measurements in period range of 10 to 30 min which may be due to two physical mechanisms: gravity waves and the electric currents in the sea. As an auxiliary tool to verify the disturbed magnetic fields, we used the maximum variance analysis (MVA). At PPT, the analyses show local magnetic variations associated with the tsunami arriving in advance of sea surface fluctuations by about 2 h. The first interpretation of the results suggests that wavelet techniques and MVA can be effectively used to characterize the tsunami contributions to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and further used to calibrate tsunami models and implemented to real-time analysis for forecast tsunami scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24955567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24955567"><span>Standardization of human IL-29 (IFN-λ1): establishment of a World Health Organization <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent for IL-29 (IFN-λ1).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meager, Anthony; Heath, Alan; Dilger, Paula; Zoon, Kathryn; Wadhwa, Meenu</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Human interleukin-29 (IL-29), a helical cytokine with interferon-like activities, is currently being developed as a clinical biotherapeutic to treat chronic hepatitis C infection and some cancers. As such, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized a need for biological standardization of IL-29 and the establishment of an <span class="hlt">internationally</span> available <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent of IL-29. In order to accomplish this, an <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study that evaluates WHO candidate <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagents of IL-29 was instigated by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in 2010 and was carried out in the succeeding year. Two preparations of human sequence recombinant IL-29, one expressed in murine NS0 cells and the other in Escherichia coli, were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC before evaluation in the collaborative study for their suitability to serve as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent. The preparations were tested by 6 laboratories from 4 countries using in vitro bioassays and also evaluated for thermal stability within the NIBSC laboratory. On the basis of the results of the collaborative study, both preparations, 07/212 (NS0-derived) and 10/176 (E. coli-derived) were judged sufficiently active and stable to serve as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent. However, since IL-29 produced in E. coli is in development for clinical applications, it was recommended that the preparation coded 10/176 be established as the WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent for human IL-29. This recommendation was accepted, and the IL-29 preparation coded 10/176 was formally established by the WHO ECBS at its meeting in October 2012 as the WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent for IL-29 with an assigned unitage of 5,000 <span class="hlt">reference</span> units per ampoule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2017/1037/ofr20171037.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2017/1037/ofr20171037.pdf"><span>Time-causal decomposition of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> time series into secular variation, solar quiet, and disturbance signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rigler, E. Joshua</p> <p>2017-04-26</p> <p>A theoretical basis and prototype numerical algorithm are provided that decompose regular time series of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations into three components: secular variation; solar quiet, and disturbance. Respectively, these three components correspond roughly to slow changes in the Earth’s <span class="hlt">internal</span> magnetic field, periodic daily variations caused by quasi-stationary (with respect to the sun) electrical current systems in the Earth’s magnetosphere, and episodic perturbations to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> baseline that are typically driven by fluctuations in a solar wind that interacts electromagnetically with the Earth’s magnetosphere. In contrast to similar algorithms applied to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data in the past, this one addresses the issue of real time data acquisition directly by applying a time-causal, exponential smoother with “seasonal corrections” to the data as soon as they become available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.2691M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.2691M"><span>On the local Hurst exponent of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations: Spatial distribution for different <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michelis, Paola De; Consolini, Giuseppe</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study attempts to characterize the spatial distribution of the scaling features of the short time scale magnetic field fluctuations obtained from 45 ground-based <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate the changes of the scaling properties of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations by evaluating the local Hurst exponent and reconstruct maps of this index as a function of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity level. These maps permit us to localize the different latitudinal structures responsible for disturbances and related to the ionospheric current systems. We find that the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations associated with the different ionospheric current systems have different scaling features, which can be evidenced by the local Hurst exponent. We also find that in general, the local Hurst exponent for quiet magnetospheric periods is higher than that for more active periods suggesting that the dynamical processes that are activated during disturbed times are responsible for changes in the nature of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000070462','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000070462"><span>On <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span> and Paleomagnetism I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Voorhies, Coerte V.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A partial description of Earth's broad scale, core-source magnetic field has been developed and tested three ways. The description features an expected, or mean, spatial magnetic power spectrum that is approximately inversely proportional to horizontal wavenumber atop Earth's core. This multipole spectrum describes a magnetic energy range; it is not steep enough for Gubbins' magnetic dissipation range. Temporal variations of core multipole powers about mean values are to be expected and are described statistically, via trial probability distribution functions, instead of deterministically, via trial solution of closed transport equations. The distributions considered here are closed and neither require nor prohibit magnetic isotropy. The description is therefore applicable to, and tested against, both dipole and low degree non-dipole fields. In Part 1, a physical basis for an expectation spectrum is developed and checked. The description is then combined with main field models of twentieth century satellite and surface <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field measurements to make testable predictions of the radius of Earth's core. The predicted core radius is 0.7% above the 3480 km seismological value. Partial descriptions of other planetary dipole fields are noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167429"><span>Ionospheric redistribution during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>[1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<-100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3-6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/150357','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/150357"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> trapped anomalous cosmic rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Selesnick, R.S.; Cummings, A.C.; Cummings, J.R.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Since its launch in July 1992, the polar-orbiting satellite SAMPEX has been collecting data on <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> trapped heavy ions, predominantly O, N, and Ne, at energies {ge}15 MeV/nucleon and in a narrow L shell range L = 2. Their location, elemental composition, energy spectra, pitch angle distribution, and time variations all support the theory that these particles originated as singly ionized interplanetary anomalous cosmic rays that were stripped of electrons in the Earth`s upper atmosphere and subsequently trapped. The O are observed primarily at pitch angles outside the atmospheric loss cones, consistent with a trapped population, and their distribution there is nearly isotropic. The abundances relative to O of the N, possible Ne, and especially C are lower than the corresponding interplanetary values, which may be indicative of the trapping efficiencies. The distributions of trapped N, O, and Ne in energy and L shell suggest that most of the ions observed at the SAMPEX altitude of {approximately}600 km are not fully stripped when initially trapped. A comparison of the trapped intensity with the much lower interplanetary intensity of anomalous cosmic rays provides model-dependent estimates of the product of the trapping probability and the average trapped particle lifetime against ionization losses in the residual atmosphere for particles that mirror near the SAMPEX altitude. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9254354','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9254354"><span>[Comparative analysis of diagnoses by the <span class="hlt">referring</span> family physician and the hospital admission committee in ambulatory patients at an <span class="hlt">internal</span> medicine department].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hajnal, F; Nagy, P; Abrahám, G</p> <p>1997-05-25</p> <p>The objectives of the present study were, as follows: 1. To what rate do the primary care doctors <span class="hlt">refer</span> their patients to the regional <span class="hlt">internal</span> medicine emergency department? 2. What sort of problems are the reasons of the <span class="hlt">referring</span>? 3. To what extent are the opinions of the <span class="hlt">referring</span> doctors confirmed or reviewed by the specialists? 4. What rate of the <span class="hlt">referred</span> patients are admitted or discharged after the urgent consultations and-or interventions. 5. What kind of additional tests were used by the institutional caregivers in order to make accurate diagnoses? 6. What was the fate of the unaccepted patients? Data were collected in the patient document archive of the First Dept. of Medicine of the Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University, Szeged, Hungary. Each patients' <span class="hlt">referring</span> notes and inpatient charts between September 15th, 1995 and January 15th, 1996 were studied in a retrospective way. Upon the results of the study, it was concluded, as follows: The primary care doctors <span class="hlt">referred</span> their patients with right orientation diagnosis to the emergency department in 70% of the cases. 45.8% of the <span class="hlt">referred</span> pts. were admitted to the <span class="hlt">internal</span> inpatient ward. The agreement of the <span class="hlt">referring</span> and discharge diagnoses was greater (85.7%) among the admitted patients as compared to the unaccepted ones (56.8%). 14% of the <span class="hlt">referred</span> pts. were <span class="hlt">referred</span> to other specialists by the internists. On the basis of the results the actual messages of the study for an under- and postgraduate medical teaching group, and for the health care politicians are discussed in the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2837854','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2837854"><span>The height-, weight-, and BMI-for-age of Polish school-aged children and adolescents relative to <span class="hlt">international</span> and local growth <span class="hlt">references</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background The growth of children is an indicator of health and society's wellbeing. Growth <span class="hlt">references</span> are useful in monitoring a child's growth, which is a very important part of child care. Poland's growth <span class="hlt">references</span> are not updated regularly. Although several growth <span class="hlt">reference</span> ranges have been developed in Poland over recent years, sampling was restricted to urban populations of major cities. The aim of this study was to assess how well Polish children match with, or diverge from, regional charts and to compare them with <span class="hlt">international</span> growth <span class="hlt">references</span>. Methods Four Polish and two <span class="hlt">international</span> (WHO 2007 and USCDC2000) growth <span class="hlt">references</span> were used to calculate the height, weight and BMI z-scores in a recent, large, population-representative sample of school-aged children and adolescents in Poland. The distributions of z-scores were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results Mean height z-scores calculated with the use of the WHO 2007 and USCDC2000 <span class="hlt">references</span> were positive and significantly different from zero over the entire age range. The mean height z-score was closest to zero in the Poznan <span class="hlt">reference</span> for boys (0.05) and Warszawa <span class="hlt">reference</span> for girls (0.01). Median weight z-scores were positive under all weight <span class="hlt">references</span> over the entire age range with only the exception of 18-year-old girls' weight z-score calculated relative to USCDC2000. Median BMI z-scores were positive in males in early childhood, decreasing with age. In the case of girls, the median BMI z-score calculated using WHO 2007 and USCDC2000 was close to zero in early childhood, decreased in adolescents and reached minimum values at age 18 years. Median BMI z-scores calculated with the use of the Lodz <span class="hlt">reference</span> fluctuated between 0.05 and 0.2 over the studied age range. Conclusions In this contemporary sample of Polish school-aged children, distributions of height, weight and BMI differed from those of children from the <span class="hlt">international</span> growth <span class="hlt">references</span>. These differences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMSM42A0828T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMSM42A0828T"><span>Solar Wind Disturbances Related to <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, A.; Lyatsky, W. B.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>We used the superposed epoch method to reconstruct a typical behavior of solar wind parameters before and during strong isolated <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. For this analysis we used 130 such <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms during the period of 1966-2000. The results obtained show that a typical disturbance in the solar wind responsible for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm generation is associated with the propagation of high-speed plasma flow compressing ambient solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) ahead of this high-speed flow. This gives rise to enhanced magnetic field, plasma density, plasma turbulence and temperature, which start to increase several hours before <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm onset. However, the IMF Bz (responsible for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm onset) starts to increase significantly later (approximately 6-7 hours after maximal variations in plasma density and IMF By). The time delay between peaks in IMF Bz and plasma density (and IMF By) may be a result of draping of high-speed plasma streams with ambient magnetic field in the (z-y) plane as discussed by some authors. This leads to an increase first in plasma density and IMF By ahead of a high-speed flow, which is followed by an increase in IMF Bz. This simple model allows us to predict that the probability for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm generation should depend on which edge of a high-speed flow encounters the Earth's magnetosphere. The probability for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm generation is expected to be maximal when the flow encounters the magnetosphere by its north-west edge for negative IMF By and south-west edge for positive IMF By.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Brunner&pg=6&id=EJ1049486','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Brunner&pg=6&id=EJ1049486"><span>The Longitudinal Interplay of Students' Academic Self-Concepts and Achievements within and across Domains: Replicating and Extending the Reciprocal <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Niepel, Christoph; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Students' cognitive and motivational profiles have a large impact on their academic careers. The development of such profiles can partly be explained by the reciprocal <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> model (RI/E model). The RI/E model predicts positive and negative longitudinal effects between academic self-concepts and achievements within…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+concept+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ1049913','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+concept+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ1049913"><span>The <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model of Self-Concept and Achievement Relations: Age-Cohort and Cross-Cultural Differences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Parker, Philip D.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Möller, Jens; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> (I/E) model and dimensional comparison theory posit paradoxical relations between achievement (ACH) and self-concept (SC) in mathematics (M) and verbal (V) domains; ACH in each domain positively affects SC in the matching domain (e.g., MACH to MSC) but negatively in the nonmatching domain (e.g., MACH to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=motivation+AND+concept&pg=4&id=EJ1049913','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=motivation+AND+concept&pg=4&id=EJ1049913"><span>The <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model of Self-Concept and Achievement Relations: Age-Cohort and Cross-Cultural Differences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marsh, Herbert W.; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah; Parker, Philip D.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Nagengast, Benjamin; Möller, Jens; Abu-Hilal, Maher M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> (I/E) model and dimensional comparison theory posit paradoxical relations between achievement (ACH) and self-concept (SC) in mathematics (M) and verbal (V) domains; ACH in each domain positively affects SC in the matching domain (e.g., MACH to MSC) but negatively in the nonmatching domain (e.g., MACH to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445006.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445006.pdf"><span>Extension of the <span class="hlt">Internal</span>/External Frame of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model of Self-Concept Formation: Importance of Native and Nonnative Languages for Chinese Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hau, Kit-Tai; Kong, Chit-Kwong; Marsh, Herbert W.; Cheng, Zi-Juan</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">internal</span>/external frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> (I/E) model of self-concept formation was extended by relating Chinese, English, and mathematics achievement to Chinese, English, and mathematics self-concepts in a 5-year longitudinal study based on a large (N=9,482) representative sample of Hong Kong high school students. Tests of the I/E model are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP51A1309P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP51A1309P"><span>Bats Use <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field: Behavior and Mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Y.; Tian, L.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It has been known that numerous animals can use the Earth's magnetic field for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation, nevertheless, how animals can respond to the magnetic field remain mostly ambiguous. The intensities of the global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field varies between 23 and 66 μT, and the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity could drop to 10% during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> polarity reversals or <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions. Such dramatic changes of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field may pose a significant challenge for the evolution of magnetic compass in animals. For examples, it is vital whether the magnetic compass can still work in such very weak magnetic fields. Our previous experiment has demonstrated that a migratory bat (Nyctalus plancyi) uses a polarity compass for orientation during roosting when exposed to an artificial magnetic field (100 μT). Recently, we experimentally tested whether the N. plancyi can sense very weak magnetic fields that were even lower than those of the present-day <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field. Results showed: 1) the bats can sense the magnetic north in a field strength of present-day local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field (51μT); 2) As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (10 μT), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. Notably, as the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field with intensity range from twice to 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This allows them to orient themselves across the entire range of present-day global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field strengths and sense very weak magnetic fields. We propose that this high sensitivity might have evolved in bats as the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years since the origin of bats. The physiological mechanisms underlying</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770007709','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770007709"><span>The causes of recurrent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The causes of recurrent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity were studied by analyzing interplanetary magnetic field and plasma data from earth-orbiting spacecraft in the interval from November 1973 to February 1974. This interval included the start of two long sequences of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and two corresponding corotating interplanetary streams. In general, the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity was related to an electric field which was due to two factors: (1) the ordered, mesoscale pattern of the stream itself, and (2) random, smaller-scale fluctuations in the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field Bz. The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity in each recurrent sequence consisted of two successive stages. The first stage was usually the most intense, and it occurred during the passage of the interaction region at the front of a stream. These large amplitudes of Bz were primarily produced in the interplanetary medium by compression of ambient fluctuations as the stream steepened in transit to 1 A.U. The second stage of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity immediately following the first was associated with the highest speeds in the stream.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2879B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.2879B"><span>Neutral thermosphere modelling using sectorial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bezdek, A.; Biancale, R.; Bruinsma, S.; Lathuillere, C.; Menvielle, M.; Valette, J. J.</p> <p></p> <p>Since the 1970 s semi-empirical models of neutral thermospheric density are stuck at a 10--20 precision limit with respect to observations One of the reasons for this is the use of planetary <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices i e one value for the whole Earth at a given UT However it is well known that the atmospheric variability related to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity at thermospheric heights is a function while not well known of geographical location cf different physical regimes governing the polar ionosphere In our tests we made use of the so-called a lambda longitude sector <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index that depends on both the geodetic latitude and longitude the DTM-2000 model of the neutral thermospheric density and the observed densities derived from the accelerometer measurements aboard the CHAMP satellite Using the sectorial index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity instead of the planetary one improves the agreement of the modelled and observed densities especially during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms The DTM-2000 algorithm was modified to accommodate these indices which in fact represents the first step of its upcoming complete revision in order to benefit most from the assimilation of the CHAMP and GRACE density data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Natur.289..478G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Natur.289..478G"><span>Determination of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> archaeomagnitudes from clay pipes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Games, K. P.; Baker, M. E.