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Sample records for international health elective

  1. International Child Health Elective for Pediatric Residents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are increasing evidence highlighting the importance of incorporating issues of global health into pre- and post-graduate medical curricula. Medical international cooperation is a fundamental component of strategies to include global health issues in post-graduate medical curricula. Methods Here we describe a seven-year cooperation between the Non Governmental Organization (NGO) “Doctors for Africa CUAMM” and the Pediatric Residency Program (PRP) of the University of Padua (Italy) that offers residents a well-articulated personalized international child’s health (ICH) elective in Africa, called “Junior Project Officer”. The elective includes: a careful candidate selection process; pre-departure educational course; preceptorship in Padua and Africa, personalized learning objectives, a personalized job description, a six-month hands-on learning experience in Africa, evaluation of the experience, and formal private and open feed-backs/reports. Results Between 2006 and 2012, 14 residents aged from 27 to 31 years, six attending the III, nine the IV and two the V year of residency completed the six-month stage in Africa. All worked in pediatric in-patient units; seven also worked in out-patient clinics, six in emergency rooms and seven in community health centers. Eleven were involved in teaching activities and four in clinical research projects. All residents claimed to have achieved their learning objectives. Conclusions A strong partnership between the NGO and the PRP, and well-articulated personalized learning objectives and job description contributed to a successful ICH elective. PMID:24499625

  2. International health electives: thematic results of student and professional interviews.

    PubMed

    Petrosoniak, Andrew; McCarthy, Anne; Varpio, Lara

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities (including harms and benefits) of international health electives (IHEs) involving medical trainees. This exploration contributes to the ongoing debate about the goals and implications of IHEs for medical trainees. This qualitative study used anonymous, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews. All participants had previous international health experiences. Between September 2007 and March 2008, we interviewed a convenience sample of health care professionals (n=10) and medical trainees (n=10). Using a modified grounded theory methodology, we carried out cycles of data analysis in conjunction with data collection in an iterative and constant comparison process. The study's thematic structure was finalised when theme saturation was achieved. Participants described IHEs in both negative and positive terms. IHEs were described as unsustained short-term contributions that lacked clear educational objectives and failed to address local community needs. Ethical dilemmas were described as IHE challenges. Participants reflected that many IHEs included aspects of medical tourism and the majority of participants described the IHE in negative terms. However, a few participants acknowledged the benefits of the IHE. Specifically, it was seen as an introduction to a career in global health and as a potential foundation for more sustainable projects with positive host community impacts. Finally, despite similar understandings among participants, self-awareness of medical tourism was low. International health electives may include potential harms and benefits for both the trainee and the host community. Educational institutions should encourage and support structured IHEs for trainee participation. We recommend that faculties of medicine and global health educators establish pre-departure training courses for trainees and that IHE opportunities have sufficient structures in place to mitigate the negative effects of medical

  3. Improving election prediction internationally.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ryan; Wojcik, Stefan; Lazer, David

    2017-02-03

    This study reports the results of a multiyear program to predict direct executive elections in a variety of countries from globally pooled data. We developed prediction models by means of an election data set covering 86 countries and more than 500 elections, and a separate data set with extensive polling data from 146 election rounds. We also participated in two live forecasting experiments. Our models correctly predicted 80 to 90% of elections in out-of-sample tests. The results suggest that global elections can be successfully modeled and that they are likely to become more predictable as more information becomes available in future elections. The results provide strong evidence for the impact of political institutions and incumbent advantage. They also provide evidence to support contentions about the importance of international linkage and aid. Direct evidence for economic indicators as predictors of election outcomes is relatively weak. The results suggest that, with some adjustments, global polling is a robust predictor of election outcomes, even in developing states. Implications of these findings after the latest U.S. presidential election are discussed.

  4. International electives in neurology training

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Mary E.; Engstrom, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. Background: There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. Methods: A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012–February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Results: Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health–related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%–9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%–19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. Conclusions: In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority

  5. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students.

    PubMed

    Vora, Nirali; Chang, Mina; Pandya, Hemang; Hasham, Aliya; Lazarus, Cathy

    2010-02-15

    Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass-fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country.

  6. A student-initiated and student-facilitated international health elective for preclinical medical students

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Nirali; Chang, Mina; Pandya, Hemang; Hasham, Aliya; Lazarus, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Global health education is becoming more important for developing well-rounded physicians and may encourage students toward a career in primary care. Many medical schools, however, lack adequate and structured opportunities for students beginning the curriculum. Methods Second-year medical students initiated, designed, and facilitated a pass–fail international health elective, providing a curricular framework for preclinical medical students wishing to gain exposure to the clinical and cultural practices of a developing country. Results All course participants (N=30) completed a post-travel questionnaire within one week of sharing their experiences. Screening reflection essays for common themes that fulfill university core competencies yielded specific global health learning outcomes, including analysis of health care determinants. Conclusion Medical students successfully implemented a sustainable global health curriculum for preclinical student peers. Financial constraints, language, and organizational burdens limit student participation. In future, long-term studies should analyze career impact and benefits to the host country. PMID:20186283

  7. [International Health Electives in developing countries for medical and nursing students: four experiences from French-speaking Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Chastonay, Philippe; Baumann, Fritz; Chastonay, Oriane; Staudacher, Kevin; Verloo, Henk; Kabengele, Emmanuel; Mattig, Thomas; Michaud, Pierre-André; Bernheim, Laurent

    2015-06-10

    International Health Electives performed in developing countries by students of medical and nursing schools from industrialized nations have recently become a highly valued element in curricula of medical and nursing schools. We report here four examples of such electives developed over the years at the Faculties of medicine of Geneva and Lausanne, one involving both medical and nursing school students. These electives foster enthusiasm and commitment among students and host institutions abroad. A selective review of the literature highlights the many positive aspects of such electives for the professional and personal development of students. It also emphasizes what the host institutions can gain from these electives provided the latter are organized in a balanced partnership and that the students receive a careful preparation to avoid possible pitfalls.

  8. Educational Effects of International Health Electives on U.S. and Canadian Medical Students and Residents: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Matthew J.; Huntington, Mark K.; Hunt, D. Dan; Pinsky, Linda E.; Brodie, Jonathon J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviewed studies that have assessed the educational effects of international health electives (IHEs) on U.S. and Canadian medical students and residents. IHEs appear to be associated with career choices in underserved or primary care settings and recruitment to residency programs. They also appear to have positive effects on participants' clinical…

  9. Educational Effects of International Health Electives on U.S. and Canadian Medical Students and Residents: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Matthew J.; Huntington, Mark K.; Hunt, D. Dan; Pinsky, Linda E.; Brodie, Jonathon J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviewed studies that have assessed the educational effects of international health electives (IHEs) on U.S. and Canadian medical students and residents. IHEs appear to be associated with career choices in underserved or primary care settings and recruitment to residency programs. They also appear to have positive effects on participants' clinical…

  10. Using CanMEDS to guide international health electives: an enriching experience in Uganda defined for a Canadian surgery resident.

    PubMed

    Goecke, Michelle E; Kanashiro, Jeanie; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Hollaar, Gwendolyn L

    2008-08-01

    Surgery residents who wish to travel during their residency will often seek an elective experience in a low-or middle-income country. Objectives for international health electives (IHEs) are often vague and poorly defined. Further, feedback to, and evaluation of, the resident after the IHE are often not specific because international preceptors are not familiar with the desired educational outcomes of Canadian residency programs. Residents who choose an elective in a low-income country usually anticipate that they will contribute some medical service to an existing impoverished health care system, and in this setting, they hope to gain exposure to a high operative volume with potentially fewer institutional and administrative obstacles. In this paper, we describe one resident's elective experience in Mbarara, Uganda. In addition to her clinical experience, the resident performed a retrospective audit of surgical admissions. After her elective, we asked the resident to reflect on her experience and to use the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) framework to describe the challenges she encountered and to define the learning outcomes gained with respect to each CanMEDS role. We discovered that the resident had a rich and insightful educational experience when discussed in this context. As a result, we have created a guide for structuring postgraduate IHEs around the CanMEDS roles, using them to ask pre-and postelective questions to develop relevant and practical IHE objectives. We propose that this guide has the potential to improve both resident preparation before international experience and also subsequent evaluation of resident performance in this ill-defined area. More important, we found that IHEs are a useful vehicle to evaluate resident achievement of the CanMEDS competencies in a way that is reflective, realistic and representative of the multiple challenges involved when working in international health.

  11. International crises and global health electives: lessons for faculty and institutions.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Beat D; Carlough, Martha; Dent, Georgette; Peña, Rodolfo; Morgan, Douglas R

    2010-10-01

    Student participation in global health electives and community service initiatives is associated with a number of favorable outcomes, and student interest in participating in such experiences is high. Increasingly, medical schools are facilitating and supervising global health opportunities. The inherent risks and uncertainties of global community service deserve careful consideration as schools engage more actively in this area. This article presents how one institution managed three crises in three electives in a single year. The H1N1 flu epidemic impacted a group of students bound for Mexico, a political upheaval affected a student group working in Honduras, and a hurricane threatened a student group in Nicaragua. This article outlines lessons learned from responding to these crises. Well-defined institutional travel policies, clear communication plans in the event of an emergency, a responsible administrative entity for global experiences, and formal predeparture training for students and faculty can help institutions better respond to unpredictable events. A comprehensive examination of these lessons and reflections on how to institutionalize the various components may help other institutions prepare for such events and lessen negative impact on student learning.

  12. Effectiveness of an International Health Elective As Measured by NBME Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Wendy; And Others

    1976-01-01

    National Board of Medical Examiner's exam results show that U.S. medical students who participated between 1968 and 1974 in Yugoslav or Israeli international fellowship programs sponsored by the Association of American Medical Schools and the U.S. Public Health Service gained knowledge of preventive medicine and public health. (JT)

  13. Effectiveness of an International Health Elective As Measured by NBME Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Wendy; And Others

    1976-01-01

    National Board of Medical Examiner's exam results show that U.S. medical students who participated between 1968 and 1974 in Yugoslav or Israeli international fellowship programs sponsored by the Association of American Medical Schools and the U.S. Public Health Service gained knowledge of preventive medicine and public health. (JT)

  14. Preparing students for the ethical challenges on international health electives: A systematic review of the literature on educational interventions.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Anika; Knights Née Jones, Felicity; Fyfe, Molly; Alagarajah, Janagan; Baraitser, Paula

    2016-09-01

    International health electives pose specific ethical challenges for students travelling from to low and middle income countries. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on interventions to prepare students to identify ethical issues addressed, educational approaches and to collate evidence on the effectiveness of different strategies. We searched nine electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and identified grey literature through key word searches; supplemented through citation mapping and expert consultation. Articles that described ethical training conducted by universities or professional bodies were included for review. We reviewed forty-four full text articles. Ten sources of published literature and seven sources of grey literature met our inclusion criteria. We identified thirteen ethical situations that students should be prepared to manage and eight generic skills to support this process. Most interventions were delivered before the elective, used case studies or guidelines. Some suggested ethical principles or a framework for analysis of ethical issues. Only two papers evaluated the intervention described. Our paper collates a small but growing body of work on education to prepare students to manage ethical issues. Ethical training should have elements that are delivered before, during and after the elective. Interventions should include case studies covering thirteen ethical issues identified here, linked to ethical principles and a process for responding to ethical issues. We suggest that evaluations of interventions are an important area for future research.

  15. A Third World international health elective for U.S. medical students. The 16-year experience of the State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn.

    PubMed

    Imperato, P J

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health at the State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn (SUNY, HSCB) instituted an eight-week third world international health elective for fourth year medical students in 1980. Since that time, ninety students have participated. The purposes of this elective are to provide fourth year medical students with an opportunity to observe and study the structure and functions of a health care delivery system in a third world country, to provide medical service, and to have a cross-cultural experience. The emphasis in this elective is on public health, preventive medicine, and primary care. There is a high level of student competition for this elective, with 46.9% of applicants having been accepted over a fifteen-year period. Although women comprise 40% of the average medical school class, they represent 50% of participants in this elective program. The percentage of African-American and Hispanic students has been 20%. These two minority groups represented from 8% to 10% of the student body during the period under study. Careful screening, including an examination of academic records and personal interviews, has resulted in the selection of highly motivated, adaptable, and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Student satisfaction levels with this elective are extremely high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to going overseas. This covers issues related to individual health and safety, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system, and assignment site. Our students are especially experienced at cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patients they treat in Brooklyn, and the ethnic diversity of local hospital staffs and the medical school class. This Brooklyn experience in cross-cultural understanding has been cited by many

  16. Effects of international health electives on medical student learning and career choice: results of a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jessica; Dumont, Rebecca A; Kim, Gloria Y; Kuo, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The present study reviewed the published literature to examine the effects of international health electives (IHEs) on medical student learning and career choice. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify key English-language articles on IHEs, using PubMed journal databases for the period 1990--2009. Article inclusion for this review was vetted by a rigorous evaluation of each article's study methods, content, and data quality. Pooled or aggregate information from 11 key articles, including information on type and duration of IHE, study and comparison group characteristics, and measured outcomes such as self-reported changes in cultural competency, clinical skills, and specialty choice, were extracted and summarized. Findings suggest that having IHE experiences contributed to a more well-rounded training for medical students; students reported being more culturally competent and were more likely to choose a primary care specialty and/or a public service career. Although IHE experiences appear to have educational benefits, the quality and availability of these electives vary by institution. Barriers to ensuring that students attain a safe and rich experience include the lack of consistent categorical funding, safety concerns when traveling, and limited faculty experience and resources to support and guide students during their rotations abroad.

  17. Unchallenged good intentions: a qualitative study of the experiences of medical students on international health electives to developing countries.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Patrick; McAuliffe, Eilish; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2014-09-04

    Irish medical students have a long and proud history of embarking on international health electives (IHEs) to broaden their experience in the developing world. Although there are many opinions in the literature about IHEs, there is a dearth of empirical research that explores the experience and the value of these experiences to medical students. Most students who participate in these IHEs from Irish medical schools are members of student IHE societies, which are entirely run by students themselves. There are varying levels of preparation and interaction with the medical schools in planning these experiences. This study explores the experiences of a sample of students who completed IHEs in 2012. This qualitative study used anonymized one-on-one interviews with medical students in Irish medical schools who completed IHEs to developing countries in 2012. Students were recruited using online noticeboards of student societies and e-mail. Purposive sampling was used to find students from different medical schools, some who had travelled with medical student IHE societies and others who had travelled independently. Seven male and seven female students participated. Interviews were conducted until saturation was reached. Data were then analyzed thematically. The main themes identified were the perceived benefits of IHEs, the difficulties experienced with the distribution of charitable donations, the emotional impact on the students of participating in the IHEs, awareness of scope of practice by students, and issues with the current structure of IHEs. The informal relationship that currently exists between student societies and the medical schools results in poor accountability and reporting requirements on IHEs. Clearer guidelines and identification of learning outcomes for students would be helpful. The findings are relevant to medical students internationally.

  18. A Study of Global Health Elective Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Christiana M.; Tran, Tony; Silverman, Melanie; Palfrey, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To identify the effects of global health electives over a decade in a pediatric residency program. Methods: This was an anonymous email survey of the Boston Combined Residency alumni funded for global health electives from 2002 to 2011. A test for trend in binomial proportions and logistic regression were used to document associations between elective and participant characteristics and the effects of the electives. Qualitative data were also analyzed. Results: Of the 104 alumni with available email addresses, 69 (66%) responded, describing 94 electives. Elective products included 27 curricula developed, 11 conference presentations, and 7 academic publications. Thirty-two (46%) alumni continued global health work. Previous experience, previous travel to the site, number of global electives, and cumulative global elective time were associated with postresidency work in global health or with the underserved. Conclusions: Resident global electives resulted in significant scholarship and teaching and contributed to long-term career trajectories. PMID:28229096

  19. Toward reciprocity: host supervisor perspectives on international medical electives.

    PubMed

    Bozinoff, Nikki; Dorman, Katie P; Kerr, Denali; Roebbelen, Erica; Rogers, Erin; Hunter, Andrea; O'Shea, Tim; Kraeker, Christian

    2014-04-01

    An increasing number of medical students are engaging in international medical electives, the majority of which involve travel from northern, higher-income countries to southern, lower-income countries. Existing research has identified benefits to students participating in these experiences. However, reports on the impacts on host communities are largely absent from the literature. The current study aims to identify host country perspectives on international medical electives. Questionnaires were delivered to a convenience sample of supervisors hosting international elective students (n = 39) from a Canadian medical school. Responses represented 22 countries. Conventional content analysis of the qualitative data was used to identify themes in host supervisor perspectives on the impact of international medical electives. Host country supervisors identified that in addition to the benefits realised by the elective students, supervisors and their institutions also benefited from hosting Canadian students. Although some host supervisors denied the occurrence of any harm, others expressed concern that international elective students may negatively impact the local community in terms of resource use and patient care. Host country supervisors also identified potential harms to travelling students including health risks and emotional distress. Ideas for improving international electives were identified and were largely centred around increasing the bidirectional flow of students by establishing formal partnerships between institutions. This research provides important insights into the impacts of international medical student electives from the perspective of host country supervisors. This research may be a starting point for further research and the establishment of meaningful partnerships that incorporate the self-identified needs of receiving institutions, especially those in lower-income settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Integrating CanMEDS competencies into global health electives: an innovative elective program.

    PubMed

    Valani, Rahim; Sriharan, Abi; Scolnik, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Globalization has opened the doors for medical students to undertake international health electives, providing an opportunity for them to gain valuable competencies and skills outside their formal curriculum. As the number of medical students embarking on these electives increases, there is a need to structure the electives with specific learning objectives and to ensure adequate educational outcomes.We describe the International Pediatric Emergency Medicine Elective (IPEME), which is a novel global health elective that brings together students from Canada and the Middle East who are selected on the basis of a competitive application process and brought to Toronto for a 4-week living and studying experience. The program was introduced in 2004 and uses four specific areas to provide its structure: pediatric emergency medicine, global health, leadership, and peace building. The elective uses core CanMEDS competencies to foster cross-cultural dialogue, networking, and cooperation and fulfills the program's aim of using health as a bridge to peace.The lessons learned from the curriculum planning and implementation process are highlighted and the impact of the program explored to help provide a framework for developing similar international electives.

  1. A third world international health elective for U.S. medical students: the 25-year experience of the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James

    2004-10-01

    The Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center instituted a 6-8 weeks third world international health elective for fourth year medical students in 1980. Since that time, some 217 students have participated in a score of third world countries. However, the most popular sites have been India, Kenya and Thailand. The purposes of this elective are to provide fourth year medical students with an opportunity to observe and study the structure and functions of a health care delivery system in a third world country, to provide medical service, and to have a cross-cultural experience. The emphasis in this elective is on public health, preventive medicine and primary care. There are high levels of student competition for this elective. However, interest in it has been affected by world events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the recent outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been twenty-five and more out of a class of two hundred students. Annual acceptance rates vary considerably, ranging from as low as 27.2% in 1995-1996 to a high of 81.8% in 1987-1988. Careful screening, including an examination of academic records and personal interviews, has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable, and dedicated students who overall have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are extremely high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to going overseas. This includes individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system, and assignment site. Our students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patients they treat in Brooklyn, and the ethnic diversity of local

  2. Development of an international elective in a general surgery residency.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Benjamin T; Cogbill, Thomas H; Kitowski, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    Clinical opportunities in underserved countries can provide invaluable experiences for general surgery residents. Challenges involving access to health care, working with limited resources, increased reliance on history and physical examination skills, understanding cultural differences, and determining the appropriate level of care or intervention are inherent to these experiences. We designed an international elective to provide these opportunities and to instill a sense of volunteerism and service in our residents. The first resident to choose this rotation gained significant insight into global health issues, gained exposure to a broad spectrum of surgical pathology, and had a strong operative experience. Institutional involvement with either domestic or international medically underserved areas has the potential to provide our residents with valuable opportunities for cross-cultural exchange of knowledge and experience.

  3. International Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  4. Student objectives and learning experiences in a global health elective.

    PubMed

    Holmes, David; Zayas, Luis E; Koyfman, Alex

    2012-10-01

    International health electives offer unique experiences for medical students to develop clinical skills and cultural competencies in unique and diverse environments. Medical students have been increasingly pursuing these learning opportunities despite the challenges. However, their goals in pursuing these opportunities and the relation between their learning objectives and actual experiences have not been studied adequately. It is important to assess these programs based on student objectives and whether those objectives are met. Thirty-seven medical students from five cohorts at a US medical school completed pre-post questionnaires regarding their global health elective objectives and learning experiences. The questionnaires included mostly open-ended questions and a Likert-scale rating of their overall experience. Qualitative thematic analysis involved inductive coding and followed a content-driven immersion-crystallization approach. Quantitative program evaluation measures yielded descriptive statistics. Five general objectives and four types of learning experiences were identified. Student objectives were: (1) to observe the practice and organization of health care in another country; (2) improve medical/surgical skills; (3) improve language skills; (4) learn about another culture; and (5) deepen knowledge of infectious diseases. All of their objectives were achieved. Moreover, one learning theme, "self-reflection and personal growth," was not a student objective. Quantitative assessment showed that most students had a favorable elective experience. Program challenges were also identified. Students in a global health elective were able to fulfill self-identified learning objectives, while also gaining other unexpected yet important lessons. Students' learning objectives also should be considered in evaluating learning experiences in international health electives.

  5. International electives in neurology training: a survey of US and Canadian program directors.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jennifer L; Coleman, Mary E; Engstrom, John W; Mateen, Farrah J

    2014-01-14

    To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012-February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health-related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%-9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%-19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority of Canadian programs that responded allow international

  6. Mortality and health among internally displaced persons in western Kenya following post-election violence, 2008: novel use of demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Adazu, Kubaje; Obor, David; Ogwang, Sheila; Vulule, John; Hamel, Mary J; Laserson, Kayla

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate mortality and morbidity among internally displaced persons (IDPs) who relocated in a demographic surveillance system (DSS) area in western Kenya following post-election violence. Methods In 2007, 204 000 individuals lived in the DSS area, where field workers visit households every 4 months to record migrations, births and deaths. We collected data on admissions among children < 5 years of age in the district hospital and developed special questionnaires to record information on IDPs. Mortality, migration and hospitalization rates among IDPs and regular DSS residents were compared, and verbal autopsies were performed for deaths. Findings Between December 2007 and May 2008, 16 428 IDPs migrated into the DSS, and over half of them stayed 6 months or longer. In 2008, IDPs aged 15–49 years died at higher rates than regular residents of the DSS (relative risk, RR: 1.34; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.004–1.80). A greater percentage of deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurred among IDPs aged ≥ 5 years (53%) than among regular DSS residents (25–29%) (P < 0.001). Internally displaced children < 5 years of age did not die at higher rates than resident children but were hospitalized at higher rates (RR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.44–3.58). Conclusion HIV-infected internally displaced adults in conflict-ridden parts of Africa are at increased risk of HIV-related death. Relief efforts should extend to IDPs who have relocated outside IDP camps, particularly if afflicted with HIV infection or other chronic conditions. PMID:20680125

  7. Mortality and health among internally displaced persons in western Kenya following post-election violence, 2008: novel use of demographic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Feikin, Daniel R; Adazu, Kubaje; Obor, David; Ogwang, Sheila; Vulule, John; Hamel, Mary J; Laserson, Kayla

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate mortality and morbidity among internally displaced persons (IDPs) who relocated in a demographic surveillance system (DSS) area in western Kenya following post-election violence. In 2007, 204 000 individuals lived in the DSS area, where field workers visit households every 4 months to record migrations, births and deaths. We collected data on admissions among children < 5 years of age in the district hospital and developed special questionnaires to record information on IDPs. Mortality, migration and hospitalization rates among IDPs and regular DSS residents were compared, and verbal autopsies were performed for deaths. Between December 2007 and May 2008, 16 428 IDPs migrated into the DSS, and over half of them stayed 6 months or longer. In 2008, IDPs aged 15-49 years died at higher rates than regular residents of the DSS (relative risk, RR: 1.34; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.004-1.80). A greater percentage of deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurred among IDPs aged > or = 5 years (53%) than among regular DSS residents (25-29%) (P < 0.001). Internally displaced children < 5 years of age did not die at higher rates than resident children but were hospitalized at higher rates (RR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.44-3.58). HIV-infected internally displaced adults in conflict-ridden parts of Africa are at increased risk of HIV-related death. Relief efforts should extend to IDPs who have relocated outside IDP camps, particularly if afflicted with HIV infection or other chronic conditions.

  8. A national survey of international electives for medical students in Japan: 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Nishigori, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Osamu; Sugimoto, Naomi; Kitamura, Kiyoshi; McMahon, Graham T

    2012-01-01

    International electives can provide experiences for medical students to learn about health systems and foster critical self-reflection. So far, little is known about the status of Japanese students' engagement in international electives. We sought to provide information about the internationalization of Japanese medical education by clarifying the current situations of international electives. We undertook a cross-sectional national 17-item questionnaire survey of program officers in all medical schools in Japan in February 2010. Sixty-five (81.3%) of 80 Japanese medical schools responded to the questionnaire. 462 Japanese medical students (3% of all students in their clinical years) travelled to North America (45.5%), Asia (25.0%), or Western Europe (24.4%) to study abroad. The number of students who participated in international electives was significantly increased when academic credit was available (median 6 vs. 1, p < 0.001) and institutional affiliations were present (median 7 vs. 2 students, p < 0.001). Most students were evaluated by means of written assignment on return. About 3% of Japanese medical students participate in international clinical exchanges. Academic credit and institutional affiliations appear to promote greater utilization of international exchange opportunities.

  9. Educational objectives for international medical electives: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cherniak, William A; Drain, Paul K; Brewer, Timothy F

    2013-11-01

    Although most medical schools and residency programs offer international medical electives (IMEs), little guidance on the educational objectives for these rotations exists; thus, the authors reviewed the literature to compile and categorize a comprehensive set of educational objectives for IMEs. In February and July 2012, the authors searched SciVerse Scopus online, which includes the Embase and MEDLINE databases, using specified terms. From the articles that met their inclusion criteria, they extracted the educational objectives of IMEs and sorted them into preelective, intraelective, and postelective objectives. The authors identified and reviewed 255 articles, 11 (4%) of which described 22 educational objectives. Among those 22 objectives, 5 (23%), 15 (68%), and 2 (9%) were, respectively, preelective, intraelective, and postelective objectives. Among preelective objectives, only cultural awareness appeared in more than 2 articles (3/11; 27%). Among intraelective objectives, the most commonly defined were enhancing clinical skills and understanding different health care systems (9/11; 82%). Learning to manage diseases rarely seen at home and increasing cultural awareness appeared in nearly half (5/11; 45%) of all articles. Among postelective objectives, reflecting on experiences through a written project was most common (9/11; 82%). The authors identified 22 educational objectives for IMEs in the published literature, some of which were consistent across institutions. These consistencies, in conjunction with future research, can be used as a framework on which institutions can build their own IME curricula, ultimately helping to ensure that their medical trainees have a meaningful learning experience while abroad.

  10. Are elected health boards an effective mechanism for public participation in health service governance?

    PubMed

    Gauld, Robin

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in the idea of elected members on health service governing boards as a means to induce public participation in planning and decision making, yet studies of elected boards are limited. Whether elected boards are an effective mechanism for public participation remains unclear. This article discusses the experiences of New Zealand where, since 2001, there have been three sets of elections for District Health Boards. Information on candidates and election results is presented along with data gathered via post-election voter surveys. The article also considers the broader regulatory context within which the elected boards must operate. The New Zealand experience illustrates that elected health boards may not be an effective mechanism for public participation. Voter turnout has declined since the inaugural elections of 2001, and non-voters form the majority. Reasons for not voting include failure to receive voting papers, a lack of interest, or no knowledge of elections. The elections have also failed to produce minority representation, while the capacity for elected members to represent their communities is subject to constraints. On the upside, elections have enabled public involvement in various dimensions of participation, including oversight and processes of governance. New Zealand's mixed performance suggests that elected boards may need to be complemented with other participatory channels, if increased public participation is the goal. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Are elected health boards an effective mechanism for public participation in health service governance?

    PubMed Central

    Gauld, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background  There is growing interest in the idea of elected members on health service governing boards as a means to induce public participation in planning and decision making, yet studies of elected boards are limited. Whether elected boards are an effective mechanism for public participation remains unclear. Setting and participants  This article discusses the experiences of New Zealand where, since 2001, there have been three sets of elections for District Health Boards. Information on candidates and election results is presented along with data gathered via post‐election voter surveys. The article also considers the broader regulatory context within which the elected boards must operate. Discussion and conclusions  The New Zealand experience illustrates that elected health boards may not be an effective mechanism for public participation. Voter turnout has declined since the inaugural elections of 2001, and non‐voters form the majority. Reasons for not voting include failure to receive voting papers, a lack of interest, or no knowledge of elections. The elections have also failed to produce minority representation, while the capacity for elected members to represent their communities is subject to constraints. On the upside, elections have enabled public involvement in various dimensions of participation, including oversight and processes of governance. New Zealand’s mixed performance suggests that elected boards may need to be complemented with other participatory channels, if increased public participation is the goal. PMID:20579118

  12. Catherine Cesarsky elected President of the International Astronomical Union and Ian Corbett elected Assistant General Secretary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    The General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), meeting in Prague (Czech Republic), has elected the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, as President for a three-year period (2006-2009). The IAU is a body of distinguished professional astronomers, founded in 1919 to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation. It now has almost 10 000 individual members drawn from all continents. Dr. Cesarsky is the first woman to receive this high distinction. At the same General Assembly, Dr. Ian Corbett, ESO's Deputy Director General, was elected Assistant General Secretary for 2006-2009, with the expectation of becoming General Secretary in 2009-2012. ESO PR Photo 32/06 ESO PR Photo 32/06 The New IAU Officers Prof. Ron Ekers, the outgoing IAU President said: "The past few years have been highly productive for astronomy, with many discoveries giving new insights into our Universe which have excited scientists and general public alike. Catherine Cesarsky is internationally honoured as a scientist, and I am delighted that she has agreed to serve the IAU as President. She has already given invaluable service to the IAU and I am confident that she will provide outstanding leadership as President." "It is a great honour and a pleasure for me to be President of the International Astronomical Union for the next three years, especially in view of the proposed International Year of Astronomy in 2009, in which the IAU will play a leading role as a catalyst and a coordinator," said Catherine Cesarsky. "I am very much looking forward to working with my colleagues in the IAU to ensure that this is a great success." Dr. Cesarsky, ESO Director General since 1999, is known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. She first worked on the theory of cosmic ray propagation and acceleration, and galactic gamma-ray emission. Later, she led the design and construction of

  13. Beyond Watches and Chocolate-Global Mental Health Elective in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Weiss, Andrea; von Blumenthal, Suzanne; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G; Schwartz, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Despite increasing interest in global mental health training opportunities, only a few psychiatry residency programs offer global mental health training experiences in developing countries and even fewer programs offer it in other first-world countries. The authors developed a global mental health elective giving US psychiatry residents the opportunity to visit Switzerland to study and experience the mental health care system in this European country. This elective focuses on four major learning objectives: (1) the system of training and curriculum of postgraduate psychiatry education in Switzerland, (2) clinical and organizational aspects of Swiss mental health, (3) administrative aspects of Swiss mental health care delivery, and (4) scholarly activity. This program was uniquely tailored for psychiatry residents. The preliminary experiences with US psychiatry residents show that they value this learning experience, the opportunity to access a different mental health care system, as well as the potential to build international connections with peers.

  14. Teaching Prevention through Electives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhert, N. Lynn; Bennett, Nancy M.; Grande, David; Dandoy, Suzanne

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of teaching preventive medicine through electives describes four prototypes of innovative programs: (1) population health, (2) international health, (3) American Medical Student Association opportunities, and (4) public health degree programs. These electives enable students to participate in preventive services through experiential…

  15. Catherine Cesarsky - President Elect of the International Astronomical Union (IAU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    The General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), meeting in Sydney (Australia), has appointed the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, as President Elect for a three-year period (2003-2006). The IAU is the world's foremost organisation for astronomy, uniting almost 9000 professional scientists on all continents. The IAU General Assembly also elected Prof. Ron Ekers (Australia) as President (2003 - 2006). Dr. Cesarsky will then become President of the IAU in 2006, when the General Assembly next meets in Prague (The Czech Republic). Dr. Cesarsky is the first woman scientist to receive this high distinction. "The election of Catherine Cesarsky as President-Elect of the IAU is an important recognition for a scientist who has made impressive contributions to various areas of modern astrophysics, from cosmic rays to the interstellar medium and cosmology" , commented the outgoing IAU President, Prof. Franco Pacini. "It is also an honour and an important accolade for the European astronomical community in general and ESO in particular." Dr. Cesarsky, who assumed the function as ESO Director General in 1999, was born in France. She received a degree in Physical Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires and graduated with a PhD in Astronomy in 1971 from Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass., USA). Afterwards she worked at the California Institute of Technology (CALTECH). In 1974, she became a staff member of the Service d'Astrophysique (SAp), Direction des Sciences de la Matière (DSM), Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) (France). As Director of DSM (1994 - 1999), she was leading about 3000 scientists, engineers and technicians active within a broad spectrum of basic research programmes in physics, chemistry, astrophysics and earth sciences. Dr. Cesarsky is known for her successful research activities in several central areas of modern astrophysics. She first worked on the theory of cosmic ray propagation and acceleration, and galactic gamma

  16. A Study of Global Health Elective Outcomes: A Pediatric Residency Experience.

    PubMed

    Russ, Christiana M; Tran, Tony; Silverman, Melanie; Palfrey, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To identify the effects of global health electives over a decade in a pediatric residency program. Methods: This was an anonymous email survey of the Boston Combined Residency alumni funded for global health electives from 2002 to 2011. A test for trend in binomial proportions and logistic regression were used to document associations between elective and participant characteristics and the effects of the electives. Qualitative data were also analyzed. Results: Of the 104 alumni with available email addresses, 69 (66%) responded, describing 94 electives. Elective products included 27 curricula developed, 11 conference presentations, and 7 academic publications. Thirty-two (46%) alumni continued global health work. Previous experience, previous travel to the site, number of global electives, and cumulative global elective time were associated with postresidency work in global health or with the underserved. Conclusions: Resident global electives resulted in significant scholarship and teaching and contributed to long-term career trajectories.

  17. Women's Health Care: A Needed Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Janet

    1987-01-01

    A course developed to fill a gap related to women's health issues in the University of Georgia's pharmacy curriculum is described. Specific discussion topics include pregnancy, obstetrics analgesic, drugs in breast milk, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and infertility. Course objectives and a course outline are appended. (Author/MLW)

  18. Women's Health Care: A Needed Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Janet

    1987-01-01

    A course developed to fill a gap related to women's health issues in the University of Georgia's pharmacy curriculum is described. Specific discussion topics include pregnancy, obstetrics analgesic, drugs in breast milk, endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and infertility. Course objectives and a course outline are appended. (Author/MLW)

  19. Student interest and knowledge concerning global health electives: a USD Sanford School of Medicine study.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Sarah; Elliott, Amy; Bien, Matt

    2013-06-01

    Due to society's globalization, medical students increasingly pursue electives in global health. Such international experiences hold several inherent benefits for both the student traveler and the sponsoring institution. In order to enhance global health education at the Sanford School of Medicine (SSOM) of the University of South Dakota (USD), the medical student body was surveyed regarding prior international travel experiences, interest in serving globally, prohibitive factors toward embarking on a global health experience, and objective knowledge concerning medical service in an international context. In total, almost 95 percent of students indicated they were either very interested or somewhat interested in serving internationally during medical school or later during their career. The most prohibitive factors were funding concerns, lack of information and travel preparation demands. The survey responses indicate there is a great interest in the development of a cohesive global health curriculum for the SSOM.

  20. The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives.

    PubMed

    Dell, Evelyn M; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy; McMcarthy, Anne E

    2014-04-10

    To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas's transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spending a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations.

  1. The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Evelyn M.; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas’s transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. Results We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spend-ing a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Conclusions Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations. PMID:25341214

  2. Opening our hearts and minds: the meaning of international clinical nursing electives in the personal and professional lives of nurses.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Cox, Amy Harmer

    2006-06-01

    Although international opportunities are the hallmark of nursing education at a large private university, the meaning of participating in such clinical nursing electives has not been described. The purpose of this phenomenological study of nurses was to examine the personal and professional meaning of participating in international clinical nursing electives during their undergraduate nursing studies. Audiotaped interviews were conducted with 20 former nursing students who had had this opportunity. "Opening our hearts and minds" was described by the study's participants, with the following themes: increasing understanding of other cultures and peoples, increasing understanding of global sociopolitical and health issues, increasing the commitment to make a difference, experiencing personal and professional growth, contributing to professional development in the host country, making interpersonal connexions, and developing cultural competence. This study makes an important contribution to the documentation of the meaning of participating in international nursing clinical experiences. Data are being used for long-term curricular planning in the development and refinement of future international clinical nursing electives and to provide outcomes data for professional accreditation. There are broader implications for the movement beyond individual cultural competence to increasing global consciousness and the improvement of global health care.

  3. Unhealthy money: health reform and the 1994 elections.

    PubMed

    Podhorzer, M

    1995-01-01

    Health and insurance interests have substantially increased their contributions to members of Congress in response to the debate over national health care. During the 21 months from January 1, 1993, through September 30, 1994, campaign contributions from the health and insurance industries reached $37.9 million, a 51 percent increase over the same time period in the last election cycle. Health- and insurance-related large donor contributions ($200 or more) increased at the fastest rate, although both health- and insurance-related large donor and political action committee (PAC) contributions increased far faster than contributions by other industries. Contributions from health interests increased the fastest. The American Medical Association PAC was the leading contributor among health and insurance PACs. In the Senate, Republican incumbents received an average of 22.5 times as much from health and insurance interests as their Democratic challengers. No Democratic challenger was favored over an incumbent Republican. Democratic incumbents averaged only 3.5 times as much as their Republican challengers. Health and insurance interests favored seven of the nine Republicans seeking open Senate seats. Of course, one of the two Democrats favored was Jim Cooper, a leading opponent of comprehensive reform.

  4. International Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  5. International Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  6. International experience, electives, and volunteerism in surgical training: a survey of resident interest.

    PubMed

    Powell, Anathea C; Mueller, Claudia; Kingham, Peter; Berman, Russell; Pachter, H Leon; Hopkins, Mary Ann

    2007-07-01

    Sustainable international surgery expertise is more frequently being discussed in the US surgical community. At the resident level, there is discussion about incorporating international experience into residency training, but current opportunities for residents are limited and often require personal funding and use of vacation time. This study analyzed resident interest in acquiring international experience. A structured questionnaire was administered anonymously to all New York University general surgery residents. The questionnaire elicited demographic information and information about interest in an international surgery elective and future volunteerism. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed for the completed data. Fifty-two of 63 residents (82.5%) completed surveys. Fifty-one residents (98%) were interested in an international elective, and 38 residents (73%) would prioritize such an elective over all other electives. Twenty-three (44%) and 25 (48%) residents would be willing to use vacation and finance the elective, respectively. The most frequent expectations of international training were acquiring technical and clinical skills (94% of residents) and cultural skills (88%). Residents believed financial difficulties and scheduling conflicts were the most significant barriers to international training (82% and 53%, respectively). Thirty-two residents (62%) planned to incorporate volunteer work into their future practice. Chi-square analyses revealed a significant relationship between residents who would prioritize international training and those who planned to incorporate volunteerism into their future practice (p<0.01). International training represents an opportunity for US surgical education to provide residents with broader clinical expertise and increased cultural awareness. Our data suggest that surgical residents at NYU are strongly interested in acquiring this experience and that international training may provide an opportunity

  7. Globalisation of international health.

    PubMed

    Walt, G

    1998-02-07

    40 years ago, activities in international health were the domain of WHO, governments (based on bilateral agreements), and non-governmental organisations. This has changed. Today, new players (such as the World Bank and, increasingly, the World Trade Organisation) have an influence on international health. As globalisation of trade and markets takes hold, new coalitions and alliances are forming to examine and deal with the direct and indirect consequences on health. This paper examines the changing context of cooperation in international health, and voices concerns about rising potential inequalities in health, both within and between countries. The question of how such changes will affect the actions of organisations working in international health is also addressed.

  8. 77 FR 38681 - Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form, OPM 2809

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form, OPM 2809 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel... on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0141, Health Benefits Election Form. As... other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submissions of responses....

  9. 76 FR 32996 - Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form (OPM 2809)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Health Benefits Election Form (OPM 2809) AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel...-0141, Health Benefits Election Form. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g.,...

  10. The influence of international medical electives on career preference for primary care and rural practice.

    PubMed

    Law, Iain R; Walters, Lucie

    2015-11-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between medical students who undertake international medical electives (IMEs) in resource poor settings and their reported career preference for primary care in underserved areas such as rural practice. This study examines whether a similar correlation exists in the Australian medical school context. Data was extracted from the Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) of Australian medical students that completed commencing student and exit questionnaires between 2006 and 2011. Student responses were categorized according to preferred training program and preferred region of practice at commencement. The reported preferences at exit of students completing IMEs in low and middle income countries (LMIC) were compared to those completing electives in high income countries (HIC). The effect of elective experience for students expressing a preference for primary care at commencement was non-significant, with 40.32 % of LMIC and 42.11 % of HIC students maintaining a preference for primary care. Similarly there were no significant changes following LMIC electives for students expressing a preference for specialist training at commencement with 11.81 % of LMIC and 10.23 % of HIC students preferring primary care at exit. The effect of elective experience for students expressing a preference for rural practice at commencement was non-significant, with 41.51 % of LMIC and 49.09 % of HIC students preferring rural practice at exit. Similarly there were no significant changes following LMIC electives for students expressing a preference for urban practice at commencement, with 7.84 % of LMIC and 6.70 % of HIC students preferring rural practice at exit. This study did not demonstrate an association between elective experience in resource poor settings and a preference for primary care or rural practice. This suggests that the previously observed correlation between LMIC electives and interest in primary care in

  11. Undergraduate International Medical Electives: Some Ethical and Pedagogical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Lori; Harms, Sheila; Plamondon, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The authors argue that attempts to establish more placements to meet the growing demands of undergraduate medical students in North America for international experiences may be outweighing critical reflection on the ethical issues, curricular content, and pedagogical strategies necessary to support equitable engagements with countries of the…

  12. Undergraduate International Medical Electives: Some Ethical and Pedagogical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Lori; Harms, Sheila; Plamondon, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The authors argue that attempts to establish more placements to meet the growing demands of undergraduate medical students in North America for international experiences may be outweighing critical reflection on the ethical issues, curricular content, and pedagogical strategies necessary to support equitable engagements with countries of the…

  13. Victory for volunteerism? Scottish health board elections and participation in the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott L; Stewart, Ellen A; Wilson, Iain; Donnelly, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents findings from a multimethod study of pilot elections held to choose members of health boards in the National Health Service in Scotland. We begin by proposing that much current public involvement practice is dominated by a volunteerist model, in which members of the public with time and skills to offer play essentially supportive and non-challenging roles within health care organizations. This model contrasts sharply with the adversarial, political model of electoral democracy. Nonetheless, drawing on a postal survey of voters, non-participant observation of Boards, and semi-structured interviews with candidates, elected Board members and other stakeholders, we demonstrate that the introduction of elections did not overcome the volunteerist slant of current public involvement with health care organizations. Far from offering a 'quick fix' for policymakers seeking to ensure accountability of health care organizations, elections may produce remarkably similar outcomes to existing mechanisms of public involvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new oral health elective for medical students at the University of Washington.

    PubMed

    Mouradian, Wendy E; Reeves, Anne; Kim, Sara; Lewis, Charlotte; Keerbs, Amanda; Slayton, Rebecca L; Gupta, Deepti; Oskouian, Rama; Schaad, Doug; Kalet, Terry; Marshall, Susan G

    2006-01-01

    Oral health is an important but inadequately addressed area in medical school curricula. Primary care practitioners are in an ideal position to help prevent oral disease but lack the knowledge to do so. We developed an oral health elective that targeted 1st- and 2nd-year medical students as part of a previously described oral health initiative and oral health curriculum. To promote interprofessional collaboration, we utilized medical-dental faculty teams for lectures and hands-on peer instruction by dental students for clinical skills. Evaluations revealed positive shifts in attitudes toward oral health and significant gains in oral health knowledge and self-confidence. Students rated the course highly and advocated for further integration of oral health into required medical curricula. We describe the elective including curriculum development, course evaluation results, and steps for implementing a successful oral health elective into medical education. We highlight interprofessional collaboration and constituency building among medical and dental faculty and administrators.

  15. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2010: series of public opinion surveys.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dagmar; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Benkovic, Vanesa

    2011-10-15

    To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking.

  16. International health care spending.

    PubMed

    Schieber, G J; Puollier, J P

    1986-01-01

    Trends in health are reviewed for the member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) covering the following: the basic difficulties inherent in international comparative studies; the absolute levels of health expenditures in 1984; the levels and rates of growth of the health share in the gross domestic product (GDP) and the public share of total health expenditures; the elasticities of real health expenditures to real GDP for the 1960-75, 1975-84, and 1960-84 time periods; growth in health expenditures for the largest 7 OECD countries in terms of growth in population, health prices, health care prices in excess of overall prices, and utilization/intensity of services per person. International comparisons are a problem due to differences in defining the boundaries of the health sector, the heterogeneity of data, and methodological problems arising from comparing different economic, demographic, cultural, and institutional structures. The most difficult problem in international comparisons of health expenditures is lack of appropriate measures of health outcome. Exhibit 1 contains per capita health expenditures denominated in US dollars based on GDP purchasing power parities for 21 OECD countries for 1984. Per capita health expenditures ranged from less than $500 in Greece, Portugal, and Spain to over $1400 in Sweden and the US, with an OECD average of $871. After adjusting for price level differences, there still appears to be a greater than 3-fold difference in the "volume" of services consumed across the OECD countries. To determine if per capita health expenditures are related to a country's wealth as measured by its per capita GDP, the relationship between per capita health expenditures and per capita GDP for the 21 countries were examined for 1984. The data points and the "best fitting" trend line indicate a statistically significant relationship in which each $100 difference in per capita GDP is associated with a $10

  17. Addressing gaps in abortion education: a sexual health elective created by medical students.

    PubMed

    Caro-Bruce, Emily; Schoenfeld, Elizabeth; Nothnagle, Melissa; Taylor, Julie

    2006-05-01

    Medical school curricula frequently contain gaps in the areas of abortion and sexual health. A group of first- and second-year medical students at the authors' institution organized a collaborative, multidisciplinary elective course to address such omissions in the preclinical curriculum. This paper describes the process of creating and implementing the elective. Medical students identified curricular gaps in the areas of abortion, sexual assault, lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender health, and HIV counseling. Clinical faculty and community-based professionals were invited to address these topics in a weekly lecture series organized by students. The course also included a half-day experience shadowing at a local abortion clinic. Collaboration with several student groups helped broaden student interest in and increase financial support for the elective. Some 37% of all first- and second-year students enrolled in the elective and received institutional credit for the course. Written and verbal evaluations confirmed student satisfaction with the lectures and the clinical experience. Dynamic and well-prepared speakers who presented interesting medical content received the highest ratings from students. Student leaders identified several challenges in implementing the elective. Ultimately the elective proved to be a successful collaboration among students, faculty, and healthcare providers, and resulted in permanent changes in the standard medical school curriculum. Challenges for student-initiated electives include difficulty in finding administrative support, securing funding and ensuring sustainability. This paper aims to make this process accessible and applicable to other students and faculty interested in addressing curricular gaps at their respective medical schools.

  18. SU-F-E-12: Elective International Rotations in Medical Physics Residency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D; Mundt, A; Einck, J; Pawlicki, T

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this educational program is to motivate talented, intelligent individuals to become stakeholders in the global effort to improve access to radiotherapy. Methods: The need to improve global access to radiotherapy has been clearly established and several organizations are making substantial progress in securing funding and developing plans to achieve this worthwhile goal. The incorporation of elective international rotations in residency programs may provide one possible mechanism to promote and support this future investment. We recently incorporated an elective 1-month international rotation into our CAMPEP accredited Medical Physics residency program, with our first rotation taking place in Vietnam. A unique aspect of this rotation was that it was scheduled collaboratively with our Radiation Oncology residency program such that Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics residents traveled to the same clinic at the same time. Results: We believe the international rotation substantially enhances the educational experience, providing additional benefits to residents by increasing cross-disciplinary learning and offering a shared learning experience. The combined international rotation may also increase benefit to the host institution by modeling positive multidisciplinary working relationships between Radiation Oncologists and Medical Physicists. Our first resident returned with several ideas designed to improve radiotherapy in resource-limited settings – one of which is currently being pursued in collaboration with a vendor. Conclusion: The elective international rotation provides a unique learning experience that has the potential to motivate residents to become stakeholders in the global effort to improve access to radiotherapy. What better way to prepare the next generation of Medical Physicists to meet the challenges of improving global access to radiotherapy than to provide them with training experiences that motivate them to be socially

  19. Power to the people? An international review of the democratizing effects of direct elections to healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ellen A; Greer, Scott L; Wilson, Iain; Donnelly, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    Ensuring that publicly funded health systems are democratically accountable is an enduring challenge in policy and practice. One strategy for enhancing public officials' accountability is to elect members of the public to oversee their performance. Several countries have experimented with direct elections to healthcare organizations. The most directly comparable examples involve some Canadian regional health authorities, New Zealand district health boards, foundation trusts in England and health boards in Scotland. We propose three aspects of the process by which the democratizing effects of elections should be judged: authorization, accountability and influence. Evidence from these countries suggests that the democratization of health systems is a complex task, which cannot be completed simply by introducing elections. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Upcoming elections critical to reproductive and sexual health issues.

    PubMed

    Smith, W A

    2000-01-01

    In an overview of the actions undertaken in both the Congress and the Supreme Court related to sexual orientation and abortion, it is noted that the Republican leadership in both houses of Congress have taken up many of the most important spending bills. These include the bill to include abstinence-only-until-marriage funding and the bill to provide evaluation funding. In the context of the US Supreme Court, its decisions have been focused on abortion and sexual orientation. Overall, the activities by both the US Congress and US Supreme Court serve to underscore the importance of the upcoming elections in the US. Further explanation states that the balance of the Court, being so precarious on such important decisions about fundamental rights, serves to highlight the importance of the election. Moreover, the composition of the Congress will play an important role in whether or not the abstinence-only-until-marriage program survives or thrives.

  1. An Elective Course in Personal Finance for Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To create, implement, and assess an elective course on the principles and applications of personal finance. Design A 1.5 unit (15 hours total) elective course was designed using active-learning pedagogy, lecture, and group discussion. Homework assignments were designed to provide practical tools and materials that students could individualize and apply to their personal financial goals. Assessment Student satisfaction, using a standard course evaluation form, revealed consistent high ratings. Student enrollment increased from 19 students in its initial year to 90 students in its fourth year. Student knowledge, assessed using the Jump$tart Financial Literacy Survey, indicated significant knowledge acquisition. Conclusion Many pharmacy students are ill equipped to effectively handle the complex financial decisions they face after graduation. This course provides students with practical tools to identify appropriate ways to achieve their financial goals and critically evaluate financial advice and advisors. PMID:19513143

  2. International medical electives undertaken by Australian medical students: current trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Law, Iain R; Worley, Paul S; Langham, Freya J

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the proportion of students in Australian medical schools who undertake international medical electives (IMEs), particularly in developing countries, and to ascertain which medical schools provide predeparture training and postelective debriefing. Extraction of data on the number of students undertaking electives from the Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) for the 2013s 2006 to 2010; and interviews with the directors of each medical school in Australia in May to July 2012 to ascertain the availability of predeparture training and postelective debriefing. The proportion of medical students undertaking IMEs overall and within developing countries and the proportion of medical schools with optional and mandatory predeparture training and postelective debriefing. Fifty-three per cent of graduate-entry (GE) program students and 35% of high-school entry (HSE) program students undertook IMEs. Fifty-nine per cent of electives undertaken by GE program students were in developing countries, compared with 56% for HSE program students. Predeparture training was offered by 12 of the 16 Australian medical schools, but it was mandatory in only six. Only eight schools offer postelective debriefing. A large proportion of Australian medical students undertake IMEs in developing countries. However, a considerable proportion of students do not undertake formal preparation for, or reflection on, their experiences. Predeparture training and postelective debriefing should be scaled up across Australian medical schools to provide students with the guidance and support to maximise the benefits and minimise risks associated with undertaking IMEs in developing countries.

  3. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  4. Evaluation of an art in health care elective module--a nurse education initiative.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Catherine; Neill, Freda; Granville, Gary; Grace, Sheila

    2013-03-01

    International literature suggests that nurse educators perceive a value in the arts and literature as a teaching strategy in helping nurses express a personal philosophy of nursing, teaching spirituality and non-verbal communication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nursing students experiences of undertaking an interdisciplinary 'Art in Health' elective. The formative evaluation approach was based on the reflective practice model that encourages students (n = 60) to evaluate their own learning experience. 88% of nursing students valued the experience of learning with students from other disciplines or colleges. 63% commented on how they enjoyed the creative aspect of studio work and the element of diversity in brought to nursing. 63% indicated that the module gave them a greater insight into the presence of art in health care contexts and felt that they gained a deeper understanding of how art can help people in hospital. The module presents an innovative model of interdisciplinary curriculum development which appears to facilitate students in viewing patients from a more holistic perspective. As an education experience this module appears to have the potential to help students develop skills in working collaboratively with other health care and non health care disciplines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What is the value of global health electives during medical school?

    PubMed

    Stys, Dana; Hopman, Wilma; Carpenter, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether global health (GH) electives enhanced the development of medical students and to examine the influence on host communities. A retrospective survey study was conducted with Queen's University undergraduate medical students who had participated in a GH elective. Participants rated the influence of their elective on the aspects of their professional and personal development and their perceived community impact on a scale of 0-5. The highest rated statements focused on the students' personal development and whether the elective provided a valuable learning experience (4.39 and 4.07, respectively). Students also reported a heightened level of awareness of social determinants of health (mean rating of 3.98). The statements with the lowest mean ratings involved students' perceptions of their impact on the communities. Overall, 73.5% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that GH electives are valuable to medical education. GH electives benefit the professional and personal development of medical students. Although students gain significantly from their experience, they are unable to assess the impact of their work on the community. Thus, there is a need to assess the effect from both the perspective of the students and of the community members.

  6. Effect of elective surgery on subjective health in veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Ken; Hertzberg, Michael; Silva, Susan; Vacchiano, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common, is often chronic, and has been associated with greater risk of postoperative mortality in veterans. The purpose of this study was to determine if elective outpatient surgery had a persistent effect on the physical or mental health of veterans with chronic PTSD. A longitudinal, quasi-experimental study was conducted that followed up 60 veterans with chronic PTSD over 12 weeks. Self-reported physical and mental health, depressive symptom severity, and posttraumatic symptom severity were measured in 29 veterans undergoing outpatient elective surgery and 31 veterans not having elective surgery (controls). Data collection was performed at baseline and repeated 1, 4, and 12 weeks after surgery or enrollment. At baseline, both surgical and control subjects reported poor physical and mental subjective health status. After surgery, surgical group subjects reported mean age- and gender-adjusted reductions of 3.9 points on the Physical Component Summary score and 2.9 points on the Mental Component Summary score of the Veterans Rand 36-item Health Survey, which resolved by 4 weeks after surgery. These findings suggest that veterans with PTSD were at greater risk of mortality because of poor baseline health, but did not demonstrate persistent decline in health following common elective surgical procedures.

  7. A preliminary study on travel health issues of medical students undertaking electives.

    PubMed

    Goldsmid, John M; Bettiol, Silvana S; Sharples, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    With the inclusion of elective programs, often overseas, in many medical courses, it was decided that a preliminary retrospective analysis of health problems associated with these programs in medical students from the University of Tasmania would be desirable. A questionnaire covering general travel health issues was distributed to all medical students in the University of Tasmania, on return from their elective. They were asked to complete the questionnaire and return it on an anonymous and voluntary basis. In addition, student elective submissions were consulted for information relating to their chosen destination. Results of the study indicate that general practitioners were the most common source of pretravel advice for Tasmanian medical students. Overall, 64% of students experienced some sort of health problem of which travelers' diarrhea was the most common. Most problems were mild and self-limiting, but a number of serious infections were recorded, including acute leptospirosis, paratyphoid, and Staphylococcus aureus cellulitis. Of particular concern were the reports of assault and sexual harassment recorded by several students. Elective programs are an important part of many medical courses. With the widespread destinations chosen by students, it is important that they be given adequate pretravel health advice. Most of the health problems encountered by students from the University of Tasmania were mild, but exposure to serious infections was recorded. It is thus imperative that students take out travel health insurance and that they are counseled on how to avoid dangerous situations while abroad.

  8. Rethinking elective colectomy for diverticulitis: A strategic approach to population health

    PubMed Central

    Simianu, Vlad V; Flum, David R

    2014-01-01

    Diverticulitis is one of the leading indications for elective colon resection. Surgeons are trained to offer elective operations after a few episodes of diverticulitis in order to prevent future recurrences and potential emergency. However, most emergency surgery happens during the initial presentation. After recovery from an episode, much of the subsequent management of diverticulitis occurs in the outpatient setting, rendering inpatient “episode counting” a poor measure of the severity or burden of disease. Evidence also suggests that the risk of recurrence of diverticulitis is small and similar with or without an operation. Accordingly, contemporary evaluations of the epidemiologic patterns of treatments for diverticulitis have failed to demonstrate that the substantial rise in elective surgery over the last few decades has been successful at preventing emergency surgery at a population level. Multiple professional societies are calling to “individualize” decisions for elective colectomy and there is an international focus on “appropriate” indications for surgery. The rethinking of elective colectomy should come from a patient-centered approach that considers the risks of recurrence, quality of life, patient wishes and experiences about surgical and medical treatment options as well as operative morbidity and risks. PMID:25469029

  9. 20 CFR 1002.165 - How does the employee elect continuing health plan coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does the employee elect continuing health plan coverage? 1002.165 Section 1002.165 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS UNDER THE UNIFORMED...

  10. 20 CFR 1002.165 - How does the employee elect continuing health plan coverage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the employee elect continuing health plan coverage? 1002.165 Section 1002.165 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS UNDER THE UNIFORMED...

  11. Ensuring the Health, Safety and Preparedness of U.S. Medical Students Participating in Global Health Electives Overseas.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Pascal James; Bruno, Denise M; Monica Sweeney, M

    2016-04-01

    Global health electives based in resource-poor countries have become extremely popular with medical students from resource rich ones. As the number of such programs and participants increase, so too do the absolute health and safety risks. It is clear from a number of published reports that many institutions provide little or no meaningful preparedness for students and do little to ensure their health and safety. These deficiencies together can affect students, their foreign hosts, and sponsoring institutions. The School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, and its predecessor, the Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, have sponsored a 6-8 week global health elective for fourth year medical students since 1980. The purposes of this elective are to provide students with an opportunity to observe the health care and public health systems in resource-poor countries, provide medical service, and have a cross-cultural experience. Over the course of the past 35 years, 386 students have participated in this global health elective in more than 41 resource-poor countries. Recent annual applications for this elective have been as high as 44 out of a class of 200 students. Over the past 10 years, annual acceptance rates have varied, ranging from a low of 32 % in 2007-2008 to a high of 74 % in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. Careful screening, including a written application, review of academic records and personal interviews, has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable, and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Appropriately preparing students for an overseas global health experience in resource-poor countries requires the investment of much professional and staff time and effort. At the SUNY Downstate School of Public Health, these resources have underpinned our Global Health in Developing Countries elective for many years. As a result, the elective is characterized by meticulous

  12. Health care, the California primary, and the 1992 election.

    PubMed

    Blendon, R J; Szalay, U S; Altman, D E; Chervinsky, G

    1992-01-01

    Voters in the June 2 last-in-the-nation California primary indicated that candidates' character, experience, and leadership ability have become more significant than their stands on such issues as health reform. However, among substantive campaign issues, health care ranked second, behind the economy. That is consistent with previous poll results from New Hampshire, the nation's first primary state.

  13. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or final partnership administrative adjustment (FPAA). An untimely FPAA enables the recipient of the... with the mailing of an FPAA to the partner. In the absence of an election, paragraphs (b) and (c) of... the time the Internal Revenue Service mails the partner an FPAA— (1) The period within which a...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or final partnership administrative adjustment (FPAA). An untimely FPAA enables the recipient of the... with the mailing of an FPAA to the partner. In the absence of an election, paragraphs (b) and (c) of... the time the Internal Revenue Service mails the partner an FPAA— (1) The period within which a...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or final partnership administrative adjustment (FPAA). An untimely FPAA enables the recipient of the... with the mailing of an FPAA to the partner. In the absence of an election, paragraphs (b) and (c) of... the time the Internal Revenue Service mails the partner an FPAA— (1) The period within which a...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or final partnership administrative adjustment (FPAA). An untimely FPAA enables the recipient of the... with the mailing of an FPAA to the partner. In the absence of an election, paragraphs (b) and (c) of... the time the Internal Revenue Service mails the partner an FPAA— (1) The period within which a...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6223(e)-2 - Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or final partnership administrative adjustment (FPAA). An untimely FPAA enables the recipient of the... with the mailing of an FPAA to the partner. In the absence of an election, paragraphs (b) and (c) of... the time the Internal Revenue Service mails the partner an FPAA— (1) The period within which a...

  18. Health care reform: implications for employers after the 2012 election.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tami; Cohen, Sharon; Chan, Kin

    2013-01-01

    While the regulatory landscape of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) continues to evolve, employers must focus on implementing upcoming group health plan mandates. This article provides a high-level checklist of the most common long-term requirements facing employers and some strategic considerations, outlining the three possible health care strategies employers generally should consider for 2014 and later. Although specific implementation will depend on each employer's particular situation, group health plan design, and regulatory guidance, the complexity involved means that employers are well advised to begin this process sooner rather than later.

  19. A Comparison of Health Risk Behaviors among College Students Enrolled in a Required Personal Health Course vs. an Elective Personal Health Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Theresa M. Enyeart; Skaggs, Gary E.; Redican, Kerry J.

    2008-01-01

    Research on whether health education, specifically personal health classes affects behavior change is inconclusive. In this study, a sample of students from two large southeastern universities enrolled in a required personal health course and an elective personal health course were administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey…

  20. Health programs at risk in wake of '84 election.

    PubMed

    Iglehart, J K

    1985-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan's reelection suggests that government will continue to promote policies that favor marketplace allocation of medical care resources and that it will continue to cut social welfare programs, particularly health programs for the elderly and the poor. Unlike previous administrations, which focused on controlling private and public health care costs, President Reagan has targeted Medicare and Medicaid expenditures--a policy which has caused substantial cost shifting to underwrite hospitals' uncompensated and undercompensated care. Physician payment policies likely will receive the greatest attention in spending reduction efforts. Congress, as it showed in the president's first term, can cut spending sharply. Its task, however, has been complicated by the president's campaign declaration that defense spending and Social Security benefits were off-limits. Expected to lead health care debate on Capitol Hill are Sens. Albert Gore, Jr., D-TN, and Phil Gramm, R-TX, and Rep. James Jones, D-OK.

  1. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  2. An Online Health Informatics Elective Course for Doctor of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Galt, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development and assessment of an online elective health informatics course and determine its potential for universal integration into doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula. Design. A 2-credit hour online elective course was developed and offered to all PharmD students; voiced-over Powerpoint lectures were used to deliver content. Assessment. Assessment of student performance was measured using quantitative metrics via discussion questions, quizzes, written papers, and examinations. Qualitative findings were measured through discussion questions, a goal-setting classroom assessment technique, and an end-of-course reflection. Students report finding value in the course and recognizing how the knowledge gained could impact their future practice as pharmacists. Conclusion. An online course in health informatics can be an effective way to deliver content and provide a blueprint for continued integration of the content into curricula. PMID:25995516

  3. An online health informatics elective course for doctor of pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kevin T; Galt, Kimberly A

    2015-04-25

    To describe the development and assessment of an online elective health informatics course and determine its potential for universal integration into doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curricula. A 2-credit hour online elective course was developed and offered to all PharmD students; voiced-over Powerpoint lectures were used to deliver content. Assessment of student performance was measured using quantitative metrics via discussion questions, quizzes, written papers, and examinations. Qualitative findings were measured through discussion questions, a goal-setting classroom assessment technique, and an end-of-course reflection. Students report finding value in the course and recognizing how the knowledge gained could impact their future practice as pharmacists. An online course in health informatics can be an effective way to deliver content and provide a blueprint for continued integration of the content into curricula.