</p> <p>1981-02-01</p> <p>Archaeomagnitude determinations of a selection of clay pipes dateable to AD 1645+/-10 as well as studies of pottery samples from the same site and of the same age have been made. Values of the magnitude of the ancient magnetic field (Banc), were obtained from two pottery sherds, two pipe bowls and three pipe stems. The values from the sherds and bowls agree within 2% and compare well with the average value of the magnitude of the magnetic field for the seventeenth century as determined by other archaeomagnetic studies. However, the pipe stems give values of Banc which are significantly less than those from the bowls and pottery. We have not yet been able to explain this and thus we suggest that reliable archaeomagnitude determinations can be made from the bowls of clay pipes but not from the stems. Nevertheless, this result provides a new source of material for investigating variations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field strength over the past 400 yr. Clay pipes have been manufactured in England since the end of the sixteenth century. In the firing process some pipes were broken and disposed of without ever having been smoked. One such collection, discovered at Rainford, Lancashire, in 1978, consisted of a series of discrete dumps including pipes, kiln debris and a small collection of contemporary used earthenware sherds. The <span class="hlt">internal</span> consideration of the dumps suggested a very short period of activity and archaeologists (P. Davey, personal communication) ascribe all the material to the period 1645+/-10 yr. With such well-dated material, we set out to check whether or not reliable archaeomagnitudes could be obtained from the pipes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497462','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497462"><span>Ionospheric redistribution during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>[1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dst<−100 nT) sets, we find variation in storm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3–6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow. PMID:26167429</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.4061F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.4061F"><span>Stratospheric Balloon Gradient <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Filippov, Sergey; Tsvetkov, Yury</p> <p></p> <p>The study of the interior structure of the Earth and laws of its evolution is one of the most difficult problems of natural science. Among the geophysical fields the anomaly magnetic field is one of the most informational in questions of the Earth's crust structure. Many important parameters of an environment are expedient for measuring at lower altitudes, than satellite ones. So, one of the alternatives is stratospheric balloon survey. The balloon flight altitudes cover the range from 20 to 50 km. At such altitudes there are steady zone air flows due to which the balloon flight trajectories can be of any direction, including round-the-world (round-the-pole). One of the examples of such sounding system have been designed, developed and maintained at IZMIRAN during already about 20 years. This system consists of three instrumental con-tainers uniformly placed along a vertical 6 km line. System allows measuring a module and vertical gradient of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field along the whole flight trajectory and so one's name is -stratospheric balloon magnetic gradiometer (SMBG). The GPS-receivers, located in each instrumental container, fix the flight coordinates to within several tens meters. Data trans-mission is carried out by Globalstar satellite link. The obtained data are used in solving the problems of deep sounding of the Earth's crust magnetic structure -an extraction of magnetic anomalies, determination of a depth of bedding of magnetoactive rocks and others. The developed launching technology, deployment in flight, assembly, data processing, transfer and landing the containers with the equipment can be used for other similar problems of monitoring and sounding an environment. Useful flight weights of each instrumental container may be reaching 50 kg. More than ten testing flights (1986-2009) at stratospheric altitudes (20-30 km) have proven the reliability of this system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcGeo..60..337V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcGeo..60..337V"><span>Determination of the Croatian <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory location</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verbanac, Giuliana; Vujić, Eugen</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Ground survey within the Nature Park Lonjsko Polje, placed in the middle-northern Croatia was performed during the time interval 2007-2010 in order to find the best location for installing the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory. The total magnetic field has been measured a few times using the Overhauser proton magnetometers. The horizontal and vertical gradients of the total field, and its temporal behaviour were investigated over the restricted region that we estimated as suitable for the observatory. The results obtained from thoroughly conducted measurements allowed us to find definitive positions for the instrument pillars. These results are in agreement with previously suggested location found based on combination of Comprehensive CM4 model prediction and measurements conducted from 2003 to 2005. This study contributes to the development of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> in Croatia and paves a way to install the first <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory in Croatia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019868','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019868"><span>Scaling laws from <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> time series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Voros, Z.; Kovacs, P.; Juhasz, A.; Kormendi, A.; Green, A.W.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The notion of extended self-similarity (ESS) is applied here for the X - component time series of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field fluctuations. Plotting nth order structure functions against the fourth order structure function we show that low-frequency <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fluctuations up to the order n = 10 follow the same scaling laws as MHD fluctuations in solar wind, however, for higher frequencies (f > l/5[h]) a clear departure from the expected universality is observed for n > 6. ESS does not allow to make an unambiguous statement about the non triviality of scaling laws in "<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span>" turbulence. However, we suggest to use higher order moments as promising diagnostic tools for mapping the contributions of various remote magnetospheric sources to local observatory data. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015664','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015664"><span>An introduction to quiet daily <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Campbell, W.H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740004984','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740004984"><span>Magnetospheric mapping with quantitative <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fairfield, D. H.; Mead, G. D.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The Mead-Fairfield <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models were used to trace field lines between the outer magnetosphere and the earth's surface. The results are presented in terms of ground latitude and local time contours projected to the equatorial plane and into the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail. With these contours various observations can be mapped along field lines between high and low altitudes. Low altitudes observations of the polar cap boundary, the polar cusp, the energetic electron trapping boundary and the sunward convection region are projected to the equatorial plane and compared with the results of the model and with each other. The results provide quantitative support to the earlier suggestions that the trapping boundary is associated with the last closed field line in the sunward hemisphere, the polar cusp is associated with the region of the last closed field line, and the polar cap projects to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> tail and has a low latitude boundary corresponding to the last closed field line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM14A..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM14A..07H"><span>Quantifying Power Grid Risk from <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Homeier, N.; Wei, L. H.; Gannon, J. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We are creating a statistical model of the geophysical environment that can be used to quantify the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm hazard to power grid infrastructure. Our model is developed using a database of surface electric fields for the continental United States during a set of historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. These electric fields are derived from the SUPERMAG compilation of worldwide magnetometer data and surface impedances from the United States Geological Survey. This electric field data can be combined with a power grid model to determine GICs per node and reactive MVARs at each minute during a storm. Using publicly available substation locations, we derive relative risk maps by location by combining magnetic latitude and ground conductivity. We also estimate the surface electric fields during the August 1972 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm that caused a telephone cable outage across the middle of the United States. This event produced the largest surface electric fields in the continental U.S. in at least the past 40 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051274&hterms=geomagnetic+storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgeomagnetic%2Bstorm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051274&hterms=geomagnetic+storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgeomagnetic%2Bstorm"><span>Coronal mass ejections and large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Mccomas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Previous work indicates that coronal mass ejection (CME) events in the solar wind at 1 AU can be identified by the presence of a flux of counterstreaming solar wind halo electrons (above about 80 eV). Using this technique to identify CMEs in 1 AU plasma data, it is found that most large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms during the interval surrounding the last solar maximum (August 1978 - October 1982) were associated with earth-passage of interplanetary disturbances in which the earth encountered both a shock and the CME driving the shock. However, only about one CME in six encountered by earth was effective in causing a large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. Slow CMEs which did not interact strongly with the ambient solar wind ahead were particularly ineffective in a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> sense.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7975466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7975466"><span>Review of the problems involved in using enzymes in blood group serology--provision of freeze-dried ICSH/ISBT protease enzyme and anti-D <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards. <span class="hlt">International</span> Council for Standardization in Haematology. <span class="hlt">International</span> Society of Blood Transfusion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scott, M L; Voak, D; Phillips, P K; Hoppe, P A; Kochman, S A</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Proteolytic enzyme preparations and techniques used routinely in blood group serology for the detection of atypical patient antibodies prior to transfusion vary widely and are often poorly standardised. Recent advances have been made in the use of biochemical methods to standardise and stabilise the potency of the enzyme preparations used. A joint working party of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) has investigated possibilities for the provision of standards for the protease preparations and techniques. The specification for these standards was that the performance of enzyme <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> technique should be of equivalent sensitivity to the ICSH/ISBT LISS spin indirect antiglobulin test using a titration series of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> weak anti-D, and be free from false-positive reactions. The working party circulated materials for evaluation in inter-laboratory trials, followed by a laboratory workshop meeting to achieve agreement on the specification for <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and methods. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> freeze-dried papain at 0.6 azoalbumin units and weak anti-D preparations (91/562) have been prepared and validated to meet these specifications. The performance of a test enzyme preparation in the technique for which it is recommended for use should be at least equal to that of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> papain preparation, by the <span class="hlt">reference</span> two-stage technique in terms of sensitivity, using a titration series of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> anti-D, and freedom from false-positive reactions, using six fresh inert sera. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> papain and weak anti-D can also be used to calibrate the level of proteolytic activity required in other procedures in blood group serology, such as new technology methods for antibody detection, and automated and microplate cell grouping procedures. These preparations and an agreed method for their use are now available from listed centres as ICSH/ISBT and Food</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950058567&hterms=solar+storms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bstorms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950058567&hterms=solar+storms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bstorms"><span>The causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms during solar maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>One of the oldest mysteries in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is the linkage between solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. In investigating the causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms occurring during solar maximum, the following topics are discussed: solar phenomena; types of solar wind; magnetic reconnection and magnetic storms; an interplanetary example; and future space physics missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950058567&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950058567&hterms=Geomagnetism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DGeomagnetism"><span>The causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms during solar maximum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>One of the oldest mysteries in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is the linkage between solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. In investigating the causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms occurring during solar maximum, the following topics are discussed: solar phenomena; types of solar wind; magnetic reconnection and magnetic storms; an interplanetary example; and future space physics missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22916200','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22916200"><span>Avoiding pitfalls of <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls: validation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for analysis by qRT-PCR and Western blot throughout rat retinal development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocha-Martins, Maurício; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Housekeeping genes have been commonly used as <span class="hlt">reference</span> to normalize gene expression and protein content data because of its presumed constitutive expression. In this paper, we challenge the consensual idea that housekeeping genes are reliable controls for expression studies in the retina through the investigation of a panel of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes potentially suitable for analysis of different stages of retinal development. We applied statistical tools on combinations of retinal developmental stages to assess the most stable <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The stability of expression of seven putative <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt1, Mapk1, Ppia and Rn18s) was analyzed using geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder software. In addition, several housekeeping genes were tested as loading controls for Western blot in the same sample panel, using Image J. Overall, for qRT-PCR the combination of Gapdh and Mapk1 showed the highest stability for most experimental sets. Actb was downregulated in more mature stages, while Rn18s and Hprt1 showed the highest variability. We normalized the expression of cyclin D1 using various <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and demonstrated that spurious results may result from blind selection of <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls. For Western blot significant variation could be seen among four putative <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls (β-actin, cyclophilin b, α-tubulin and lamin A/C), while MAPK1 was stably expressed. Putative housekeeping genes exhibit significant variation in both mRNA and protein content during retinal development. Our results showed that distinct combinations of <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls fit for each experimental set in the case of qRT-PCR and that MAPK1 is a reliable loading control for Western blot. The results indicate that biased study outcomes may follow the use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes without prior validation for qRT-PCR and Western blot.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3423434','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3423434"><span>Avoiding Pitfalls of <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Controls: Validation of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes for Analysis by qRT-PCR and Western Blot throughout Rat Retinal Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rocha-Martins, Maurício; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Housekeeping genes have been commonly used as <span class="hlt">reference</span> to normalize gene expression and protein content data because of its presumed constitutive expression. In this paper, we challenge the consensual idea that housekeeping genes are reliable controls for expression studies in the retina through the investigation of a panel of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes potentially suitable for analysis of different stages of retinal development. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied statistical tools on combinations of retinal developmental stages to assess the most stable <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The stability of expression of seven putative <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt1, Mapk1, Ppia and Rn18s) was analyzed using geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder software. In addition, several housekeeping genes were tested as loading controls for Western blot in the same sample panel, using Image J. Overall, for qRT-PCR the combination of Gapdh and Mapk1 showed the highest stability for most experimental sets. Actb was downregulated in more mature stages, while Rn18s and Hprt1 showed the highest variability. We normalized the expression of cyclin D1 using various <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and demonstrated that spurious results may result from blind selection of <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls. For Western blot significant variation could be seen among four putative <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls (β-actin, cyclophilin b, α-tubulin and lamin A/C), while MAPK1 was stably expressed. Conclusion Putative housekeeping genes exhibit significant variation in both mRNA and protein content during retinal development. Our results showed that distinct combinations of <span class="hlt">internal</span> controls fit for each experimental set in the case of qRT-PCR and that MAPK1 is a reliable loading control for Western blot. The results indicate that biased study outcomes may follow the use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes without prior validation for qRT-PCR and Western blot. PMID:22916200</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019381&hterms=Aristoteles&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAristoteles','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019381&hterms=Aristoteles&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAristoteles"><span>Satellite Data for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.; Baldwin, R. T.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Satellite measurements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May of 1958 and have continued sporadically. Spacecraft making significant contributions to main field <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> will be reviewed and the characteristics of their data discussed, including coverage, accuracy, resolution and data availability. Of particular interest are Vanguard 3; Cosmos 49, Ogo's -2, -4, and -6; Magsat; DE-2; and POGS. Spacecraft make measurements on a moving platfrom above the ionosphere as opposed to measurements from fixed observatories and surveys, both below the ionosphere. Possible future missions, such as Aristoteles and GOS are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992NASCP3153...75L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992NASCP3153...75L"><span>Satellite data for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.; Baldwin, R. T.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>Satellite measurements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May of 1958 and have continued sporadically. Spacecraft making significant contributions to main field <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> will be reviewed and the characteristics of their data discussed, including coverage, accuracy, resolution and data availability. Of particular interest are Vanguard 3; Cosmos 49, Ogo's -2, -4, and -6; Magsat; DE-2; and POGS. Spacecraft make measurements on a moving platfrom above the ionosphere as opposed to measurements from fixed observatories and surveys, both below the ionosphere. Possible future missions, such as Aristoteles and GOS are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007249','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007249"><span>Large <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms: Introduction to Special Section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, N.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Solar cycle 23 witnessed the accumulation of rich data sets that reveal various aspects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms in unprecedented detail both at the Sun where the storm causing disturbances originate and in geospace where the effects of the storms are directly felt. During two recent coordinated data analysis workshops (CDAWs) the large <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms (Dst < or = -100 nT) of solar cycle 23 were studied in order to understand their solar, interplanetary, and geospace connections. This special section grew out of these CDAWs with additional contributions relevant to these storms. Here I provide a brief summary of the results presented in the special section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ge%26Ae..54..269R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ge%26Ae..54..269R"><span>First <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements in the Antarctic region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raspopov, O. M.; Demina, I. M.; Meshcheryakov, V. V.