  4. A Global Health Elective Course in a PharmD Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arjun; Kovera, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design, development, and the first 4 implementations of a Global Health elective course intended to prepare pharmacy students pursue global health careers and to evaluate student perceptions of the instructional techniques used and of skills developed during the course. Design. Following the blended curriculum model used at Touro College of Pharmacy, the Global Health course combined team-based learning (TBL) sessions in class, out-of-class team projects, and online self-directed learning with classroom teaching and discussion sessions. Assessment. Student performance was assessed with TBL sessions, team projects, and class presentations, online quizzes, and final examinations. A precourse and postcourse survey showed improvement in global health knowledge and attitudes, and in the perception of pharmacists’ role and career opportunities in global health. Significant improvement in skills applicable to global health work was reported and students rated highly the instructional techniques, value, and relevance of the course. Conclusion. The Global Health elective course is on track to achieve its intended goal of equipping pharmacy students with the requisite knowledge and applicable skills to pursue global health careers and opportunities. After taking this course, students have gone on to pursue global field experiences. PMID:25657374

  5. Internationally educated health professionals.

    PubMed

    Leatt, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Even as recently as a decade ago, it was not uncommon for many Canadian decision- and policy makers in healthcare and government to ignore the matter of internationally educated healthcare professional (IEHP) integration and retention. With all the talk in the past few years, however, of employee shortages in nearly every healthcare profession and a rapidly aging population that requires more and more care, nobody can afford to neglect this potentially large and highly skilled talent pool.

  6. An International Surgical Rotation as a Systems-Based Elective: The Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Surgical Experience.

    PubMed

    Cintolo-Gonzalez, Jessica A; Bedada, Alemayehu Ginbo; Morris, Jon; Azzie, Georges

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing need to address the global burden of surgical disease along with increasing interest in international surgical practice, necessitating an understanding of the challenges and issues that arise on a systems level when practicing abroad. This elective is a month-long rotation in which senior surgical residents participate in patient care as part of a surgical team in the main tertiary and teaching hospital in Gaborone, the capital city of Botswana. Clinical experience is combined with formal readings and educational sessions, with the attending surgeon supervising the program to develop a systems-based curriculum that contextualizes the clinical experience. A formal debriefing and written reflections by the residents at the conclusion of the rotation are used to qualitatively assess resident development and insight into systems-based international surgical practice. Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana. General surgery residents in their fourth clinical year of training. Our elective met important requirements outlined in the literature for foreign practice, including adequate supervision of the American trainees and care to not detract from local trainees' educational experience. Residents' debriefing and written reflections demonstrated an increased understanding of systems-based practice and awareness of issues important to successful international surgical practice and collaboration. Our global surgery elective with a focus on systems-based practice sensitizes residents to the challenges and issues they must be aware of when practicing internationally. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  8. International Collaboration in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.

    Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…

  9. International Students and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  10. 26 CFR 1.9002-2 - Election to have the provisions of section 481 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election to have the provisions of section 481... alternative election under section 4(a) of the Act has not been exercised. (b) Year of change. Where an... purposes of applying section 481 of the Code the year of change shall be determined in accordance with the...

  11. 26 CFR 1.9002-2 - Election to have the provisions of section 481 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election to have the provisions of section 481... alternative election under section 4(a) of the Act has not been exercised. (b) Year of change. Where an... purposes of applying section 481 of the Code the year of change shall be determined in accordance with the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.9002-3 - Election to have the provisions of section 481 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 not apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-3 Election to have the provisions of section 481 of the Internal Revenue Code... the taxpayer is changed to a method proper under the accrual method of accounting, then the taxpayer may elect to have such change treated as not a change in method of accounting to which the provisions...

  13. [Bioethical aspects of health care reform in Chile. II. Discrimination, free election and informed consent].

    PubMed

    Rosselot, Eduardo

    2003-11-01

    Bioethical issues emerge each time health care reform projects are discussed. These affect diverse moral values and principles and have an impact on cultural, social and political areas. Thus, they demand more than just organizational, financial or administrative solutions. This review analyses discrimination, free election of professionals and informed consent. All three concepts are alluded in the legislative debate raised upon the actual process for health reform. Having clear ideas about these subjects is crucial to foresee the reactions expected to arise among physicians and the general public, when confronting the proposed changes.

  14. [Internal medicine and public health].

    PubMed

    2009-08-01

    A special Committee on Internal Medicine and Public Health was established by Sociedad Médica de Santiago (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine) in April 2007 with the duty to write a Consensus Paper on the interaction between both branches of medical profession. The main objective was to find the common grounds on which to construct a positive approach to regain space for Internal Medicine, based on prevalent epidemiológical features related to adult health issues. The authors describe the reasons to explain the gap between clinical medicine and population health and identify the nature and evolution of chronic diseases as the point of encounter between both. With Chilean health surveys data, they state that chronic diseases explain the high proportion of burden of disease, mortality and disability, and stress that by the year 2025 one in every five inhabitants will be over 65 years of age, with ageing as another main problem for the health care sector. Population with multiple risks and multimorbidity is the most important challenge for the Chilean Health Care System. A new model of care is needed to tackle this scenario with new skills regarding psychosocial determinants of health. The leading role of internists and ideally geriatricians, will be crucial in this process and will help the implementation of sound population based interventions. Both individual and community level interventions will help to improve quality of life of Chilean families.

  15. The U.S. presidential election and health care workforce policy.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Matthew D; Aiken, Linda H; Cooper, Richard A; Miller, Phillip

    2008-02-01

    The candidates for the 2008 presidential election have offered a range of proposals that could bring significant changes in health care. Although few are aimed directly at the nurse and physician workforce, nearly all of the proposals have the potential to affect the health care workforce. Furthermore, the success of the proposed initiatives is dependent on a robust nurse and physician workforce. The purpose of this article is to outline the current needs and challenges for the nurse and physician workforce and highlight how candidates' proposals intersect with the adequacy of the health care workforce. Three general themes are highlighted for their implications on the physician and nurse workforce supply, including (a) expansion of health care coverage, (b) workforce investment, and (c) cost control and quality improvement.

  16. The U.S. Presidential Election and Health Care Workforce Policy

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Aiken, Linda H.; Cooper, Richard A.; Miller, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    The candidates for the 2008 presidential election have offered a range of proposals that could bring significant changes in health care. Although few are aimed directly at the nurse and physician workforce, nearly all of the proposals have the potential to affect the health care workforce. Furthermore, the success of the proposed initiatives is dependent on a robust nurse and physician workforce. The purpose of this article is to outline the current needs and challenges for the nurse and physician workforce and highlight how candidates’ proposals intersect with the adequacy of the health care workforce. Three general themes are highlighted for their implications on the physician and nurse workforce supply, including (a) expansion of health care coverage, (b) workforce investment, and (c) cost control and quality improvement. PMID:18436702

  17. Resources and estuarine health: Perceptions of elected officials and recreational fishers

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Sanchez, J.; McMahon, M.; Leonard, J.; Lord, C.G.; Ramos, R.; Gochfeld, M.

    1999-10-29

    It is important to understand the perceptions of user groups regarding both the health of their estuaries and environmental problems requiring management. Recreational fishers were interviewed to determine the perceptions of one of the traditional user groups of Barnegat Bay (New Jersey), and elected officials were interviewed to determine if the people charged with making decisions about environmental issues in the bay held similar perceptions. Although relative ratings were similar, there were significant differences in perceptions of the severity of environmental problems, and for the most part, public officials thought the problems were more severe than did the fishers. Personal watercraft (often called Jet Skis) were rated as the most severe problem, followed by chemical pollution, junk, over fishing, street runoff, and boat oil. Small boats, sailboats, wind surfers, and foraging birds were not considered environmental problems by either elected officials or fishermen. The disconnect between the perceptions of the recreational fishers and those of the locally elected public officials suggests that officials may be hearing from some of the more vocal people about problems, rather than from the typical fishers. Both groups felt there were decreases in some of the resources in the bay; over 50% felt the number of fish and crabs had declined, the size of fish and crabs had declined, and the number of turtles had declined. Among recreational fishers, there were almost no differences in perceptions of the severity of environmental problems or in changes in the bay. The problems that were rated the most severe were personal watercraft and over fishing by commercial fishers. Recreational fishers ranked sailboats, wind surfers, and fishing by birds as posing no problem for the bay. Most fishers felt there had been recent major changes in Barnegat Bay, with there now being fewer and smaller fish, fewer and smaller crabs, and fewer turtles. The results suggest that the

  18. Post-Polio Health International including International Ventilator Users Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... post-polio.org. Check out International Ventilator Users Network Post-Polio Health International's mission is to enhance ... Executive Director of PHI, including International Ventilators Users Network (IVUN), effective September 1, 2017. Full story ... Polio ...

  19. Making mapping matter: a case study for short project international partnerships by global public health students

    PubMed Central

    Wyber, Rosemary; Potter, James R.; Weaver, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of global public health students seek international experience as part of their academic curriculum. These placements are often short, given the constraints of cost and time available within the academic calendar. In contrast to international electives for clinical students there are few published guidelines on practical, ethical or feasible projects. This paper describes a ten-day sanitation mapping project in Mumbai, India and explores the broader implications for global public health student electives. Methods Three graduate public health students conducted a geographic review of sanitation facilities in Cheeta Camp informal settlement, Mumbai. Forty-six toilet blocks with 701 individual seats were identified. The project was reviewed ethically, educationally and logistically as a possible model for other short-term international projects. Conclusions Clearer guidelines are needed to support non-clinical placements by global public health students. Projects that are feasible, relevant and meaningful should be foster maximise benefit for learners and host communities. PMID:24964783

  20. Making mapping matter: a case study for short project international partnerships by global public health students.

    PubMed

    Wyber, Rosemary; Potter, James R; Weaver, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    A large number of global public health students seek international experience as part of their academic curriculum. These placements are often short, given the constraints of cost and time available within the academic calendar. In contrast to international electives for clinical students there are few published guidelines on practical, ethical or feasible projects. This paper describes a ten-day sanitation mapping project in Mumbai, India and explores the broader implications for global public health student electives. Three graduate public health students conducted a geographic review of sanitation facilities in Cheeta Camp informal settlement, Mumbai. Forty-six toilet blocks with 701 individual seats were identified. The project was reviewed ethically, educationally and logistically as a possible model for other short-term international projects. Clearer guidelines are needed to support non-clinical placements by global public health students. Projects that are feasible, relevant and meaningful should be foster maximise benefit for learners and host communities.

  1. The Bodies Politic: Chronic Health Conditions and Voter Turnout in the 2008 Election.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Rahn, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Health policy researchers often evaluate the social and economic consequences of chronic illness, but rarely have they considered the implications of chronic illness on one important form of political participation: voting. However, if chronic illnesses--already unequally distributed in society--are associated with differential rates of voter turnout, then these inequalities in democratic representation could, in turn, produce further health inequity. In this study, we use data from eight states from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to examine the associations between having diagnoses of five chronic conditions and turnout in the 2008 US presidential election. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and some health-related confounding factors, we find that individuals with cancer diagnoses are more likely to vote, while those with heart disease diagnoses are less likely to vote. These associations differ by race and educational status; notably, African Americans and those with lower education with cancer are even more likely to turn out to vote than whites and those with more education with cancer. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of health social movements and the role of health organizations in shaping political processes, important directions for the study of health politics.

  2. Health policy in France: a major issue in the 1978 legislative elections.

    PubMed

    Canone, F; Guyot, J C

    1978-01-01

    For the 1978 legislative elections, all French political parties have, for the first time, a relatively detailed health policy. The right-wing parties of the present government concentrate on the reduction of medical expenditure and the maintenance of the free enterprise tradition of French medicine. The left-wing parties concentrate more on the development of public health institutions and suggest nationalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Within the Left, there is, however, a difference of emphasis: the Socialists propose the setting up of medicosocial centers and abolition of the fee-for-service system; the Communists concentrate rather on industrial health and believe that an improved health service can only come from changes in overall social economic policy. None of these policies is particularly adventurous but their mere existence shows that health is now a major political preoccupation in France. Some of these policies are mainly concerned with individual and public welfare and others with the necessity of maintaining a certain social order. The debate surrounding health policy usually turns around these two issues.

  3. A service-learning elective to promote enhanced understanding of civic, cultural, and social issues and health disparities in pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bethanne; Heaton, Pamela C; Wall, Andrea

    2007-02-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness and impact of an elective service-learning course offered in cooperation with a charitable pharmacy providing services to the surrounding community. The 33 students enrolled in the service-learning elective were given a 23-question preservice survey instrument and a 32-question postservice survey instrument. The survey instruments were designed to measure change in the students' perceived knowledge and understanding regarding civic, cultural, and social issues and health disparities. Significant differences in responses on the presurvey and postsurvey instruments suggested changes in students' attitudes and perceptions about the patients and the community in which they serve. Results of the survey indicated that by exposing students to issues affecting individuals and the community during this elective, a positive change in the student's perception of their knowledge and understanding of broader issues facing the community was observed. Service-Learning courses provide additional opportunities for students to develop as competent, engaged, and caring health care professionals.

  4. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3...

  5. Waiting times for elective surgery and the decision to buy private health insurance.

    PubMed

    Johar, Meliyanni; Jones, Glenn; Keane, Michael; Savage, Elizabeth; Stavrunova, Olena

    2011-09-01

    More than 45% of Australians buy health insurance for private treatment in hospital. This is despite having access to universal and free public hospital treatment. Anecdotal evidence suggests that avoidance of long waits for public treatment is one possible explanation for the high rate of insurance coverage. In this study, we investigate the effect of waiting on individual decisions to buy private health insurance. Individuals are assumed to form an expectation of their own waiting time as a function of their demographics and health status. We model waiting times using administrative data on the population hospitalised for elective procedures in public hospitals and use the parameter estimates to impute the expected waiting time and the probability of a long wait for a representative sample of the population. We find that expected waiting time does not increase the probability of buying insurance but a high probability of experiencing a long wait does. On average, waiting time has no significant impact on insurance. In addition, we find that favourable selection into private insurance, measured by self-assessed health, is no longer significant once waiting time variables are included. This result suggests that a source of favourable selection may be aversion to waiting among healthier people. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A service-learning elective in Native American culture, health and professional practice.

    PubMed

    Roche, Victoria F; Jones, Rhonda M; Hinman, Clint E; Seoldo, Nathalie

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the success of an elective course in Native American culture, health, and service-learning in fostering interest in experiences and careers with the USPHS Indian Health Service (IHS), and in shaping reflective practitioners. Students conducted readings, kept reflective journals, and engaged in discussions with Native American and non-Native American speakers. Students orally presented a Native American health issue and spent their fall break in Chinle, Ariz, providing social and healthcare services to the Diné under the supervision of IHS pharmacists. Opportunities for additional IHS experiences were discussed, as was discerning the Creator's call to a professional life of service. Thirteen of 15 students who had completed the service-learning course by January 2007 responded to a brief survey indicating that not only were the course objectives met, but the experiences had a lasting impact on professional mindset and career plans. The course had a lasting impact on students' understanding of Native American social and health care issues, and on how they will practice their profession and live their lives.

  7. The need for narrative reflection and experiential learning in medical education: A lesson learned through an urban indigenous health elective.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Lindsay S

    2017-09-01

    In this personal view article, I discuss a formative experience I had during an Urban Indigenous Health elective in which I participated while in my final year of medical school. The elective was developed on the foundation of an experiential learning model, which is central to Indigenous pedagogy and emphasizes learning through experience and narrative reflection. By transforming medical education into a place where such concepts are integrated and valued, I argue that we will create physicians who are self-aware, compassionate and able to provide culturally safe care to all patient populations they will serve in their future practices.

  8. The New World order and international health.

    PubMed

    Frenk, J; Sepúlveda, J; Gómez-Dantés, O; McGuinness, M J; Knaul, F

    1997-05-10

    New global and national health challenges require a new response. National health situations are increasingly influenced by the international transfer of health risks posed by environmental threats, overuse of resources, international migration, trade in harmful legal products (tobacco), traffic of illicit drugs, and diffusion of potentially inappropriate and costly medical technologies and treatment policies. This situation calls for reform of national health systems, and a natural extension of such reform is reform of the world health system. The first step toward this goal should be to achieve consensus about the essential core functions of international health organizations their division of labor. Currently international health agencies have overlapping mandates and duplicate efforts, and they have neglected the following essential functions: monitoring emerging diseases, setting consumer health standards, providing international coordination to control the transfer of health risks, coordinating research efforts and technological development, designing information systems to facilitate development of national and global health policies, accumulating knowledge about cost-effectiveness of medical technologies and interventions, and creating a process for sharing information about national health system reform. Reform "essentialists" identify the following core functions for international health organizations: surveillance and control of globally-threatening diseases, promotion of research and technological development, development of standards and norms for international certification, protection of international refugees, and assisting vulnerable populations. Others give international health organizations a more expansive role including redistributing resources from rich to poor countries, political advocacy, direct regulation of transnational corporations, and intervention in national health projects. Consensus must be reached to effect reform.

  9. Health hazards of international travel.

    PubMed

    Cossar, J H; Reid, D

    1989-01-01

    The growth of travel and the increasing numbers of those affected by travel-related illnesses, some of a serious nature, will cause this subject to demand the attention of the medical profession, the travel trade, travellers themselves and the health authorities of countries receiving tourists. Provision of appropriate advice for the traveller is a shared responsibility, best channelled mainly through travel agencies; it can moreover be shown to be cost-beneficial. Continued monitoring of illness in travellers and provision of information systems geared to this problem and its prevention are fully justified. They should be based on traditional channels of communication and currently-available modern technology, and be readily accessible to medical and related workers. Increased collaboration between medical workers, health educators and those involved in the travel trade would be a positive and useful contribution towards the reduction of illness and discomfort among travellers and the associated expense incurred by the various national health services concerned. There are clearly economic benefits from the development of international tourism, but these have to be balanced in countries accepting tourists by attention to the prevention of illnesses associated with travel.

  10. 5 CFR 891.201 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.201 Election. (a) The original... election. For any other retired employee receiving compensation, changes of election made under...

  11. 5 CFR 891.201 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.201 Election. (a) The original... election. For any other retired employee receiving compensation, changes of election made under...

  12. 5 CFR 891.201 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.201 Election. (a) The original... election. For any other retired employee receiving compensation, changes of election made under this...

  13. Health care justice and its implications for current policy of a mandatory waiting period for elective tubal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A; Fox, Karin A; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Salmanian, Bahram; Raine, Susan P; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A

    2015-06-01

    Tubal sterilization during the immediate postpartum period is 1 of the most common forms of contraception in the United States. This time of the procedure has the advantage of 1-time hospitalization, which results in ease and convenience for the woman. The US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Study indicates the high efficacy and effectiveness of postpartum tubal sterilization. Oral and written informed consent is the ethical and legal standard for the performance of elective tubal sterilization for permanent contraception for all patients, regardless of source of payment. Current health care policy and practice regarding elective tubal sterilization for Medicaid beneficiaries places a unique requirement on these patients and their obstetricians: a mandatory waiting period. This requirement originates in decades-old legislation, which we briefly describe. We then introduce the concept of health care justice in professional obstetric ethics and explain how it originates in the ethical concepts of medicine as a profession and of being a patient and its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. We next identify the implications of health care justice for the current policy of a mandatory 30-day waiting period. We conclude that Medicaid policy allocates access to elective tubal sterilization differently, based on source of payment and gender, which violates health care justice in both its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. Obstetricians should invoke health care justice in women's health care as the basis for advocacy for needed change in law and health policy, to eliminate health care injustice in women's access to elective tubal sterilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A global health elective for US medical students: the 35 year experience of the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, School of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Denise Marie; Imperato, Pascal James

    2015-04-01

    The School of Public Health at the State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center has sponsored a 6-8 week global health elective for fourth year medical students since 1980. The purpose of this elective is to provide students with an opportunity to observe the health care and public health delivery systems in low-income countries, provide medical service and have a cross-cultural experience. Over the course of the past 35 years, 388 students have participated in this global health elective in more than 41 low-income countries. The most popular sites include the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, India, Kenya and Thailand. Overall, interest in this elective has persisted throughout the course of time, sometimes temporarily increasing or decreasing with outside factors, such as the events of 11 September 2001 and the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Asia. Recent annual applications for this elective have been as high as 44 out of a class of 200 students. Over the past 10 years, annual acceptance rates have varied, ranging from a low of 32 % in 2007-2008 to a high of 74 % in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. Careful screening, including a written application, review of academic records and personal interviews has resulted in the selection of highly mature, adaptable and dedicated students who have performed well at overseas sites. Student rated satisfaction levels with this elective are almost universally high, with most rating it the best experience of their medical school years. Students undergo extensive preparation prior to their travel overseas, including a review of individual health and safety issues, travel and lodging, and the nature of the host country culture, health care system and assignment site. Downstate medical students are especially experienced in cross-cultural understanding because of the unusual diversity of the patient population in Brooklyn, and the diversity of local hospital staff and the medical school class. The Alumni Fund of

  15. MSW Students' Motivations for Taking an International Social Work Elective Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, David; Barner, John R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents motivating factors for taking an international social work course for a sample of graduate students in the United States. Literature on international education, including courses and international field placements, provides a framework for the study. Qualitative themes showed that students were motivated primarily as a result…

  16. MSW Students' Motivations for Taking an International Social Work Elective Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, David; Barner, John R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents motivating factors for taking an international social work course for a sample of graduate students in the United States. Literature on international education, including courses and international field placements, provides a framework for the study. Qualitative themes showed that students were motivated primarily as a result…

  17. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... TAXES Possessions of the United States § 1.936-1 Elections. (a) Making an election. A domestic corporation shall make an election under section 936(e), for any taxable year beginning after December...

  18. [The birth of international health].

    PubMed

    Mateos Jiménez, Juan Bta

    2006-01-01

    The Industrial Revolution having been well under way by the mid-19th century, epidemics of pestilential diseases, severe and affecting many people (bubonic plague, yellow fever and Asian cholera) were still spreading freely given that many countries either had no preventive laws at all or enforced them chaotically, whilst even the simplest information concerning the health situation was not made known to other neighboring States, thus favoring the epidemic's spread. Therefore, there was an almost anxious desire among most Nations to come up with an acceptable way of putting an end to the confusion and ignorance of all the many different laws governing each country, even each individual port, with regard to the preventive health treatment to be imposed upon ships, passengers and goods, which mean a truly depressing confusion for both commerce and travellers. Following several different failed attempts, the French Government managed to get a plan under way which was generally well-accepted and which served as the basis for the First International Sanitary Conference, which opened on July 23, 1851 in Paris, in which all of the Nations having maritime interests in the Mediterranean had previously been invited to take part.

  19. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  20. Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail: What the Election Means for U.S. Health Care, and the Health of American Democracy

    PubMed Central

    DOHERTY, ROBERT B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes four trends that are affecting the 2016 election: changing US demographics and the reaction to them, a growing distrust of government, increased polarization and government gridlock, and the rise of populism. It compares the views of candidates Hillary Rodham Clinton and Donald S. Trump on the Affordable Care Act, climate change, prescription drug pricing, prevention of injuries and deaths from firearms, and the opioids epidemic; and offers perspectives on the potential impact of the election not only on U.S. health care policy, but on the health of American democracy itself. PMID:28790510

  1. Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail: What the Election Means for U.S. Health Care, and the Health of American Democracy.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Robert B

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes four trends that are affecting the 2016 election: changing US demographics and the reaction to them, a growing distrust of government, increased polarization and government gridlock, and the rise of populism. It compares the views of candidates Hillary Rodham Clinton and Donald S. Trump on the Affordable Care Act, climate change, prescription drug pricing, prevention of injuries and deaths from firearms, and the opioids epidemic; and offers perspectives on the potential impact of the election not only on U.S. health care policy, but on the health of American democracy itself.

  2. Support infrastructure available to Canadian residents completing post-graduate global health electives: current state and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumaran, Lojan; Ayinde, Tasha; Hamadini, Fadi; Meterissian, Sarkis; Razek, Tarek; Puckrin, Robert; Munoz, Johanna; O’Hearn, Shawna; Deckelbaum, Dan L

    2016-01-01

    Background Global health electives offer medical trainees the opportunity to broaden their clinical horizons. Canadian universities have been encouraged by regulatory bodies to offer institutional support to medical students going abroad; however, the extent to which such support is available to residents has not been extensively studied. Methods We conducted a survey study of Canadian universities examining the institutional support available to post-graduate medical trainees before, during, and after global health electives. Results Responses were received from 8 of 17 (47%) Canadian institutions. Results show that trainees are being sent to diverse locations around the world with more support than recommended by post-graduate regulatory bodies. However, we found that the content of the support infrastructure varies amongst universities and that certain components—pre-departure training, best practices, risk management, and post-return debriefing—could be more thoroughly addressed. Conclusion Canadian universities are encouraged to continue to send their trainees on global health electives. To address the gaps in infrastructure reported in this study, the authors suggest the development of comprehensive standardized guidelines by post-graduate regulatory/advocacy bodies to better ensure patient and participant safety. We also encourage the centralization of infrastructure management to the universities’ global health departments to aid in resource management. PMID:28344708

  3. Pediatric Resident Academic Projects While on Global Health Electives: Ten Years of Experience at the University of Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Michael B; Slusher, Tina M; Howard, Cynthia R; Cole, Valerie B; Gladding, Sophia P

    2017-07-01

    Many residency programs require residents to complete an academic project as part of a global health (GH) elective. However, there has been little description of the range of projects residents have pursued during GH electives or the extent to which these projects are consistent with proposed best practices. The authors conducted a document review of 67 written summaries or copies of presentations of academic projects (hereafter, summaries) completed by pediatric and medicine-pediatric residents at the University of Minnesota while on GH electives from 2005 to 2015. Two authors independently coded each summary for the type of project completed; when the project idea was generated; explicit mention of a mentor from the home institution, host institution, or both; whether a needs assessment was conducted; and whether there were plans for sustainability. Most of the 67 projects were categorized into one of three project types: quality/process improvement (28 [42%]), education (18 [27%]), or clinical research (14 [21%]). Most summaries explicitly mentioned a mentor (45 [67%]), reported conducting a needs assessment (38 [57%]), and indicated sustainability plans (45 [67%]). Of the 42 summaries that indicated the timing of idea generation, 30 (71%) indicated the idea was developed after arriving at the host site. Residents undertook a wide range of academic projects during GH electives, most commonly quality/process improvement and education projects. The projects were largely aligned with best practices, with most summaries indicating the resident worked with a mentor, conducted a needs assessment, and made plans for sustainability.

  4. Establishing a field epidemiology elective for medical students in Kenya: a strategy for increasing public health awareness and workforce capacity.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Wences; Gura, Zeinab; Amwayi, Samuel; Wiersma, Petra; Omolo, Jared; Becknell, Steven; Jones, Donna; Ongore, Dismas; Dicker, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Medical students have limited exposure to field epidemiology, even though will assume public health roles after graduation. We established a 10-week elective in field epidemiology during medical school. Students attended one-week didactic sessions on epidemiology, and nine weeks in field placement sites. We administered pre- and post-tests to evaluate the training. We enrolled 34 students in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, we enrolled five of 24 applicants from a class of 280 medical students. In 2012, we enrolled 18 of 81 applicants from a class of 360 students; plus 11 who participated in the didactic sessions only. Among the 34 students who completed the didactic sessions, 74% were male, and their median age was 24 years (range: 22-26). The median pre-test score was 64% (range: 47-88%) and the median post-test score was 82% (range: 72-100%). Successful completion of the field projects was 100%. Six (30%) students were not aware of public health as a career option before this elective, 56% rated the field experience as outstanding, and 100% reported it increased their understanding of epidemiology. Implementing an elective in field epidemiology within the medical training is a highly acceptable strategy to increase awareness for public health among medical students.

  5. Establishing a field epidemiology elective for medical students in Kenya: A strategy for increasing public health awareness and workforce capacity

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Wences; Gura, Zeinab; Amwayi, Samuel; Wiersma, Petra; Omolo, Jared; Becknell, Steven; Jones, Donna; Ongore, Dismas; Dicker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Medical students have limited exposure to field epidemiology, even though will assume public health roles after graduation. We established a 10-week elective in field epidemiology during medical school. Students attended one-week didactic sessions on epidemiology, and nine weeks in field placement sites. We administered pre-and post-tests to evaluate the training. We enrolled 34 students in 2011 and 2012. In 2011, we enrolled five of 24 applicants from a class of 280 medical students. In 2012, we enrolled 18 of 81 applicants from a class of 360 students; plus 11 who participated in the didactic sessions only. Among the 34 students who completed the didactic sessions, 74% were male, and their median age was 24 years (range: 22–26). The median pre-test score was 64% (range: 47–88%) and the median post-test score was 82% (range: 72–100%). Successful completion of the field projects was 100%. Six (30%) students were not aware of public health as a career option before this elective, 56% rated the field experience as outstanding, and 100% reported it increased their understanding of epidemiology. Implementing an elective in field epidemiology within the medical training is a highly acceptable strategy to increase awareness for public health among medical students. PMID:25700921

  6. International Students, University Health Centers, and Memorable Messages about Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmack, Heather J.; Bedi, Shireen; Heiss, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    International students entering US universities often experience a variety of important socialization messages. One important message is learning about and using the US health system. International students often first encounter the US health system through their experiences with university health centers. The authors explore the memorable…

  7. Australia's international health relations in 2003.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Simon

    2005-02-21

    A survey for the year 2003 of significant developments in Australia's official international health relations, and their domestic ramifications, is presented. The discussion is set within the broader context of Australian foreign policy. Sources include official documents, media reports and consultations with officers of the Department of Health and Ageing responsible for international linkages.

  8. A Service-Learning Elective to Promote Enhanced Understanding of Civic, Cultural, and Social Issues and Health Disparities in Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Pamela C; Wall, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and impact of an elective service-learning course offered in cooperation with a charitable pharmacy providing services to the surrounding community. Methods The 33 students enrolled in the service-learning elective were given a 23-question preservice survey instrument and a 32-question postservice survey instrument. The survey instruments were designed to measure change in the students’ perceived knowledge and understanding regarding civic, cultural, and social issues and health disparities. Results Significant differences in responses on the presurvey and postsurvey instruments suggested changes in students’ attitudes and perceptions about the patients and the community in which they serve. Conclusions Results of the survey indicated that by exposing students to issues affecting individuals and the community during this elective, a positive change in the student's perception of their knowledge and understanding of broader issues facing the community was observed. Service-Learning courses provide additional opportunities for students to develop as competent, engaged, and caring health care professionals. PMID:17429509

  9. [Undergraduate and postgraduate education in international health].

    PubMed

    Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Karle, Hans; Hemmingsen, Ralf P

    2006-09-04

    The aim of this article is to provide information about possibilities for medical students and doctors to obtain knowledge about international health. Increasing globalisation requires knowledge about international health in such way that Danish doctors are able to diagnose and treat patients, regardless of the patient's nationality and ethnic background. Denmark has a global responsibility towards low and middle income countries to increase the standard of health. Increased knowledge and research in these countries is important both at an undergraduate and postgraduate level.

  10. Emergencies in international child health.

    PubMed

    Stidham, G L

    1997-06-01

    Emergencies in the pediatric populations of third world and developing countries are of a much different sort than those to which pediatricians in developing countries are familiar. Many of these emergencies derive from conditions, situations, and etiologies that no longer represent a threat to children in developed countries: malnutrition, immunizable illnesses, infectious diseases from pathogenes easily treated or prevented, urbanization, and armed conflict. Programs directed at improving basic public health, health education, access to basic health care, and immunization have been shown to have a major and positive impact on children's health status in these countries. Because of the vastness of these health problems, a growing number of volunteer organizations offer opportunities for pediatricians to contribute to improvement and they have an impact on the health of children considerably less fortunate than those in developed countries.

  11. Do elections matter for private-sector healthcare management in Brazil? An analysis of municipal health policy.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alecia J; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Blendon, Robert J

    2017-07-12

    This study analyzed several political determinants of increased private-sector management in Brazilian health care. In Brazil, the poor depend almost exclusively on the public Unified Health System (the SUS), which remains severely underfunded. Given the overhead costs associated with privately contracted health services, increased private management is one driver of higher expenditures in the system. Although left parties campaign most vocally in support of greater public control of the SUS, the extent to which their stated positions translate into health care policy remains untested. Drawing on multiple publicly available data sources, we used linear regression to analyze how political party-in-power and existing private sector health care contracting affect the share of privately managed health care services and outsourcing in municipalities. Data from two election periods-2004 to 2008 and 2008 to 2012-were analyzed. Our findings showed that although private sector contracting varies greatly across municipalities, this variation is not systematically associated with political party in power. This suggests that electoral politics plays a relatively minor role in municipal-level health care administration. Existing levels of private sector management appear to have a greater effect on the public-private makeup of the Brazilian healthcare system, suggesting a strong role of path dependence in the evolution of Brazilian health care delivery. Despite campaign rhetoric asserting distinct positions on privatization in the SUS, factors other than political party in power have a greater effect on private-sector health system management at the municipal-level in Brazil. Given the limited effect of elections on this issue, strengthening participatory bodies such as municipal health councils may better enfranchise citizens in the fundamental debate over public and private roles in the health care sector.