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Based on data from literature and archival sources, we have further processed and analyzed the results of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements made during the 1772-1775 Second World Expedition by James Cook and the 1819-1821 overseas Antarctic Expedition by Russian mariners Bellingshausen and Lazarev. Comparison with the GUFM historical model showed that there are systematic differences in the spatial structure of both the declination and its secular variation. The results obtained can serve as a basis for the construction of regional models of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field for the Antarctic region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9626C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9626C"><span>Tsunami related to solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between earthquakes of high intensity capable of generating tsunami and variations of solar and Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in the hours that preceded the four earthquakes of high intensity that have generated tsunamis: 1) Japan M9 earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 at 05:46 UTC; 2) Japan M7.1 earthquake occurred on October 25, 2013 at 17:10 UTC; 3) Chile M8.2 earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014 at 23:46 UTC; 4) Chile M8.3 earthquake occurred on September 16, 2015 at 22:54 UTC. The data relating to the four earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> activity data were provided by Tromsø <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark and by Space Weather Prediction Center of Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3130U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3130U"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storm Impact On GPS Code Positioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uray, Fırat; Varlık, Abdullah; Kalaycı, İbrahim; Öǧütcü, Sermet</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm impact on GPS code processing with using GIPSY/OASIS research software. 12 IGS stations in mid-latitude were chosen to conduct the experiment. These IGS stations were classified as non-cross correlation receiver reporting P1 and P2 (NONCC-P1P2), non-cross correlation receiver reporting C1 and P2 (NONCC-C1P2) and cross-correlation (CC-C1P2) receiver. In order to keep the code processing consistency between the classified receivers, only P2 code observations from the GPS satellites were processed. Four extreme <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms October 2003, day of the year (DOY), 29, 30 Halloween Storm, November 2003, DOY 20, November 2004, DOY 08 and four <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> quiet days in 2005 (DOY 92, 98, 99, 100) were chosen for this study. 24-hour rinex data of the IGS stations were processed epoch-by-epoch basis. In this way, receiver clock and Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Cartesian Coordinates were solved for a per-epoch basis for each day. IGS combined broadcast ephemeris file (brdc) were used to partly compensate the ionospheric effect on the P2 code observations. There is no tropospheric model was used for the processing. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Application Technology Satellites (JPL ATS) computed coordinates of the stations were taken as true coordinates. The differences of the computed ECEF coordinates and assumed true coordinates were resolved to topocentric coordinates (north, east, up). Root mean square (RMS) errors for each component were calculated for each day. The results show that two-dimensional and vertical accuracy decreases significantly during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm days comparing with the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> quiet days. It is observed that vertical accuracy is much more affected than the horizontal accuracy by <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. Up to 50 meters error in vertical component has been observed in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm day. It is also observed that performance of Klobuchar ionospheric correction parameters during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019381&hterms=Sputnik&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSputnik','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920019381&hterms=Sputnik&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSputnik"><span>Satellite Data for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Langel, R. A.; Baldwin, R. T.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Satellite measurements of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May of 1958 and have continued sporadically. Spacecraft making significant contributions to main field <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> will be reviewed and the characteristics of their data discussed, including coverage, accuracy, resolution and data availability. Of particular interest are Vanguard 3; Cosmos 49, Ogo's -2, -4, and -6; Magsat; DE-2; and POGS. Spacecraft make measurements on a moving platfrom above the ionosphere as opposed to measurements from fixed observatories and surveys, both below the ionosphere. Possible future missions, such as Aristoteles and GOS are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720026422&hterms=kawasaki&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dkawasaki','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720026422&hterms=kawasaki&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dkawasaki"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storm fields near a synchronous satellite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kawasaki, K.; Akasofu, S. I.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>An apparent early recovery of the main phase of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms at the distance of the synchronous satellite is examined in terms of changing electric current distributions in the magnetosphere during magnetic storms. It is suggested that a rapid recession of the edge of the plasma sheet (after the advance toward the earth during an early epoch of the main phase) is partly responsible for the early recovery. Relevant plasma sheet variations during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms are found to be in agreement with the inferred variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/433919','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/433919"><span>Anencephalus, drinking water, <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> and cosmic radiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Archer, V E</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The mortality rates from anencephalus from 1950-1969 in Canadian cities are shown to be strongly correlated with city growth rate and with horizontal <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> flux, which is directly related to the intensity of cosmic radiation. They are also shown to have some association with the magnesium content of drinking water. Prior work with these data which showed associations with magnesium in drinking water, mean income, latitude and longitude was found to be inadequate because it dismissed the observed geographic associations as having little biological meaning, and because the important variables of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> and city growth rate were overlooked.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+Clinic&pg=6&id=EJ911006','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+Clinic&pg=6&id=EJ911006"><span><span class="hlt">Internal</span> Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic <span class="hlt">Referred</span> Youths Age 11 to 17 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we examined the <span class="hlt">internal</span> consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high <span class="hlt">internal</span> consistency estimates were observed across…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+Clinic&pg=6&id=EJ911006','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+Clinic&pg=6&id=EJ911006"><span><span class="hlt">Internal</span> Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic <span class="hlt">Referred</span> Youths Age 11 to 17 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we examined the <span class="hlt">internal</span> consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high <span class="hlt">internal</span> consistency estimates were observed across…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4088A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4088A"><span>Geodynamo simulations: tools to understand and forecast the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubert, Julien</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The past two decades have seen an extensive development of numerical geodynamo simulations as tools to understand the mechanisms through which the magnetic field of <span class="hlt">internal</span> origin of our planet is generated. Though these are still run at parameter regimes far from that of the Earth's core, the similarity of their output with the various observables of the field, secular variation, and underlying core flows has strengthened the prospect to use these simulations as analysis and forecasting tools for the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field evolution. In this presentation, I will report on recent progress in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data assimilation, an emerging discipline which blends together the high-quality satellite data such as these obtained by the Swarm mission, and state-of-the art numerical geodynamo simulation with an Earth-like output. The outcome of data assimilation is an estimate of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> geodynamo structure, which sheds light into the mechanisms currently responsible for the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dipole decay and the extension of the South Atlantic <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> anomaly. Starting from such estimates obtained at present, ensemble-based techniques akin to those used in meteorology can help to estimate how the present field will evolve in the future. For the next century, our operational forecasts predict a further dipole decay of about 1 microtesla at Earth's surface, together with a similar deepening and a westward motion of the South Atlantic anomaly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ICRC....9.3515D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ICRC....9.3515D"><span>Major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and cosmic rays, 1. search of features in CR what can be used for forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorman, L. I.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Zukerman, I. G.</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>According to NOAA Space Weather Scales, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms of scales G5 (3-hour index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others. To prevent these serious damages will be very important to forecast dangerous <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. In many papers it was shown that in principle for this forecasting can be used data on CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms accompanied by sufficient Forbush-decreases (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999). In this paper we consider over 100 major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and for each case we analyze hourly data of many NM for 8 days with SC in the 4-st day of 8-days period (that before SC we have at least 3 full days). We determine what part of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms is accompanied CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC, and what part of major <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms does not show any features what can be used for forecasting. We estimate also how these parts depend from the index of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity Kp. REFERNECES Yudakhin K.F., Bavassano B., Ptitsyna N.G., Tyasto M.I., "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 49A, pp. 136-144. (1995). L.I.Dorman, N.Iucci, N.G.Ptitsyna, G.Villoresi, Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their prediction , Proc. of 26-th <span class="hlt">Intern</span>. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, Vol. 6, p. 476-479, (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.782H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.782H"><span>Determination of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> Quiet Time Disturbances of the Ionosphere over Uganda during the Beginning of Solar Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Habyarimana, Valence</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The ionosphere is prone to significant disturbances during <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> active and quiet conditions. This study focused on the occurrence of ionospheric disturbances during <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet conditions. Ionospheric data comprised of Global Positioning System (GPS)-derived Total Electron Content (TEC), obtained over Mt. Baker, Entebbe, and Mbarara <span class="hlt">International</span> Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Service (IGS) stations. The Disturbance storm time (Dst) index was obtained from Kyoto University website. The number of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet days in the period under study were first identified. Their monthly percentages were compared for the two years. The monthly percentage of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet days for all the months in 2009 numerically exceeded those in 2008. December had the highest percentage of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet days for both years (94 % in 2008 and 100 % in 2009). <span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> quiet days did not show seasonal dependence. The variation in percentage of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet days during solstice months (May, June, July, November, December, and January) and equinoctial months (February, March, April, August, September, and October) was not uniform. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetically</span> quiet time disturbances were found to be more significant from 09:00 UT to 13:00 UT. However, there were some other disturbances of small scale amplitude that occurred between 14:00 UT and 22:00 UT. Further analysis was done to identify the satellites that observed the irregularities that were responsible for TEC perturbations. Satellites are identified by Pseudo Random Numbers (PRNs). The ray path between individual PRNs and the corresponding receivers were analysed. Satellites with PRNs: 3, 7, 8, 19 and 21 registered most of the perturbations. It was found that Q disturbances led to fluctuations in density gradients. Significant TEC perturbations were observed on satellite with PRN 21 with receivers at Entebbe and Mbarara on June 28, 2009 between 18:00 UT and 21:00 UT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..102K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..102K"><span>Planetary distribution of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations during a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm at solar minimum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the features of the planetary distribution of wave phenomena (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations) in the Earth's magnetic shell (the magnetosphere) during a strong <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm on December 14-15, 2006, which is untypical of the minimum phase of solar activity. The storm was caused by the approach of the interplanetary magnetic cloud towards the Earth's magnetosphere. The study is based on the analysis of 1-min data of global digital <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observations at a few latitudinal profiles of the global network of ground-based magnetic stations. The analysis is focused on the Pc5 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations, whose frequencies fall in the band of 1.5-7 mHz ( T ˜ 2-10 min), on the fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and in the solar wind density in this frequency band. It is shown that during the initial phase of the storm with positive IMF Bz, most intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations were recorded in the dayside polar regions. It was supposed that these pulsations could probably be caused by the injection of the fluctuating streams of solar wind into the Earth's ionosphere in the dayside polar cusp region. The fluctuations arising in the ionospheric electric currents due to this process are recorded as the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations by the ground-based magnetometers. Under negative IMF Bz, substorms develop in the nightside magnetosphere, and the enhancement of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations was observed in this latitudinal region on the Earth's surface. The generation of these pulsations is probably caused by the fluctuations in the field-aligned magnetospheric electric currents flowing along the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field lines from the substorm source region. These <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations are not related to the fluctuations in the interplanetary medium. During the main phase of the magnetic storm, when fluctuations in the interplanetary medium are almost absent, the most intense <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> pulsations were observed in the dawn sector in the region corresponding to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH51B4158K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH51B4158K"><span>Nonlinear Behavior of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Fluctuations Recorded in Different <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kovacs, P.; Heilig, B.; Koppan, A.; Vadasz, G.; Echim, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The paper concerns with the nonlinear properties of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations recorded in different <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitudes, in the years of solar maximum and minimum. For the study, we use the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> time-series recorded by some of the stations of the EMMA quasi-meridional magnetometer network, established for pulsation study, in September 2001. The stations are located approx. along the magnetic meridian of 100 degree, and the sampling frequency of the series is 1 Hz. It is argued that the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field exhibits nonlinear intermittent fluctuations in certain temporal scale range. For quantitatively investigating the scaling ranges and the variation of intermittent properties with latitude and time, we analyse the higher order moments of the time records (probability density function or structure function analyses). The multifractal or self-similar scaling of the fluctuations is investigated via the fitting of the P model to structure function scaling exponents. We also study the power-law behaviour of the power-spectral density functions of the series in order to evaluate the possible inertial frequency (and temporal) range of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and compare them with the scaling ranges of structure functions. The range where intermittent <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variation is found falls typically between 100 and 20.000 s, i.e. covers the temporal range of the main phases of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. It is shown that the intensity of intermittent fluctuations increases from solar minimum to solar maximum. The expected increase in the level of intermittency with the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> latitude can be evidenced only in the years of solar minimum. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013]) under grant agreement n° 313038/STORM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985AdSpR...5..213G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985AdSpR...5..213G"><span>Observations in the South Atlantic <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Anomaly with Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 during a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gogoshev, M. M.; Gogosheva, Ts. N.; Kostadinov, I. N.; Markova, T. I.; Kisovski, S.</p> <p></p> <p>The region of South Atlantic <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Anomaly was investigated by the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite, launched on August 7, 1981. On the basis of data obtained from 15 orbits during increased <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity in August 1981, a map of the Anomaly was elaborated. Two centers of activity were identified. By means of the EMO-5 electrophotometer on board the Intercosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite, the atmosphere glow in lines 5577 A, 6300 A and 4278 A was studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol2-sec204-125.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title12-vol2-sec204-125.pdf"><span>12 CFR 204.125 - Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and supranational entities <span class="hlt">referred</span> to in §§ 204.2(c)(1)(iv)(E) and 204.8...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... Fund. European Investment Bank. Latin America Andean Development Corporation. Andean Subregional Group... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign, <span class="hlt">international</span>, and supranational entities <span class="hlt">referred</span> to in §§ 204.2(c)(1)(iv)(E) and 204.8(a)(2)(i)(B)(5). 204.125 Section 204.125 Banks and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70006358','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70006358"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing in the arctic environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Podjono, Benny; Beck, Nathan; Buchanan, Andrew; Brink, Jason; Longo, Joseph; Finn, Carol A.; Worthington, E. William</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to north-seeking gyroscopic surveys to achieve the precise wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs. However, the greater magnitude of variations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> environment at higher latitudes makes the application of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise, real-time data on those variations from relatively nearby magnetic observatories can be crucial to achieving the required accuracy, but constructing and operating an observatory in these often harsh environments poses a number of significant challenges. Operational since March 2010, the Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located in Deadhorse, Alaska, was created through collaboration between the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and a leading oilfield services supply company. DED was designed to produce real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data at the required level of accuracy, and to do so reliably under the extreme temperatures and harsh weather conditions often experienced in the area. The observatory will serve a number of key scientific communities as well as the oilfield drilling industry, and has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate data while offering significant cost and time savings, compared with traditional surveying techniques.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035431','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035431"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing in the arctic environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poedjono, B.; Beck, N.; Buchanan, A. C.; Brink, J.; Longo, J.; Finn, C.A.; Worthington, E.W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> referencing is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to north-seeking gyroscopic surveys to achieve the precise wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs. However, the greater magnitude of variations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> environment at higher latitudes makes the application of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise, real-time data on those variations from relatively nearby magnetic observatories can be crucial to achieving the required accuracy, but constructing and operating an observatory in these often harsh environments poses a number of significant challenges. Operational since March 2010, the Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located in Deadhorse, Alaska, was created through collaboration between the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and a leading oilfield services supply company. DED was designed to produce real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data at the required level of accuracy, and to do so reliably under the extreme temperatures and harsh weather conditions often experienced in the area. The observatory will serve a number of key scientific communities as well as the oilfield drilling industry, and has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate data while offering significant cost and time savings, compared with traditional surveying techniques. Copyright 2011, Society of Petroleum Engineers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770016723','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770016723"><span>On the causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Svalgaard, L.