  12. International institutions and China's health policy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces.

  13. Cuba's international cooperation in health: an overview.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the first years after Cuba's 1959 revolution, the island's new government provided international medical assistance to countries affected by natural disasters or armed conflicts. Step by step, a more structural complementary program for international collaboration was put in place. The relief operations after Hurricane Mitch, which struck Central America in 1998, were pivotal. From November 1998 onward, the "Integrated Health Program" was the cornerstone of Cuba's international cooperation. The intense cooperation with Hugo Chávez's Venezuela became another cornerstone. Complementary to the health programs abroad, Cuba also set up international programs at home, benefiting tens of thousands of foreign patients and disaster victims. In a parallel program, medical training is offered to international students in the Latin American Medical School in Cuba and, increasingly, also in their home countries. The importance and impact of these initiatives, however, cannot and should not be analyzed solely in public health terms.

  14. International challenges and opportunities in health.

    PubMed

    Evans, John R

    1993-01-01

    It is not easy to fit an introductory address to the topics of AIDS, transplantation, women's health, reproductive health, national health insurance and epidemiology and public health. I have been asked to speak on international challenges and opportunities in health care in the hope that the global context might frame your specific discussions in the broadest possible perspective. I will speak primarily about the widening gap in health status between rich and poor people and rich and poor nations -- a gap which poses great risks for the poor but increasing risks for all of us as well.

  15. Evidence of improved knowledge and skills after an elective rotation in a hospice and palliative care program for internal medicine residents.

    PubMed

    von Gunten, Charles F; Twaddle, Martha; Preodor, Michael; Neely, Kathy Johnson; Martinez, Jeanne; Lyons, John

    2005-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that residents training in primary care need education in palliative care. Evidence for effective curricula is needed. The objective of this study was to test whether a clinical elective improves measures of knowledge and skill. Residents from three categorical training programs in internal medicine were recruited to an elective including clinical experiences in an acute hospital palliative care consultation service, on an acute hospice and palliative care unit, and in-home hospice care. A 25-question pre- and post-test and a videotaped interview with a standardized patient were used to assess communication skills and measure outcomes. Residents demonstrated a 10 percent improvement in knowledge after the four-week elective (p < 0.05). All residents demonstrated basic competency in communication skills at the end of the rotation. These results indicate that clinical rotation shows promise as an educational intervention to improve palliative care knowledge and skills in primary care residents. An important limitation of the study is that it is an elective; further studies with a required rotation and/or a control group are needed to confirm the findings.

  16. Costing Framework for International Health Regulations (2005)

    PubMed Central

    Haté, Vibhuti; Kornblet, Sarah; Fischer, Julie E.

    2012-01-01

    The revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]) conferred new responsibilities on member states of the World Health Organization, requiring them to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health emergencies. Many countries have not yet developed these capacities, and poor understanding of the associated costs have created a barrier to effectively marshaling assistance. To help national and international decision makers understand the inputs and associated costs of implementing the IHR (2005), we developed an IHR implementation strategy to serve as a framework for making preliminary estimates of fixed and operating costs associated with developing and sustaining IHR core capacities across an entire public health system. This tool lays the groundwork for modeling the costs of strengthening public health systems from the central to the peripheral level of an integrated health system, a key step in helping national health authorities define necessary actions and investments required for IHR compliance. PMID:22710255

  17. Costing framework for International Health Regulations (2005).

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; Haté, Vibhuti; Kornblet, Sarah; Fischer, Julie E

    2012-07-01

    The revised International Health Regulations (IHR [2005]) conferred new responsibilities on member states of the World Health Organization, requiring them to develop core capacities to detect, assess, report, and respond to public health emergencies. Many countries have not yet developed these capacities, and poor understanding of the associated costs have created a barrier to effectively marshaling assistance. To help national and international decision makers understand the inputs and associated costs of implementing the IHR (2005), we developed an IHR implementation strategy to serve as a framework for making preliminary estimates of fixed and operating costs associated with developing and sustaining IHR core capacities across an entire public health system. This tool lays the groundwork for modeling the costs of strengthening public health systems from the central to the peripheral level of an integrated health system, a key step in helping national health authorities define necessary actions and investments required for IHR compliance.

  18. Health effects of internal rotation of shifts.

    PubMed

    Learthart, S

    Shirley Learthart examines the potential adverse effects to health of working on rotating shifts. Many studies indicate that shift work can cause health problems, including increased risk of coronary heart disease. Internal rotation is the reason given by many nurses for leaving the profession.

  19. 26 CFR 1.936-1 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections. 1.936-1 Section 1.936-1 Internal... taxable year for which the election is made; or (2) April 8, 1980. Form 5712 shall be filed with the... February 8, 1980 is hereby granted the consent of the Secretary to revoke that election for the first...

  20. Bee health and international trade.

    PubMed

    Shimanuki, H; Knox, D A

    1997-04-01

    The international trade in bee products is a complex issue as a result of the diverse uses of these products. This is especially true with regard to honey. In most cases, honey is imported for human consumption: the high purchase and shipping costs preclude the use of honey as feed for bees. For these reasons, the risk of transmitting disease through honey is minimal. However, this risk should not be ignored, especially in those countries where American foulbrood is not known to occur. The importation of pollen for bee feed poses a definite risk, especially since there are no acceptable procedures for determining whether pollen is free from pathogens, insects and mites. Routine drying of pollen would reduce the survival of mites and insects, but would not have any impact on bacterial spores. Phytosanitary certificates should be required for the importation of honey and pollen when destined for bee feed. The declaration on the phytosanitary certificate should include country of origin, and should state whether the following bee diseases and parasitic mites are present: American foulbrood disease, European foulbrood disease, chalkbrood disease, Varroa jacobsoni and Tropilaelaps clareae.

  1. A historical perspective on international health.

    PubMed

    Basch, P F

    1991-06-01

    Between about 1875 and the early twentieth century, most major disease pathogens were identified and their epidemiology clarified. The technical and material developments of the nineteenth century led to a form of practical internationalism that was expressed also in the health sector. The Pan American Health Organization was established in 1902 to coordinate health issues in the Western Hemisphere. The Health Office of the League of Nations, now little known, played an important role in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly in the control of epidemic diseases in Eastern Europe and later in nutrition. The general framework of the League Health Office became the basis of the World Health Organization, founded in 1946. Certain international agencies play a special role in health; of these, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank have a worldwide role. The Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) and the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) are examples of essentially regional organizations with considerable influence. Private voluntary organizations, missions, and foundations have also had a substantial effect on health in certain circumstances.

  2. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area.

  3. Seeking health care through international medical tourism.

    PubMed

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Women, reproductive health and international human rights.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses the issue concerning the reproductive health and international human rights of women. The modern era of human rights applied to women's health started with the adoption of the UN Charter in 1946 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the General Assembly in 1948. However, the leading instrument of women's equal rights is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women adopted in 1979. This treaty assumed the legal responsibility to eradicate all forms of discrimination against women, particularly in the field of health care, thus ensuring that women will have access to health and family planning services. The concept of health as "the state of physical, mental and social well-being" as described by WHO emphasizes the significance of the social well-being in which the social, cultural, and economic factors plays a pivotal role in women's health status. In other parts of the world however, women are considered as relatively insignificant and are made to suffer discrimination in health because of their sex role. Such disadvantages against the female gender include injustices in the light of human rights law, particularly in the context of reproductive health services. Addressing the health disadvantages of women calls for actions gearing towards the promotion of women's empowerment. Efforts to advance the reproductive health through human rights of women should be rooted on the existing framework of human rights as recognized in most national constitutions and international human rights treaties.

  5. Design and pilot implementation of an evaluation tool assessing professionalism, communication and collaboration during a unique global health elective.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Jayant; Valani, Rahim; Sriharan, Abi; Scolnik, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Global health electives (GHEs) allow medical students to experience different health systems, but there are few instruments to assess performance, prompting us to adapt and pilot such an instrument. A tool to evaluate professionalism, communication and collaboration was developed and piloted on GHE students. The main outcome measure was Faculty assessment of students, but peer assessment and self-assessment were also performed and semi-structured interviews with students were used for corroboration. The 31 items were rated using a Likert scale and marks before and after the GHE were compared. The tool was sensitive to change. Students improved in each competency, the greatest change being in collaboration, which moved from 4.5/7 to 5.44/7. Qualitative analyses supported observed changes. Our tool, adapted from accreditation bodies' requirements, appeared to be able to discern changes in acquisition of skills in several important competencies in medical students participating in a GHE.

  6. Vaginal birth after caesarean section versus elective repeat caesarean section: assessment of maternal downstream health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Paré, Emmanuelle; Quiñones, Joanne N; Macones, George A

    2006-01-01

    To compare the maternal implications of strategies of vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) attempt versus elective repeat caesarean section in women with one previous lower segment caesarean section. Decision model. Women with one prior low transverse caesarean section who are eligible for trial of labour. Two decision models were built: the first one applying to women planning only one more pregnancy, the second one applying to women planning two more pregnancies. Probability estimates for VBAC success rate and risks of uterine rupture, placenta praevia, placenta accreta and hysterectomy were extracted from the available literature. Hysterectomy for uterine rupture, placenta accreta or other indications. In the first model VBAC attempt led to a higher hysterectomy rate (267/100,000) compared with repeat caesarean section (187/100,000). However, in the second model a policy of elective repeat caesarean section led to higher cumulative hysterectomy rate: 1465/100,000 versus 907/100,000 for VBAC. The first model was robust to all but one variable in sensitivity analyses. The second model was robust to all variables in sensitivity analyses. These results indicate that long term reproductive consequences of multiple caesarean sections should be considered when making policy decisions regarding the risk-benefit ratio of VBAC.

  7. Is there a benefit for health care workers in testing HIV, HCV and HBV in routine before elective arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, M; Sorrentino, J-N; Klein, M; Macke, C; Mommsen, P; Brand, S; Schröter, C; Krettek, C; Zeckey, C

    2016-06-01

    Occupational infection of clinical health care workers with blood-borne viruses (BBVs) like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a current and often emotionally discussed issue. HCV and especially HIV are still stigmatized. The consequence is a broad and maybe irrational fear of professional health care workers being infected occupationally. Therefore, we assessed preoperative screening to: (1) answer whether this can detect not previously diagnosed blood-borne virus infections to a great extent, (2) calculate a cost-benefit ratio to find out, if the screening's potential ability to prevent occupational transmission of BBVs to health care workers faces unjustifiable high costs. Preoperative routine screening is limited suitable for enhancement of detecting fomites compared to interview the patient. Retrospective cohort study of preoperative screening for HIV, HBV and HCV (HBsAg, anti-HCV and HIV-Ab/Ag-Combination) for every patient who was admitted to the traumatologic department for elective arthroplasty between 01/01/1997 and 31/12/2008. Among the 1534 patients who underwent elective prosthetic surgery [total hip (879) and knee arthroplasty (508), followed by shoulder, elbow and upper ankle joint], 693 (45.2%) patients were male and 841 (54.8) female. Mean age was 64.2±13.8 years. Screening tests were available for 1373 patients (89.5%). Among all screened patients, we found 21 HCV, 10 HBV and 1 HIV infections. 5 HBV (0.5%) and 7 HCV infections (0.7%) were unknown before. Every newly detected infectious patient occasions screening costs about 7250€. Considering this data, the risk of HCV transmission from an index patient with unknown status of infectiousness to health care worker after percutaneous contact to blood is 0.08 ‰ and of HIV transmission is 0.00054 ‰ in our study population. Routine preoperative screening for BBVs of patients undergoing elective arthroplasty, who were asked for HBV, HCV and

  8. A medical outreach elective course.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth; Storer, Amanda; Caldwell, David; Smith, Jennifer

    2013-05-13

    To design and implement a Medical Outreach Experience elective course and assess its impact on students' level of confidence in organizing future medical outreach trips, providing population-specific pharmaceutical care, and achieving learning outcomes. A 2-credit hour elective course was designed for second- and third-year pharmacy students. The course was structured to include 3 sections over 1 semester, a 10-week training and preparation phase, followed by a weeklong international outreach experience and post-outreach reflection. Student achievement of curricular outcomes was measured using in-class activities, readings, reflections, and longitudinal projects, as well as performance during the outreach trip. Results from pre- and post-course surveys demonstrated significant improvement in student-rated confidence in several components of outreach trip organization and provision of pharmaceutical care. Students completing the course exhibited increased confidence in their abilities to organize and practice on a medical outreach trip. All students met the learning outcomes of the course, which included providing comprehensive patient-specific pharmaceutical care, communicating effectively, promoting health improvement and self-care, thinking critically, and appropriately managing and using resources of the healthcare system. Students agreed that the elective course was a valuable addition to the curriculum.

  9. Health warnings on tobacco products: international practices.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

    2012-06-01

    Health warnings on tobacco products have emerged as a prominent area of tobacco control policy. Regulatory practice has rapidly evolved over the past decade to the point where health warnings on tobacco products continue to set international precedents for their size and comprehensiveness. The current paper provides a general review of current regulatory practices, including physical design features (such as size and location), message content (pictorial vs. text and content themes), and regulatory considerations such as rotation period and other novel practices.

  10. Sociopolitical determinants of international health policy.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Pol; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    For decades, two opposing logics have dominated the health policy debate: a comprehensive health care approach, with the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration as its cornerstone, and a private competition logic, emphasizing the role of the private sector. We present this debate and its influence on international health policies in the context of changing global economic and sociopolitical power relations in the second half of the last century. The neoliberal approach is illustrated with Chile's health sector reform in the 1980s and the Colombian reform since 1993. The comprehensive "public logic" is shown through the social insurance models in Costa Rica and in Brazil and through the national public health systems in Cuba since 1959 and in Nicaragua during the 1980s. These experiences emphasize that health care systems do not naturally gravitate toward greater fairness and efficiency, but require deliberate policy decisions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. International human rights and women's reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J

    1993-01-01

    Neglect of women's reproductive health, perpetuated by law, is part of a larger, systematic discrimination against women. Laws obstruct women's access to reproductive health services. Laws protective of women's reproductive health are rarely or inadequately implemented. Moreover, few laws or policies facilitate women's reproductive health services. Epidemiological evidence and feminist legal methods provide insight into the law's neglect of women's reproductive health and expose long-held beliefs in the law's neutrality that harm women fundamentally. Empirical evidence can be used to evaluate how effectively laws are implemented and whether alternative legal approaches exist that would provide greater protection of individual rights. International human rights treaties, including those discussed in this article, are being applied increasingly to expose how laws that obstruct women's access to reproductive health services violate their basic rights.

  12. Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary and International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto

    The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…

  13. Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary and International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto

    The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…

  14. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... been transferred to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund under § 701.9006-1(a). (e) Limit on... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election...

  15. Health information exchange: national and international approaches.

    PubMed

    Vest, Joshua R

    2012-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE), the process of electronically moving patient-level information between different organizations, is viewed as a solution to the fragmentation of data in health care. This review provides a description of the current state of HIE in seven nations, as well was three international HIE efforts, with a particular focus on the relation of exchange efforts to national health care systems, common challenges, and the implications of cross-border information sharing. National and international efforts highlighted in English language informatics journals, professional associations, and government reports are described. Fully functioning HIE is not yet a common phenomenon worldwide. However, multiple nations see the potential benefits of HIE and that has led to national and international efforts of varying scope, scale, and purview. National efforts continue to work to overcome the challenges of interoperability, record linking, insufficient infrastructures, governance, and interorganizational relationships, but have created architectural strategies, oversight agencies, and incentives to foster exchange. The three international HIE efforts reviewed represent very different approaches to the same problem of ensuring the availability of health information across borders. The potential of HIE to address many cost and quality issues will ensure HIE remains on many national agendas. In many instances, health care executives and leaders have opportunities to work within national programs to help shape local exchange governance and decide technology partners. Furthermore, HIE raises policy questions concerning the role of centralized planning, national identifiers, standards, and types of information exchanged, each of which are vital issues to individual health organizations and worthy of their attention.

  16. Making Global Health Rotations a Two-Way Street: A Model for Hosting International Residents.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Michael B; Gladding, Sophia P; Majinge, Charles R; Butteris, Sabrina M

    2016-01-01

    As US residency programs are increasingly offering global health electives for their trainees, there is a growing call for these opportunities to include bidirectional exchanges-where residents from both the US and international partner institutions rotate at the other's site. Curricular, logistical, and funding challenges of hosting residents from an international site may be barriers to developing these programs. In this report, the authors describe an 8-year experience of a US institution hosting residents from a resource-limited international partner and provide a framework for others institutions to develop bidirectional exchanges. They also report the visiting international residents' perceptions of the impact of the exchange on their clinical practice, teaching, career paths, and their home institution.

  17. Evaluation of skill achievement levels and practical experiences of public health nursing students before and after the introduction of the public health nursing course as an elective.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshimi; Saito, Emiko; Sawai, Minako; Kishi, Emiko; Kakemoto, Satori; Nakada, Harumi; Igarashi, Chiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To equip public health nurses (PHNs) with higher qualifications, PHN education is shifting from an integrated curriculum for PHNs and registered nurses to a specific elective system of undergraduate or postgraduate programs. Most colleges in the special wards of Tokyo introduced the elective system in 2014 before the remaining areas. The outcomes of this must be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the achievement levels and practical experiences of PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards before and after introduction of the PHN course as an elective.Method Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were completed by senior PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards who underwent training in 2013, the last year of an integrated curriculum, and in 2014, the first year of the elective system. The target numbers of participants were 663 in 2013 and 136 in 2014 with 20 students from each school exposed to the elective system. Our study focused on whether they achieved the 98 "technical items of PHN training and achievement levels at the time of graduation" required by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The study also determined whether participants obtained practical experience in 15 items developed by the special wards based on the standards set for training.Results In 2013, there were 348 total responses (52.5%) and 310 valid responses. In 2014, there were 136 total responses (88.2%) and 120 valid responses. The average achievement rate at which the student answered, "I was able to arrive at it," at an arrival degree level for the 98 technical items was 72.6% in 2014, an increase compared to the 67.9% obtained in 2013. Moreover, the average practical experience rate at which the student answered, "I was able to have an experience," regarding the 15 items was 85.7% in 2014, which constituted an increase compared to 70.5% attained in 2013. However, the number of items with an achievement rate of more than 80% remained

  18. Comparative Elections: Building a Basic Reference Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalen, James E.

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography focuses on resources for the study of international elections and electoral systems and outcomes that will be useful for collection development and for answering reference questions about foreign elections. Discusses comparative politics, comparative elections, and possible electoral reform. (LRW)

  19. [An international health proposal to harmonize crossborder health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Quirós, Héctor Manuel; Rodríguez González, Hernán; Valderrama Vergara, José Fernando

    2011-08-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study to identify mechanisms and actions to help harmonize cross-border health surveillance and provide a timely and effective response to events that may threaten international health security. The capacities of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru were analyzed in three areas: (a) the legal and administrative framework; (b) the ability to detect, evaluate, and report risk situations and (c) the ability to investigate, intervene in, and communicate international health risk situations. Data were collected through a document review, workshops, group work, and semistructured interviews with key individuals in health surveillance in the three countries. The average national capacity for the trio of countries within "the legal and administrative framework" was 69.4%; 83.3% in "the ability to detect, evaluate and report"; and 78.7% in "the ability to investigate, intervene in, and communicate international health risk situations." More resources should be directed toward coordinated action among the three countries in order to strengthen surveillance and public health monitoring in their border areas.

  20. Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Health and Illness: An Elective Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilwein, John H.

    1985-01-01

    A course examining the health beliefs and practices of various traditional cultures focuses on the Third World. It includes such course topics as health relevant behavior, systems of folk medicine and the role of drugs in them, and issues in introducing modern health programs to non-industrial societies. (MSE)

  1. International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH)

    PubMed Central

    Van Braeckel, D.; Luchters, S.; Degomme, O.; Temmerman, M.

    2011-01-01

    The International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) was established by Prof. dr. Marleen Temmerman in the aftermath of the UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994. This conference called for world-wide action to improve the sexual and reproductive health situation of the global population in general and for vulnerable groups in particular, and this is exactly what ICRH is striving for and has been working on for the last 15 years. ICRH is a multidisciplinary centre of excellence, in research, capacity building and fieldwork in sexual and reproductive health and HIV prevention, and an advocate for sexual and reproductive health and rights. Right from the start, ICRH has opted for a global approach, which has resulted in a broad geographical spread of activities, with projects in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Europe. Since its inception, ICRH has participated in more than 120 projects, often as the coordinator, and through this work it has contributed considerably not only to scientific knowledge, improvement of health systems and increased accessibility of health services for vulnerable groups, but also to the quality of live of numerous individuals. Since 2004, ICRH has been recognized as a WHO Collaborating Centre for Research on Sexual and Reproductive Health.

  2. Health risks encountered by Dutch medical students during an elective in the tropics and the quality and comprehensiveness of pre-and post-travel care.

    PubMed

    Sharafeldin, Elhadi; Soonawala, Darius; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Hack, Evelien; Visser, Leo G

    2010-12-02

    Clinical and research electives abroad offer medical students many unique experiences. However, participating in an unfamiliar health-care setting combined with limited medical experience may place students at risk of illness. To improve pre-and post-travel care, we assessed the health risks and the quality and comprehensiveness of pre-and post-travel care in a cohort of Dutch medical students returning form an elective abroad. All medical students who had performed an elective in the tropics between July 2006 and December 2008 were sent an informative email asking them to complete a web-based questionnaire. 180 of 242 (74%) students completed the questionnaire. Regarding the risk of bloodborne viral infection: 67% of all students and 32% of junior students engaged in procedures that constitute a risk of exposure to bloodborne viral infection, often in countries with high HIV prevalence rates. None of nine students who experienced possible or certain mucosal or percutaneous exposure to potentially infectious body fluids reported the exposure at the time it occurred and none used PEP. Regarding other health risks: 8 of 40 (20%) students stopped using mefloquine due to adverse effects. This left a sizeable proportion unprotected in countries that are hyperendemic for malaria. Post-travel screening for schistosomiasis, tuberculosis (tuberculin skin test) and carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) encompassed approximately half of all students who should have been screened. Based on the results of this study we have adopted an integral set of measures to reduce the health risks associated with an elective abroad. The pre and post-travel consult has been centralized and standardized as well as the distribution of PEP. In addition we have developed a mandatory module on Global Health for all medical students planning an elective abroad.

  3. Health risks encountered by Dutch medical students during an elective in the tropics and the quality and comprehensiveness of pre-and post-travel care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical and research electives abroad offer medical students many unique experiences. However, participating in an unfamiliar health-care setting combined with limited medical experience may place students at risk of illness. To improve pre-and post-travel care, we assessed the health risks and the quality and comprehensiveness of pre-and post-travel care in a cohort of Dutch medical students returning form an elective abroad. Methods All medical students who had performed an elective in the tropics between July 2006 and December 2008 were sent an informative email asking them to complete a web-based questionnaire. Results 180 of 242 (74%) students completed the questionnaire. Regarding the risk of bloodborne viral infection: 67% of all students and 32% of junior students engaged in procedures that constitute a risk of exposure to bloodborne viral infection, often in countries with high HIV prevalence rates. None of nine students who experienced possible or certain mucosal or percutaneous exposure to potentially infectious body fluids reported the exposure at the time it occurred and none used PEP. Regarding other health risks: 8 of 40 (20%) students stopped using mefloquine due to adverse effects. This left a sizeable proportion unprotected in countries that are hyperendemic for malaria. Post-travel screening for schistosomiasis, tuberculosis (tuberculin skin test) and carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) encompassed approximately half of all students who should have been screened. Conclusions Based on the results of this study we have adopted an integral set of measures to reduce the health risks associated with an elective abroad. The pre and post-travel consult has been centralized and standardized as well as the distribution of PEP. In addition we have developed a mandatory module on Global Health for all medical students planning an elective abroad. PMID:21126347

  4. [External and internal financing in health care].

    PubMed

    Henke, Klaus-Dirk

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this contribution is to characterize the functional and institutional features of the German health-care system. This takes place after a short introduction and examination of the ongoing debate on health care in Germany. External funding describes the form of revenue generation. Regarding external funding of the German health care system, one of the favored alternatives in the current debate is the possibility of introducing per capita payments. After a short introduction to the capitation option, focus is on the so-called health fund that is currently debated on and being made ready for implementation in Germany, actually a mixed system of capitation and contributions based on income. On the other hand, internal funding is the method of how different health-care services are purchased or reimbursed. This becomes a rather hot topic in light of new trends for integrated and networked care to patients and different types of budgeting. Another dominating question in the German health-care system is the liberalization of the contractual law, with its "joint and uniform" regulations that have to be loosened for competition gains. After a discussion of the consequences of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in Germany, the article is concluded by a note on the political rationality of the current health-care reform for increased competition within the Statutory Health Insurance and its players as exemplified by the health fund. To sum up, it has to be said that the complexity and specific features of how the German system is financed seem to require ongoing reform considerations even after realization of the currently debated health-care reform law which, unfortunately, is dominated by political rationalities rather than objective thoughts.

  5. Student Volunteer: Career Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Hospital, Coatesville, PA.

    The Student Volunteer Career Elective Program at the Coatesville High School is designed to provide instruction and practical learning experience for 10th grade students who are interested in health careers and training in areas of technical, trades, and administration occupations. It is a cooperative project between the school and the Coatesville…

  6. Election '08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Every four years, the presidential election campaign unfolds, and the position of the candidates on education is predictable: They are in favor of it. Something else is easy to predict: In every presidential campaign, hot-button issues--some important and some infuriatingly not--suck up most of the oxygen, and the hoped-for focus on education…

  7. Election Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Kids learn by doing, which, experts agree, is the only real way to teach citizenship. This article presents election-year activities that stress action. These activities will show students what it means to be a good citizen. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  8. Election '08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Every four years, the presidential election campaign unfolds, and the position of the candidates on education is predictable: They are in favor of it. Something else is easy to predict: In every presidential campaign, hot-button issues--some important and some infuriatingly not--suck up most of the oxygen, and the hoped-for focus on education…

  9. Global health security and the International Health Regulations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Global nuclear proliferation, bioterrorism, and emerging infections have challenged national capacities to achieve and maintain global security. Over the last century, emerging infectious disease threats resulted in the development of the preliminary versions of the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). The current HR(2005) contain major differences compared to earlier versions, including: substantial shifts from containment at the border to containment at the source of the event; shifts from a rather small disease list (smallpox, plague, cholera, and yellow fever) required to be reported, to all public health threats; and shifts from preset measures to tailored responses with more flexibility to deal with the local situations on the ground. The new IHR(2005) call for accountability. They also call for strengthened national capacity for surveillance and control; prevention, alert, and response to international public health emergencies beyond the traditional short list of required reporting; global partnership and collaboration; and human rights, obligations, accountability, and procedures of monitoring. Under these evolved regulations, as well as other measures, such as the Revolving Fund for vaccine procurement of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), global health security could be maintained in the response to urban yellow fever in Paraguay in 2008 and the influenza (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010. PMID:21143824

  10. An Elective Course for an Interdisciplinary Approach to Family Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Edward D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    As this course introduces health professional students to the delivery of primary health care in a family setting, emphasis is placed on the principles and procedures of team development and maintenance and on the recognition of group dynamics, interaction, and communication processes in the team and family. (LBH)

  11. Can medicine be aesthetic? Disentangling beauty and health in elective surgeries.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    This article analyzes tensions between aesthetics and health in medicine. The blurring of distinctions between reconstructive and cosmetic procedures, and the linking of plastic surgery with other medical treatments, have added to the legitimacy of an emerging "aesthetic medicine." As cosmetic surgeries become linked to other medical procedures with perceived greater medical necessity, health and aesthetics become entangled. One consequence is that medical needs are magnified while perceptions of the risks of surgery are minimized. Drawing on ethnographic work on plastic surgery, as well as other studies of obstetrics and cosmetic surgery, I illustrate this entanglement of health and aesthetics within the field of women's reproductive health care in Brazil. I argue that while it would be difficult to wholly disentangle aesthetics and health, analysis of how risk-benefit calculations are made in clinical practice offers a useful critical strategy for illuminating ethical problems posed by aesthetic medicine. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  12. Elective and isolated carotid endarterectomy: health disparities in utilization and outcomes, but not readmission.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Byron S.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Stafford, Randall S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been shown to decrease future ischemic stroke risk in selected patients. However, clinical trials did not examine the risk-benefit ratio for nonwhites, who have a greater ischemic stroke risk than whites. In general, few studies have examined the effects of race on CEA use and complications, and data on race and CEA readmission are lacking. METHODS: This study used administrative data for patients discharged from California hospitals between January 1 and December 31, 2000. Selection criteria of cases included: ICD-9 principal procedure code 38.12, principal diagnostic code 433 and diagnosis-related group 5. There were 8,080 white and 1196 nonwhite patients (228 blacks, 643 Hispanics, 325 Asians/Pacific Islanders) identified that underwent an elective and isolated CEA. For both groups, CEA rates were compared. Logistic regression was used to examine the independent effects of race on in-hospital death and stroke, as well as CEA readmission. RESULTS: Rates of CEA use were more than three times greater for whites than nonwhites, although nonwhites were more likely to have symptomatic disease. For all patients, the complication rate was 1.9%. However, the odds of in-hospital death and stroke were greater for nonwhites than whites, but after adjustment for patient and hospital factors, these differences were only significant for stroke (OR = 1.7, P = 0.013). For both outcomes, the final models had good predictive accuracy. Overall, CEA readmission risk was 7%, and no significant racial differences were observed (P = 0.110). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that CEA is performed safely in California. However, nonwhites had lower rates of initial CEA use but higher rates of in-hospital death and stroke than whites. Racial differences in stroke risk persisted after adjustment for patient and hospital factors. Finally, this study found that despite significant racial disparities in initial CEA use, whites and nonwhites were similar

  13. Global health training in ophthalmology residency programs.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Peter G; Feldman, Brad H; Lauer, Andreas K; Paul Chan, Robison V; Sun, Grace

    2015-01-01

    To assess current global health education and international electives in ophthalmology residency programs and barriers to global health implementation in ophthalmology resident education. A web-based survey regarding participation in global health and international electives was emailed to residency program directors at 116 accredited ophthalmology residency programs via an Association of University Professors in Ophthalmology (AUPO) residency program director listserv. Fifty-nine (51%) ophthalmology residency program directors responded. Thirty-seven program directors (63%) said global health was important to medical students when evaluating residency programs. Thirty-two program directors (55%) reported developing international electives. Reported barriers to resident participation in international electives were: 1) insufficient financial support, 2) inadequate resident coverage at home, and 3) lack of ACGME approval for international electives. Program directors requested more information about resident international electives, funding, and global ophthalmology educational resources. They requested ACGME recognition of international electives to facilitate resident participation. More than half (54%) of program directors supported international electives for residents. This survey demonstrates that program directors believe global health is an important consideration when medical students evaluate training programs. Despite perceived barriers to incorporating global health opportunities into residency training, program directors are interested in development of global health resources and plan to further develop global health opportunities. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Debate over NAFTA's effect on health care a sign medicare will be dominant election issue

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Does the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) pose a threat to Canada's medicare system? There was a flurry of political activity in March over concerns that US health care companies were eagerly eyeing the Canadian market because NAFTA had opened it to them. The issue disappeared almost as quickly as it arrived, but it caught the attention of federal politicians, who hastened to negotiate to protect all existing health and social services. The rapidity with which the question grabbed the headlines was another reminder that health care remains one of the key political issues in Canada, and politicians will ignore it at their peril.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1361-5 - Termination of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Termination of QSub election. 1.1361-5 Section... Termination of QSub election. (a) In general—(1) Effective date. The termination of a QSub election is effective— (i) On the effective date contained in the revocation statement if a QSub election is...

  16. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... extensions thereof). Such election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (2... election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (b) Elections under prior... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2...

  17. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... extensions thereof). Such election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (2... election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (b) Elections under prior... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2...

  18. 26 CFR 15.1-1 - Elections to deduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deducted pursuant to an election under section 617(a). (ii) Exception. The last sentence of subdivision (i... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Elections to deduct. 15.1-1 Section 15.1-1... Elections to deduct. (a) Manner of making election—(1) Election to deduct under section 617(a). The...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1361-5 - Termination of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Termination of QSub election. 1.1361-5 Section... Termination of QSub election. (a) In general—(1) Effective date. The termination of a QSub election is effective— (i) On the effective date contained in the revocation statement if a QSub election is...

  20. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... extensions thereof). Such election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (2... election shall become irrevocable after the last day prescribed for making it. (b) Elections under prior... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2...

  1. 26 CFR 15.1-1 - Elections to deduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deducted pursuant to an election under section 617(a). (ii) Exception. The last sentence of subdivision (i... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections to deduct. 15.1-1 Section 15.1-1... Elections to deduct. (a) Manner of making election—(1) Election to deduct under section 617(a). The...