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The causes of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity are studied both theoretically in terms of the reconnection model and empirically using the am-index and interplanetary solar wind parameters. It is found that two separate mechanisms supply energy to the magnetosphere. One mechanism depends critically on the magnitude and direction of the interplanetary magnetic field. Both depend strongly on solar wind speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541929"><span>Space radiation enhancement linked to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tomita, F; Den, M; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Nagaoka, T; Kato, M</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made on board the Space Shuttle. A newly developed active detector called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)" was used (Doke et al., 1995; Hayashi et al., 1995). The RRMD results indicate that low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particles steadily penetrate around the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) without clear enhancement of dose equivalent and some daily periodic enhancements of dose equivalent due to high LET particles are seen at the lower <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff regions (Doke et al., 1996). We also have been analyzing the space weather during the experiment, and found that the anomalous high-energy particle enhancement was linked to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance due to the high speed solar wind from a coronal hole. Additional analysis and other experiments are necessary for clarification of these phenomena. If a penetration of high-energy particles into the low altitude occurs by common <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances, the prediction of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity becomes more important in the next Space Station's era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541771"><span>Space radiation enhancement linked to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tomita, F; Den, M; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Nagaoka, T; Kato, M</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>Space radiation dosimetry measurements have been made on board the Space Shuttle. A newly developed active detector called "Real-time Radiation Monitoring Device (RRMD)" was used (Doke et al., 1995; Hayashi et al., 1995). The RRMD results indicate that low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particles steadily penetrate around the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) without clear enhancement of dose equivalent and some daily periodic enhancements of dose equivalent due to high LET particles are seen at the lower <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff regions (Doke et al., 1996). We also have been analyzing the space weather during the experiment, and found that the anomalous high-energy particle enhancement was linked to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance due to the high speed solar wind from a coronal hole. Additional analysis and other experiments are necessary for clarification of these phenomena. If a penetration of high-energy particles into the low altitude occurs by common <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances, the prediction of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity becomes more important in the next Space Station's era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GSL.....3....5L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GSL.....3....5L"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms: historical perspective to modern view</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The history of <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> is more than 400 years old. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> storms as we know them were discovered about 210 years ago. There has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs, and concomitant magnetic storms in recent times. Magnetic storms are the most important component of space weather effects on Earth. We give an overview of the historical aspects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and the progress made during the past two centuries. Super magnetic storms can cause life-threatening power outages and satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. The data for such super magnetic storms that occurred in the last 50 years during the space era is sparce. Research on historical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms can help to create a database for intense and super magnetic storms. New knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of magnetic storms gained from spaceage observations will be used to review the super magnetic storm of September 1-2, 1859. We discuss the occurrence probability of such super magnetic storms, and the maximum possible intensity for the effects of a perfect ICME: extreme super magnetic storm, extreme magnetospheric compression, and extreme magnetospheric electric fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AnGeo..20.1063T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AnGeo..20.1063T"><span>Modelling of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> induction in pipelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trichtchenko, L.; Boteler, D. H.</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field variations induce telluric currents in pipelines, which modify the electrochemical conditions at the pipe/soil interface, possibly contributing to corrosion of the pipeline steel. Modelling of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> induction in pipelines can be accomplished by combining several techniques. Starting with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field data, the geoelectric fields in the absence of the pipeline were calculated using the surface impedance derived from a layered-Earth conductivity model. The influence of the pipeline on the electric fields was then examined using an infinitely long cylinder (ILC) model. Pipe-to-soil potentials produced by the electric field induced in the pipeline were calculated using a distributed source transmission line (DSTL) model. The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> induction process is frequency dependent; therefore, the calculations are best performed in the frequency domain, using a Fourier transform to go from the original time domain magnetic data, and an inverse Fourier transform at the end of the process, to obtain the pipe-to-soil potential variation in the time domain. Examples of the model calculations are presented and compared to observations made on a long pipeline in the auroral zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015817','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015817"><span>What do we mean by accuracy in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Green, A.W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>High accuracy is what distinguishes measurements made at the world's magnetic observatories from other types of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements. High accuracy in determining the absolute values of the components of the Earth's magnetic field is essential to studying <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> secular variation and processes at the core mantle boundary, as well as some magnetospheric processes. In some applications of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data, precision (or resolution) of measurements may also be important. In addition to accuracy and resolution in the amplitude domain, it is necessary to consider these same quantities in the frequency and space domains. New developments in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> instruments and communications make real-time, high accuracy, global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory data sets a real possibility. There is a growing realization in the scientific community of the unique relevance of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory data to the principal contemporary problems in solid Earth and space physics. Together, these factors provide the promise of a 'renaissance' of the world's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory system. ?? 1990.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811753P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811753P"><span>The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms of 2015: Statistical analysis and forecasting results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paouris, Evangelos; Gerontidou, Maria; Mavromichalaki, Helen</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The year 2015 was characterized by long <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> quiet periods with a lot of <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> active breaks although it is on the declining phase of the current solar cycle. As a result a number of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms in the G1 up to G4 scale were noticed. In this work the characteristics of these <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms like the scale level, the origin of the storm (CME or CIR) and the duration have been studied. Furthermore, a statistical analysis of these events and a comparative study of the forecasting and the actual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions are performed using data from the NOAA space weather forecasting center and from the Athens Space Weather Forecasting Center as well. These forecasting centers estimate and provide every day the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions for the upcoming days giving the values of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index Ap. The forecasting values of Ap index for the year 2015 from these two centers and their comparison in terms of the actual values are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8464P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8464P"><span>Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions and reversals. To date, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> excursions have been identified by virtual <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059027&hterms=TRIGGER+POINT&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DTRIGGER%2BPOINT','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059027&hterms=TRIGGER+POINT&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DTRIGGER%2BPOINT"><span>Experimental investigation of possible <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> feedback from energetic (0.1 to 16 keV) terrestrial O(+) ions in the magnetotail current sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lennartsson, O. W.; Klumpar, D. M.; Shelley, E. G.; Quinn, J. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Data from energetic ion mass spectrometers on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Sun Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE 1) and AMPTE/CCE spacecraft are combined with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and solar indices to investigate, in a statistical fashion, whether energized O(+) ions of terrestrial origin constitute a source of feedback which triggers or amplifies <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> magnetotail current sheet. The ISSE 1 data (0.1-16 keV/e) provide in situ observations of the O(+) solar cycle 21, as well as inner magnetosphere data from same period. The CCE data (0.1-17 keV/e), taken during the subsequent solar minimum, all within 9 R(sub E), provide a <span class="hlt">reference</span> for long-term variations in the magnetosphere O(+) content. Statistical correlations between the ion data and the indices, and between different indices, all point in the same direction: there is probably no feedback specific to the O(+) ions, in spite of the fact that they often contribute most of the ion mass density in the tail current sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059027&hterms=current+sheet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcurrent%2Bsheet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059027&hterms=current+sheet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcurrent%2Bsheet"><span>Experimental investigation of possible <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> feedback from energetic (0.1 to 16 keV) terrestrial O(+) ions in the magnetotail current sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lennartsson, O. W.; Klumpar, D. M.; Shelley, E. G.; Quinn, J. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Data from energetic ion mass spectrometers on the <span class="hlt">International</span> Sun Earth Explorer 1 (ISEE 1) and AMPTE/CCE spacecraft are combined with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and solar indices to investigate, in a statistical fashion, whether energized O(+) ions of terrestrial origin constitute a source of feedback which triggers or amplifies <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> magnetotail current sheet. The ISSE 1 data (0.1-16 keV/e) provide in situ observations of the O(+) solar cycle 21, as well as inner magnetosphere data from same period. The CCE data (0.1-17 keV/e), taken during the subsequent solar minimum, all within 9 R(sub E), provide a <span class="hlt">reference</span> for long-term variations in the magnetosphere O(+) content. Statistical correlations between the ion data and the indices, and between different indices, all point in the same direction: there is probably no feedback specific to the O(+) ions, in spite of the fact that they often contribute most of the ion mass density in the tail current sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26830160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26830160"><span>Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation batch 5 and the USP <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study was organised jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM/Council of Europe) for the establishment of harmonised replacement endotoxin standards for these 3 organisations. Thirty-five laboratories worldwide, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers enrolled in the study. Three candidate preparations (10/178, 10/190 and 10/196) were produced with the same material and same formulation as the current <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards with the objective of generating a new (3(rd)) <span class="hlt">International</span> Standard (IS) with the same potency (10 000 IU/vial) as the current (2(nd)) IS, as well as new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). and USP standards. The suitability of the candidate preparations to act as the <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard in assays for endotoxin performed according to compendial methods was evaluated. Their potency was calibrated against the WHO 2(nd) IS for Endotoxin (94/580). Gelation and photometric methods produced similar results for each of the candidate preparations. The overall potency estimates for the 3 batches were comparable. Given the intrinsic assay precision, the observed differences between the batches may be considered unimportant for the intended use of these materials. Overall, these results were in line with those generated for the establishment of the current preparations of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards. Accelerated degradation testing of vials stored at elevated temperatures supported the long-term stability of the 3 candidate preparations. It was agreed between the 3 organisations that batch 10/178 be shared between WHO and EDQM and that batches 10/190 and 10/196 be allocated to USP, with a common assigned value of 10 000 IU/vial. This value maintains the continuity of the global harmonisation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol31-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol31-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf"><span>40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - <span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... (pounds per gallon) <span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 IOs SBF synthetic to water ratio (%) 8.5-11 9.0 75/25 >11-14 11.5 80/20 >14 14.5 85/15 Plastic Viscosity (PV), centipoise (cP) 12-30 Yield Point (YP), pounds/100 sq....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol31-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol31-part435-subpartA-app8.pdf"><span>40 CFR Appendix 8 to Subpart A of... - <span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Olefin Drilling Fluid Formulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... (pounds per gallon) <span class="hlt">Reference</span> C16-C18 IOs SBF synthetic to water ratio (%) 8.5-11 9.0 75/25 >11-14 11.5 80/20 >14 14.5 85/15 Plastic Viscosity (PV), centipoise (cP) 12-30 Yield Point (YP), pounds/100 sq....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25246004"><span>Communication of scientific uncertainty: <span class="hlt">international</span> case studies on the development of folate and vitamin D Dietary <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Values.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Kerry A; de Wit, Liesbeth; Timotijevic, Lada; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Brito Garcia, Noé; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Sicińska, Ewa; Moore, Alana N; Lawrence, Mark; Raats, Monique M</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Transparent evidence-based decision making has been promoted worldwide to engender trust in science and policy making. Yet, little attention has been given to transparency implementation. The degree of transparency (focused on how uncertain evidence was handled) during the development of folate and vitamin D Dietary <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Values was explored in three a priori defined areas: (i) value request; (ii) evidence evaluation; and (iii) final values. Qualitative case studies (semi-structured interviews and desk research). A common protocol was used for data collection, interview thematic analysis and reporting. Results were coordinated via cross-case synthesis. Australia and New Zealand, Netherlands, Nordic countries, Poland, Spain and UK. Twenty-one interviews were conducted in six case studies. Transparency of process was not universally observed across countries or areas of the recommendation setting process. Transparency practices were most commonly seen surrounding the request to develop <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (e.g. access to risk manager/assessor problem formulation discussions) and evidence evaluation (e.g. disclosure of risk assessor data sourcing/evaluation protocols). Fewer transparency practices were observed to assist with handling uncertainty in the evidence base during the development of quantitative <span class="hlt">reference</span> values. Implementation of transparency policies may be limited by a lack of dedicated resources and best practice procedures, particularly to assist with the latter stages of <span class="hlt">reference</span> value development. Challenges remain regarding the best practice for transparently communicating the influence of uncertain evidence on the final <span class="hlt">reference</span> values. Resolving this issue may assist the evolution of nutrition risk assessment and better inform the recommendation setting process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1770687','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1770687"><span>European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation. A multicentre calibration study of WHO <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations for thromboplastin, rabbit (RBT/90) and human (rTF/95)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Poller, L; Keown, M; Chauhan, N; van den Besselaar, A M H P; Tripodi, A; Shiach, C; Jespersen, J</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A 10 centre calibration was performed after six years to determine the <span class="hlt">international</span> sensitivity index (ISI) of rTF/95 relative to RBT/90, and to assess any <span class="hlt">international</span> normalised ratio (INR) bias compared with the original multicentre calibration. After exclusion of one outlying centre, the follow up calibration gave a mean ISI for rTF/95 of 0.99, which although a small difference, is significantly greater than the mean ISI of 0.94 obtained previously. The change in ISI for <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation (IRP) rTF/95 relative to RBT/90 would lead to a slight bias in INR for human compared with rabbit thromboplastins. At a theoretical INR of 3.0, the INR bias is 6.0%, and this is below the accepted 10% level of clinical relevance. Ongoing stability monitoring of World Health Organisation thromboplastin IRP is advised. PMID:15917425</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21A0983L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21A0983L"><span>A Study on local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity trend and singularity with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data at Cheongyang Magnetic Observatory, Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Y.; Jeon, Y.; Ryoo, S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) has installed and operated the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory at Cheongyang-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea which started in April, 2009. As Cheongyang <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory, it has been automatically observing total-, X-, Y- and Z-component data at 1-sec interval and storing in real-time. The National Institute of Meteorological Research, which belongs to KMA, proceeded with their work on the production of K-index that is used for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity observation. In addition, we detect the starting and ending of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm as typical thing of global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field change and utilize it for showing current status of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurrence. It has been reported that <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurred seven times during from April, 2010 to July, 2011. It was 5 of the maximum K-index value during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurrence period and thought mostly to have been caused by coronal hole and CME(Coronal Mass Ejection). Yet the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm has not been had much of an impact locally. At Cheongyang Observatory, a significantly disturbed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data was seen as related to the Tohoku, Japan Earthquake, Mw 9.0, on March 11, 2011. Compared to seismic wave data at Seosan seismic observatory 60km away from Cheongyang <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatory, we identified the signal involved to the Tohoku, Japan Earthquake. The power spectral density of the disturbed signal has the dominant frequency band of about 0.05 to 0.1 Hz. We should proceed additional study about this in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014204','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014204"><span>The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> jerk of 1969 and the DGRFs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thompson, D.; Cain, J.C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Cubic spline fits to the DGRF/IGRF series indicate agreement with other analyses showing the 1969-1970 magnetic jerk in the h ??12 and g ??02 secular change coefficients, and agreement that the h ??11 term showed no sharp change. The variation of the g ??01 term is out of phase with other analyses indicating a likely error in its representation in the 1965-1975 interval. We recommend that future derivations of the 'definitive' <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> models take into consideration the times of impulses or jerks so as to not be bound to a standard 5 year interval, and otherwise to make more considered analyses before adopting sets of coefficients. ?? 1987.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080007187','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080007187"><span>Ionospheric E-Region Response to Solar-<span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms Observed by TIMED/SABER and Application to IRI Storm-Model Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mertens, Christopher J.; Mast, Jeffrey C.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Evans, David S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The large thermospheric infrared radiance enhancements observed from the TIMED/SABER experiment during recent solar storms provide an exciting opportunity to study the influence of solar-<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. In particular, nighttime enhancements of 4.3 um emission, due to vibrational excitation and radiative emission by NO+, provide an excellent proxy to study and analyze the response of the ionospheric E-region to auroral electron dosing and storm-time enhancements to the E-region electron density. In this paper we give a status report of on-going work on model and data analysis methodologies of deriving NO+ 4.3 um volume emission rates, a proxy for the storm-time E-region response, and the approach for deriving an empirical storm-time correction to <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) E-region NO+ and electron densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp....4F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..tmp....4F"><span>Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Friis-Christensen, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Hesse, M.; Laundal, K. M.