  2. 26 CFR 1.853-4 - Manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of making election. 1.853-4 Section 1.853... making election. (a) General rule. To make an election under section 853 for a taxable year, a regulated investment company must file a statement of election as part of its Federal income tax return for the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2... election. (a) Regulated investment company. A regulated investment company making a valid election with... made the election under section 853, is, in effect, placed in the same position as a person...

  4. 26 CFR 1.150-5 - Filing notices and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing notices and elections. 1.150-5 Section 1... notices and elections. (a) In general. Notices and elections under the following sections must be filed.... This section applies to notices and elections filed on or after January 19, 2001....

  5. 1984 Presidential election: issues of relevance to child and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Mondale, W F; Reagan, R W

    1984-10-01

    To clarify the position of the 2 major candidates for the office of presidency of the US on child and adolescent health issues, the editors of the Journal of School Health requested information about the candidate's positions from the headquarters of Mondale and Reagan. This document presents a summary based on the information received. In reference to defense spending, Mondale said he would cut some defense programs and increase social support programs. Reagan noted that his proposed budget for the next 5 years allocated US$2.6 trillion to human programs compared to US$1.7 trillion for defense. In regard to health card, Mondale placed a high priority on health care cost containment to be achieved by placing limits on physician and hospital fees, increasing competition between health facilities, and streamlining the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Reagan expressed satisfaction with the current health status of the population and said that health care inflation could be controlled through the provision of incentives to increase the efficiency of hospitals. Mondale indicated that he would reverse Regan's current social policies and provide strong support for social programs including Headstart, maternal and child health programs, Medicaid, Aid to Dependent Children, day care programs, child and spouse abuse programs, and several others. Reagan noted that child health indicators improved during the early 1980s, and that spending for child health increased during his 1st term. His administration would focus attention on the health gap between black and white children and on enforcing child support laws. Mondale indicated broad support for family planning including the right of poor women to obtain abortion services and the right to teenagers to receive contraceptive services without parental involvement. Reagan reiterated his belief that abortion is morally wrong and said that federal funds should not be used to pay for abortion services unless the abortion is

  6. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manner of election. 1.1071-4 Section 1.1071-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-4 Manner of election. (a) An election under the...

  7. Children's environmental health--an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Firestone, Michael P; Amler, Robert W

    2003-08-01

    Parents in all countries want and deserve safe and healthy environments for their children. Children in all countries need, as part of normal growth and development, regular and frequent opportunities to interact with their environments as they learn to crawl, run, climb, swim, and explore. Environmental scientists and regulators recognize that environmental hazards are not contained by international borders. This is of special concern for children, because they are intrinsically at greater risk, compared to adults. They have different opportunities for exposure, greater response to certain toxicants, and less empowerment to alter their environments. There is a growing awareness that adverse health effects in children can adversely affect a country's future productivity and well-being. Multiple government agencies, NGOs, and advocates are mobilizing to address these concerns. A sustained concerted effort will be needed to afford equitable and effective environmental health protection to the world's children, present and future.

  8. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  9. International infectious disease law: revision of the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2004-06-02

    The International Health Regulations (IHR), the only global regulations for infectious disease control, have not been significantly changed since they were first issued in 1951. The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently engaged in a process to modernize the IHR. This article reviews WHO's draft revised IHR and recommends new reforms to improve global health, which include (1) a robust mission, emphasizing the WHO's core public health purposes, functions, and essential services; (2) broad scope, flexibly covering diverse health threats; (3) global surveillance, developing informational networks of official and unofficial data sources; (4) national public health systems, setting performance criteria, measuring outcomes, and holding states accountable; (5) human rights protection, setting science-based standards and fair procedures; and (6) good governance, adopting the principles of fairness, objectivity, and transparency. The WHO should ensure state compliance with health norms and generous economic and technical assistance to poorer countries. An important issue for the international community is how sovereign countries can join together to make global health work for everyone, the poor and the wealthy alike.

  10. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Kathryn; Nieuwoudt, Claudia; Gavito, Christina; Tocce, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP) care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. The purpose of this study was to explore students' motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast). Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students' pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research should be directed at development and analysis of comprehensive FP curricula

  11. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Kathryn; Nieuwoudt, Claudia; Gavito, Christina; Tocce, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP) care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore students’ motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. Method We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. Results We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast). Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students’ pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Conclusions Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research should be directed at

  12. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Kathryn; Nieuwoudt, Claudia; Gavito, Christina; Tocce, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP) care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore students' motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. Method We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. Results We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast). Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students' pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Conclusions Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research should be directed at

  13. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the eligibility requirement...

  14. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the eligibility requirement...

  15. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the...

  16. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.24 Election of hospice care. (a) Filing an election statement. An individual who meets the...

  17. Negative attitudes and affect do not predict elective hysterectomy: A prospective analysis from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Carolyn J.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Weiss, Gerson E.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Sowers, MaryFran; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between hysterectomy and negative affect. Using prospective data, we examined the associations of negative affect, attitudes toward aging and menopause, premenstrual symptoms and vasomotor symptoms with elective hysterectomy in midlife. Methods Data were from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a multi-site community-based prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition (n=2,818). Annually reported hysterectomy at visits 2-9 was verified with medical records when available (71%). Anxiety, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, attitudes toward aging and menopause, vasomotor symptoms, and premenstrual symptoms were assessed at baseline using standardized questions. Cox proportional hazards models were used to relate these variables to subsequent elective hysterectomy. Covariates included demographic variables, menstrual bleeding problems, body mass index, hormone levels, and self-rated health, also assessed at baseline. Results Elective hysterectomy was reported by 6% of participants (n=168) over an 8-year period. Women with hysterectomy were not higher in negative affect or negative attitudes toward aging and menopause compared to women without hysterectomy. Vasomotor symptoms (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.03-2.01, p=.03) and positive attitudes toward aging and menopause (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.04-2.93) at baseline predicted hysterectomy over the 8-year period, controlling for menstrual bleeding problems, site, race/ethnicity, follicle stimulating hormone, age, education, body mass index, and self-rated health. Menstrual bleeding problems at baseline were the strongest predictor of hysterectomy (HR 4.30, 95% CI 2.05-9.05). Conclusions In this prospective examination, negative affect and attitudes were not associated with subsequent hysterectomy. Menstrual bleeding problems were the major determinant of elective hysterectomy. PMID:21228728

  18. Focus on Phase Electives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Victor H., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    In this thematic issue, articles focus on the use of phase electives in the English classroom. Discussions include "Death in the Classroom,""Soapbox Operas in the English Classroom,""Language and History in Phase-Elective Programs,""Phase Electives and the Problem of Composition," and "Phase Electives and College Preparation.""Phase Electives Are…

  19. Oregon's Hard-Stop Policy Limiting Elective Early-Term Deliveries: Association With Obstetric Procedure Use and Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Jonathan M; Muoto, Ifeoma; Darney, Blair G; Quigley, Brian; Tomlinson, Mark W; Neilson, Duncan; Friedman, Steven A; Rogovoy, Joanne; Caughey, Aaron B

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the association of Oregon's hard-stop policy limiting early elective deliveries (before 39 weeks of gestation) and the rate of elective early-term inductions and cesarean deliveries and associated maternal-neonatal outcomes. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of Oregon births between 2008 and 2013 using vital statistics data and multivariable logistic regression models. Our exposure was the Oregon hard-stop policy, defined as the time periods prepolicy (2008-2010) and postpolicy (2012-2013). We included all term or postterm, cephalic, nonanomalous, singleton deliveries (N=181,034 births). Our primary outcomes were induction of labor and cesarean delivery at 37 or 38 weeks of gestation without a documented indication on the birth certificate (ie, elective early term delivery). Secondary outcomes included neonatal intensive care unit admission, stillbirth, macrosomia, chorioamnionitis, and neonatal death. The rate of elective inductions before 39 weeks of gestation declined from 4.0% in the prepolicy period to 2.5% during the postpolicy period (P<.001); a similar decline was observed for elective early-term cesarean deliveries (from 3.4% to 2.1%; P<.001). There was no change in neonatal intensive care unit admission, stillbirth, or assisted ventilation prepolicy and postpolicy, but chorioamnionitis did increase (from 1.2% to 2.2%, P<.001; adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% confidence interval 1.80-2.09). Oregon's statewide policy to limit elective early-term delivery was associated with a reduction in elective early-term deliveries, but no improvement in maternal or neonatal outcomes.

  20. Contraceptive prevalence, reproductive health, and international morality.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, E

    1992-04-01

    This article is a transcript of the 58th Joseph Price Oration, delivered by Egon Diczfalusy (MD, PhD) at the 10th Annual Meeting of the American Gynecological and Obstetrical Society, held in Carlsbad, California on September 5-7, 1991. In his speech, Diczfalusy discussed the international community's moral obligation to promoting reproductive health, which hinges primarily on contraceptive prevalence. WHO figures indicate that 85% of the world's births, 95% of the world's infant deaths, and 99% of the world's maternal deaths take place in developing countries. While a women in a developed country has a 1 in 1750 chance of dying from pregnancy-related causes, the risk is 1 in 24 for a woman in Africa. The goals of reproductive health are well-known: reducing the unmet need for family planning, increasing family planning services and methods; lessening maternal, infant, and child mortality and morbidity; and reducing the prevalence of STDs. An investment of $2/capita would eliminate most maternal deaths in the developing world. An additional $2/capita spending increase in developing countries would also immunize all children, eradicate polio, and provide the drugs necessary to cure all cases of diarrheal disease, acute respiratory infection tuberculosis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and STDs. But the most important element with respect to reproductive health is increasing contraceptive prevalence. Over the next decade, yearly world population increments will approach 97 million. 94% of this growth will take place in developing countries. As Diczfalusy explains, the technology and resources to solve these problems exists. At bottom, the obstacle to overcoming the problems is the lack of political will.

  1. Routine provision of intrauterine contraception at elective cesarean section in a national public health service: a service evaluation.

    PubMed

    Heller, Rebecca; Johnstone, Anne; Cameron, Sharon T

    2017-09-01

    We conducted a prospective health service evaluation to assess the feasibility and acceptability of routinely offering insertion of intrauterine contraception at cesarean section in a maternity setting in the UK. One month before scheduled cesarean section, women were sent information about postpartum contraception including the option of insertion of an intrauterine contraception at cesarean. Women choosing intrauterine contraception (copper intrauterine device or levonorgestrel intrauterine system) were followed up in person at six weeks, and telephone contact was made at three, six and 12 months postpartum. Our main outcome measures were uptake of intrauterine contraception and complications by six weeks. Secondary outcomes were continuation and satisfaction with intrauterine contraception at 12 months. 120/877 women opted to have intrauterine contraception (13.7%), of which 114 were fitted. By six weeks, there were seven expulsions (6.1%). The expulsion rate by one year was 8.8%. There were no cases of uterine perforations and one case of infection (0.8%). Follow-up rates were 82.5% at 12 months, and continuation rates with intrauterine contraception at 12 months were 84.8% of those contacted. At 12 months, 92.7% of respondents asked were either 'very' or 'fairly' happy with their intrauterine contraception. Routine provision of intrauterine contraception at elective cesarean for women in a public maternity service is feasible and acceptable to women. It is associated with good uptake and good continuation rates for the first year. This could be an important strategy to increase use of intrauterine contraception and prevent short inter-pregnancy intervals and unintended pregnancies. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. 26 CFR 1.663(b)-2 - Election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election. 1.663(b)-2 Section 1.663(b)-2 Internal... TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute Corpus § 1.663(b)-2 Election. (a) Manner and time of election; irrevocability—(1) When return is required to be filed. If a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.466-2 - Special protective election for certain taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special protective election for certain... protective election for certain taxpayers. (a) General rule. Section 373(c) of the Revenue Act of 1978 (92... protective election and the section 466(d) election. First, the protective election applies only to a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.43-6 - Election out of section 43.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to which the election (or revocation) applies. For any taxable year, the last election (or revocation... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election out of section 43. 1.43-6 Section 1.43... Credits Against Tax § 1.43-6 Election out of section 43. (a) Election to have the credit not apply—(1)...

  5. 26 CFR 1.43-6 - Election out of section 43.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to which the election (or revocation) applies. For any taxable year, the last election (or revocation... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election out of section 43. 1.43-6 Section 1.43... Credits Against Tax § 1.43-6 Election out of section 43. (a) Election to have the credit not apply—(1)...

  6. 26 CFR 1.466-2 - Special protective election for certain taxpayers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special protective election for certain... Special protective election for certain taxpayers. (a) General rule. Section 373(c) of the Revenue Act of... this protective election and the section 466(d) election. First, the protective election applies...

  7. 26 CFR 12.8 - Elections with respect to net leases of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the making of an election. (e) Election by members of partnership... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elections with respect to net leases of real... Elections with respect to net leases of real property. (a) In general. The elections described in...

  8. Public Health and International Drug Policy

    PubMed Central

    Csete, Joanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kazatchkine, Michel; Altice, Frederick; Balicki, Marek; Buxton, Julia; Cepeda, Javier; Comfort, Megan; Goosby, Eric; Goulão, João; Hart, Carl; Horton, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lajous, Alejandro Madrazo; Lewis, Stephen; Martin, Natasha; Mejía, Daniel; Mathiesson, David; Obot, Isidore; Ogunrombi, Adeolu; Sherman, Susan; Stone, Jack; Vallath, Nandini; Vickerman, Peter; Zábranský, Tomáš; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Executive summary In September 2015, the member states of the United Nations endorsed sustainable development goals (SDG) for 2030 that aspire to human rights-centered approaches to ensuring the health and well-being of all people. The SDGs embody both the UN Charter values of rights and justice for all and the responsibility of states to rely on the best scientific evidence as they seek to better humankind. In April 2016, these same states will consider control of illicit drugs, an area of social policy that has been fraught with controversy, seen as inconsistent with human rights norms, and for which scientific evidence and public health approaches have arguably played too limited a role. The previous UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on drugs in 1998 – convened under the theme “a drug-free world, we can do it!” – endorsed drug control policies based on the goal of prohibiting all use, possession, production, and trafficking of illicit drugs. This goal is enshrined in national law in many countries. In pronouncing drugs a “grave threat to the health and well-being of all mankind,” the 1998 UNGASS echoed the foundational 1961 convention of the international drug control regime, which justified eliminating the “evil” of drugs in the name of “the health and welfare of mankind.” But neither of these international agreements refers to the ways in which pursuing drug prohibition itself might affect public health. The “war on drugs” and “zero-tolerance” policies that grew out of the prohibitionist consensus are now being challenged on multiple fronts, including their health, human rights, and development impact. The Johns Hopkins – Lancet Commission on Drug Policy and Health has sought to examine the emerging scientific evidence on public health issues arising from drug control policy and to inform and encourage a central focus on public health evidence and outcomes in drug policy debates, such as the important deliberations of

  9. Internal marketing: creating quality employee experiences in health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Oetjen, Dawn; Rotarius, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    To cope with the recent challenges within the health care industry, health care managers need to engage in the internal marketing of their various services. Internal marketing has been used as an effective management tool to increase employees' motivation, satisfaction, and productivity (J Mark Commun. 2010;16(5):325-344). Health care managers should understand that an intense focus on internal marketing factors will lead to a quality experience for employees that will ultimately have a positive effect on the patient experiences.

  10. International adoption families: a unique health care journey.

    PubMed

    Smit, Eileen M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the health care experiences of families with an internationally adopted child. Content analysis of data from 107 adoptive parents was used to identify themes that characterized health care experiences of the families. Four themes were identified: a) Coming home: Like a lobster thrown into a boiling pot; b) Vigilance: Is my child healthy today? Will my child be healthy tomorrow?; c) Unique health care needs of international adoption families: We are different; and d) Importance of support by health care providers: Do they know or care? Health care providers need to be aware of the unique experiences of the increasing number of international adoption families. The themes identified provide insight into the health care experiences of international adoption families and the crucial role of health care providers in helping international adoption families feel supported on their journey.

  11. A Qualitative Study of Health Care Experiences Among International Students.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Anna; Kitsos, Jewel; Miller, Andrea; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the health care experiences of international students at a college in Indiana. The study answered the following research question: What are the lived experiences of international students while seeking health care? This research question was identified after a literature review, which showed a lack of research regarding international students' health care experiences. The data in this study were collected through in-depth interviews with 5 participants who resided at the college. After the interviews, the identification of themes and the analysis of results revealed the international students' lived experiences and perceptions of health care in the United States.

  12. Career choices and global health engagement: 24-year follow-up of U.S. participants in the Indiana University-Moi University elective.

    PubMed

    Umoren, Rachel A; Gardner, Adrian; Stone, Geren S; Helphinstine, Jill; Machogu, Emily P; Huskins, Jordan C; Johnson, Cynthia S; Ayuo, Paul O; Mining, Simeon; Litzelman, Debra K

    2015-12-01

    Global health experiences evoke a profound awareness of cultural differences, inspire learners to prioritize professional values, and provide a lens for addressing global health care challenges. This study compares the long-term career and practice choices of participants in a 2-month Indiana University-Moi University, Kenya elective from 1989-2013 with those of a control group. Global health elective (GHE) participants and a random sample of alumni without GHE experience were surveyed on their clinical practice, public health and global health activities. Responses from 176 former participants were compared with a control group of 177 alumni. GHE participants were more likely than similar controls to provide care to underserved U.S. populations (p=0.037), spend time in global health, public health, and public policy activities (p=0.005) and be involved in global health advocacy (p=0.001). Using multivariable analysis, GHE participants were more likely to be generalists (p<0.05), report that healthcare costs influenced medical decision-making (p<0.05), and provide healthcare outside the U.S. for ≥1 week/year (p<0.001). Many years out of training, GHE participants were more likely to be generalists working with underserved populations, to be cost-conscious in their healthcare decision-making, and to be involved in global health, public health or public policy. With the primary care provider shortage and need for greater awareness among providers of healthcare costs, our study shows that that global health experiences may yield broader benefits to the U.S. medical system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The human genome project and international health

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.D.; Cook-Deegan, R.M. )

    1990-06-27

    The human genome project is designed to provide common resources for the study of human genetics, and to assist biomedical researchers in their assault on disease. The main benefit will be to provide several kinds of maps of the human genome, and those of other organisms, to permit rapid isolation of genes for further study about DNA structure and function. This article describes genome research programs in developed and developing countries, and the international efforts that have contributed to genome research programs. For example, the large-scale collaborations to study Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis involve collaborators from many nations and families spread throughout the world. In the USA, the US Department of Energy was first to start a dedicated genome research program in 1987. Since then, another major government program has begun at the National Center for Human Genome Research of the National Institutes of Health. Italy, China, Australia, France, Canada, and Japan have genome research programs also.

  14. Profile of internal auditors in health care.

    PubMed

    Kusel, J; Oxner, T H

    1992-04-01

    The internal auditor is an important management resource for maintaining control over operations. As the importance of healthcare cost management grows, so does the potential contribution of the internal auditor. A recent study examines what internal auditors do, what backgrounds they have, what salaries they receive, and what their career attitudes are.

  15. International Perspectives on Health Education and Training for Allied Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Alonso, Cristina; Zafra-Mezcua, Juan A.; Botella-Rodriguez, Manuel; Novalbos-Ruiz, Jose P.

    1998-01-01

    Improvement of health care will require international cooperation. This will necessitate reorientation in training, teamwork, and democratization of the health system, based on patients' real needs. (SK)

  16. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…

  17. Health Care for the International Student: Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, June C., Ed.; And Others

    This handbook consists of 24 papers addressing various aspects on health care and health care systems and services for foreign students from the Asia Pacific Region. The papers are: "Providing Health Care for International Students" (Donald F. B. Char); "Major Health Care Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong…

  18. International Inequalities: Algebraic Investigations into Health and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Robertson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Project is an international effort to improve the health, economic status, and environmental resources of the world's most vulnerable people. Using data associated with the Millennium Project, students use algebra to explore international development issues including poverty reduction and the relationship between health and economy.…

  19. Validity of International Health Regulations in reporting emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Michael; Heymann, David L; Giesecke, Johan; Weinberg, Julius

    2012-07-01

    Understanding which emerging infectious diseases are of international public health concern is vital. The International Health Regulations include a decision instrument to help countries determine which public health events are of international concern and require reporting to the World Health Organization (WHO) on the basis of seriousness, unusualness, international spread and trade, or need for travel restrictions. This study examined the validity of the International Health Regulations decision instrument in reporting emerging infectious disease to WHO by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. It found a sensitivity of 95.6%, a specificity of 38%, and a positive predictive value of 35.5%. These findings are acceptable if the notification volume to WHO remains low. Validity could be improved by setting more prescriptive criteria of seriousness and unusualness and training persons responsible for notification. However, the criteria should be balanced with the need for the instrument to adapt to future unknown threats.

  20. International school children's health needs: school nurses' views in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2012-04-01

    Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in international schools in Sweden, Germany, and Switzerland. Through qualitative semistructured interviews, the school nurses described that the international school children expressed common health needs similar to the ones faced by children in other school settings. However, children in the international schools expressed additional context-specific health needs related to their transient lifestyle, such as language and cultural difficulties, emotional distress, vulnerability, homesickness, alienation, and increased physical health needs related to their expatriate lifestyle. These factors often present a challenge for the school nurse whose profession is to interpret the child's health needs, which may be obscured by cultural diversity.

  1. What Is Elective Surgery? (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... electively," they can be significant and potentially life-changing operations. Another category is an urgent procedure . This ...

  2. The development of international health policies--accountability intact?

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I

    2000-09-01

    International health governance as it exists today is facing major structural challenges in view of globalization, the increased transfer of international health risks and the mounting challenge of health inequalities worldwide. As a consequence the capacity of nation states to ensure population health and to address major health determinants has been weakened. This paper explores health as an exemplary field to illustrate that we have entered a new era of public policy which is defined by increasing overlaps between domestic and foreign policy, multilateral and bilateral strategies and national and international interest. Cross border spill overs and externalities of national actions need to move into the core of public policy at the national and global level within a new rules based system. A new perspective on global health governance is further necessitated through the increased number of players in the global health arena. The organizational form that is emerging is based on networks and is characterized by shifting alliances and blurred lines of responsibility. The paper explores the emerging paradox of state sovereignty and makes a set of proposals to pool state sovereignty on health and structure the myriad of networks. Particular attention is given to the role of the World Health Organization within this process of change and adjustment. In using a framework from international relations analysis the paper explores how nation states are socialized into accepting new norms, values and perceptions of interest with regard to national and international health and what challenges emerge for the WHO in "inventing" global health policy.

  3. Navigating uncharted waters? How international experience can inform the funding of mental health care in England.

    PubMed

    Mason, Anne; Goddard, Maria; Myers, Lindsey; Verzulli, Rossella

    2011-06-01

    Activity-based funding mechanisms are widely used in acute care. In England, payment by results is being extended to mental health care, but its financial viability is unclear. To identify international examples of activity-based funding systems for mental health care and to inform the development of a national tariff in England. The international literature on payment systems for mental healthcare services was reviewed. Payment systems were appraised from an economic perspective. Variations in cost between English mental healthcare providers were explored using routine inpatient data on length of stay in 2007/8. The review identified activity-based mental healthcare payment systems in five countries. International experience highlights the need for gradual and stepwise implementation; the use of budget neutrality adjustments; top-slicing of budgets to stabilise provider income; and use of the classification system to drive improvements in quality and cost-effectiveness. All systems adjusted for length of stay, but methods varied. Comparing English mental healthcare providers, median length of stay ranged from 2 to 42 days for emergency admissions and from 0 to 56 days for elective admissions. New payment systems must account for the economic incentives they embody, and appropriate adjustments for variations in length of stay are essential.

  4. 26 CFR 301.9100-12T - Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of 1976.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of... Internal Revenue Laws § 301.9100-12T Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of 1976. (a) Elections... 1976, to which this section applies and under which an election or notification may be made pursuant...

  5. History of the international societies in health technology assessment: International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care and Health Technology Assessment International.

    PubMed

    Banta, David; Jonsson, Egon; Childs, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The International Society for Technology Assessment in Health Care (ISTAHC) was formed in 1985. It grew out of the increasing awareness of the international dimensions of health technology assessment (HTA) and the need for new communication methods at the international level. The main function of ISTAHC was to present an annual conference, which gradually grew in size, and also to generally improve in quality from to year. ISTAHC overextended itself financially early in the first decade of the 2000s and had to cease its existence. A new society, Health Technology Assessment international (HTAi), based on many of the same ideas and people, grew up beginning in the year 2003. The two societies have played a large role in making the field of HTA visible to people around the world and providing a forum for discussion on the methods and role of HTA.

  6. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  7. 5 CFR 2422.16 - Election agreements or directed elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election agreements or directed elections... Election agreements or directed elections. (a) Election agreements. Parties are encouraged to enter into election agreements. (b) Regional Director directed election. If the parties are unable to agree...

  8. Childhood Diabesity: International Applications for Health Education and Health Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…

  9. International obligations through collective rights: Moving from foreign health assistance to global health governance.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Fox, Ashley M

    2010-06-15

    This article analyzes the growing chasm between international power and state responsibility in health rights, proposing an international legal framework for collective rights - rights that can reform international institutions and empower developing states to realize the determinants of health structured by global forces. With longstanding recognition that many developing state governments cannot realize the health of their peoples without international cooperation, scholars have increasingly sought to codify international obligations under the purview of an evolving human right to health, applying this rights-based approach as a foundational framework for reducing global health inequalities through foreign assistance. Yet the inherent limitations of the individual human rights framework stymie the right to health in impacting the global institutions that are most crucial for realizing underlying determinants of health through the strengthening of primary health care systems. Whereas the right to health has been advanced as an individual right to be realized by a state duty-bearer, the authors find that this limited, atomized right has proven insufficient to create accountability for international obligations in global health policy, enabling the deterioration of primary health care systems that lack the ability to address an expanding set of public health claims. For rights scholars to advance disease protection and health promotion through national primary health care systems - creating the international legal obligations necessary to spur development supportive of the public's health - the authors conclude that scholars must look beyond the individual right to health to create collective international legal obligations commensurate with a public health-centered approach to primary health care. Through the development and implementation of these collective health rights, states can address interconnected determinants of health within and across countries

  10. 26 CFR 1.1362-6 - Elections and consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Elections and consents. 1.1362-6 Section 1.1362... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-6 Elections and consents. (a) Time and manner of making elections—(1) In general. An election statement made...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1362-6 - Elections and consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Elections and consents. 1.1362-6 Section 1.1362... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-6 Elections and consents. (a) Time and manner of making elections—(1) In general. An election statement made...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1362-6 - Elections and consents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections and consents. 1.1362-6 Section 1.1362... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-6 Elections and consents. (a) Time and manner of making elections—(1) In general. An election statement made...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1361-3 - QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true QSub election. 1.1361-3 Section 1.1361-3...) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-3 QSub election. (a) Time and manner of making election—(1) In general. The corporation for which the QSub election is made must...

  14. 26 CFR 1.168A-2 - Election of amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of amortization. 1.168A-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-2 Election of amortization. (a) General rule. An election by the taxpayer to take amortization deductions...

  15. 26 CFR 1.243-5 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.243-5 Section 1.243-5...) INCOME TAXES Special Deductions for Corporations § 1.243-5 Effect of election. (a) General—(1) Corporations subject to restrictions and limitations. If an election by an affiliated group under section...

  16. 26 CFR 1.616-2 - Election to defer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election to defer. 1.616-2 Section 1.616-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.616-2 Election to defer. (a) General rule. In lieu of... natural deposit. However, in the case of such expenditures made in the development stage, this election...

  17. 26 CFR 1.9003-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9003-2 Section 1.9003-2...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9003-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If a taxpayer... making cement. (b) Effect on gross income from mining. The election is only determinative of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2... Effect of election. (a) Regulated investment company. A regulated investment company making a valid... investment company, which has made the election under section 853, is, in effect, placed in the same...

  19. 26 CFR 1.47-4 - Electing small business corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporation. 1.47-4... business corporation. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of corporation. If an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small business...

  20. 26 CFR 1.47-4 - Electing small business corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporation. 1.47-4... business corporation. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of corporation. If an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small business...

  1. International child health: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Torjesen, Kristine; Olness, Karen

    2009-09-01

    Many published articles and policies describe what should be state of the art in global child health, and there are dozens of large initiatives aimed at implementing these policies. We have knowledge of what should work, yet struggle to effectively implement that knowledge and improve child health outcomes in resource-poor settings, even at the most basic level of ensuring sufficient food and clean water for the world's children. This article highlights many smaller programs that are operational in the field, demonstrating excellence in global child health efforts, and may approach state of the art in actual implementation. The examples include a grass roots primary health care program, a home-based neonatal care program, kangaroo mother care, ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), a vitamin A program, point-of-use water purification, disasters and children, a pain management program, and a developmental disabilities program. This article also discusses the importance of strengthening human resources for health by, for example, training child health professionals in low resource countries. These programs show what can be done and could be replicated in other communities to improve child health, given a few committed individuals and modest resources. Ultimately, truly state of the art health care for children must be defined locally and championed by each state or nation. Nevertheless, there are overarching components and supports that are the responsibility of the global community, particularly those needed to assure that the basic human rights of children, including health, are met throughout the world.

  2. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election.

    PubMed

    Eun, Sang Jun; Lee, Jin Yong; Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in). In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54) and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25) were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative) party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending did not directly

  3. International trends in health science librarianship part 20: Russia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jeannette; Jargin, Serge

    2017-03-01

    This is the last in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is Russia. The next feature column will initiate a new series entitled New Directions in Health Science Librarianship. The first contribution will be from Australia. JM. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  4. [The modern international public health and globalization challenges].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the issues of impact of globalization on population health and public health. The positive and negative aspects of this process are analyzed. The role of international organizations (UN, WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNISEF) is demonstrated in the area of management of globalization impact on public health of different countries, Russia included.

  5. Influenza Virus Samples, International Law, and Global Health Diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia’s decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia’s use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia’s actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy. PMID:18258086

  6. Influenza virus samples, international law, and global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Fidler, David P

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) from the World Health Organization for much of 2007 caused a crisis in global health. The World Health Assembly produced a resolution to try to address the crisis at its May 2007 meeting. I examine how the parties to this controversy used international law in framing and negotiating the dispute. Specifically, I analyze Indonesia's use of the international legal principle of sovereignty and its appeal to rules on the protection of biological and genetic resources found in the Convention on Biological Diversity. In addition, I consider how the International Health Regulations 2005 applied to the controversy. The incident involving Indonesia's actions with virus samples illustrates both the importance and the limitations of international law in global health diplomacy.

  7. Glucose-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by metal vapour synthesis are electively internalized in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line expressing GLUT1 transporter.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Daniele; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Gandin, Valentina; Evangelisti, Claudio; Vitulli, Giovanni; Schiavi, Eleonora; Marzano, Cristina; Ferretti, Anna M; Salvadori, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) can have a variety of biomedical applications due to their visualization properties through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and heating with radio frequency or alternating magnetic fields. In the oncological field, coating IONP with organic compounds to provide specific features and to achieve the ability of binding specific molecular targets appears to be very promising. To take advantage of the high avidity of tumor cells for glucose, we report the development of very small glucose-coated IONP (glc-IONP) by employing an innovative technique, Metal Vapor Synthesis (MVS). Moreover, we tested the internalization of our gl-IONP on a tumor line, BxPC3, over-expressing GLUT 1 transporter. Both glc-IONP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-IONP (PVP-IONP), as control, were prepared with MVS and were tested on BxPC3 at various concentrations. To evaluate the role of GLUT-1 transporter, we also investigated the effect of adding a polyclonal anti-GLUT1 antibody. After proper treatment, the iron value was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer, reported in mcg/L and expressed in mg of protein. Our IONP prepared with MVS were very small and homogeneously distributed in a narrow range (1.75-3.75 nm) with an average size of 2.7 nm and were super-paramagnetic. Glc-IONP were internalized by BxPC3 cells in a larger amount than PVP-IONP. After 6h of treatment with 50 mcg/mL of IONPs, the content of Fe was 1.5 times higher in glc-IONP-treated cells compared with PVP-IONP-treated cells. After 1h pre-treatment with anti-GLUT1, a reduction of 41% cellular accumulation of glc-IONP was observed. Conversely, the uptake of PVP-IONPs was reduced only by 14% with antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, MVS allowed us to prepare small, homogeneous, super-paramagnetic glc-IONP, which are electively internalized by a tumor line over-expressing GLUT1. Our glc-IONP appear to have many requisites for in vivo use.