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> main field. Observations from the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine the distribution of scalar measurements of the magnetic field intensity minus predictions from a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model. These `residuals' fall into two main categories. One category is consistently distributed according to the well-known ionospheric plasma convection and its associated Birkeland currents. The other category represent contributions caused by <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currents in the substorm current wedge in the northern polar region for By > 0 and correspondingly in the southern hemisphere for By < 0.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..206..281F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SSRv..206..281F"><span>Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Friis-Christensen, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Hesse, M.; Laundal, K. M.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> main field. Observations from the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine the distribution of scalar measurements of the magnetic field intensity minus predictions from a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model. These `residuals' fall into two main categories. One category is consistently distributed according to the well-known ionospheric plasma convection and its associated Birkeland currents. The other category represent contributions caused by <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currents in the substorm current wedge in the northern polar region for By > 0 and correspondingly in the southern hemisphere for By < 0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=128574','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=128574"><span>Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity over a wide range of time scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pelletier, Jon D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The majority of numerical models in climatology and <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with <span class="hlt">internal</span> fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions. PMID:11875208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.8012P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.8012P"><span>Time-correlated patterns from spherical harmonic expansions: Application to <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pais, M. A.; Alberto, P.; Pinheiro, F. J. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We use empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOFA) directly on sets of Schmidt spherical harmonic (SH) coefficients modeling the <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field or its time derivatives at different epochs. We show how to properly use the method such that the application of EOFA to either spatial or spectral domains leads to the same results, bypassing the need to work on snapshots of field charts synthesized from SHs. In case a spatial grid is required, we point out which is the best grid to use. We apply the method to the CM4 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field model to illustrate the differences in EOFA modes obtained with and without corrections. Once the corrected main modes of secular acceleration (SA) have been singled out, we retrieve previous results showing that the 1969, 1978, and 1991 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field acceleration jumps have the same spatial pattern. A new finding in this study is that the same spatial pattern is present in principal modes of secular variation which, once inverted, may provide the flow responsible for the jerk sequence. Another finding is the unveiling of a different spatial structure common to a second group of jerks with SA pulses around 1985 and 1996, displaying a localization very similar to SA pulses identified in 2006 and 2009 using recent satellite data. Finally, if properly handled, the EOFA can be directly applied to a grid of data values of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field in order to produce SH models of decorrelated modes which may help to separate different sources of the field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875208"><span>Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity over a wide range of time scales.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pelletier, Jon D</p> <p>2002-02-19</p> <p>The majority of numerical models in climatology and <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with <span class="hlt">internal</span> fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.1708N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.1708N"><span>Possible <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> and Environmental Symptoms in the Area of Athens During the Solar Cycle No 22</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nastos, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.; Korbakis, G. K.; Tritakis, V. P.; Bergiannaki, A.; Psarros, K.; Paparrigopoulos, P.; Stafanis, K.</p> <p></p> <p>The goal of this research is to confirm possible influences of environmental and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variability in psychiatric hygiene of sensitive and heavily psychological patients. Three yearly samples of psychological patients consisted by four thousand cases (4000) each have been studied. The patients have been filed by the psychiatric clinic of the Eginition hospital in Athens where the three samples have been compiled during three very characteristic years of the No 22 11-year cycle, the maximum (1989), the minimum (1996) and one intermediate year of the descending branch (1994). A file with five to eight psychological symptoms like depression, sleep disturbance anxiety, aggressiveness etc. is attached to every patient. Each of these symptoms is correlated to the local <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index (k-index), the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index (Dst) and the environmental index (DI, Discomfort Index) in both daily and monthly basis. A clear seasonal variation in almost all symptoms and samples is present with maximum at the end of summer (August/September) and minimum at the end of winter (February-March). In addition very significant correlations among DI, Dst and some psychological symptoms appear. The main conclusion is that meteorological and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> factors play a significant role in the formation of sensitive psychological patients, behavior</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27608270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27608270"><span>Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and <span class="hlt">international</span> Global Lung Function Initiative <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for spirometry in the Finnish general population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>New Finnish (Kainu2015) and <span class="hlt">international</span> Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new <span class="hlt">reference</span> values with older, currently used Finnish <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21-74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Using the Kainu2015 <span class="hlt">reference</span> values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. The application of the GLI2012 <span class="hlt">reference</span> values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 <span class="hlt">reference</span> values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry <span class="hlt">reference</span> values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5015641','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5015641"><span>Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and <span class="hlt">international</span> Global Lung Function Initiative <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for spirometry in the Finnish general population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and <span class="hlt">international</span> Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new <span class="hlt">reference</span> values with older, currently used Finnish <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 <span class="hlt">reference</span> values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 <span class="hlt">reference</span> values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 <span class="hlt">reference</span> values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry <span class="hlt">reference</span> values. PMID:27608270</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21184054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21184054"><span>Markers of bone turnover for the prediction of fracture risk and monitoring of osteoporosis treatment: a need for <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vasikaran, S; Eastell, R; Bruyère, O; Foldes, A J; Garnero, P; Griesmacher, A; McClung, M; Morris, H A; Silverman, S; Trenti, T; Wahl, D A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) recommend that a marker of bone formation (serum procollagen type I N propeptide, s-PINP) and a marker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, s-CTX) are used as <span class="hlt">reference</span> analytes for bone turnover markers in clinical studies. Bone turnover markers (BTM) predict fracture risk, and treatment-induced changes in specific markers account for a substantial proportion of fracture risk reduction. The aims of this report were to determine their clinical potential in the prediction of fracture risk and for monitoring the treatment of osteoporosis and to set an appropriate research agenda. Evidence from prospective studies was gathered through literature review of the PUBMED database between the years 2000 and 2010 and the systematic review of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality up to 2001. High levels of BTMs may predict fracture risk independently from bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. They have been used for this purpose in clinical practice for many years, but there is still a need for stronger evidence on which to base practice. BTMs provide pharmacodynamic information on the response to osteoporosis treatment, and as a result, they are widely used for monitoring treatment in the individual. However, their clinical value for monitoring is limited by inadequate appreciation of the sources of variability, by limited data for comparison of treatments using the same BTM and by inadequate quality control. IOF/IFCC recommend one bone formation marker (s-PINP) and one bone resorption marker (s-CTX) to be used as <span class="hlt">reference</span> markers and measured by standardised assays in observational and intervention studies in order to compare the performance of alternatives and to enlarge the <span class="hlt">international</span> experience of the application of markers to clinical medicine. BTM hold promise in fracture risk</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2818R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2818R"><span>Interrelation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms and earthquakes: Insight from lab experiments and field observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruzhin, Yuri; Kamogawa, Masashi; Novikov, Victor</p> <p></p> <p> statistical approach for the problem of ionosphere-lithosphere coupling, and in each case the possible behavior of fluids should be considered under electromagnetic impact on lithosphere. Experimental results supporting this idea are obtained at the spring-block model simulating the seismic cycle (slow accumulation and sharp drop of stresses in the fault gauge), as well as from field observations of water level variations in the well during ionospheric disturbances are presented and discussed. In the lab experiments it was shown that the earthquake may be triggered by very small fluid content injected into the simulated fault (<0.1 % mass of fault gauge). In the field observations it was found that water level in the well rises during sunrise, when ionosphere is excited by solar radiation, and drops during sunset (relaxation process in ionosphere). Moreover, it was shown that the water level in well correlates with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field perturbations during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. A simplified model describing interaction of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations with fluid behavior near the seismogenic fault is presented. <span class="hlt">References</span>: 1. Duma G., Ruzhin Yu. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Sq-variations // Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 3, 2003, p.p.171-177. 2. Novikov V.A. Water imbalance in the geological fault as a possible earthquake trigger // AGU 2012 Fall Meeting, Dec. 3-8, San Francisco, USA, Abstract GC42B-08.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1916619S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1916619S"><span>Small-size light Overhauser <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> sensors and magnetometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sapunov, Vladimir; Gavrilin, Aleksander; Kiselev, Sergey; Saveliev, Dmitrii; Denisov, Aleksey; Narkhov, Engenii; Sapunov, Aleksey; Terlyga, Nadezhda</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The innovative development and manufacturing experience of non-orientable sensor of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field based on Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization is reported. We developed unique software that provides the proton precession signal and noise and orientational characteristics of the sensor. The developed sensors found applications in the industrial borehole magnetometer LOM-2 due to the world smallest sensor size of the diameter 30 mm. The sensitivity of 0.05nT is reached at a measuring cycle of 1 second at absolute accuracy better than 1nT. We discuss the prospects of these sensors for nano-satellites, for example the CUBESAT satellites within the framework of university and academic development programs and <span class="hlt">international</span> cooperation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010020269','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010020269"><span>Study of Ring Current Dynamics During <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jordanova, Vania K.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This research program considered modeling the dynamical evolution of the ring current during several <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. The first year (6/01/1997-5/31/1998) of this successful collaborative research between the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) was supported by NASA grant NAG5-4680. The second and third years (6/01/1998-5/31/2000) were funded at UNH under NASA grant NAG5-7368. Research work at UNH concentrated on further development of a kinetic model to treat all of the important physical processes that affect the ring current ion population during storm conditions. This model was applied to simulate ring current development during several <span class="hlt">International</span> Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) events, and the results were directly compared to satellite observations. A brief description of our major accomplishments and a list of the publications and presentations resulting from this effort are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGeod..82..883J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGeod..82..883J"><span>GPS observations of the ionospheric F2-layer behavior during the 20th November 2003 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm over South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Shuanggen; Luo, O. F.; Park, P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The ionospheric F2-layer peak density (NmF2) and its height (hmF2) are of great influence on the shape of the ionospheric electron density profile Ne (h) and may be indicative of other physical processes within the ionosphere, especially those due to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. Such parameters are often estimated using models such as the semiempirical <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere (IRI) models or are measured using moderately priced to expensive instrumentation, such as ionosondes or incoherent scatter radars. Global positioning system (GPS) observations have become a powerful tool for mapping high-resolution ionospheric structures, which can be used to study the ionospheric response to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. In this paper, we describe how 3-D ionospheric electron density profiles were produced from data of the dense permanent Korean GPS network using the tomography reconstruction technique. These profiles are verified by independent ionosonde data. The responses of GPS-derived parameters at the ionospheric F2-layer to the 20th November 2003 <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm over South Korea are investigated. A fairly large increase in the electron density at the F2-layer peak (the NmF2) (positive storm) has been observed during this storm, which is accompanied by a significant uplift in the height of the F2 layer peak (the hmF2). This is confirmed by independent ionosonde observations. We suggest that the F2-layer peak height uplift and NmF2 increase are mainly associated with a strong eastward electric field, and are not associated with the increase of the O/N2 ratio obtained from the GUVI instruments aboard the TIMED satellite. It is also inferred that the increase in NmF2 is not caused by the changes in neutral composition, but is related to other nonchemical effects, such as dynamical changes of vertical ion motions induced by winds and E × B drifts, tides and waves in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region, which can be dynamically coupled upward to generate ionospheric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002984"><span>Body mass index and childhood obesity classification systems: A comparison of the French, <span class="hlt">International</span> Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and World Health Organization (WHO) <span class="hlt">references</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kêkê, L M; Samouda, H; Jacobs, J; di Pompeo, C; Lemdani, M; Hubert, H; Zitouni, D; Guinhouya, B C</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This study aims to compare three body mass index (BMI)-based classification systems of childhood obesity: the French, the <span class="hlt">International</span> Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) <span class="hlt">references</span>. The study involved 1382 schoolchildren, recruited from the Lille Academic District in France in May 2009 aged 8.4±1.7 years (4.0-12.0 years). Their mean height and body mass were 131.5±10.9cm and 30.7±9.2kg, respectively, resulting in a BMI of 17.4±3.2kg/m(2). The weight status was defined according to the three systems considered in this study. The agreement between these <span class="hlt">references</span> was tested using the Cohen's kappa coefficient. The prevalence of overweight was higher with the WHO <span class="hlt">references</span> (20.0%) in comparison with the French <span class="hlt">references</span> (13.8%; P<0.0001) and the IOTF (16.2%; P≤0.01). A similar result was found with obesity (WHO: 11.6% vs. IOTF: 6.7%; or French <span class="hlt">references</span>: 6.7%; P<0.0001). Agreement between the three <span class="hlt">references</span> ranged from "moderate" to "perfect" (0.43≤κ≤1.00; P<0.0001). Kappa coefficients were higher when the three <span class="hlt">references</span> were used to classify children as obese (0.63≤κ≤1.00; P<0.0001) as compared to classification in the overweight (obesity excluded) category (0.43≤κ≤0.94; P<0.0001). When sex and age categories (4-6 years vs. 7-12 years) were considered to define the overweight status, the lowest kappa coefficient was found between the French and WHO <span class="hlt">references</span> in boys aged 7-12 years (κ=0.28; P<0.0001), and the highest one in girls aged 7-12 years between the French <span class="hlt">references</span> and IOTF (κ=0.97; P<0.0001). As for obesity, agreement between the three <span class="hlt">references</span> ranged from 0.60 to 1.00 (P<0.0001), with the lowest values obtained in the comparison of the WHO <span class="hlt">references</span> against French <span class="hlt">references</span> or IOTF among boys aged 7-12 years (κ=0.60; P<0.0001). Overall, the WHO <span class="hlt">references</span> yield an overestimation in overweight and/or obesity within this sample of schoolchildren as compared to the French <span class="hlt">references</span> and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7228S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7228S"><span>On the local operational <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index K calculation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stankov, Stan; Stegen, Koen; Wautelet, Gilles; Warnant, Rene</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>There is an ongoing demand for services that can provide real-time assessment of the (global and local) <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity and identified as being of importance to the exploration geophysics, radio communications and precise position/navigation practices, space weather research and modelling, etc. Such services depend largely on the reduction of solar, <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> and ionospheric observations to generate activity indices, one of the most widely used being the K index. The K index is a quasi-logarithmic index characterising the 3-hourly range in transient magnetic activity relative to the regular "quiet-day" activity for a single site location. A derivative "planetary" index (Kp), the mean standardized K index from several globally distributed stations, provides a convenient measure of the global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. Computer-based derivation of K/Kp indices was a major step towards higher efficiency and lower costs. Nowadays, automated data acquisition, processing and generating the index in real time is mandatory for any reliable service. However, Kp may not be accurate enough when monitoring disturbances of smaller scale, so the local K index (derived from the nearest magnetic station/s) might be considered as the better choice. Moreover, the 3-hour time scale is much larger than the shorter characteristic time of localised ionospheric phenomena that are of particular interest to us. Our experience in developing a novel nowcast system for local operational <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> index K calculation (K-LOGIC) will be presented. The system is based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, screening the dataset and removing the outliers, establishing the solar regular (Sr) variation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, calculating the K index, and issuing an alert if storm-level activity is indicated. This is a time-controlled (rather than event-driven) system delivering as regular output (time resolution set to 1 hour) the K value</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3078639','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3078639"><span><span class="hlt">Internal</span> Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic <span class="hlt">Referred</span> Youths Age 11 to 17 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabón, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we examined the <span class="hlt">internal</span> consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11 to 17 years), high <span class="hlt">internal</span> consistency estimates were observed across measures of informant discrepancies. Further, latent profile analyses identified systematic patterns of discrepancies, characterized by their magnitude and direction (i.e., which informant reported greater youth problems). Additionally, informant discrepancies systematically and uniquely related to informants' own perspectives of youth mood problems, and these relations remained significant after taking into account multiple informants' reports of informant characteristics widely known to relate to informant discrepancies. These findings call into the question the prevailing view of informant discrepancies as indicative of unreliability and/or bias on the part of informants' reports of youths' behavior. PMID:21229442</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27094916"><span>Artificial reproduction of magnetic fields produced by a natural <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm increases systolic blood pressure in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez-Bretón, J L; Mendoza, B; Miranda-Anaya, M; Durán, P; Flores-Chávez, P L</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The incidence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms may be associated with changes in circulatory physiology. The way in which the natural variations of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field due to solar activity affects the blood pressure are poorly understood and require further study in controlled experimental designs in animal models. In the present study, we tested whether the systolic arterial pressure (AP) in adult rats is affected by simulated magnetic fields resembling the natural changes of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. We exposed adult rats to a linear magnetic profile that simulates the average changes associated to some well-known <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm phases: the sudden commencement and principal phase. Magnetic stimulus was provided by a coil inductor and regulated by a microcontroller. The experiments were conducted in the electromagnetically isolated environment of a semi-anechoic chamber. After exposure, AP was determined with a non-invasive method through the pulse on the rat's tail. Animals were used as their own control. Our results indicate that there was no statistically significant effect in AP when the artificial profile was applied, neither in the sudden commencement nor in the principal phases. However, during the experimental period, a natural <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurred, and we did observe statistically significant AP increase during the sudden commencement phase. Furthermore, when this storm phase was artificially replicated with a non-linear profile, we noticed a 7 to 9 % increase of the rats' AP in relation to a <span class="hlt">reference</span> value. We suggested that the changes in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field associated with a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm in its first day could produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response in AP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1753M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1753M"><span>Artificial reproduction of magnetic fields produced by a natural <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm increases systolic blood pressure in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez-Bretón, J. L.; Mendoza, B.; Miranda-Anaya, M.; Durán, P.; Flores-Chávez, P. L.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The incidence of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms may be associated with changes in circulatory physiology. The way in which the natural variations of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field due to solar activity affects the blood pressure are poorly understood and require further study in controlled experimental designs in animal models. In the present study, we tested whether the systolic arterial pressure (AP) in adult rats is affected by simulated magnetic fields resembling the natural changes of a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. We exposed adult rats to a linear magnetic profile that simulates the average changes associated to some well-known <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm phases: the sudden commencement and principal phase. Magnetic stimulus was provided by a coil inductor and regulated by a microcontroller. The experiments were conducted in the electromagnetically isolated environment of a semi-anechoic chamber. After exposure, AP was determined with a non-invasive method through the pulse on the rat's tail. Animals were used as their own control. Our results indicate that there was no statistically significant effect in AP when the artificial profile was applied, neither in the sudden commencement nor in the principal phases. However, during the experimental period, a natural <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm occurred, and we did observe statistically significant AP increase during the sudden commencement phase. Furthermore, when this storm phase was artificially replicated with a non-linear profile, we noticed a 7 to 9 % increase of the rats' AP in relation to a <span class="hlt">reference</span> value. We suggested that the changes in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field associated with a <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm in its first day could produce a measurable and reproducible physiological response in AP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007982"><span>A WHO <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagent to standardize haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in serum and plasma: <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study to evaluate a candidate preparation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorpe, S J; Fox, B; Sharp, G; White, J; Milkins, C</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate a lyophilized serum preparation, 14/300, for its suitability to serve as a World Health Organization (WHO) <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagent to standardize and control haemagglutination titrations for anti-A and anti-B in serum and plasma, in an <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study. Serum preparation 14/300 and two plasma-based reserve preparations, 14/304 (high titre anti-A) and 14/208 (high titre anti-B), were titrated by 24 laboratories in 13 countries using direct (DRT) and indirect (IAT) haemagglutination techniques. There was eightfold to 64-fold variation in reported titres per preparation and method across laboratories, that is, titres extended over 4-7 dilutions, although intralaboratory variability was generally good, with over 90% of replicate titres within a twofold range. There was a reduction in interlaboratory variability when titres of the reserve preparations were adjusted relative to those of the candidate <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagent. The establishment of 14/300 as a WHO <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagent for high titre anti-A and anti-B in serum, with nominal anti-A and anti-B titres of 128 for DRT, and nominal anti-A and anti-B titres of 256 for IAT, will facilitate global standardization of haemagglutination titrations for anti-A and anti-B in patient samples and blood components. © 2016 Crown copyright. Vox Sanguinis © 2016 <span class="hlt">International</span> Society of Blood Transfusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRA..108.1127T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRA..108.1127T"><span>Damping of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances detected with GPS networks during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsugawa, T.; Saito, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Yamamoto, M.</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm on 22 September 1999 were studied using total electron content (TEC) data from the GPS Earth Observation Network (GEONET) in Japan, <span class="hlt">International</span> GPS Service (IGS), and Continuously Operating <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Stations (CORS) in the United States. The damping rates of the LSTIDs were precisely derived in several local time sectors and were found to depend on values of the background TEC. This indicates that the dominant physical mechanism of the LSTIDs' damping is the ion-drag effect by the background ionosphere. The high-resolution TEC data from GEONET revealed that two successive LSTIDs were damped significantly as they traveled equatorward in the dawn sector. The ratio of the perturbation component of TEC to the background component (ΔI/I0) decreased exponentially with the damping rate of 0.89/1000 km and 0.77/1000 km. We studied also the amplitude of ΔI/I0 at high latitudes using IGS data and found that the damping rates of LSTIDs at high latitudes tended to be smaller than those at midlatitudes. Global TEC observations during this <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm by the IGS and CORS networks detected that several LSTIDs propagated also equatorward in the afternoon sector and in the night sector. The LSTIDs in the afternoon sector were most damped with the damping rate of 1.04/1000 km, which corresponds to the e-folding length of 961 km. The damping rate of LSTIDs in the night sector was found to be small. The LSTIDs had a tendency to be damped rapidly in the regions where background TEC was large. This dependence of the damping rate on latitude and local time indicates that this intense damping of LSTIDs was caused mainly by the ion-drag effect that is proportional to the ion collision frequency. The relation between the damping rates and the background TEC derived from the observation are consistent with those estimated with a theoretical calculation of the gravity wave damping by the ion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP52A..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP52A..08M"><span>Understanding and Predicting <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Dipole Reversals Via Low Dimensional Models and Data Assimilation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morzfeld, M.; Fournier, A.; Hulot, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We investigate the geophysical relevance of low-dimensional models of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dipole fieldby comparing these models to the signed relative paleomagnetic intensity over the past 2 Myr.The comparison is done via Bayesian statistics, implemented numerically by Monte Carlo (MC) sampling.We consider several MC schemes, as well as two data sets to show the robustness of our approach with respect to its numerical implementation and to the details of how the data are collected.The data we consider are the Sint-2000 [1] and PADM2M [2] data sets.We consider three stochastic differential equation (SDE) models and one deterministic model. Experiments with synthetic data show that it is feasible that a low dimensional modelcan learn the geophysical state from data of only the dipole field,and reveal the limitations of the low-dimensional models.For example, the G12 model [3] (a deterministic model that generates dipole reversals by crisis induced intermittency)can only match either one of the two important time scales we find in the data. The MC sampling approach also allows usto use the models to make predictions of the dipole field.We assess how reliably dipole reversals can be predictedwith our approach by hind-casting five reversals documented over the past 2 Myr. We find that, besides its limitations, G12 can be used to predict reversals reliably,however only with short lead times and over short horizons. The scalar SDE models on the other hand are not useful for prediction of dipole reversals.<span class="hlt">References</span> Valet, J.P., Maynadier,L and Guyodo, Y., 2005, <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field strength and reversal rate over the past 2 Million years, Nature, 435, 802-805. Ziegler, L.B., Constable, C.G., Johnson, C.L. and Tauxe, L., 2011, PADM2M: a penalized maximum likelihood model of the 0-2 Ma paleomagnetic axial dipole moment, Geophysical Journal <span class="hlt">International</span>, 184, 1069-1089. Gissinger, C., 2012, A new deterministic model for chaotic reversals, European Physical Journal B, 85:137.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=geologist&pg=5&id=EJ195294','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=geologist&pg=5&id=EJ195294"><span><span class="hlt">International</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoover, Linn</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for <span class="hlt">international</span> cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34...45C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34...45C"><span>The <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff rigidities at high latitudes for different solar wind and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chu, W.; Qin, G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Studying the access of the cosmic rays (CRs) into the magnetosphere is important to understand the coupling between the magnetosphere and the solar wind. In this paper we numerically studied CRs' magnetospheric access with vertical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff rigidities using the method proposed by Smart and Shea (1999). By the study of CRs' vertical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff rigidities at high latitudes we obtain the CRs' window (CRW) whose boundary is determined when the vertical <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> cutoff rigidities drop to a value lower than a threshold value. Furthermore, we studied the area of CRWs and found out they are sensitive to different parameters, such as the z component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the solar wind dynamic pressure, AE index, and Dst index. It was found that both the AE index and Dst index have a strong correlation with the area of CRWs during strong <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms. However, during the medium storms, only AE index has a strong correlation with the area of CRWs, while Dst index has a much weaker correlation with the area of CRWs. This result on the CRW can be used for forecasting the variation of the cosmic rays during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920023411','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920023411"><span>Steady induction effects in <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>. Part 1A: Steady motional induction of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> chaos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Voorhies, Coerte V.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> effects of magnetic induction by hypothetically steady fluid motion and steady magnetic flux diffusion near the top of Earth's core are investigated using electromagnetic theory, simple magnetic earth models, and numerical experiments with <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models. The problem of estimating a steady fluid velocity field near the top of Earth's core which induces the secular variation indicated by broad-scale models of the observed <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field is examined and solved. In Part 1, the steady surficial core flow estimation problem is solved in the context of the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core model. In the first paper (IA), the theory underlying such estimates is reviewed and some consequences of various kinematic and dynamic flow hypotheses are derived. For a frozen-flux core, fluid downwelling is required to change the mean square normal magnetic flux density averaged over the core-mantle boundary. For surficially geostrophic flow, downwelling implies poleward flow. The solution of the forward steady motional induction problem at the surface of a frozen-flux core is derived and found to be a fine, easily visualized example of deterministic chaos. <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> effects of statistically steady core surface flow may well dominate secular variation over several decades. Indeed, effects of persistent, if not steady, surficially geostrophic core flow are described which may help explain certain features of the present broad-scale <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and perhaps paleomagnetic secular variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90..502E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EOSTr..90..502E"><span>Recent Developments in Paleomagnetism and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetism</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elming, S.-Å.; Pesonen, L. J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Sixth Nordic Paleomagnetic Workshop; Luleå, Sweden, 15-22 September 2009; The Sixth Nordic Paleomagnetic Workshop was held in northern Sweden. The meeting focused on discussion of recent developments in paleomagnetism/<span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>, covering topics including thousand-year-scale <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations, paleoclimate of the Holocene (˜10,000 years ago to the present), Phanerozoic (˜545 million years ago to the present) plate reconstructions, and Precambrian (more than ˜545 million years ago) supercontinents. The workshop series began in 1986 in Espoo, Finland, in connection with the European Geotraverse Project. Since then, workshops have occurred every 4-5 years: the second in Sweden (1990), the third in Norway (1994), the fourth in Denmark (1999), and the fifth in Finland (2005). A total of 23 paleomagnetists and geomagnetists representing 12 countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, India, Finland, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States) participated in the sixth workshop.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AN....333..309R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AN....333..309R"><span>Solar wind charge exchange during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robertson, I. P.; Cravens, T. E.; Sibeck, D. G.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>On 2001 March 31 a coronal mass ejection pushed the subsolar magnetopause to the vicinity of geosynchronous orbit at 6.6 R_E. The NASA/GSFC Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) employed a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to simulate the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction during the peak of this <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm. Robertson et al. then modeled the expected soft X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange with geocoronal neutrals in the dayside cusp and magnetosheath. The locations of the bow shock, magnetopause and cusps were clearly evident in their simulations. Another <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm took place on 2000 July 14 (Bastille Day). We again modeled X-ray emission due to solar wind charge exchange, but this time as observed from a moving spacecraft. This paper discusses the impact of spacecraft location on observed X-ray emission and the degree to which the locations of the bow shock and magnetopause can be detected in images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25..889K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25..889K"><span>Fluctuations in tides and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohsiek, A.; Kiefer, M.; Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.</p> <p></p> <p>Middle atmosphere tidal winds and the daily <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> Sq-variation show a day-to-day variability, both with a local behaviour. Due to the main cause of the Sq-variation, the ionospheric dynamo effect, day-to-day fluctuation of Sq could be raised by fluctuations in tides. This coupling of fluctuations is investigated with radar wind data measured at Saskatoon at around 100 km height and with magnetic data from four observatories in the vicinity of the radar. We show that our definition of fluctuations exhibits properties of atmospheric tides in the winds and that the magnetic data can be assumed to represent a local behaviour. We find that there are some significant correlations between fluctuations in winds and magnetic variations. Apparently the local fluctuation of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations is weakly coupled not only to the fluctuations of the semidiurnal tides but also to those of the mean winds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830007484','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830007484"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> modeling by optimal recursive filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gibbs, B. P.; Estes, R. H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of using Kalman filter techniques for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field modeling are given. Specifically, five separate field models were computed using observatory annual means, satellite, survey and airborne data for the years 1950 to 1976. Each of the individual field models used approximately five years of data. These five models were combined using a recursive information filter (a Kalman filter written in terms of information matrices rather than covariance matrices.) The resulting estimate of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and its secular variation was propogated four years past the data to the time of the MAGSAT data. The accuracy with which this field model matched the MAGSAT data was evaluated by comparisons with predictions from other pre-MAGSAT field models. The field estimate obtained by recursive estimation was found to be superior to all other models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26703728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26703728"><span>Generation and Characterization of Six Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxins as <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material to Serve in an <span class="hlt">International</span> Proficiency Test.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weisemann, Jasmin; Krez, Nadja; Fiebig, Uwe; Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Endermann, Tanja; Dorner, Martin B; Bergström, Tomas; Muñoz, Amalia; Zegers, Ingrid; Müller, Christian; Jenkinson, Stephen P; Avondet, Marc-Andre; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Denayer, Sarah; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Åstot, Crister; Dorner, Brigitte G; Rummel, Andreas</p> <p>2015-11-26</p> <p>The detection and identification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is complex due to the existence of seven serotypes, derived mosaic toxins and more than 40 subtypes. Expert laboratories currently use different technical approaches to detect, identify and quantify BoNT, but due to the lack of (certified) <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, analytical results can hardly be compared. In this study, the six BoNT/A1-F1 prototypes were successfully produced by recombinant techniques, facilitating handling, as well as improving purity, yield, reproducibility and biosafety. All six BoNTs were quantitatively nicked into active di-chain toxins linked by a disulfide bridge. The materials were thoroughly characterized with respect to purity, identity, protein concentration, catalytic and biological activities. For BoNT/A₁, B₁ and E₁, serotypes pathogenic to humans, the catalytic activity and the precise protein concentration were determined by Endopep-mass spectrometry and validated amino acid analysis, respectively. In addition, BoNT/A₁, B₁, E₁ and F₁ were successfully detected by immunological assays, unambiguously identified by mass spectrometric-based methods, and their specific activities were assigned by the mouse LD50 bioassay. The potencies of all six BoNT/A1-F1 were quantified by the ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, allowing a direct comparison. In conclusion, highly pure recombinant BoNT <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials were produced, thoroughly characterized and employed as spiking material in a worldwide BoNT proficiency test organized by the EQuATox consortium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005501"><span>Docking Offset Between the Space Shuttle and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station and Resulting Impacts to the Transfer of Attitude <span class="hlt">Reference</span> and Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Helms, W. Jason; Pohlkamp, Kara M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Space Shuttle does not dock at an exact 90 degrees to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Space Station (ISS) x-body axis. This offset from 90 degrees, along with error sources within their respective attitude knowledge, causes the two vehicles to never completely agree on their attitude, even though they operate as a single, mated stack while docked. The docking offset can be measured in flight when both vehicles have good attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> and is a critical component in calculations to transfer attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> from one vehicle to another. This paper will describe how the docking offset and attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> errors between both vehicles are measured and how this information would be used to recover Shuttle attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> from ISS in the event of multiple failures. During STS-117, ISS on-board Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) computers began having problems and after several continuous restarts, the systems failed. The failure took the ability for ISS to maintain attitude knowledge. This paper will also demonstrate how with knowledge of the docking offset, the contingency procedure to recover Shuttle attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> from ISS was reversed in order to provide ISS an attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> from Shuttle. Finally, this paper will show how knowledge of the docking offset can be used to speed up attitude control handovers from Shuttle to ISS momentum management. By taking into account the docking offset, Shuttle can be commanded to hold a more precise attitude which better agrees with the ISS commanded attitude such that start up transients with the ISS momentum management controllers are reduced. By reducing start-up transients, attitude control can be transferred from Shuttle to ISS without the use of ISS thrusters saving precious on-board propellant, crew time and minimizing loads placed upon the mated stack.