  8. Glucose-Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Metal Vapour Synthesis Are Electively Internalized in a Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Expressing GLUT1 Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Claudio; Vitulli, Giovanni; Schiavi, Eleonora; Marzano, Cristina; Ferretti, Anna M.; Salvadori, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) can have a variety of biomedical applications due to their visualization properties through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and heating with radio frequency or alternating magnetic fields. In the oncological field, coating IONP with organic compounds to provide specific features and to achieve the ability of binding specific molecular targets appears to be very promising. To take advantage of the high avidity of tumor cells for glucose, we report the development of very small glucose-coated IONP (glc-IONP) by employing an innovative technique, Metal Vapor Synthesis (MVS). Moreover, we tested the internalization of our gl-IONP on a tumor line, BxPC3, over-expressing GLUT 1 transporter. Both glc-IONP and polyvinylpyrrolidone-IONP (PVP-IONP), as control, were prepared with MVS and were tested on BxPC3 at various concentrations. To evaluate the role of GLUT-1 transporter, we also investigated the effect of adding a polyclonal anti-GLUT1 antibody. After proper treatment, the iron value was assessed by atomic absorption spectrometer, reported in mcg/L and expressed in mg of protein. Our IONP prepared with MVS were very small and homogeneously distributed in a narrow range (1.75-3.75 nm) with an average size of 2.7 nm and were super-paramagnetic. Glc-IONP were internalized by BxPC3 cells in a larger amount than PVP-IONP. After 6h of treatment with 50 mcg/mL of IONPs, the content of Fe was 1.5 times higher in glc-IONP-treated cells compared with PVP-IONP-treated cells. After 1h pre-treatment with anti-GLUT1, a reduction of 41% cellular accumulation of glc-IONP was observed. Conversely, the uptake of PVP-IONPs was reduced only by 14% with antibody pretreatment. In conclusion, MVS allowed us to prepare small, homogeneous, super-paramagnetic glc-IONP, which are electively internalized by a tumor line over-expressing GLUT1. Our glc-IONP appear to have many requisites for in vivo use. PMID:25874906

  9. International Women and Health Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's International and Communication Service, Carouge (Switzerland).

    Information on women and health from around the world is provided in this guide. So far, no country has formal mechanisms through which women themselves can create the policies and practices so critical to their own health and that of their families. A major purpose of the guide is to assist the many women's initiatives attempting to change this…

  10. International Women and Health Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's International and Communication Service, Carouge (Switzerland).

    Information on women and health from around the world is provided in this guide. So far, no country has formal mechanisms through which women themselves can create the policies and practices so critical to their own health and that of their families. A major purpose of the guide is to assist the many women's initiatives attempting to change this…

  11. Opportunities in the international health services arena.

    PubMed

    McLean, R A

    1997-08-01

    Fundamental changes in domestic healthcare delivery in the '90s have prompted many U.S. healthcare organizations to consider entering international markets. Opportunities available to U.S. organizations include investing in foreign organizations, controlling foreign facilities, and obtaining referrals from extraterritorial or cooperating foreign providers. Before entering into these arrangements, however, organizations must consider the benefits, risks, and constraints they may face, specifically with regard to reimbursement and cash flow, currency risk, regulation, and political risk. To succeed in international service delivery ventures, organizations also may need to make adjustments in the training of healthcare financial managers who will face the international marketplace. Being sensitive to the culture of the countries with which they will be dealing is just as important as knowing the currency and financial regulations.

  12. A psychodynamic perspective on elections.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-11-01

    In a democracy, elections are the way in which the collective thought processes of the voters arrive at a decision to direct their government. The author explores how the individual voter assesses and resolves many conflicting internal and external forces to arrive at a vote. The midterm elections of 2010 illustrate the parallel between individual resolution of conflicting forces and the process of a campaign leading to the outcome of an election. The psychodynamic concepts of conflict and compromise, affects, aggression, unconscious forces, mechanisms of defense, superego, and the ego's integrative functions are evident in both the individual voter and the collective electoral process. The author expresses concern about the historical vulnerability of democracies and the unbalancing effect of allowing limitless infusion of anonymous corporate money to pour into campaigns.

  13. AGU election FAQs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Many of you are aware that this is an election year, and I don't mean electing the next president of the United States! This is AGU's election year, and the polls are opening soon. Your vote matters. Eligible voters should vote, and now is the time to learn about the candidates. There are no TV ads, and the candidates won't be covered in the news. However, electing AGU leaders for the next term affects the future direction of the Union. Please take a few minutes to visit the election Web site (http://sites.agu.org/elections/) and review the candidate bios.

  14. The globalization of public health: the first 100 years of international health diplomacy.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Global threats to public health in the 19th century sparked the development of international health diplomacy. Many international regimes on public health issues were created between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. The present article analyses the global risks in this field and the international legal responses to them between 1851 and 1951, and explores the lessons from the first century of international health diplomacy of relevance to contemporary efforts to deal with the globalization of public health. PMID:11584732

  15. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Deferral elections. 1.409A-2 Section 1.409A-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-2 Deferral elections. (a) Initial elections as to the time...

  16. 26 CFR 1.409A-2 - Deferral elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deferral elections. 1.409A-2 Section 1.409A-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409A-2 Deferral elections. (a) Initial elections as to the time...

  17. Exploring International Perspectives in Hearing Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Dolores E. Battle, a professor of speech-language pathology and senior advisor to the president for equity and campus diversity at Buffalo State College. She is a former president of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (in 2005) and a very active member of international organizations of both…

  18. Exploring International Perspectives in Hearing Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Dolores E. Battle, a professor of speech-language pathology and senior advisor to the president for equity and campus diversity at Buffalo State College. She is a former president of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (in 2005) and a very active member of international organizations of both…

  19. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  20. Exploring the international arena of global public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Threats posed by new, emerging or re-emerging communicable diseases are taking a global dimension, to which the World Health Organization (WHO) Secretariat has been responding with determination since 1995. Key to the global strategy for tackling epidemics across borders is the concept of global public health surveillance, which has been expanded and formalized by WHO and its technical partners through a number of recently developed instruments and initiatives. The adoption by the 58th World Health Assembly of the revised (2005) International Health Regulations provides the legal framework for mandating countries to link and coordinate their action through a universal network of surveillance networks. While novel environmental threats and outbreak-prone diseases have been increasingly identified during the past three decades, new processes of influence have appeared more recently, driven by the real or perceived threats of bio-terrorism and disruption of the global economy. Accordingly, the global surveillance agenda is being endorsed, and to some extent seized upon by new actors representing security and economic interests. This paper explores external factors influencing political commitment to comply with international health regulations and it illustrates adverse effects generated by: perceived threats to sovereignty, blurred international health agendas, lack of internationally recognized codes of conduct for outbreak investigations, and erosion of the impartiality and independence of international agencies. A companion paper (published in this issue) addresses the intrinsic difficulties that health systems of low-income countries are facing when submitted to the ever-increasing pressure to upgrade their public health surveillance capacity.

  1. Guidelines for Analysis of Health Manpower Planning. Volume 3: Health Manpower Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Robert J.; Porter, Dennis R.

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this third of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with health manpower planning and assessment. It provides a conceptual and…

  2. Guidelines for Analysis of Environmental Health Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Environmental Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this second of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with assessment, planning, and evaluation in the field of environmental health.…

  3. Guidelines for Analysis of Environmental Health Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Environmental Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this second of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with assessment, planning, and evaluation in the field of environmental health.…

  4. 26 CFR 20.2056A-3 - QDOT election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true QDOT election. 20.2056A-3 Section 20.2056A-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-3 QDOT election...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2056A-3 - QDOT election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false QDOT election. 20.2056A-3 Section 20.2056A-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-3 QDOT election...

  6. 26 CFR 20.2056A-3 - QDOT election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false QDOT election. 20.2056A-3 Section 20.2056A-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable Estate § 20.2056A-3 QDOT election...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1361-4 - Effect of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of QSub election. 1.1361-4 Section 1.1361-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-4 Effect of QSub election. (a) Separate existence...

  8. 26 CFR 1.853-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.853-2 Section 1.853-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.853-2 Effect of election. (a) Regulated investment...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manner of election. 1.1071-4 Section 1.1071-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-4 Manner of election. (a) An...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manner of election. 1.1071-4 Section 1.1071-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-4 Manner of election. (a) An...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1071-4 - Manner of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manner of election. 1.1071-4 Section 1.1071-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Changes to Effectuate F.c.c. Policy § 1.1071-4 Manner of election. (a) An...

  12. [Laws relevant to international missions of health cooperation].

    PubMed

    Scaroni, E; Riccardo, F; De Rosa, A G; Russo, G; Pacini, A; Nardi, L; Pacifici, L E

    2007-01-01

    Both medical doctors and humanitarian operators engaged in health relief or development missions abroad, are called to respect the general principles of international law, that is to say, customary law that is legally compulsory for the International Community and rules deriving from Treaties and International Conventions. Humanitarian operators have to observe also the rules and regulations of the hosting country. They have to respect all rules applying to their humanitarian action and they have to take responsibility towards beneficiaries and donors alike.

  13. International School Children's Health Needs: School Nurses' Views in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlov, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in…

  14. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  15. International Terrorism and Mental Health: Recent Research and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and…

  16. International School Children's Health Needs: School Nurses' Views in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Annika; Clausson, Eva; Janlov, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Rapid globalization and the integration of national economies have contributed to the sharp rise in enrollment in international schools. How does this global nomadism affect international school children and their individual health needs? This study attempts to find an answer by interviewing 10 school nurses, with varying degrees of experience in…

  17. Election Behavior and Union Representation Elections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David

    1980-01-01

    Examines the National Labor Relations Board's policy on intervention in union representation elections prior to the "Shopping Kart" decision and as a result of the "General Knit" decision. The effect of a research study on the board's decision on when to intervene in elections is also discussed. (IRT)

  18. Health perspectives: international epidemiology of ageing.

    PubMed

    Ward, Stephanie Alison; Parikh, Seema; Workman, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Populations globally are ageing, in part due to dramatic increases in life expectancies, forcing a reconsideration of what constitutes being "elderly" and "old." The proportion of older adults living with disability may be decreasing, yet older individuals are living with a significant burden of chronic disease, geriatric impairments in cognition, vision and hearing and reduced physiological reserve (frailty). Caring for a growing number of medically complex individuals has implications for medical workforce size and composition, health programmes and expenditure. Future responses to an ageing population will require further innovation in health-care delivery models, and increasing representation of older adults in clinical trials. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 42 CFR 403.724 - Valid election requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valid election requirements. 403.724 Section 403..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.724 Valid election requirements. (a) General requirements. An election statement must be made by the Medicare beneficiary or his or her legal representative. (1)...

  20. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital may elect...

  1. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change...

  2. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change...

  3. 5 CFR 891.202 - Change of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Change of election. 891.202 Section 891.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Election and Change of Election § 891.202 Change of...

  4. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital may elect...

  5. Weekend admission to hospital has a higher risk of death in the elective setting than in the emergency setting: a retrospective database study of national health service hospitals in England.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Sidhu, Khesh S; Rudge, Gavin; Stevens, Andrew J

    2012-04-02

    Although acute hospitals offer a twenty-four hour seven day a week service levels of staffing are lower over the weekends and some health care processes may be less readily available over the weekend. Whilst it is thought that emergency admission to hospital on the weekend is associated with an increased risk of death, the extent to which this applies to elective admissions is less well known. We investigated the risk of death in elective and elective patients admitted over the weekend versus the weekdays. Retrospective statistical analysis of routinely collected acute hospital admissions in England, involving all patient discharges from all acute hospitals in England over a year (April 2008-March 2009), using a logistic regression model which adjusted for a range of patient case-mix variables, seasonality and admission over a weekend separately for elective and emergency (but excluding zero day stay emergency admissions discharged alive) admissions. Of the 1,535,267 elective admissions, 91.7% (1,407,705) were admitted on the weekday and 8.3% (127,562) were admitted on the weekend. The mortality following weekday admission was 0.52% (7,276/1,407,705) compared with 0.77% (986/127,562) following weekend admission. Of the 3,105,249 emergency admissions, 76.3% (2,369,316) were admitted on the weekday and 23.7% (735,933) were admitted on the weekend. The mortality following emergency weekday admission was 6.53% (154,761/2,369,316) compared to 7.06% (51,922/735,933) following weekend admission. After case-mix adjustment, weekend admissions were associated with an increased risk of death, especially in the elective setting (elective Odds Ratio: 1.32, 95% Confidence Interval 1.23 to 1.41); vs emergency Odds Ratio: 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval 1.05 to 1.13). Weekend admission appears to be an independent risk factor for dying in hospital and this risk is more pronounced in the elective setting. Given the planned nature of elective admissions, as opposed to the unplanned

  6. Weekend admission to hospital has a higher risk of death in the elective setting than in the emergency setting: a retrospective database study of national health service hospitals in England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although acute hospitals offer a twenty-four hour seven day a week service levels of staffing are lower over the weekends and some health care processes may be less readily available over the weekend. Whilst it is thought that emergency admission to hospital on the weekend is associated with an increased risk of death, the extent to which this applies to elective admissions is less well known. We investigated the risk of death in elective and elective patients admitted over the weekend versus the weekdays. Methods Retrospective statistical analysis of routinely collected acute hospital admissions in England, involving all patient discharges from all acute hospitals in England over a year (April 2008-March 2009), using a logistic regression model which adjusted for a range of patient case-mix variables, seasonality and admission over a weekend separately for elective and emergency (but excluding zero day stay emergency admissions discharged alive) admissions. Results Of the 1,535,267 elective admissions, 91.7% (1,407,705) were admitted on the weekday and 8.3% (127,562) were admitted on the weekend. The mortality following weekday admission was 0.52% (7,276/1,407,705) compared with 0.77% (986/127,562) following weekend admission. Of the 3,105,249 emergency admissions, 76.3% (2,369,316) were admitted on the weekday and 23.7% (735,933) were admitted on the weekend. The mortality following emergency weekday admission was 6.53% (154,761/2,369,316) compared to 7.06% (51,922/735,933) following weekend admission. After case-mix adjustment, weekend admissions were associated with an increased risk of death, especially in the elective setting (elective Odds Ratio: 1.32, 95% Confidence Interval 1.23 to 1.41); vs emergency Odds Ratio: 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval 1.05 to 1.13). Conclusions Weekend admission appears to be an independent risk factor for dying in hospital and this risk is more pronounced in the elective setting. Given the planned nature of elective

  7. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel; Waris, Attiya; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Whiteside, Alan

    2014-05-21

    It has been argued that the international community is moving 'beyond aid'. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes 'universal health coverage' as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If international co-financing of global public goods is replacing foreign aid, is universal health coverage a hopeless endeavor? Or would universal health coverage somehow serve the international collective interest?Using the Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposal to finance universal health coverage as a test case, we examined the hypothesis that national social policies face the threat of a 'race to the bottom' due to global economic integration and that this threat could be mitigated through international social protection policies that include international cross-subsidies - a kind of 'equalization' at the international level.The evidence for the race to the bottom theory is inconclusive. We seem to be witnessing a 'convergence to the middle'. However, the 'middle' where 'convergence' of national social policies is likely to occur may not be high enough to keep income inequality in check.The implementation of the international equalization scheme proposed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network would allow to ensure universal health coverage at a cost of US$55 in low income countries-the minimum cost estimated by the World Health Organization. The domestic efforts expected from low and middle countries are far more substantial than the international co-financing efforts expected from high income countries. This would contribute to 'convergence' of national social policies at a higher level. We therefore submit that the proposed international equalization scheme

  8. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the international community is moving ‘beyond aid’. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes ‘universal health coverage’ as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If international co-financing of global public goods is replacing foreign aid, is universal health coverage a hopeless endeavor? Or would universal health coverage somehow serve the international collective interest? Using the Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposal to finance universal health coverage as a test case, we examined the hypothesis that national social policies face the threat of a ‘race to the bottom’ due to global economic integration and that this threat could be mitigated through international social protection policies that include international cross-subsidies – a kind of ‘equalization’ at the international level. The evidence for the race to the bottom theory is inconclusive. We seem to be witnessing a ‘convergence to the middle’. However, the ‘middle’ where ‘convergence’ of national social policies is likely to occur may not be high enough to keep income inequality in check. The implementation of the international equalization scheme proposed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network would allow to ensure universal health coverage at a cost of US$55 in low income countries-the minimum cost estimated by the World Health Organization. The domestic efforts expected from low and middle countries are far more substantial than the international co-financing efforts expected from high income countries. This would contribute to ‘convergence’ of national social policies at a higher level. We therefore submit that the proposed

  9. Fifth International Conference on Mobile Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Medical Education credit as follows: Physicians @ 15.5 hours, Category 1, Dentists and Dental Hygienists @ 15.5 hours, Nurses @ 16.5 hours. 5...Homeless� and �Telemedicine in the Desert.� Included were sessions on oral health, radiology/mammography, mobile medical/ dental vehicle design...records within the mobile medical environment. Evidenced based medicine sessions were offered by providers of both urban and rural medical and dental

  10. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  11. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  12. Training Internal Medicine Residents in Social Medicine and Research-Based Health Advocacy: A Novel, In-Depth Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Basu, Gaurab; Pels, Richard J; Stark, Rachel L; Jain, Priyank; Bor, David H; McCormick, Danny

    2017-04-01

    Health disparities are pervasive worldwide. Physicians have a unique vantage point from which they can observe the ways social, economic, and political factors impact health outcomes and can be effective advocates for enhanced health outcomes and health equity. However, social medicine and health advocacy curricula are uncommon in postgraduate medical education. In academic year (AY) 2012, the Cambridge Health Alliance internal medicine residency program transformed an elective into a required social medicine and research-based health advocacy curriculum. The course has three major innovations: it has a yearlong longitudinal curriculum, it is required for all residents, and all residents complete a group research-based health advocacy project within the curricular year. The authors describe the structure, content, and goals of this curriculum. Over the last four years (AYs 2012-2015), residents (17/32; 53%) have rated the overall quality of the course highly (mean = 5.2, where 6 = outstanding; standard deviation = 0.64). In each year since the new course has been implemented, all scholarly work from the course has been presented at conferences by 31 resident presenters and/or coauthors. The course seems to enhance the residency program's capacity to recruit high-caliber residents and faculty members. The authors are collecting qualitative and quantitative data on the impact of the course. They will use their findings to advocate for a national health advocacy competency framework. Recommendations about how to initiate or further develop social medicine and health advocacy curricula are offered.

  13. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    PubMed

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue.

  14. Pre- and postgraduate education in international health--secondary publication.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Norredam, Marie L; Karle, Hans; Hemmingsen, Ralf P

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about possibilities for medical students and doctors to obtain knowledge about international health. Increasing globalisation requires knowledge about international health in such a way that Danish doctors are able to diagnose and treat patients, regardless of the patient's nationality and ethnic background. Denmark has a global responsibility towards low and middle income countries to increase the standard of health. Increased knowledge and research in these countries are important both at an undergraduate and postgraduate level.

  15. Indiana Kids' Election. [Resource Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This manual guides K-12 teachers through a two-week study of the election process in Indiana culminating in a school-based election. Election procedure is followed from voter registration through election returns. Indiana law mandates the study of elections during election years; this manual was created to facilitate the process. Grade levels and…

  16. International Comparisons in Underserved Health: Issues, Policies, Needs and Projections.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Paul; Morelli, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    Health care globally has made great strides; for example, there are lower rates of infant and maternal mortality. Increased incomes have led to lower rates of diseases accompanying poverty and hunger. There has been a shift away from the infectious diseases so deadly in developing nations toward first-world conditions. This article presents health care statistics across age groups and geographic areas to help the primary care physician understand these changes. There is a special focus on underserved populations. New technologies in health and health care spending internationally are addressed, emphasizing universal health care. The article concludes with recommendations for the future.

  17. 26 CFR 13.11 - Revocation of election to report income on the installment basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Revocation of election to report income on the... Revocation of election to report income on the installment basis. (a) In general. Under section 453(c)(4... revoke their previously made election. (b) Time and manner of revoking election. The revocation by...

  18. 26 CFR 301.9100-17T - Procedure applicable to certain elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedure applicable to certain elections. 301... Revenue Laws § 301.9100-17T Procedure applicable to certain elections. (a) Elections covered by temporary... paragraph (b) of this section applies and under which an election or notification may be made pursuant...

  19. 26 CFR 15.1-2 - Revocation of election to deduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...). An election under section 617(a) may be revoked before the expiration of the last day of the third... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Revocation of election to deduct. 15.1-2 Section....1-2 Revocation of election to deduct. (a) Manner of revoking election. A taxpayer may revoke...

  20. 26 CFR 13.11 - Revocation of election to report income on the installment basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revocation of election to report income on the... Revocation of election to report income on the installment basis. (a) In general. Under section 453(c)(4... revoke their previously made election. (b) Time and manner of revoking election. The revocation by...

  1. 26 CFR 1.441-2 - Election of taxable year consisting of 52-53 weeks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election of taxable year consisting of 52-53... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.441-2 Election of taxable year consisting of 52-53 weeks. (a) In general—(1) Election. An eligible taxpayer may elect to...

  2. 26 CFR 1.9002-4 - Election to pay net increase in tax in installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election to pay net increase in tax in... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-4 Election to pay net increase in tax in installments. (a) Election. If an election is made under section...

  3. 26 CFR 15.1-2 - Revocation of election to deduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under section 617(a). An election under section 617(a) may be revoked before the expiration of the last... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revocation of election to deduct. 15.1-2... MINING § 15.1-2 Revocation of election to deduct. (a) Manner of revoking election. A taxpayer may...

  4. 26 CFR 1.9002-4 - Election to pay net increase in tax in installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election to pay net increase in tax in... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-4 Election to pay net increase in tax in installments. (a) Election. If an election is made under section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.9002-4 - Election to pay net increase in tax in installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to pay net increase in tax in... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-4 Election to pay net increase in tax in installments. (a) Election. If an election is made under section 4(a) of the Act and...

  6. 26 CFR 1.168A-3 - Election to discontinue amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to discontinue amortization. 1.168A-3...-3 Election to discontinue amortization. (a) If a taxpayer has elected to take amortization deductions with respect to an emergency facility, it may, after such election and prior to the expiration...

  7. 26 CFR 301.9100-14T - Individual's election to terminate taxable year when case commences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spouse made with the application is void. (e) Irrevocability of election. The election is irrevocable. (f....e., it does not terminate on February 28. If the husband does make an election, his first short... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual's election to terminate taxable...

  8. 26 CFR 1.182-6 - Election to deduct land clearing expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election to deduct land clearing expenditures. 1... (continued) § 1.182-6 Election to deduct land clearing expenditures. (a) Manner of making election. The election to deduct expenditures for land clearing provided by section 182(a) shall be made by means of a...

  9. 26 CFR 1.182-6 - Election to deduct land clearing expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election to deduct land clearing expenditures. 1... (continued) § 1.182-6 Election to deduct land clearing expenditures. (a) Manner of making election. The election to deduct expenditures for land clearing provided by section 182(a) shall be made by means of a...

  10. [Changes necessary for continuing health reform: II. The "internal" change].

    PubMed

    Martín Martín, J; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Carmona López, G; Martínez Olmos, J

    1990-01-01

    The article desired organizational and managerial changes in Primary Health Care, so as to develop a sound and feasible social marketing strategy. Key elements that should be changed are: 1. Rigid and centralized administrative structures and procedures. 2. Incentives system centralized and dissociated from the managerial structure. 3. Primary Health Care management units immersed in political conflict. 4. Absence of alternative in the margin. Users cannot choose. 5. Lack of an internal marketing strategy. Several ways of internal markets simulation are assessed as potential means for internal change. The need for an administration reform leading to a less inflexible system in the Spanish national and regional health services in reviewed too. Three changes are considered essential: a) Payment systems in Primary Health Care. b) Modifications in the personnel contracts. c) Reform of the budgeting processes. Specific strategies in each of these issues are suggested, making emphasizing the need of their interrelationship and coherence.

  11. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  12. Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? OECD Health Working Papers No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurn, Pascal; Dumont, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. The health workforce in New Zealand, as in all OECD countries, plays a central role in the health system. Nonetheless, maybe more than for any other OECD country, the health workforce in New…

  13. The World Health Organization and the transition from "international" to "global" public health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The term "global health" is rapidly replacing the older terminology of "international health." We describe the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in both international and global health and in the transition from one to the other. We suggest that the term "global health" emerged as part of larger political and historical processes, in which WHO found its dominant role challenged and began to reposition itself within a shifting set of power alliances. Between 1948 and 1998, WHO moved from being the unquestioned leader of international health to being an organization in crisis, facing budget shortfalls and diminished status, especially given the growing influence of new and powerful players. We argue that WHO began to refashion itself as the coordinator, strategic planner, and leader of global health initiatives as a strategy of survival in response to this transformed international political context.

  14. Teaching corner: an undergraduate medical education program comprehensively integrating global health and global health ethics as core curricula : student experiences of the medical school for international health in Israel.

    PubMed

    Teichholtz, Sara; Kreniske, Jonah Susser; Morrison, Zachary; Shack, Avraham R; Dwolatzky, Tzvi

    2015-03-01

    The Medical School for International Health (MSIH) was created in 1996 by the Faculty of Health Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in affiliation with Columbia University's Health Sciences division. It is accredited by the New York State Board of Education. Students complete the first three years of the program on the Ben-Gurion University campus in Be'er-Sheva, Israel, while fourth-year electives are completed mainly in the United States (at Columbia University Medical Center and affiliates as well as other institutions) along with a two-month global health elective at one of numerous sites located around the world (including Canada, Ethiopia, India, Israel, Kenya, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, the United States, and Vietnam). The unique four-year, American-style curriculum is designed not only to prepare physicians who will be able to work at both an individual and community level but also at both of these levels anywhere in the world. In this way, it combines elements of medical and public health curricula not limited to an American perspective.

  15. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters’ attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in). In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22–2.54) and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05–2.25) were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters’ choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative) party’s candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the “left click strategy” of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending did

  16. Inequalities, the arts and public health: Towards an international conversation

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Clive; White, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how participatory arts informed by thinking in public health can play a significant part internationally in addressing inequalities in health. It looks beyond national overviews of arts and health to consider what would make for meaningful international practice, citing recent initiatives of national networks in English-speaking countries and examples of influential developments in South America and the European Union. In the context of public health thinking on inequalities and social justice, the paper posits what would make for good practice and appropriate research that impacts on policy. As the arts and health movement gathers momentum, the paper urges the arts to describe their potency in the policy-making arena in the most compelling ways to articulate their social, economic and cultural values. In the process, it identifies the reflexive consideration of participatory practice – involving people routinely marginalised from decision-making processes – as a possible avenue into this work. PMID:25729409

  17. Global health inequalities: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Ruger, J P; Kim, H-J

    2006-11-01

    To study cross-national inequalities in mortality of adults and of children aged <5 years using a novel approach, with clustering techniques to stratify countries into mortality groups (better-off, worse-off, mid-level) and to examine risk factors associated with inequality. Analysis of data from the World Development Indicators 2003 database, compiled by the World Bank. Adult and child mortality among countries placed into distinct mortality categories by cluster analysis. 29 countries had a high adult mortality (mean 584/1000; range 460/1000 to 725/1000) and 23 had a high child mortality (mean 207/1000, range 160/1000 to 316/1000). All these countries were in western and sub-Saharan Africa and Afghanistan. Bivariate analyses showed that relative to countries with low child mortality, those with high child mortality had significantly higher rates of extreme poverty (p<0.001), populations living in rural areas (p<0.001) and female illiteracy (p<0.001), significantly lower per capita expenditure on healthcare (p<0.001), outpatient visits, hospital beds and doctors, and lower rates of access to improved water (p<0.001), sanitation (p<0.001) and immunisations. In multivariate analyses, countries with high adult mortality had a higher prevalence of HIV infection (odds ratio per 1% increase 18.6; 95% CI 0.3 to 1135.5). Between 1960 and 2000, adult male mortality in countries with high mortality increased at >4 times the rate in countries with low mortality. For child mortality, the worse-off group made slower progress in reducing <5 mortality than the better-off group. Inequalities in child and adult mortality are large, are growing, and are related to several economic, social and health sector variables. Global efforts to deal with this problem require attention to the worse-off countries, geographic concentrations, and adopt a multidimensional approach [corrected] to development.

  18. International terrorism and mental health: recent research and future directions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Ai, Amy L

    2008-03-01

    International terrorism has become a major global concern. Several studies conducted in North America and Europe in the aftermath of terrorist attacks reveal that international terrorism represents a significant short-term and long-term threat to mental health. In the present article, the authors clarify the concept and categories of terrorism and then present central findings from studies conducted in the United States and Europe, which mainly focus on negative impacts on mental health, such as emotional stress and PTSD. Furthermore, the authors outline experiments that focus on social interaction processes thought to be triggered by international terrorism and which are assumed to be related indirectly to mental health processes. Next, they highlight the potential positive outcomes on the resilience side, in line with the current theory on posttraumatic growth in adversity. Finally, theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations and future directions are discussed.