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.3040M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36.3040M"><span>The centennial Evolution of <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Activity revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mursula, K.; Martini, D.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> activity is one of the most important heliospheric parameters and the most reliable indicator of decadal and centennial changes in solar activity Here we study the centennial change in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity using the newly proposed IHV Inter-Hour Variability index We correct the earlier estimates on the centennial increase by taking into account the effect of the fact that the sampling of the magnetic field changed from one sample per hour to hourly means in the first years of the previous century Since the IHV index is a variability index the larger variability in the case of hourly sampling leads without due correction to excessively large values in the beginning of the century and an underestimated centennial increase We discuss two ways to extract the necessary sampling calibration factors and show that they agree very well with each other The effect of calibration is especially large at the mid-latitude CLH FRD station where the centennial increase changes from only 6 to 24-25 due to calibration Sampling calibration also leads to a larger centennial increase of global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity based on the IHV index The results verify a significant centennial increase in global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity in a qualitative agreement with the aa index although a quantitative comparison is not warranted We also find that the centennial increase has a rather strong and curious latitudinal dependence It is largest at high latitudes Quite unexpectedly it is larger at low than mid-latitudes These new findings indicate interesting long-term changes in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM23C2326D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM23C2326D"><span>NOAA Plans for <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Storm Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diedrich, B. L.; Biesecker, D. A.; Mulligan, P.; Simpson, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>For many years, NOAA has issued <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm watches and warnings based on coronal mass ejection (CME) imagery and in-situ solar wind measurements from research satellites. The NOAA Satellite and Information Service (NESDIS) recognizes the importance of this service to protecting technological infrastructure including power grids, polar air travel, and satellite navigation, so is actively planning to replace these assets to ensure their continued availability. NOAA, NASA, and the US Air Force are working on launching the first operational solar wind mission in 2014, the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), to follow NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in making solar wind measurements at the sun-Earth L1 for 15-60 minute <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm warning. For continuing operations after the DSCOVR mission, one technology NOAA is looking at is solar sails that could greatly improve the lead time of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm warnings by stationkeeping closer to the sun than L1. We are working with NASA and private industry on the Sunjammer solar sail demonstration mission to test making solar wind measurements from a solar sail in the sun-Earth L1 region. NOAA uses CME imagery from the NASA/ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) satellites to issue 1-3 day <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm watches. For the future, NOAA worked with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to develop a Compact Coronagraph (CCOR) through Phase A, and is studying ways to complete instrument development and test fly it for use in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015701','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820015701"><span>MAGSAT for <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> studies over Indian region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rastogi, R. G.; Bhargava, B. N.; Singh, B. P.; Rao, D. R. K.; Rangarajan, G. K.; Rajaram, R.; Roy, M.; Arora, B. R.; Seth, A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Progress in the preparation of software for converting data tapes produced on an IBM system to data readable on a DEC-10 system, in the creation of awareness of the utility of MAGSAT data among users in India, and in making computer programs supplied by NASA operational on the DEC-10 system is reported. Papers presented to Indian users, at the IAGA fourth scientific assembly, at a symposium on interdisciplinary approaches to <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span>, and a paper published in Science Today are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810040984&hterms=autumnal+equinox&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dautumnal%2Bequinox','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810040984&hterms=autumnal+equinox&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dautumnal%2Bequinox"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> activity and Hale sector boundaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lundstedt, H.; Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The variation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity index Ap at the IMF sector boundaries (+ to - and - to +) has been studied for three solar cycles, separating data into vernal and autumnal equinoxes. It was found that a reported increase in Ap as an effect of a Hale boundary can be better attributed to the occurrence of a negative IMF Bz component in the geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinate system and to the occurrence of high speed solar wind streams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914631O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914631O"><span>Annual Variations of the <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field in the Earth's Polar Regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>-known fundamental north-south and seasonal anti-correlations is discussed. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> 1. Malin, S. R. C., A. Mete Isikaka (1976), Annual variation of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field, J. R. Astron. Soc., 47, 445-457, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1976.tb07096.x. 2. Stauning, P. (2011), Determination of the quiet daily <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations for polar regions, J. Atmos. Sol-Terr. Phy., 73, 2314-2330, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2011.07.004.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018766','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770018766"><span>Solar generated quasi-biennial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The existence of highly correlated quasi-biennial variations in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and in solar activity is demonstrated. The analysis uses a numerical filter technique applied to monthly averages of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> horizontal component and of the Zurich relative sunspot number. Striking correlations are found between the quasi-biennial <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> variations determined from several magnetic observatories located at widely different longitudes, indicating a worldwide nature of the obtained variation. The correlation coefficient between the filtered Dst index and the filtered relative sunspot number is found to be -0.79 at confidence level greater than 99% with a time-lag of 4 months, with solar activity preceding the Dst variation. The correlation between the unfiltered data of Dst and of the sunspot number is also high with a similar time-lag. Such a timelag has not been discussed in the literature, and a further study is required to establish the mode of sun-earth relationship that gives this time delay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003E%26PSL.207..151H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003E%26PSL.207..151H"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> secular variation in the Indian Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heirtzler, J. R.; Nazarova, K.</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>Annual repeat stations in Australia and in South Africa show that secular variation may change rapidly and over short geographical distances in the Indian Ocean area. Satellite models show large secular variations in the center of the Indian Ocean where there are few island <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observatories. This paper investigates marine <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> measurements to see if they give more information about secular variations in this area. Between 1960 and 1988 there were more than 70 port-to-port cruises with ships towing proton precession magnetometers in the Indian Ocean. Change in field intensity from one cruise to another provides new information about the secular variation in this part of the world. Several methods were investigated to determine this change from the ship's data. Observing the change on closely parallel or crossing tracks provides an estimate of this change. These results indicate that there are short time and distance scales of secular variation in the Indian Ocean which have not been accounted for in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997GMS....98..243L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997GMS....98..243L"><span>AI techniques in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lundstedt, Henrik</p> <p></p> <p>This review deals with how <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms can be predicted with the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Today many different Al techniques have been developed, such as symbolic systems (expert and fuzzy systems) and connectionism systems (neural networks). Even integrations of AI techniques exist, so called Intelligent Hybrid Systems (IHS). These systems are capable of learning the mathematical functions underlying the operation of non-linear dynamic systems and also to explain the knowledge they have learned. Very few such powerful systems exist at present. Two such examples are the Magnetospheric Specification Forecast Model of Rice University and the Lund Space Weather Model of Lund University. Various attempts to predict <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms on long to short-term are reviewed in this article. Predictions of a month to days ahead most often use solar data as input. The first SOHO data are now available. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution new solar physics have been revealed. These SOHO data might lead to a breakthrough in these predictions. Predictions hours ahead and shorter rely on real-time solar wind data. WIND gives us real-time data for only part of the day. However, with the launch of the ACE spacecraft in 1997, real-time data during 24 hours will be available. That might lead to the second breakthrough for predictions of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EP%26S...63..469C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EP%26S...63..469C"><span>Monitoring the ionospheric total electron content variations over the Korean Peninsula using a GPS network during <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Byung-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Jong-Uk</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>We have established a regional ionospheric model (RIM) for investigating changes in the total electron content (TEC) over South Korea using 38 Korean GPS <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations. The inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method was applied to create a two-dimensional ionospheric map of vertical TEC units (TECU) based on a grid. To examine the diurnal patterns of ionospheric TEC over South Korea, we first processed the GPS data from a <span class="hlt">geomagnetically</span> quiet period of 10 days. In a second step, we compared the estimated GPS-TEC variations with the changes in <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity indices (the K p and D st indices) and the auroral electrojet index (AE) as a function of universal time (UT) on 4 and 20 November, 2003. The GPS-TEC responses for those storm events were proportional to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity at this mid-latitude location. The sudden increases in ionospheric TEC (SITEC) caused by the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms were detected. The variations in GPS-TEC may help reveal the processes of ionospheric disturbances caused by <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SpWea...812006D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SpWea...812006D"><span>A sensitive <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity index for space weather operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, D.; Xu, W. Y.; Zhao, M. X.; Chen, B.; Lu, J. Y.; Yang, G. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>There is an ongoing demand for real-time <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices in space services. The traditional 3 h K index and K-derived planetary indices cannot issue alters promptly during large storms, and the 3 h interval is much larger than the time scales of ionospheric responses. To overcome these difficulties, we define a new consecutive and linear <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity index, the range of hourly H component index (rH) with 1 min resolution, and develop a local rH index nowcast system for space weather operation, which can issue <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm alerts quickly. We also derive Kp/Ap indices conveniently from a single station data to describe the global <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity. Then we make a statistic comparison between rH and other definite index values during storm and find that rH is sensitive to the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbance and can reflect the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity more delicately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SunGe..12...31K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SunGe..12...31K"><span>Solar and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Activity Relation for the Last two Solar Cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kilcik, A.; Yiǧit, E.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The long-term relationship between solar (sunspot counts in different Zurich sunspot groups, <span class="hlt">International</span> Sunspot Number (ISSN), solar wind, and X-Ray solar flare index and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices (Ap and Dst) is investigated. Data sets used in this study cover a time period from January 1996 to March 2014. Our main findings are as follows: 1) The best correlation between the sunspot counts and the Ap index are obtained for the large group time series, while the other categories exhibited lower (final and medium) or no correlation at all (small). It is interesting to note that Ap index is delayed by about 13 months relatively to all sunspot count series and ISSN data. 2) The best correlation between the sunspot counts and the Dst index was as well obtained for the large AR time series. The Dst index delays with respect to the large group by about 2 months. 3) The highest correlation between the solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices were obtained between the solar wind speed and Ap and Dst indices with zero time delays (r = 0.76, r = 0.52, respectively). 4) The correlation coefficients between the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices (Ap, Dst) and X-Ray solar flare index (r = 0.59, r = -0.48, respectively) are a little higher than the correlation coefficients between these <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices and ISSN (r = 0.57, r = -0.43, respectively). 5) The magnitude of all solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> indices (except the solar wind speed) has significantly decreased during the current solar cycle as compared to the same phase of the previous cycle.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4690111','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4690111"><span>Generation and Characterization of Six Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxins as <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material to Serve in an <span class="hlt">International</span> Proficiency Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weisemann, Jasmin; Krez, Nadja; Fiebig, Uwe; Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Endermann, Tanja; Dorner, Martin B.; Bergström, Tomas; Muñoz, Amalia; Zegers, Ingrid; Müller, Christian; Jenkinson, Stephen P.; Avondet, Marc-Andre; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Denayer, Sarah; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Åstot, Crister; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Rummel, Andreas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The detection and identification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is complex due to the existence of seven serotypes, derived mosaic toxins and more than 40 subtypes. Expert laboratories currently use different technical approaches to detect, identify and quantify BoNT, but due to the lack of (certified) <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, analytical results can hardly be compared. In this study, the six BoNT/A1–F1 prototypes were successfully produced by recombinant techniques, facilitating handling, as well as improving purity, yield, reproducibility and biosafety. All six BoNTs were quantitatively nicked into active di-chain toxins linked by a disulfide bridge. The materials were thoroughly characterized with respect to purity, identity, protein concentration, catalytic and biological activities. For BoNT/A1, B1 and E1, serotypes pathogenic to humans, the catalytic activity and the precise protein concentration were determined by Endopep-mass spectrometry and validated amino acid analysis, respectively. In addition, BoNT/A1, B1, E1 and F1 were successfully detected by immunological assays, unambiguously identified by mass spectrometric-based methods, and their specific activities were assigned by the mouse LD50 bioassay. The potencies of all six BoNT/A1–F1 were quantified by the ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, allowing a direct comparison. In conclusion, highly pure recombinant BoNT <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials were produced, thoroughly characterized and employed as spiking material in a worldwide BoNT proficiency test organized by the EQuATox consortium. PMID:26703728</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnGeo..35...39D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnGeo..35...39D"><span>Induction effects of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances in the geo-electric field variations at low latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doumbia, Vafi; Boka, Kouadio; Kouassi, Nguessan; Didier Franck Grodji, Oswald; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Menvielle, Michel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this study we examined the influences of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity on the Earth surface electric field variations at low latitudes. During the <span class="hlt">International</span> Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) various experiments were performed along 5° W in West Africa from 1992 to 1995. Among other instruments, 10 stations equipped with magnetometers and telluric electric field lines operated along a meridian chain across the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dip equator from November 1992 to December 1994. In the present work, the induced effects of space-weather-related <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) influence area in West Africa were examined. For that purpose, variations in the north-south (Ex) and east-west (Ey) components of telluric electric field were analyzed, along with that of the three components (H, D and Z) of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field during the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm of 17 February 1993 and the solar flare observed on 4 April 1993. The most important induction effects during these events are associated with brisk impulses like storm sudden commencement (ssc) and solar flare effect (sfe) in the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field variations. For the moderate <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> storm that occurred on 17 February 1993, with a minimum Dst index of -110 nT, the geo-electric field responses to the impulse around 11:00 LT at LAM are Ex = 520 mV km-1 and Ey = 400 mV km-1. The geo-electric field responses to the sfe that occurred around 14:30 LT on 4 April 1993 are clearly observed at different stations as well. At LAM the crest-to-crest amplitude of the geo-electric field components associated with the sfe are Ex = 550 mV km-1 and Ey = 340 mV km-1. Note that the sfe impact on the geo-electric field variations decreases with the increasing distance of the stations from the subsolar point, which is located at about 5.13° N on 4 April. This trend does not reflect the sfe increasing amplitude near the dip equator due the high Cowling conductivity in the EEJ belt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1059951','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1059951"><span>Product definition for healthcare contracting: an overview of approaches to measuring hospital output with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the UK <span class="hlt">internal</span> market.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Söderlund, N</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE--In many industrialised countries, health care third party payers are moving towards contracted provision arrangements with suppliers of hospital care. Essential to such a process is a standard approach to quantifying the care provided. This paper aims to outline the possible approaches to hospital product definition for the UK National Health Service, and recommends appropriate further research. METHODS--All published and unpublished studies on hospital output measurement in the NHS since 1980 were sought for the purposes of the review. This included both discursive and empirical work, and no exclusion criteria were applied. Most empirical reports on this topic, however, come from the United States. Consequently, the published reports since 1980 from the USA, accessed from the Medline and Healthplan CD-ROM databases, have also been included in the overview. CONCLUSIONS--Where data are sufficient, the true casemix approach offers advantages over other methods of output measurement. In the UK NHS, two systems--diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) and healthcare resource groups (HRGs)--are the only casemix measures that have achieved any significant degree of attention. DRGs have been extensively evaluated <span class="hlt">internationally</span>, and explain variations in resource use in the UK slightly better than do HRGs. As a local product, HRGs can be more easily adapted to the specific needs of the NHS <span class="hlt">internal</span> market, however, and will thus probably emerge as a better measure for the UK in the long term. In both cases, locally derived cost weights are unavailable, and their development constitutes a major requirement for use in contracting. Adaptations for long stay and outpatient hospital episodes would enhance the usefulness of hospital casemix systems in the NHS. Existing approaches, such as specialty based classifications, are neither standardised nor predictive of resource use, and would be better replaced by casemix systems. Other countries facing similar choices between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMGP44A..01D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMGP44A..01D"><span>Has the Next <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Field Reversal Already Started?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Santis, A.; Tozzi, R.; Wicht, J.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Although in the past some speculations about an occurring <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reversal were already formulated, only recently this has emerged as a really constructive hypothesis to be better investigated. From Information Content analysis of global models of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field and geodynamo simulations, it results that within 1000-1500 years the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field will likely change its polarity. In this work we will present some considerations that support this possibility together with their geophysical implications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012720','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012720"><span>Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>In order to infer the interplanetary sector polarity from polar <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field diurnal variations, measurements were carried out at Godhavn and Thule (Denmark) <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Observatories. The inferred interplanetary sector polarity was compared with the polarity observed at the same time by Explorer 33 and 35 magnetometers. It is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar cap <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912126M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912126M"><span>A cosmogenic radionuclide perspective on Holocene <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field changes in comparison to new <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reconstructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muscheler, Raimund; Nilsson, Andreas; Suttie, Neil</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> shielding modulates the spectrum of galactic cosmic rays reaching Earth. In the Earth's atmosphere galactic cosmic rays produce cosmogenic radionuclides that, therefore, provide the possibility to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field intensity back into the past. Cosmogenic radionuclide records offer a complementary view on the history of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field since the cosmic ray shielding is mainly sensitive to the dipolar component of the Earth magnetic field. In addition, cosmogenic radionuclides records for the Holocene have a very high temporal resolution potentially allowing us to investigate rapid changes in the Earth's magnetic field. However, the solar influence and the geochemical behavior of cosmogenic radionuclides have to be accounted for when interpreting such records in terms of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field changes. The solar component is usually expected to act on shorter time scales and, therefore, assumed to be of minor importance for the longer-term variations in cosmogenic radionuclide records. The geochemical component can be investigated by joint analysis of 10Be and 14C records that have a completely different geochemical behavior. The reliability of these approaches and the impact on the radionuclide-based <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field reconstructions will be discussed. In addition, we will compare cosmogenic radionuclide-based reconstructions to the output of state-of-the-art reconstructions of the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> dipole field based on lake sediments and archaeomagnetic data. The dipole moment in these models remains poorly constrained, but in combination with radionuclides, they allow us to put realistic bounds on the amplitude of Holocene dipole variations. We will show the agreements and disagreements and will discuss possible reasons for the observed differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225076"><span>Mental Health and Its Associated Variables Among <span class="hlt">International</span> Students at a Japanese University: With Special <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Their Financial Status.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the <span class="hlt">international</span> students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19214460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19214460"><span>[Infectious disease emergencies. Responsibility of municipal, state and federal health protection authorities with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the <span class="hlt">international</span> health regulations].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gottschalk, René; Dreesman, J; Leitmeyer, K; Krause, G</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Pandemic preparedness has become a catch phrase for politicians, government agencies and communities, both nationally and <span class="hlt">internationally</span>. This is due to the increasing number of infectious diseases emergencies that are important challenges for health protection authorities, which was shown impressively when SARS emerged as the first pandemic in this millennium. In Germany, effective and efficient infection control is complex, with local health protection authorities having their own responsibilities. In the case of an emergency epidemic, regional health departments are responsible. Having authority over these are authorities on the federal state level as well as on the federal level. For the European Community, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established. The mission of this agency is to identify, assess and communicate current and emerging threats to human health posed by infectious diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15353691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15353691"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> dosimetry measurements for the <span class="hlt">international</span> intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry SILENE 9-21 June 2002.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asselineau, B; Trompier, F; Texier, C; Itié, C; Médioni, R; Tikunov, D; Muller, H; Pelcot, G</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">international</span> intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems took place in the SILENE reactor, in June 2002. Participants from 60 laboratories irradiated their dosemeters (physical and biological) using two different configurations of the reactor. In preparation for this intercomparison, the leakage radiation fields were characterised by spectrometry and dosimetry measurements using the ROSPEC spectrometer associated with a NE-213 scintillator, ionisation chambers, GM counters, diodes and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs). For this intercomparison, a large area was required to irradiate the dosemeters both in free air and on phantoms. Therefore, measurements of the uniformity of the field were performed with activation detectors and TLDs for neutron and gammas, respectively. This paper describes the procedures used and the results obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20223189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20223189"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> collaborative study to establish <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations to standardise haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in normal intravenous immunoglobulins by the direct method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorpe, S J; Fox, B; Sharp, G; Heath, A B; Behr-Gross, M-E; Terao, E; Virata-Theimer, M L; Yu, M W</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>A joint project (coded BSP089) was run by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) of the Council of Europe, the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to evaluate, in an <span class="hlt">international</span> collaborative study, 3 lyophilised intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations for their suitability to serve as <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Preparations to standardise and control the highly variable haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in IVIG products. 23 laboratories tested candidate IVIG <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations consisting of a Positive control, a Negative control and a specifically formulated Limit test <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation to define the maximum (e.g., pharmacopoeial) limits of anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinins in IVIG products, where limits are applicable. Laboratories performed direct haemagglutination using papain-treated erythrocytes and/or indirect anti-globulin tests. For both methods, there was up to 16-fold variation in anti-A and anti-B titres, although there was good agreement over a 2-fold titre range for anti-A and anti-B between laboratories using the direct method for both the Positive control and Limit <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations. Comparative titration data for the Positive control and Limit <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations indicated that the use of a 'Limit' test <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation would facilitate identification of higher titre batches when the direct haemagglutination method is used. The Positive control, Negative control and Limit test preparations were adopted in November 2008 by the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) as Biological <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Preparations. The same preparations have been established as <span class="hlt">reference</span> reagents by the WHO and the U.S FDA, including the maximal specifications defined by the Limit test preparation. This will facilitate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5437U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5437U"><span>Investigation of the Effects of Solar and <span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> Changes on the Total Electron Content: Mid-Latitude Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulukavak, Mustafa; Yalcinkaya, Mualla</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Global Positioning System (GPS) is used as an important tool for ionosphere monitoring and obtaining the Total Electron Content (TEC). GPS satellites, positioned in the Earth's orbit, are used as sensors to investigate the space weather conditions. In this study, solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity variations were investigated between the dates 1 March-30 June 2015 for the mid-latitude region. GPS-TEC variations were calculated for each selected <span class="hlt">International</span> GNSS Service (IGS) station in Europe. GNSS data was obtained from Crustal Dynamics Data and Information System (CDDIS) archive. Solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activity indices (Kp, F10.7 ve Dst) were obtained from the Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre (CSWFC) and Data Analysis Center for <span class="hlt">geomagnetism</span> and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University (WDC) archives. GPS-TEC variations were determined for the quiet periods of the solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activities. GPS-TEC changes were then compared with respect to the quiet periods of the solar and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> activities. Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) IONEX files, obtained from the IGS analysis center, was used to check the robustness of the GPS-TEC variations. The investigations revealed that it is possible to use the GPS-TEC data for monitoring the ionospheric disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020381','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940020381"><span><span class="hlt">Geomagnetic</span> field models incorporating physical constraints on the secular variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Constable, Catherine; Parker, Robert L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This proposal has been concerned with methods for constructing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field models that incorporate physical constraints on the secular variation. The principle goal that has been accomplished is the development of flexible algorithms designed to test whether the frozen flux approximation is adequate to describe the available <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data and their secular variation throughout this century. These have been applied to <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data from both the early and middle part of this century and convincingly demonstrate that there is no need to invoke violations of the frozen flux hypothesis in order to satisfy the available <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911365S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911365S"><span>the application of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> survey data in forecasting earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuanggui, Chen; Changjiang, Xin</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>There are 1280 field repeat stations and 46 permanent observatories consist of <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> observational network in China. The data was used for drawing <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> map early. Base on long term data accumulation and research results the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data have been used for forecasting earthquake after Wenchuan earthquake (8.0Ms) in Sichuan Province in 2008. So far we have forecasted several destructive ones, especially located in north-south seismic belt in China. This paper will mainly introduce the methods which use the <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> data measured regularly in field survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7577H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7577H"><span>Coseismic ionospheric and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances caused by great earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Zuo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Despite primary energy disturbances from the Sun, oscillations of the Earth surface due to a large earthquake will couple with the atmosphere and therefore the ionosphere, then the so-called coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs) can be detected in the ionosphere. Using a combination of techniques, total electron content, HF Doppler, and ground magnetometer, a new time-sequence of such effects propagation were developed on observational basis and ideas on explanation provided. In the cases of 2008 Wenchuan and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, infrasonic waves accompanying the propagation of seismic Rayleigh waves were observed in the ionosphere by all the three kinds of techniques. This is the very first report to present CIDs recorded by different techniques at co-located sites and profiled with regard to changes of both ionospheric plasma and current (<span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> field) simultaneously. Comparison between the oceanic (2011 Tohoku) and inland (2008 Wenchuan) earthquakes revealed that the main directional lobe of latter case is more distinct which is perpendicular to the direction of the fault rupture. We argue that the different fault slip (inland or submarine) may affect the way of couplings of lithosphere with atmosphere. <span class="hlt">References</span> Zhao, B., and Y. Hao (2015), Ionospheric and <span class="hlt">geomagnetic</span> disturbances caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A revisit, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021035. Hao, Y. Q., Z. Xiao, and D. H. Zhang (2013), Teleseismic magnetic effects (TMDs) of 2011 Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 3914-3923, doi:10.1002/jgra.50326. Hao, Y. Q., Z. Xiao, and D. H. Zhang (2012), Multi-instrument observation on co-seismic ionospheric effects after great Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A02305, doi:10.1029/2011JA017036.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6830476','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6830476"><span><span class="hlt">International</span> organization for standardization (ISO) 9000 and chemical agent standard analytical <span class="hlt">reference</span> material (SASARM) quality system development and implementation. Phase 1. Final report, April 1993-June 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turley, S.D.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is in the process of developing an <span class="hlt">International</span> Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 quality assurance (QA) system and a Chemical Agent Standard Analytical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material (CASARM) QA program. Phase I of this process consisted of analyzing the current DPG QA system, defining the structure of the new QA system, determine how the ISO 9000 and the CASARM systems will interact, develop the new QA system and implementation plan, and develop the CASARM program and begin implementation. The initial phases of the system design and synthesis met the objectives established for Phase I of this methodology project. Phase II will complete the functional analysis, system design, and prototype implementation. The prototype will be analyzed for weaknesses in operation, personnel and equipment requirements, software, and cost effectiveness. The system will be modified, if needed, and implemented across the Materiel Test Directorate. The final stage of this methodology will be to achieve ISO 9000 registration. <span class="hlt">International</span> Organization for Standardization(ISO) 9000, Chemical Agent Standard Analytical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Material(CASARM), Standardized Quality Assurance(QA), QA/Quality Control(QC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23165549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23165549"><span>[Anthropometric study and evaluation of the nutritional status of a population school children in Granada; comparison of national and <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González Jiménez, E; Aguilar Cordero, M J; Álvarez Ferre, J; Padilla López, C; Valenza, M C</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies show an alarming increase in levels of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The main objectives of this research were the following: (i) to carry out an anthropometric evaluation of the nutritional status and body composition of school children in the city and province of Granada; (ii) to compare the nutritional status of this population sample with national and <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards. The results obtained in this study showed that the general prevalence of overweight in both sexes was 22.03% and that 9.12% of the children were obese. Statistically significant differences were found between the variable, weight for age and sex (p < 0.05) and the variable, height for age and sex (p < 0.05). Regarding the body mass index, no statistically significant differences were found for the variable, sex (p = 0.182). This contrasted with the variable, age, which did show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, the results of our study highlighted the fact that these anthropometric values were much higher than national and <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5745444','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5745444"><span>McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> work in fifteen volumes including an index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an <span class="hlt">international</span> advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23022043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23022043"><span>Dispersive solid-phase extraction and immunoassay with <span class="hlt">internal</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> calibration using fatty acid-coated inorganic fluorescent nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo; Balaguer, Angel; Maquieira, Angel; Puchades, Rosa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) using fatty acid-coated Eu2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) was developed, and a direct immunoassay was carried out employing these NPs as support. Secondary antibodies labeled with fluorophore groups were used as reporters, and the intrinsic optical properties of the Eu2O3 NPs were employed as an <span class="hlt">internal</span> calibration of the detection system. The methodology was optimized for both dSPE-NP amount, sample volume, extraction time, ionic strength, and pH-and immunoassay-immunoreagent concentrations, ionic strength, and incubation time. As proof of concept, the methodology was applied to the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/anti-BSA system, and precision of the method was between 5% and 17% with an IC50 of 100 nM. Then, water samples with high saline content (sea water) were assayed to observe the matrix effect, and average recoveries (n = 3) between 78% and 108% were obtained, demonstrating the reliability of the developed analytical method. Finally, the simultaneous dSPE-immunoassay methodology was applied to other compounds with very different chemical characteristics such as an oligonucleotide, the antibiotic sulfamerazine, and the pesticide chlorpyriphos. Although the IC50 values for sulfamerazine were approximately 2400 nM, satisfactory standard curves were obtained. However, poor reproducibility and sensitivity results were obtained for the oligonucleotide and chlorpyriphos preliminary assays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4815936','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4815936"><span>Characteristics of Older Adults Admitted to Hospital versus Those Discharged Home, in Emergency Department Patients <span class="hlt">Referred</span> to <span class="hlt">Internal</span> Medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hominick, Kathryn; McLeod, Victoria; Rockwood, Kenneth</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Frail older adults present to the Emergency Department (ED) with complex medical, functional, and social needs. When these needs can be addressed promptly, discharge is possible, and when they cannot, hospital admission is required. We evaluated the care needs of frail older adults in the ED who were consulted to <span class="hlt">internal</span> medicine and seen by a geriatrician to determine, under current practices, which factors were associated with hospitalization and which allowed discharge. Methods We preformed a chart-based, exploratory study. Data were abstracted from consultation records and ED charts. All cases had a standard Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA which records a Clinical Frailty Scale (CFA) and allows calculation of a Frailty Index (FI). Results Of 100 consecutive patients, 2 died in the ED, 75 were admitted, and 23 were discharged, including one urgent placement. Compared with discharged patients (0.39 ± SD 0.16), those admitted had a higher mean FI-CGA (0.48 ± 0.13; p < .01). Greater mobility dependence (2% in discharged vs. 32% in admitted; p < .05) was notable. Conclusions Discharge decisions require assessment of medical, functional, and social problems. Ill, frail patients often can be discharged home when social and nursing support can be provided. The degree of frailty, impaired mobility, and likely delirium must be taken into account when planning for their care. PMID:27076860</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1477154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1477154"><span>Morphological study on the stomach of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the <span class="hlt">internal</span> surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agungpriyono, S; Yamamoto, Y; Kitamura, N; Yamada, J; Sigit, K; Yamashita, T</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>The stomach of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) was observed macroscopically. It consisted of only three compartments, rumen, reticulum and abomasum without omasum. The rumen was S-shaped with large ventral and caudoventral blind sacs and the reticulum was larger than the abomasum. <span class="hlt">Internally</span>, the rumen was covered with numerous ruminal papillae even on the pillars and the ruminoreticular fold. These papillae were leaf- or tongue-like shaped and varied in size and density. The reticulum had honey-combed crests and the secondary crests were found rarely. The lips of the reticular groove were prominent and more developed in the aboral part than in the oral one. A sac-like transition zone, which had more prominent mucosal folds than had the floor of the reticular groove, was observed between the caudal end of the reticular groove and the abomasum. Mucosal folds of the abomasum were spiral, low but rather thick. These findings were discussed in view of comparison with other ruminants and of possible functional implications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> <script type="text/javascript"><!-- // var lastDiv = ""; function showDiv(divName) { // hide last div if (lastDiv) { document.getElementById(lastDiv).className = "hiddenDiv"; } //if value of the box is not nothing and an object with that name exists, then change the class if (divName && document.getElementById(divName)) { document.getElementById(divName).className = "visibleDiv"; lastDiv = divName; } } //--> </script> <script> /** * Function that tracks a click on an outbound link in Google Analytics. * This function takes a valid URL string as an argument, and uses that URL string * as the event label. */ var trackOutboundLink = function(url,collectionCode) { try { h = window.open(url); setTimeout(function() { ga('send', 'event', 'topic-page-click-through', collectionCode, url); }, 1000); } catch(err){} }; </script> <!-- Google Analytics --> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-1122789-34', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> <!-- End Google Analytics --> <script> showDiv('page_1') </script> </body> </html>