  19. Iran’s 2009 Presidential Elections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-06

    Velayet e faqih ( Guardianship of the Jurisprudent) is the principle on which the Islamic Republic is based, whereby Islamic (Shariah) law governs society...Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection...Turnout in Election,” Fars News Agency (Tehran), June 13, 2009. 23 For information on Iran’s election law and procedures, see the International

  20. Internal Regulations of the Secretariat of Health, 8 September 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    The September 8, 1988, Internal Regulations of the Secretariat of Health of Mexico govern an administrative unit which includes the General Directorate of Family Planning (FP) and the Internal Commission of the National Program of Women and Health. The General Directorate of FP formulates and proposes FP policies and strategies; designs, organizes, and supervises the FP programs of the Secretariat; regulates, directs, and evaluates FP programs of sectoral departments; promotes, coordinates, and performs FP research; formulates rules and controls the dispensing of FP services in private institutions; supports the participation of the Secretariat in the National Population Council; and coordinates, supervises, and evaluates the activities of departments of the Secretariat and the sector that provides FP services. The Internal Commission of the National Program of Women and Health promotes a quantitative and qualitative increase in activities directed at improving the specific health conditions of women, particularly those in the most disadvantaged circumstances; raises the awareness of women about the importance of their health and that of their families; promotes information and training for women as educators and helpers in the field of health; promotes the organized participation of women in community programs; encourages the personal development of women and their access to decision-making positions in health institutions; formulates a work program, defining priorities and determining activities, means, strategies, and a system of evaluation; proposes the implementation of programs and evaluates their execution; collects, analyses, and distributes information; coordinates activities with other internal commissions; promotes and proposes the coordination of activities of the National Program of Women and Health at the sectoral level; participates in the National Women's Commission and promotes the implementation of health activities within the National Program for

  1. The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings to Global Health Governance?

    PubMed Central

    Nikogosian, Haik; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Public health instruments have been under constant development and renewal for decades. International legal instruments, with their binding character and strength, have a special place in this development. The start of the 21st century saw, in particular, the birth of the first World Health Organization (WHO)-era health treaties – the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) and its first Protocol. The authors analyze the potential impact of these instruments on global health governance and public health, beyond the traditional view of their impact on tobacco control. Overall, the very fact that globally binding treaties in modern-era health were feasible has accelerated the debate and expectations for an expanded role of international legal regimes in public health. The impact of treaties has also been notable in global health architecture as the novel instruments required novel institutions to govern their implementation. The legal power of the WHO FCTC has enabled rapid adoption of further instruments to promote its implementation, thus, enhancing the international instrumentarium for health, and it has also prompted stronger role for national legislation on health. Notably, the Convention has elevated several traditionally challenging public health features to the level of international legal obligations. It has also revealed how the legal power of the international health instrument can be utilized in safeguarding the interests of health in the face of competing agendas and legal disputes at both the domestic and international levels. Lastly, the legal power of health instruments is associated with their potential impact not only on health but also beyond; the recently adopted Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products may best exemplify this matter. The first treaty experiences of the 21st century may provide important lessons for the role of legal instruments in addressing the unfolding challenges in global health. PMID:28005547

  2. Health literacy: setting an international collaborative research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Protheroe, Joanne; Wallace, Lorraine S; Rowlands, Gillian; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2009-01-01

    Background Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in both the policy and research agendas of many countries. During the recent 36th Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, the authors led an audio-taped 3-hour forum, "Studying Health Literacy: Developing an International Collaboration," where the current state of health literacy (HL) in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) was presented and attendees were encouraged to debate a future research agenda. Discussion of Forum Themes The debate centred around three distinct themes, including: (1) refining HL definitions and conceptual models, (2) HL measurement and assessment tools, and (3) developing a collaborative international research agenda. The attendees agreed that future research should be theoretically grounded and conceptual models employed in studies should be explicit to allow for international comparisons to be drawn. Summary and Authors Reflections The importance of HL research and its possible contribution to health disparities is becoming increasingly recognised internationally. International collaborations and comparative studies could illuminate some of the possible determinants of disparities, and also possibly provide a vehicle to examine other research questions of interest. PMID:19589176

  3. Health concerns and ethical considerations regarding international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    Since the advent of IVF, various arrangements for child bearing and rearing have developed. With the confluence of advanced medical technology, reproductive choice, and globalization, a market in international surrogacy has flourished. However, myriad health, social, and ethical concerns abound regarding the well-being of gestational carriers and children, the infringement of autonomy and free choice, and threats to human dignity. The present paper examines the scope, health risks, and ethical concerns of cross-border surrogacy, arguing that the risks may not exceed the benefits. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Birn, A E

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women. Images p400-a p401-a p402-a p403-a PMID:10076494

  5. Belgian health-related data in three international databases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aims of the study This study wants to examine the availability of Belgian healthcare data in the three main international health databases: the World Health Organization European Health for All Database (WHO-HFA), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Data 2009 and EUROSTAT. Methods For the indicators present in the three databases, the availability of Belgian data and the source of these data were checked. Main findings The most important problem concerning the availability of Belgian health-related data in the three major international databases is the lack of recent data. Recent data are available for 27% of the indicators of the WHO-HFA database, 73% of the OECD Health Data, and for half of the Eurostat indicators. Especially recent data about health status (including mortality-based indicators) are lacking. Discussion Only the availability of the health-related data is studied in this article. The quality of the Belgian data is however also important to examine. The main problem concerning the availability of health data is the timeliness. One of the causes of this lack of (especially mortality) data is the reform of the Belgian State. Nowadays mortality data are provided by the communities. This results in a delay in the delivery of national mortality data. However several efforts are made to catch up. PMID:22958554

  6. Use of antidepressants and association with elective termination of pregnancy: population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kieler, H; Malm, H; Artama, M; Engeland, A; Furu, K; Gissler, M; Nørgaard, M; Stephansson, O; Valdimarsdottir, U; Zoega, H; Haglund, B

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, mirtazapine, venlafaxine or other antidepressants is associated with late elective termination of pregnancy. Case-control study using data from national registers. Denmark, Finland, and Norway during the period 1996-2007. A total of 14,902 women were included as cases and 148,929 women were included as controls. Cases were women with elective termination of pregnancy at 12-23 weeks of gestation. Controls continued their pregnancy and were matched with cases on key factors. Association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and elective termination of pregnancy at 12-23 weeks of gestation for fetal anomalies, or for maternal ill health or socio-economic disadvantage. At least one prescription of antidepressants was filled by 3.7% of the cases and 2.2% of the controls. Use of any type of antidepressant was associated with elective termination of pregnancy for maternal ill health or socio-economic disadvantage (odds ratio, OR 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 2.0-2.5). Elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies was associated with the use of mirtazapine (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.5). There was no association between the use of any of the other antidepressants and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The use of any type of antidepressants was associated with elective termination of pregnancy at 12-23 weeks for maternal ill health or socio-economic disadvantage, but not with terminations for fetal anomalies. Further studies need to confirm the findings concerning mirtazapine and termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. © 2014 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Internal Motivation, Perceived Health Competency, and Health Literacy in Primary and Secondary Cancer Prevention

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui Sug; Oh, Hyung Won

    2016-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify associations of internal motivation, perceived health competency, and health literacy with primary and secondary cancer prevention. Methods: A telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 2,700, 30-69 year olds, proportionally extracted from Gangwon Province, South Korea. The dependent variables were actions in primary and secondary prevention and the explanatory variables were 13 questions in three areas: internal motivation (4 items), perceived health competency (4 items), and health literacy (5 items). Result: Multiple linear regression analysis showed that internal motivation, perceived health competency, and health literacy positively impacted primary prevention after controlling for gender and age. As internal motivation, perceived health competency, and perceived literacy increased by 1 point, primary prevention scores increased by 0.11, 0.11, and 0.07 points, respectively. In addition, logistic regression results for secondary prevention showed that health literacy had a positive impact on secondary behavior. As health literacy increased by 1 point, the odds ratio of the practice of secondary prevention was 1.4 times higher. Conclusion: This study suggests that primary and secondary prevention of cancer are significantly related to intrinsic motivation factors, perceived health competency, and actual health literacy. Health literacy concepts that cover the capacity of health management in comprehensive areas need to be applied to education and promotion for improvement of primary and secondary prevention of cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. [Child health and international cooperation: A paediatric approach].

    PubMed

    Sobrino Toro, M; Riaño Galan, I; Bassat, Q; Perez-Lescure Picarzo, J; de Aranzabal Agudo, M; Krauel Vidal, X; Rivera Cuello, M

    2015-05-01

    The international development cooperation in child health arouses special interest in paediatric settings. In the last 10 10 years or so, new evidence has been presented on factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the first years of life in the least developed countries. This greater knowledge on the causes of health problems and possible responses in the form of interventions with impact, leads to the need to disseminate this information among concerned professional pediatricians. Serious efforts are needed to get a deeper insight into matters related to global child health and encourage pediatricians to be aware and participate in these processes. This article aims to provide a social pediatric approach towards international cooperation and child health-related matters. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. 42 CFR 422.62 - Election of coverage under an MA plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Election of coverage under an MA plan. 422.62... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.62 Election of coverage under an MA plan. (a) General: Coverage election periods—(1)...

  10. 42 CFR 422.53 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing... Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.53 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents. (a) Basic eligibility requirements. To be eligible to elect an MA senior housing facility plan...

  11. 42 CFR 422.53 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing... Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.53 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents. (a) Basic eligibility requirements. To be eligible to elect an MA senior housing facility plan...

  12. 42 CFR 422.53 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing... Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.53 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for senior housing facility residents. (a) Basic eligibility requirements. To be eligible to elect an MA senior housing facility plan...

  13. The Potential of High-Dimensional Propensity Scores in Health Services Research: An Exemplary Study on the Quality of Care for Elective Percutaneous Coronary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Enders, Dirk; Ohlmeier, Christoph; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2017-01-16

    Evaluating the potential of the high-dimensional propensity score (HDPS) to control for residual confounding in studies analyzing quality of care based on administrative health insurance data. Secondary data from 2004 to 2009 from three German statutory health insurance providers. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in patients with elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) and compared the mortality risk between the in- and outpatient setting using Cox regression. Adjustment for predefined confounders was performed using conventional propensity score (PS) techniques. Further, an HDPS was calculated based on predefined and empirically selected confounders from the database. Conventional PS methods showed a decreased mortality risk for outpatient compared to inpatient PCIs, while trimming of patients with nonoverlap in the HDPS distribution and weighting resulted in a comparable risk. Most comorbidities were less prevalent in the HDPS-trimmed population compared to the original one. The HDPS methodology may reduce residual confounding by rendering the studied cohort more comparable through restriction. However, results cannot be generalized for the entire study population. To provide unbiased results, full assessment of all unmeasured confounders from proxy information in the database would be necessary. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. The World Bank and international health policy: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ugalde, A; Jackson, J T

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, the World Bank released the World Development Report: Investing in Health, its public statement of what it believes to be sound international health policy. This paper critically examines the report with regard to the applicability of its recommendations to the Third World. It looks at the World Bank and its critics, the Bank's view of development, the globalization of health policy making, and profits for multinationals. Report recommendations on privatization, decentralization, cost recovery fees, nutrition, and essential drug programs are analyzed, with the authors concluding that the World Bank's approach to health fits its ideologically-driven development model which favors Northern nations at the expense of the South. Moreover, the DALY index has major theoretical flaws and is of little value as a guide to health policy makers. The index could be used to deny essential health services to the poor in developing countries.

  15. Human rights, cultural pluralism, and international health research.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor settings. I will demonstrate the potential for addressing human rights considerations in international health research with special attention to the importance of collaborative partnerships, capacity building, and respect for cultural traditions. Strengthening professional knowledge about international research ethics increases awareness of ethical concerns associated with study design and informed consent among researchers working in resource-poor settings. But this is not enough. Technological and financial resources are also necessary to build capacity for local communities to ensure that research results are integrated into existing health systems. Problematic issues surrounding the application of ethical guidelines in resource-poor settings are embedded in social history, cultural context, and the global political economy. Resolving the moral complexities requires a commitment to engaged dialogue and action among investigators, funding agencies, policy makers, governmental institutions, and private industry.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1335-1 - Elective method; time and manner of making election and effect thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... election and effect thereof. 1.1335-1 Section 1.1335-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1335-1... not make an election with respect to each separate taxable year in which he had a recovery....

  17. 26 CFR 1.1335-1 - Elective method; time and manner of making election and effect thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... election and effect thereof. 1.1335-1 Section 1.1335-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries... taxpayer need not make an election with respect to each separate taxable year in which he had a...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1335-1 - Elective method; time and manner of making election and effect thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... election and effect thereof. 1.1335-1 Section 1.1335-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries... taxpayer need not make an election with respect to each separate taxable year in which he had a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1335-1 - Elective method; time and manner of making election and effect thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... election and effect thereof. 1.1335-1 Section 1.1335-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries... taxpayer need not make an election with respect to each separate taxable year in which he had a...

  20. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends

    PubMed Central

    HATANAKA, Takashi; EGUCHI, Narumi; DEGUCHI, Mayumi; YAZAWA, Manami; ISHII, Masami

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan’s healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan’s universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  1. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights—consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies’ guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law. PMID:28559680

  2. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-12-01

    This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing down the right to health, as evidenced by an examination of some UN human rights guidance. The right to health has important and distinctive qualities that are not provided by other rights-consequently, playing down the right to health can diminish rights-based approaches to health, as well as the right to health itself. Because general comments, the reports of UN Special Rapporteurs, and UN agencies' guidance are exercises in interpretation, I discuss methods of legal interpretation. I suggest that the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights permits distinctive interpretative methods within the boundaries established by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. I call for the right to health to be placed explicitly at the center of a rights-based approach and interpreted in accordance with public international law and international human rights law.

  3. 26 CFR 1.43-6 - Election out of section 43.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... which the election (or revocation) applies. For any taxable year, the last election (or revocation) made... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Election out of section 43. 1.43-6 Section 1.43-6... Against Tax § 1.43-6 Election out of section 43. (a) Election to have the credit not apply—(1) In...

  4. Global perspectives on elective induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Joshua P; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet M Metin; Hofmeyr, George J; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-06-01

    Elective labor induction is an increasingly common practice not only in high-income countries, but also in many low-income and middle-income countries. Many questions remain unanswered on the safety and cost-effectiveness of elective labor induction, particularly in resource-constrained settings where there may be a high unmet need for medically indicated inductions, as well as limited or no access to appropriate medications and equipment for induction and monitoring, comprehensive emergency obstetric care, safe and timely cesarean section, and appropriate supervision from health professionals. This article considers the global perspective on the epidemiology, practices, safety, and costs associated with elective labor induction.

  5. IPHIE: an International Partnership in Health Informatics Education.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, M W; Gardner, R M; Gatewood, L C; Haux, R; Leven, F J; Limburg, M; Ravesloot, J H; Schmidt, D; Wetter, T

    2000-01-01

    Medical informatics contributes significantly to high quality and efficient health care and medical research. The need for well educated professionals in the field of medical informatics therefore is now worldwide recognized. Students of medicine, computer science/informatics are educated in the field of medical informatics and dedicated curricula on medical informatics have emerged. To advance and further develop the beneficial role of medical informatics in the medical field, an international orientation of health and medical informatics students seems an indispensable part of their training. An international orientation and education of medical informatics students may help to accelerate the dissemination of acquired knowledge and skills in the field and the promotion of medical informatics research results on a more global level. Some years ago, the departments of medical informatics of the university of Heidelberg/university of applied sciences Heilbronn and the university of Amsterdam decided to co-operate in the field of medical informatics. Now, this co-operation has grown out to an International Partnership of Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) of 5 universities, i.e. the university of Heidelberg, the university of Heilbronn, the university of Minnesota, the university of Utah and the university of Amsterdam. This paper presents the rationale behind this international partnership, the state of the art of the co-operation and our future plans for expanding this international co-operation.

  6. 11 CFR 9002.10 - Presidential election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential election. 9002.10 Section 9002.10 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.10 Presidential election. Presidential election means the election...

  7. International Student Use of University Health and Counselling Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jean; Thomson, Garry; Rosenthal, Doreen

    2008-01-01

    A large sample of international students attending an Australian metropolitan university provided data concerning use of university health and counselling services--their perceived need for help, resultant help-seeking, satisfaction with help given, explanations for not seeking help when in need, and variables that predicted help-seeking. Using as…

  8. Issues in Cross-Cultural and International Health Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert H. L.; Hollander, Roberta B.

    1983-01-01

    Reasons for carrying out cross-cultural and international health education research are presented, along with suggestions for adapting research methods to different cultures. Selection of appropriate topics, research design, development of measurement instruments, and data collection methods are considered. (PP)

  9. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A.

    2009-02-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes— Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone — Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  10. International Student Use of University Health and Counselling Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jean; Thomson, Garry; Rosenthal, Doreen

    2008-01-01

    A large sample of international students attending an Australian metropolitan university provided data concerning use of university health and counselling services--their perceived need for help, resultant help-seeking, satisfaction with help given, explanations for not seeking help when in need, and variables that predicted help-seeking. Using as…

  11. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy and the international classification of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Catherine R

    2014-01-01

    This commentary provides some reactions to the rehabilitation treatment taxonomy project in relation to work already underway to develop an International Classification of Health Interventions. This commentary also includes some comments in response to questions posed by the authors. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Child health and the international monetary fund: the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed

    Curtis, E

    1998-11-14

    In 1979, when the Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional (FSLN), a popular revolutionary front, deposed Nicaragua's ruling Somoza family, the Nicaraguan population's health status ranked with that of Bolivia and Honduras as the worst in Latin America. The Sandinista government committed itself to improving health services and health status such that in 1982, the World Health Organization commended the major advances in health care made in the government's first few years. That progress, however, has not been maintained as Sandinista health, nutrition, literacy, and agrarian programs have been abandoned by the government under pressure from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the US government to privatize and cut public spending. The progress made over the past decade is now being undone by an imposed structural adjustment policy and the burden of international debt. The IMF has disregarded social equity as a criterion for its programs. Under current conditions, the health and well-being of the Nicaraguan people will continue to deteriorate. Until the Nicaraguan debt situation is resolved, there is no hope for sustainable growth and development.

  13. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-05-04

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues.

  14. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  15. International health, the early cold war and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century.

  16. Implementation of the International Health Regulations (2005) Through Cooperative Bioengagement.

    PubMed

    Standley, Claire J; Sorrell, Erin M; Kornblet, Sarah; Fischer, Julie E; Katz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative bioengagement efforts, as practiced by U.S. government-funded entities, such as the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, the State Department's Biosecurity Engagement Program, and parallel programs in other countries, exist at the nexus between public health and security. These programs have an explicit emphasis on developing projects that address the priorities of the partner country as well as the donor. While the objectives of cooperative bioengagement programs focus on reducing the potential for accidental or intentional misuse and/or release of dangerous biological agents, many partner countries are interested in bioengagement as a means to improve basic public health capacities. This article examines the extent to which cooperative bioengagement projects address public health capacity building under the revised International Health Regulations and alignment with the Global Health Security Agenda action packages.

  17. Implementation of the International Health Regulations (2005) Through Cooperative Bioengagement

    PubMed Central

    Standley, Claire J.; Sorrell, Erin M.; Kornblet, Sarah; Fischer, Julie E.; Katz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative bioengagement efforts, as practiced by U.S. government-funded entities, such as the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, the State Department’s Biosecurity Engagement Program, and parallel programs in other countries, exist at the nexus between public health and security. These programs have an explicit emphasis on developing projects that address the priorities of the partner country as well as the donor. While the objectives of cooperative bioengagement programs focus on reducing the potential for accidental or intentional misuse and/or release of dangerous biological agents, many partner countries are interested in bioengagement as a means to improve basic public health capacities. This article examines the extent to which cooperative bioengagement projects address public health capacity building under the revised International Health Regulations and alignment with the Global Health Security Agenda action packages. PMID:26528463

  18. 26 CFR 1.992-2 - Election to be treated as a DISC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to be treated as a DISC. 1.992-2... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.992-2 Election to be treated as a DISC. (a) Manner and time of election—(1) Manner—(i) In general. A corporation can elect...

  19. Acculturation and health behaviors among international students: A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zi; FitzPatrick, Kathleen

    2016-03-01

    The process of acculturation often results in changes in the health behavior of international students. This study employed an open-ended, qualitative approach in an attempt to gain an in-depth understanding of the acculturation process for physical activity, diet, and drinking behavior among international students. Eighteen undergraduate international students (average age 19.20, standard deviation 1.21) were interviewed for 45-60 min. Most of the international students became more physically active after they arrived in the United States. Facilitators included accessibility, weight management, free time, and role modeling. Most international students were unsatisfied with the food on campus. Their strategies for adjusting to this included ordering food from restaurants, visiting supermarkets, and moving off campus. Most international students felt uncomfortable with the drinking culture in the United States, although some of them felt drinking was a good way to socialize with Americans and explore American culture. Colleges and universities should adopt strategies to better help their international students build lifelong healthy behaviors.

  20. Internal health locus of control predicts willingness to track health behaviors online and with smartphone applications.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brooke L; Goldstein, Carly M; Gathright, Emily C; Hughes, Joel W; Latner, Janet D

    2017-04-17

    Given rising technology use across all demographic groups, digital interventions offer a potential strategy for increasing access to health information and care. Research is lacking on identifying individual differences that impact willingness to use digital interventions, which may affect patient engagement. Health locus of control, the amount of control an individual believes they have over their own health, may predict willingness to use mobile health (mHealth) applications ('apps') and online trackers. A cross-sectional study (n = 276) was conducted to assess college students' health locus of control beliefs and willingness to use health apps and online trackers. Internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs predicted willingness to use health apps and online trackers while chance health locus of control beliefs did not. Individuals with internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs are more willing than those with chance health locus of control beliefs to utilize a form of technology to monitor or change health behaviors. Health locus of control is an easy-to-assess patient characteristic providers can measure to identify which patients are more likely to utilize mHealth apps and online trackers.

  1. International sources of financial cooperation for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1983-01-01

    By direct consulation and review of published sources, a study of 16 selected official sources of international financial cooperation was conducted over the August 1979 to August 1980 period in order to assess the policies, programs, and prospects for support of established international health goals. This study demonstrated that approximately 90% of the external health sector funds are provided via development oriented agencies. The major agencies providing such assistance concur that no sector, including health, should be excluded "a priori," providing that the requesting nation conveys its proposals through the appropriate national development planning authority. The agencies in the study also were found to be supporting health related programs in all the geographic regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). An associated review of 30 external funding agencies revealed that only 5 reported providing health assistance in more than half of the countries where they provided assistance for general development purposes. Interviewed sources attributed this to the limited manner in which health proposals have been identified, prepared, and forwarded (with national development authority approval) to international agencies. In 1979 concessional development financing totaled approximately US$29.9 billion, US$24.2 billion being provided by 17 major industrial nations, US$4.7 billion by Organization of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC) countries, and less than US$1 billion by the countries of Eastern Europe. Approximately 2/3 of such concessional financing is administered bilaterally, only 1/3 passing through multilateral institutions. UN agencies receive only 12% of these total concessional development financing resources. In 1979, concessional funding for health totaled approximately US$3 billion, approximately 1/10 of which was administered by WHO and its regional offices. It is anticipated that future international funding for health in developing countries will continue

  2. Elective Mutism: A Tutorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Holly F.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides information on elective mutism, a persistent refusal to talk despite the ability to speak and comprehend spoken language. It covers the history, characteristics, classification, differential diagnosis, and treatment of elective mutism. Treatments covered include psychodynamic, family intervention, behavior modification, drug…

  3. 2008 Election Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, William; Bamzai, Anjuli; Robinson, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Voting by the membership for Union and Section officers for the 2008-2010 term was completed on 10 January 2008. Voting was conducted electronically through an Internet Web site using commercial surveying software. Paper ballots were available upon request. The tallying and recording of the election was managed by AGU staff using Vovici software. The results of the election are given below.

  4. Global health interdependence and the international physicians' movement

    SciTech Connect

    Gellert, G.A. )

    1990-08-01

    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War has had an impressive public impact in the 1980s, helping to shatter the myths of surviving and medically responding to a nuclear attack. The 1990s present a new challenge for the medical community in a different social and international context characterized by increasing global interdependence. Another view of physician activism is presented to complement advocacy for nuclear disarmament in the promotion of peace. A framework for analysis is provided by fateful visions--accepted policy views of prospective superpower relations--drawn from practitioners of foreign policy, international relations, and security affairs. A perceptual gap may exist between physicians who wish to address underlying ethical and public health concerns on security issues and policy practitioners who are accustomed to discussion within existing policy frames of reference that can be pragmatically used. A strategy is proposed for physicians to use their specialized training and skills to evaluate trends in global health interdependence. The international physicians' movement may contribute substantively to the formulation of policy by expanding and interpreting an increasingly complex database on interdependence, and by creating a dialogue with policy formulators based on mutual recognition of the value and legitimacy of each professions' expertise and complementary contributions to international security policy.

  5. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  6. 2012 election results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Robert; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2012-10-01

    On 4 October 2012, AGU members completed voting for the 2013-2014 leadership term. Union officers, Board members, section and focus group officers, and student and early career representatives to the Council were elected. All members who joined or renewed their membership by 1 July 2012 were eligible to vote in this year's leadership election. The vote was held electronically, and access to voting was provided to all eligible voters for a period of 31 days. The voting was conducted by Survey and Ballot Systems, Inc. (SBS). SBS, which offers election planning and management services, provided unique login credentials and other support services for eligible voters throughout the election. Voting results were certified by SBS on 8 October and by the AGU Tellers Committee on 9 October. The overall participation rate was 21.9%, an increase over previous AGU elections.

  7. National and International centers for Environmental, Health and Safety Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulawka, A. O.

    1988-07-01

    In February 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory hosted the First International Expert Working Group Meeting on Environmental, Health and Safety Aspects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems. This meeting was attended by representatives from France/Germany, Italy, Japan and the U.S. Over the course of the two day workshop, discussions focused on the goals, functional needs and responsibilities for national and international assistance centers and on exemplary research tasks. As an outgrowth of this Workshop, USDOE is now finalizing plans to establish a National Assistance Center.

  8. 26 CFR 16A.126-2 - Section 126 elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Section 126 elections. 16A.126-2 Section 16A...-SHARING PAYMENTS § 16A.126-2 Section 126 elections. (a) Election for section 126 not to apply in whole or... return (or amended return) for the taxable year in which the taxpayer received the last payment made by...

  9. 26 CFR 16A.126-2 - Section 126 elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Section 126 elections. 16A.126-2 Section 16A.126...-SHARING PAYMENTS § 16A.126-2 Section 126 elections. (a) Election for section 126 not to apply in whole or... return (or amended return) for the taxable year in which the taxpayer received the last payment made by...

  10. Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation.

    PubMed

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Fehn, Amanda Cavada; Ungerer, Regina Lucia Sarmento; Poz, Mario Roberto Dal

    2017-07-01

    From the 1990s onwards, national economies became connected and globalized. Changes in the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population highlighted the need for further discussions and strategies on Human Resources for Health (HRH). The health workforce crisis is a worldwide phenomenon. It includes: difficulties in attracting and retaining health professionals to work in rural and remote areas, poor distribution and high turnover of health staff particularly physicians, poor training of health workforces in new sanitation and demographic conditions and the production of scientific evidence to support HRH decision making, policy management, programs and interventions. In this scenario, technical cooperation activities may contribute to the development of the countries involved, strengthening relationships and expanding exchanges as well as contributing to the production, dissemination and use of technical scientific knowledge and evidence and the training of workers and institutional strengthening. This article aims to explore this context highlighting the participation of Brazil in the international cooperation arena on HRH and emphasizing the role of the World Health Organization in confronting this crisis that limits the ability of countries and their health systems to improve the health and lives of their populations.

  11. Health websites in Italy: use, classification and international policy.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Maceratini, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss international policy in relation to the use of health websites and we describe the results obtained from application of a search engine to the recognition and classification of health websites in Italy. We then compare the results with health websites in other countries. Effective use of technology has led to medical advances that have not only extended life expectancy, but also fuelled an increasingly well-informed public to expect more and more from today's healthcare providers. As a consequence of the Web's rapid, chaotic growth, the resulting network of information lacks organization and structure and the quest for a method of quickly finding relevant and reliable information is spawning the growth of Internet portal sites. The US and the European Union and now Italy, have established the importance of rules to check the quality of health sites both for the non-professional users (citizens), mainly for privacy and security (for example, of medical records); and for health operators (physicians and others), where the most important thing is to evaluate the quality of content. In June 2001, the search engine used here found 2627 Italian health sites, of which only 46 exhibited the HON Code, and they can be classified into: 1% personal medical sites, 17% health portals, 18%, metasites, 27% documental sites and 37% information sites for health operators and/or for citizens.

  12. Evaluating health policy capacity: Learning from international and Australian experience

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, Deborah H; Legge, David G; O'Neill, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Background The health sector in Australia faces major challenges that include an ageing population, spiralling health care costs, continuing poor Aboriginal health, and emerging threats to public health. At the same time, the environment for policy-making is becoming increasingly complex. In this context, strong policy capacity – broadly understood as the capacity of government to make "intelligent choices" between policy options – is essential if governments and societies are to address the continuing and emerging problems effectively. Results This paper explores the question: "What are the factors that contribute to policy capacity in the health sector?" In the absence of health sector-specific research on this topic, a review of Australian and international public sector policy capacity research was undertaken. Studies from the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia were analysed to identify common themes in the research findings. This paper discusses these policy capacity studies in relation to context, models and methods for policy capacity research, elements of policy capacity and recommendations for building capacity. Conclusion Based on this analysis, the paper discusses the organisational and individual factors that are likely to contribute to health policy capacity, highlights the need for further research in the health sector and points to some of the conceptual and methodological issues that need to be taken into consideration in such research. PMID:19245704

  13. Canadian health expenditures: where do we really stand internationally?

    PubMed

    Deber, R; Swan, B

    1999-06-15

    There are different ways to measure how much Canada spends on health care and the quality of these measurements may vary. This paper examines Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development data for 3 common standards of measure: health expenditures as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP), nominal spending per capita (US dollars) and spending per capita in purchasing power parities (PPP) equivalents. In 1994, the most recent year for which there were firm data. Canada spent 9.9% of its GDP on health care (rank 3 of 29), and $1999 PPPs per capita (rank 3). However, actual spending was only US$1824 per capita (rank 14). In the same year Japan spent 7% of GDP on health care (rank 22), $1478 in PPPs per capita (rank 16), but actually spent US$2614 per capita (rank 3). Although each measure is suitable for some policy purposes, Canadian spending remains modest by international standards.

  14. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs.

  15. International cooperation to conquer global inequities in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The effect of population growth is not limited to national boundaries. Indeed the inability of people in developing countries to control their own fertility has repercussions on global security and on the balance between population and environment as well a on their health and welfare. All nations need to take steps to slow down rapid population growth now, otherwise we will suffer serious consequences. The different between 2 UN projections of world population equals current world population size. Almost 90% of the increase of the larger projection would occur in developing countries, yet they are the least capable of managing big populations. Further major inequalities in reproductive health between developed and developing countries, as well as between men and women exist. The infant mortality rate in developed regions is around 6 times lower than it is in developing regions, child mortality is 7 times lower, and maternal mortality is 15 times lower. International collaboration to rid the world of these inequalities is need to improve reproductive health. Specifically, political and health leaders should mobilize necessary international and national resources. Even though there is more than US $50,000 million in official development assistance funds available annually, the level of population related funding has decreased to less than 1.1% of these funds for 1993-1994. Developed countries could reduce the debt burden to free funds for population activities and to reverse the flow from the poor countries in the Southern Hemisphere to the rich countries in the Northern Hemisphere. Besides developing countries spend much of their money on the military (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa spends US$ 10,000 million). International cooperation leading to peace would make significantly more money available for the social and health sectors, especially reproductive health care.

  16. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  17. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  18. Report on the International Conference on Emergency Health Care Development.

    PubMed Central

    Dines, G B

    1990-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) provide rescue, field stabilization, transportation to medical facilities, and definitive care for persons experiencing medical emergencies. In order to advance worldwide development and refinement of EMS systems, and their integration with emergency preparedness and response programs, the International Conference on Emergency Health Care Development was held in Crystal City, Arlington, VA, August 15-19, 1989. The conference was supported by the Department of Health and Human Services and its Health Resources and Services Administration; the Department of Transportation and its National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration; and the Pan American Health Organization. Objectives of the conference were to clarify linkages between various levels of emergency response, to present methods for developing or improving EMS systems within societies with different resources, to demonstrate processes by which EMS systems have been developed, and to propose international emergency health care development goals. Topics included development of services in developing nations, case studies of underdeveloped countries' responses to natural disasters, and a method for updating disaster response through use of available medical resources. PMID:1968669

  19. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health

  20. Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In this report unified ideas are presented about what the Office of International Health Programs does, what the individual contributions are, and how the organization connects to the Department of Energy. The planning efforts have focused on the office`s three areas of responsibility: Europe, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. Common to each technical program area are issues related to the following: health of populations exposed to radiation incidents and the associated medical aspects of exposure; dose reconstruction; training; and public involvement. Each of the program areas, its customers, and primary customer interests are described.

  1. On Teaching International Courses on Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Axel W.; Bott, Oliver J.; Gietzelt, Matthias; Haarbrandt, Birger; Hackl, Werner O.; Hellrung, Nils; Hübner-Bloder, Gudrun; Jahn, Franziska; Jaspers, Monique W.; Kutscha, Ulrike; Machan, Christoph; Oppermann, Bianca; Pilz, Jochen; Schwartze, Jonas; Seidel, Christoph; Slot, Jan-Eric; Smers, Stefan; Spitalewsky, Katharina; Steckel, Nathalie; Strübing, Alexander; van der Haak, Minne

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Health information systems (HIS) are one of the most important areas for biomedical and health informatics. In order to professionally deal with HIS well-educated informaticians are needed. Because of these reasons, in 2001 an international course has been established: The Frank – van Swieten Lectures on Strategic Information Management of Health Information Systems. Objectives Reporting about the Frank – van Swieten Lectures and about our students‘ feedback on this course during the last 16 years. Summarizing our lessons learned and making recommendations for such international courses on HIS. Methods The basic concept of the Frank – van Swieten lectures is to teach the theoretical background in local lectures, to organize practical exercises on modelling sub-information systems of the respective local HIS and finally to conduct Joint Three Days as an international meeting were the resulting models are introduced and compared. Results During the last 16 years, the Universities of Amsterdam, Braunschweig, Heidelberg/Heilbronn, Leipzig as well as UMIT were involved in running this course. Overall, 517 students from these universities participated. Our students‘ feedback was clearly positive. The Joint Three Days of the Frank – van Swieten Lectures, where at the end of the course all students can meet, turned out to be an important component of this course. Based on the last 16 years, we recommend common teaching materials, agreement on equivalent clinical areas for the exercises, support of group building of international student groups, motivation of using a collaboration platform, ensuring quality management of the course, addressing different levels of knowledge of the students, and ensuring sufficient funding for joint activities. Conclusions Although associated with considerable additional efforts, we can clearly recommend establishing such international courses on HIS, such as the Frank – van Swieten Lectures. PMID:28272648

  2. 1997 Operating plan for the Office of International Health Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    One year ago, the Office of International Health Programs provided you with our 1996 Operating Plan, which defined our ideas and ideals for conducting business in 1996. We have again this year undertaken an intensive planning effort, first reviewing our accomplishments and shortcomings during 1996, and then developing plans and priorities for the upcoming year, taking into account input from customers and outside review panels, and ensuring that the demands on the office have been balanced with anticipated human, financial, and material resources.

  3. [Development of international health in 20th century].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Dantés, O; Khoshnood, B

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the historical evolution of the concept and activities that have come under the rubric of international health during its modern "formative" years in the 20th century. The analysis seeks to illuminate the changing objectives and key players, the achievements and failures, and the challenges that lie ahead. The emphasis is placed on its institutional component, particularly as it relates to the countries of the American continents.

  4. 11 CFR 9032.7 - Primary election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary election. 9032.7 Section 9032.7 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.7 Primary election. (a) Primary election means an election held by a State or...

  5. Empowering Saudi patients: how do Saudi health websites compare to international health websites?

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alsughayar, Abdulrahman; Al-Mutairi, Maha

    2013-01-01

    Little information is known about how Saudi health websites compare internationally. The purpose of this paper is to compare two leading Saudi health websites with leading international health websites. The study was conducted as a convenience sample at a graduate health college in Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 students participated in the study. The study found that, in general, English websites have higher levels of performance with regard to quality of information, authority and objectivity, coverage and currency, and design. However, the respondents considered Saudi health websites to be superior with regard to maintaining privacy and security. The results indicate that much more work is needed in designing Saudi Health to make them more trustworthy and credible. The limitations of this work and future research directions are also discussed.

  6. US and International Health Professions’ Requirements for Continuing Professional Development

    PubMed Central

    Tofade, Toyin; Thakkar, Namrata; Rouse, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is not a comprehensive global analysis of continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing education (CE) in the major health professions in published literature. The aim of this article is to summarize findings from the US and international literature on CPD and CE practices in the health professions, comparing the different requirements and frameworks to see what similarities and challenges exist and what the future focus should be for the pharmacy profession. A literature review was conducted on CPD and CE in selected health professions, namely pharmacy, medicine, nursing, ophthalmology, dentistry, public health, and psychology. Over 300 papers from the health professions were retrieved and screened. Relevant articles based on the abstracts and introductions were summarized into tabular form by profession, minimum requirements for licensure, nature of credits, guidelines on how to record CE and CPD activities, and specific CE and CPD definitions. Wide variations exist among the health professions. Lessons learned from this information can be used to further clarify and define the role of CE and CPD and self-directed lifelong learning in pharmacy and the health professions. PMID:25147401

  7. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Internal migration and maternal health service utilisation in Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hai; You, Hua; Ning, Weiqing; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Jianming; Lu, Ying; Sun, Jun; Kou, Yun; Dong, Hengjin

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the use of maternal health care services by internal migrants in view of their migration status. Cross-sectional household survey in two cities of Jiangsu Province. Questions elicited data on socioeconomic information and MHC service use (pre-natal examination, post-natal visit, pre-natal health education). Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with MHC service use. A total of 946 married women were recruited, of whom 22.3% were internal migrants. Compared to local residents, migrants were five times less likely to attend pre-natal examinations (84.4% vs. 91.7%; OR = 0.49, P = 0.002), three times less likely to have post-natal visits (15.6% vs. 50.2%; OR = 0.18, P < 0.001) and less likely to attend health education during pregnancy (87.0% vs. 95.7%; OR = 0.30, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression also revealed a lower proportion of MHC use among migrants (ORm 0.52, 0.16, and 0.3, respectively). Internal migrants in Jiangsu Province underuse MHC services to a significant degree. More attention needs to be paid to pregnant migrant women, as they are vulnerable group in society. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Teaching nutrition in an International Master of Public Health program.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elliot M; Fatunmbi, Bayo S; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan

    2002-01-01

    The health of populations is related to the norms and characteristics of society and its socio-economic organization. The causes of food-related ill health are located at the national and international levels and the cure must be sought in good governance. Thus, it is obvious that a Master's Degree in International Public Health must include a thorough overview of the "food chain" from "plough to plate" within the political, economical, socio-economic changes, environmental, industrial, scientific, and health contexts. Nutritional deficiencies are addressed by a variety of measures, including food supply and utilization programs, specific supplementation for high-risk groups, and food fortification to reach a general population. All are part of a wide-based public health nutrition approach, applicable in developed, redeveloping, and newly developing countries. This article is based on experience in teaching Public Health Nutrition to a mixed group of foreign students from different countries. Our goal is to prepare students for a variety of public health careers related to nutrition and health. The aim of this course is to introduce current roles and aspects of food and nutrition policy, focusing on food and nutrition security, human rights for food and nutrition, and the complex interactions among local and global systems. Students are introduced to nutrition screening, assessment, and research skills, and nutrition in emergency situations and in disaster relief. During the course the students learn about the design and the evaluation of nutrition interventions at the individual, community, and national level. The course gives a broad-based examination of major themes related to development and underdevelopment, poverty and wealth, equality and inequality. It also introduces program planning from the perspective of international organisations such as the World Food Program and the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation of the United

  10. 26 CFR 1.1247-4 - Election by foreign investment company with respect to foreign tax credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Election by foreign investment company with... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-4 Election by foreign investment company with respect to foreign tax credit. (a) In general—(1) Election. If an election to distribute income currently pursuant...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1247-4 - Election by foreign investment company with respect to foreign tax credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election by foreign investment company with... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-4 Election by foreign investment company with respect to foreign tax credit. (a) In general—(1) Election. If an election to distribute income currently pursuant...

  12. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  13. Mental Health in Internationally Adopted Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; La Greca, Annette M; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2017-03-01

    To investigate whether mental health problems differ between internationally adopted adolescents and their non-adopted peers and examine design and sample characteristics that might underlie differences among studies. Studies published through August 2015 were collected through Embase, Medline, PsychINFO, Web of Science, ERIC, and Svemed+. Combined effect estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Eleven studies investigating 17,919 adoptees and 1,090,289 non-adopted peers were included in the meta-analysis. Internationally adopted adolescents reported more mental health problems across domains than their peers, with effect estimates (standardized mean differences [SMDs]) of 0.16 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28) for questionnaire-based studies and 0.70 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.90) for register-based studies. They also reported significantly more externalizing difficulties (SMD 0.20, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.38), although the effect estimate for internalizing difficulties was not statistically significant (SMD 0.10, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.24). Studies using categorical measurements of mental health problems, indicating more serious problems, yielded larger effect estimates than continuous measurements (SMD 0.31, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.41; SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.26, respectively). The difference in mental health problems between international adoptees and their peers was somewhat larger when using parent report compared with self-report. More recent studies (conducted in 1995 and later) yielded larger estimates than older studies, although no significant difference was found for this analysis or subgroup analyses investigating sex and age at adoption. Although most internationally adopted adolescents are well adjusted, adoptees as a group report higher levels of mental health problems compared with non-adopted peers. This difference should be acknowledged and adequate support services should be made available. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

  14. Building International Genomics Collaboration for Global Health Security

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Helen H.; Erkkila, Tracy; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Vuyisich, Momchilo

    2015-01-01

    Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement, and installation of next-generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries. PMID:26697418

  15. Internationally educated health professionals and the challenge of workforce distribution.

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; Gupta, Neeru; Tepper, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs) have always been an important part of the Canadian health workforce. A particularly important aspect related to the role of IEHPs is their distribution across different sectors of the healthcare system and various geographical regions. Several provinces and territories have implemented strategies that restrict the initial practice of IEHPs to areas that have long-standing workforce shortages. While the outcomes of these approaches are mixed, some evidence suggests that IEHPs remain in place only as long as their contractual requirements stipulate. However, studies also indicate that IEHPs are increasingly practising in care settings that are perceived to be less attractive by their Canadian-trained counterparts. Whether the contribution of IEHPs is framed in terms of short- or long-term sustainable solutions, their role will continue to be an important component of health service across Canada.

  16. Building international genomics collaboration for global health security

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Helen H.; Erkkila, Tracy; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Vuyisich, Momchilo

    2015-12-07

    Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement, and installation of next-generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.

  17. Building International Genomics Collaboration for Global Health Security.

    PubMed

    Cui, Helen H; Erkkila, Tracy; Chain, Patrick S G; Vuyisich, Momchilo

    2015-01-01

    Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement, and installation of next-generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.

  18. 26 CFR 1.9005-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9005-2 Section 1.9005-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If a... published or advertised price, or (ii) The average lowest actual selling price at which the mine owner...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9005-2 - Effect of election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of election. 1.9005-2 Section 1.9005-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9005-2 Effect of election. (a) In general. If a... published or advertised price, or (ii) The average lowest actual selling price at which the mine owner...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1361-4 - Effect of QSub election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of QSub election. 1.1361-4 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1361-4 Effect of... section 581. X owns 100 percent of Y and Z, corporations for which valid QSub elections are in effect....

  1. 26 CFR 1.58-4 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.58-4... TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-4 Electing small business corporations. (a) In general. Section... business corporation among the shareholders of such corporation. Section 58(d)(2) provides rules for the...

  2. 26 CFR 1.48-5 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.48-5... business corporations. (a) In general. (1) In the case of an electing small business corporation (as... business corporation. The bases of all new section 38 properties which have a useful life falling within a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.48-5 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.48-5... business corporations. (a) In general. (1) In the case of an electing small business corporation (as... business corporation. The bases of all new section 38 properties which have a useful life falling within a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.58-4 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.58-4... TAXES Tax Preference Regulations § 1.58-4 Electing small business corporations. (a) In general. Section... business corporation among the shareholders of such corporation. Section 58(d)(2) provides rules for the...

  5. Global surveillance for chemical incidents of international public health concern.

    PubMed Central

    Olowokure, B.; Pooransingh, S.; Tempowski, J.; Palmer, S.; Meredith, T.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In December 2001, an expert consultation convened by WHO identified strengthening national and global chemical incident preparedness and response as a priority. WHO is working towards this objective by developing a surveillance and response system for chemical incidents. This report describes the frequency, nature and geographical location of acute chemical incidents of potential international concern from August 2002 to December 2003. METHODS: Acute chemical incidents were actively identified through several informal (e.g. Internet-based resources) and formal (e.g. various networks of organizations) sources and assessed against criteria for public health emergencies of international concern using the then proposed revised International Health Regulations (IHR). WHO regional and country offices were contacted to obtain additional information regarding identified incidents. FINDINGS: Altogether, 35 chemical incidents from 26 countries met one or more of the IHR criteria. The WHO European Region accounted for 43% (15/35) of reports. The WHO Regions for Africa, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific each accounted for 14% (5/35); South-East Asia and the Americas accounted for 9% (3/35) and 6% (2/35), respectively. Twenty-three (66%) events were identified within 24 hours of their occurrence. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first global surveillance system for chemical incidents of potential international concern. Limitations such as geographical and language bias associated with the current system are being addressed. Nevertheless, the system has shown that it can provide early detection of important events, as well as information on the magnitude and geographical distribution of such incidents. It can therefore contribute to improving global public health preparedness. PMID:16462985

  6. International comparison of health care systems using resource profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Anell, A.; Willis, M.

    2000-01-01

    The most frequently used bases for comparing international health care resources are health care expenditures, measured either as a fraction of gross domestic product (GDP) or per capita. There are several possible reasons for this, including the widespread availability of historic expenditure figures; the attractiveness of collapsing resource data into a common unit of measurement; and the present focus among OECD member countries and other governments on containing health care costs. Despite important criticisms of this method, relatively few alternatives have been used in practice. A simple framework for comparing data underlying health care systems is presented in this article. It distinguishes measures of real resources, for example human resources, medicines and medical equipment, from measures of financial resources such as expenditures. Measures of real resources are further subdivided according to whether their factor prices are determined primarily in national or global markets. The approach is illustrated using a simple analysis of health care resource profiles for Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the USA. Comparisons based on measures of both real resources and expenditures can be more useful than conventional comparisons of expenditures alone and can lead to important insights for the future management of health care systems. PMID:10916914

  7. 42 CFR 422.52 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Eligibility, Election, and Enrollment § 422.52 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals. (a) General...

  8. 26 CFR 301.9100-19T - Election relating to passive investment income of electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION General Rules Application of Internal Revenue Laws § 301.9100-19T Election relating to passive... representatives) who were shareholders of such corporation at any time during any of such years consent to such... such election and consents, and also extends the time within which certain new shareholders may consent...

  9. [Preoperative evaluation of adult patients before elective, noncardiothoracic surgery : Joint recommendation of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, the German Society of Surgery, and the German Society of Internal Medicine].

    PubMed

    Zwissler, B

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of the patient's medical history and a physical examination are the cornerstones of risk assessment prior to elective surgery and may help to optimize the patient's preoperative medical condition and to guide perioperative management. Whether the performance of additional technical tests (e. g. blood chemistry, ECG, spirometry, chest x‑ray) can contribute to a reduction of perioperative risk is often not very well known or is controversial. Similarly, there is considerable uncertainty among anesthesiologists, internists and surgeons with respect to the perioperative management of the patient's long-term medication. Therefore, the German Scientific Societies of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), Internal Medicine (DGIM) and Surgery (DGCH) have joined to elaborate recommendations on the preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, noncardiothoracic surgery, which were initially published in 2010. These recommendations have now been updated based on the current literature and existing international guidelines. In the first part the general principles of preoperative evaluation are described (part A). The current concepts for extended evaluation of patients with known or suspected major cardiovascular disease are presented in part B. Finally, the perioperative management of patients' long-term medication is discussed (part C). The concepts proposed in these interdisciplinary recommendations endorsed by the DGAI, DGIM and DGCH provide a common basis for a structured preoperative risk assessment and management. These recommendations aim to ensure that surgical patients undergo a rational preoperative assessment and at the same time to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially dangerous testing. The joint recommendations reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge as well as expert opinions because scientific-based evidence is not always available. These recommendations will be subject to regular re-evaluation and

  10. IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.

    PubMed

    Efendi, Ferry; Mackey, Timothy Ken; Huang, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country's adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country's own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.

  11. Nanosilver and global public health: international regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Watal, Aparna

    2010-06-01

    Silver in nanoparticle form is used extensively worldwide in hospital and general practice settings, in dressings as a treatment for external wounds, burns and ulcers. Nanosilver is also an increasingly important coating over embedded medical devices, inhibiting the development of biofilm. Nanosilver disinfectant sprays and polymer coatings are being widely promoted as protective against viral infections. In addition, nanosilver is widely used for its antibacterial properties in food processing and packaging, as well as in consumer products used for domestic cleaning and clothing. This article argues that medical devices, therapeutic products, and domestic food and goods containing nanosilver, although offering therapeutic benefits, must be subject to precautionary regulation owing to associated public health and environmental risks, particularly from large volumes of nanosilver in waste water. The article first examines the use of nanosilver in a variety of contemporary medical and domestic products, the utilization of which may assist in resolving global public health problems, such as restricted access to safe food, water and medical care. It then discusses the mechanisms of toxicity for nanosilver, whether it should be classified as a new chemical entity for regulatory purposes and whether its increased usage poses significant environmental and public health risks. The article next critically analyses representative international regulatory regimes (the USA, EU, UK and Australia) for medical and domestic use of nanosilver. The conclusion includes a set of recommendations for improving international regulation of nanosilver.

  12. [International cooperation at Public Health: proposals to a debate].

    PubMed

    Loyola, Maria Andréa; Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Guimarães, Eduardo Ribas De Biase

    2010-07-01

    In the available literature, there is no study devoted to international cooperation in public health. This paper aims to partly fill this gap, raising and examining the state of art in this area as well as how it interferes in the evaluation of post-graduate programs. The study used secondary data available at CAPES "Indicators Journals", during the years of 1998 to 2006. It also analyzes foreign scholarships and special programs of cooperation of CAPES from 2005 to 2009 through a quantitative descriptive methodology. It shows that international cooperation in the area is relatively developed in a variety of themes and diverse partnerships, focusing in the United States. It is observed a positive correlation between the number of international cooperation and a high-concept program into the evaluation of CAPES, the last triennium of evaluation. The sub-areas where there is more cooperation are, in order: epidemiology; planning, and others. There is a variety of institutions, themes and subareas involved in international cooperation that could be a positive indicator in the evaluation, but as far as was possible to infer, no significant correlation in this direction was found.

  13. International comparative performance of mental health research, 1980-2011.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Vincent; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Ni Chonaill, Síobhán; Macaluso, Benoît; Pollitt, Alexandra; Grant, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Scientific understanding of mental illness, mental health and their neurobiological and psychosocial underpinnings has greatly increased in the last three decades. Yet, little is known about the landscape of this knowledge and how and where it is evolving. This paper provides a bibliometric assessment of mental health research (MHR) outputs from 1980 to 2011. MHR papers were retrieved using three strategies: from key mental health journals; using US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) keywords; and from additional journals in which mental health topics accounted for over 75% of papers. The number of papers per year increased over time in absolute terms and as a proportion of total medical output. The US's proportion of world publication output dropped from 60% in 1980 to 42% in 2011, while the EU increased its share from 27% to 40%. Countries with greater research intensity in mental health generally had higher citation impact, such as the US, UK, Canada and the Netherlands. MHR also became more collaborative: 3% of all MHR papers published in 1980 were the result of international collaboration compared to 22% in 2011. We conclude by noting that the rise in MHR appears to be due to funding and that bibliometrics can help highlight the potential drivers of variation in performance of MHR systems. The paper provides an analytical basis for benchmarking MHR trends in the future. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Profiling health-care accreditation organizations: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Charles D; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Moldovan, Max; Nicklin, Wendy; Grgic, Ileana; Fortune, Triona; Whittaker, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    To describe global patterns among health-care accreditation organizations (AOs) and to identify determinants of sustainability and opportunities for improvement. Web-based questionnaire survey. Organizations offering accreditation services nationally or internationally to health-care provider institutions or networks at primary, secondary or tertiary level in 2010. s) External relationships, scope and activity public information. Forty-four AOs submitted data, compared with 33 in a survey 10 years earlier. Of the 30 AOs that reported survey activity in 2000 and 2010, 16 are still active and stable or growing. New and old programmes are increasingly linked to public funding and regulation. While the number of health-care AOs continues to grow, many fail to thrive. Successful organizations tend to complement mechanisms of regulation, health-care funding or governmental commitment to quality and health-care improvement that offer a supportive environment. Principal challenges include unstable business (e.g. limited market, low uptake) and unstable politics. Many organizations make only limited information available to patients and the public about standards, procedures or results.

  15. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ...-AQ66 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... amendment to the interim final rules (76 FR 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... rule with request for comments entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers:...

  16. Assessment of public health events through International Health Regulations, United States, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Katrin S; Arthur, Ray R; O'Connor, Ralph; Fernandez, Jose

    2012-07-01

    Under the current International Health Regulations, 194 states parties are obligated to report potential public health emergencies of international concern to the World Health Organization (WHO) within 72 hours of becoming aware of an event. During July 2007-December 2011, WHO assessed and posted on a secure web portal 222 events from 105 states parties, including 24 events from the United States. Twelve US events involved human influenza caused by a new virus subtype, including the first report of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, which constitutes the only public health emergency of international concern determined by the WHO director-general to date. Additional US events involved 5 Salmonella spp. outbreaks, botulism, Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections, Guillain-Barré syndrome, contaminated heparin, Lassa fever, an oil spill, and typhoid fever. Rapid information exchange among WHO and member states facilitated by the International Health Regulations leads to better situation awareness of emerging threats and enables a more coordinated and transparent global response.

  17. [International trade in health services and the medical industrial complex: implications for national health systems].

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2010-08-01

    Health services have increasingly proven to be an innovative sector, gaining prominence in the medical industrial complex through expansion to public and international markets. International trade can foster economic development and redirect the resources and infrastructure available for healthcare in different countries in favorable or unfavorable directions. Wherever private providers play a significant role in government-funded healthcare, GATS commitments may restrict health policy options in subscribing countries. Systematic information on the impacts of electronic health services, medical tourism, health workers' migration, and foreign direct investment is needed on a case-by-case basis to build evidence for informed decision-making, so as to maximize opportunities and minimize risks of GATS commitments.

  18. 26 CFR 301.9100-16T - Election to accrue vacation pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election to accrue vacation pay. 301.9100-16T... § 301.9100-16T Election to accrue vacation pay. (a) In general. Section 463 provides that taxpayers... contingencies, would not otherwise be deductible. Such election must apply to the liability for all vacation...

  19. 26 CFR 12.7 - Election to be treated as a DISC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election to be treated as a DISC. 12.7 Section... (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE REVENUE ACT OF 1971 § 12.7 Election to be treated as a DISC. (a) Manner and time of election—(1) Manner—(i) In general. A corporation can elect to be...

  20. 26 CFR 12.7 - Election to be treated as a DISC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Election to be treated as a DISC. 12.7 Section... (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE REVENUE ACT OF 1971 § 12.7 Election to be treated as a DISC. (a) Manner and time of election—(1) Manner—(i) In general. A corporation can elect to be...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1247-1 - Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election by foreign investment companies to... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-1 Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently. (a) Election by foreign investment company—(1) In general. If a registered foreign...

  2. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... tax return in accordance with § 1.167(a)-11 of this chapter (relating to depreciation allowances...

  3. 26 CFR 301.9100-1 - Extensions of time to make elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extensions of time to make elections. 301.9100... Revenue Laws § 301.9100-1 Extensions of time to make elections. (a) Introduction. The regulations under... determine whether to grant an extension of time to make a regulatory election. The regulations under...

  4. 26 CFR 1.466-3 - Manner of and time for making election under section 466.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the election is made, the initial opening balance of such account (as defined in section 466(e)(2... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of and time for making election under... and time for making election under section 466. (a) In general. Section 466 provides a special...

  5. 26 CFR 1.631-1 - Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange... consider cutting as sale or exchange. (a) Effect of election. (1) Section 631 (a) provides an election to certain taxpayers to treat the difference between the actual cost or other basis of certain timber cut...

  6. 26 CFR 1.631-1 - Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange... consider cutting as sale or exchange. (a) Effect of election. (1) Section 631 (a) provides an election to certain taxpayers to treat the difference between the actual cost or other basis of certain timber cut...

  7. 26 CFR 1.631-1 - Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange... consider cutting as sale or exchange. (a) Effect of election. (1) Section 631 (a) provides an election to certain taxpayers to treat the difference between the actual cost or other basis of certain timber cut...

  8. 26 CFR 1.631-1 - Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Election to consider cutting as sale or exchange... consider cutting as sale or exchange. (a) Effect of election. (1) Section 631 (a) provides an election to certain taxpayers to treat the difference between the actual cost or other basis of certain timber cut...

  9. 26 CFR 1.195-1T - Election to amortize start-up expenditures (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election to amortize start-up expenditures... Corporations (continued) § 1.195-1T Election to amortize start-up expenditures (temporary). (a) In general. Under section 195(b), a taxpayer may elect to amortize start-up expenditures as defined in section...

  10. 26 CFR 301.9100-1 - Extensions of time to make elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extensions of time to make elections. 301.9100... Revenue Laws § 301.9100-1 Extensions of time to make elections. (a) Introduction. The regulations under... determine whether to grant an extension of time to make a regulatory election. The regulations under this...

  11. 26 CFR 301.9100-1 - Extensions of time to make elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extensions of time to make elections. 301.9100... Revenue Laws § 301.9100-1 Extensions of time to make elections. (a) Introduction. The regulations under... determine whether to grant an extension of time to make a regulatory election. The regulations under this...

  12. 26 CFR 301.9100-1 - Extensions of time to make elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extensions of time to make elections. 301.9100... Revenue Laws § 301.9100-1 Extensions of time to make elections. (a) Introduction. The regulations under... determine whether to grant an extension of time to make a regulatory election. The regulations under this...

  13. 26 CFR 301.9100-1 - Extensions of time to make elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extensions of time to make elections. 301.9100... Revenue Laws § 301.9100-1 Extensions of time to make elections. (a) Introduction. The regulations under... determine whether to grant an extension of time to make a regulatory election. The regulations under this...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1247-1 - Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election by foreign investment companies to... Gains and Losses § 1.1247-1 Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently. (a) Election by foreign investment company—(1) In general. If a registered foreign investment company...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1247-1 - Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election by foreign investment companies to... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1247-1 Election by foreign investment companies to distribute income currently. (a) Election by foreign investment company—(1) In general. If a registered foreign...

  16. 26 CFR 1.195-1 - Election to amortize start-up expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election to amortize start-up expenditures. 1... (continued) § 1.195-1 Election to amortize start-up expenditures. (a) In general. Under section 195(b), a taxpayer may elect to amortize start-up expenditures as defined in section 195(c)(1). In the taxable year...

  17. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... the Asset Depreciation Range System published in the Federal Register for June 23, 1971),...

  18. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... the Asset Depreciation Range System published in the Federal Register for June 23, 1971),...

  19. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... taxable year of election, (2) 120 days after the final regulations prescribing the Class Life Asset... amended return and election within 120 days after the publication of the final Class Life Asset... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range...

  20. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... taxable year of election, (2) 120 days after the final regulations prescribing the Class Life Asset... amended return and election within 120 days after the publication of the final Class Life Asset... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range...

  1. 26 CFR 1.50B-2 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.50B-2... business corporations. (a) General rule—(1) In general. In the case of an electing small business... be apportioned separately. In determining who are shareholders of an electing small business...

  2. 26 CFR 1.50A-5 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.50A-5... business corporations. (a) In general—(1) Termination of employment by a corporation. If an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small business corporation...

  3. 26 CFR 1.50B-2 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.50B-2... business corporations. (a) General rule—(1) In general. In the case of an electing small business... be apportioned separately. In determining who are shareholders of an electing small business...

  4. 26 CFR 1.50A-5 - Electing small business corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Electing small business corporations. 1.50A-5... business corporations. (a) In general—(1) Termination of employment by a corporation. If an electing small business corporation (as defined in section 1371(b)) or a former electing small business corporation...

  5. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, Puru

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  6. International program on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kreisel, W

    1995-05-01

    The International Program on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) was established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991. Currently, the technical part of IPHECA consists of five projects addressing the following areas of priority health problems or needs: thyroid, hematology, brain damage in utero, epidemiological registry and oral health. Important findings are: 1) a significant increase of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus and Ukraine since 1989, and in Russia since 1992 though not so pronounced. A relationship between detected thyroid cancers and radiation exposure is yet to be established, 2) no increase yet in the incidence of hemoblastoses in the three States, 3) no relationship established between mental retardation and radiation exposure in utero in 4,500 children investigated. The importance of dosimetry and biological indicators of radiation damage has been recognized by IPHECA. Several methods of biological and physical dosimetry are being employed using instrumentation provided by IPHECA. Some preliminary results indicate: 1) unstable aberrations can indicate an integral exposure but it is heavily biased to recent exposures, 2) when comparing healthy persons and patients with hematological diseases in contaminated areas, there is a higher ratio of total aberrations compared to their background and that the level of stable is lower than unstable aberrations, and 3) by applying electron spin resonance (ESR) it has been shown that the individual distribution of doses approaches a log-normal one, especially for adults, and that a peak shift towards higher doses is noticeable for children.

  7. 42 CFR 418.24 - Election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... palliative rather than curative nature of hospice care, as it relates to the individual's terminal illness... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Election of hospice care. 418.24 Section 418.24... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits §...

  8. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital...

  9. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital...

  10. 42 CFR 419.42 - Hospital election to reduce coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. 419.42... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Payments to Hospitals § 419.42 Hospital election to reduce coinsurance. (a) A hospital...

  11. Global governance, international health law and WHO: looking towards the future.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allyn L

    2002-01-01

    The evolving domain of international health law encompasses increasingly diverse and complex concerns. Commentators agree that health development in the twenty-first century is likely to expand the use of conventional international law to create a framework for coordination and cooperation among states in an increasingly interdependent world. This article examines the forces and factors behind the emerging expansion of conventional international health law as an important tool for present and future multilateral cooperation. It considers challenges to effective international health cooperation posed for intergovernmental organizations and other actors involved in lawmaking. Although full consolidation of all aspects of future international health lawmaking under the auspices of a single international organization is unworkable and undesirable, the World Health Organization (WHO) should endeavour to serve as a coordinator, catalyst and, where appropriate, platform for future health law codification. Such leadership by WHO could enhance coordination, coherence and implementation of international health law policy.

  12. Global governance, international health law and WHO: looking towards the future.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Allyn L.

    2002-01-01

    The evolving domain of international health law encompasses increasingly diverse and complex concerns. Commentators agree that health development in the twenty-first century is likely to expand the use of conventional international law to create a framework for coordination and cooperation among states in an increasingly interdependent world. This article examines the forces and factors behind the emerging expansion of conventional international health law as an important tool for present and future multilateral cooperation. It considers challenges to effective international health cooperation posed for intergovernmental organizations and other actors involved in lawmaking. Although full consolidation of all aspects of future international health lawmaking under the auspices of a single international organization is unworkable and undesirable, the World Health Organization (WHO) should endeavour to serve as a coordinator, catalyst and, where appropriate, platform for future health law codification. Such leadership by WHO could enhance coordination, coherence and implementation of international health law policy. PMID:12571727

  13. The Centre for International Mental Health Approach to Mental Health System Development

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to developmental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:37–46.) PMID:22335181

  14. How well do international drug conventions protect public health?

    PubMed

    Room, Robin; Reuter, Peter

    2012-01-07

    The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961 aimed to eliminate the illicit production and non-medical use of cannabis, cocaine, and opioids, an aim later extended to many pharmaceutical drugs. Over the past 50 years international drug treaties have neither prevented the globalisation of the illicit production and non-medical use of these drugs, nor, outside of developed countries, made these drugs adequately available for medical use. The system has also arguably worsened the human health and wellbeing of drug users by increasing the number of drug users imprisoned, discouraging effective countermeasures to the spread of HIV by injecting drug users, and creating an environment conducive to the violation of drug users' human rights. The international system has belatedly accepted measures to reduce the harm from injecting drug use, but national attempts to reduce penalties for drug use while complying with the treaties have often increased the number of drug users involved with the criminal justice system. The international treaties have also constrained national policy experimentation because they require nation states to criminalise drug use. The adoption of national policies that are more aligned with the risks of different drugs and the effectiveness of controls will require the amendment of existing treaties, the formulation of new treaties, or withdrawal of states from existing treaties and re-accession with reservations.

  15. [Preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac surgery. Joint recommendations of German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, German Society of Surgery and German Society of Internal Medicine].

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of the patient's medical history and a physical examination are the cornerstones of risk assessment prior to elective surgery and may help to optimize the patient's preoperative medical condition and to guide perioperative management. Whether the performance of additional technical tests (e.g. blood chemistry, ECG, spirometry, chest-x-ray) can contribute to a reduction of perioperative risk is often not very well known or controversial. Similarly, there is considerable uncertainty among anesthesiologists, internists and surgeons with respect to the perioperative management of the patient's long-term medication. Therefore, the German Scientific Societies of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), Internal Medicine (DGIM) and Surgery (DGCH) have joined to elaborate and publish recommendations on the preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac and non-lung resection surgery. In the first part the general principles of preoperative evaluation are described (part A). The current concepts for extended evaluation of patients with known or suspected major cardiovascular disease are presented in part B. Finally, the perioperative management of patients' long-term medication is discussed (part C). The concepts proposed in these interdisciplinary recommendations endorsed by the DGAI, DGIM and DGCH provide a common basis for a structured preoperative risk assessment and management. These recommendations aim to ensure that surgical patients undergo a rational preoperative assessment and at the same time to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially dangerous testing. The joint recommendations reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge as well as expert opinions because scientific-based evidence is not always available. These recommendations will be subject to regular re-evaluation and updating when new validated evidence becomes available.

  16. [Preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac surgery: joint recommendations of German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, German Society of Surgery and German Society of Internal Medicine].

    PubMed

    2010-11-01

    Evaluation of the patient's medical history and a physical examination are the cornerstones of risk assessment prior to elective surgery and may help to optimize the patient's preoperative medical condition and to guide perioperative management. Whether the performance of additional technical tests (e.g. blood chemistry, ECG, spirometry, chest-x-ray) can contribute to a reduction of perioperative risk is often not very well known or controversial. Similarly, there is considerable uncertainty among anesthesiologists, internists and surgeons with respect to the perioperative management of the patient's long-term medication. Therefore, the German Scientific Societies of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI), Internal Medicine (DGIM) and Surgery (DGCH) have joined to elaborate and publish recommendations on the preoperative evaluation of adult patients prior to elective, non-cardiac and non-lung resection surgery. In the first part the general principles of preoperative evaluation are described (part A). The current concepts for extended evaluation of patients with known or suspected major cardiovascular disease are presented in part B. Finally, the perioperative management of patients' long-term medication is discussed (part C). The concepts proposed in these interdisciplinary recommendations endorsed by the DGAI, DGIM and DGCH provide a common basis for a structured preoperative risk assessment and management. These recommendations aim to ensure that surgical patients undergo a rational preoperative assessment and at the same time to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially dangerous testing. The joint recommendations reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge as well as expert opinions because scientific-based evidence is not always available. These recommendations will be subject to regular re-evaluation and updating when new validated evidence becomes available.

  17. [International cooperation in health: the Special Service of Public Health and its nursing program].

    PubMed

    de Campos, André Luiz Vieira

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública (Special Service of Public Health) in developing and expanding higher education in nursing and to train auxiliary health personnel in Brazil under bilateral agreements between the US and Brazil during the 1940s and 1950s. The Nursing Program of the Special Service is approached from the perspective of its participation in a broader international cooperation developed by the Pan American Health Organization, but also as part of the state and nation building effort of the first Vargas Regime.

  18. Health technology assessment agencies: an international overview of organizational aspects.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Francesco; La Torre, Giuseppe; Di Ghionno, Elena; Staniscia, Tommaso; Neroni, Massimo; Cicchetti, Americo; Von Bremen, Konrade; Ricciardi, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study is to make an international comparison of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Agencies, to show their similarities and differences. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to thirty HTA agencies internationally. Questions related to the structure of the agency, the relationship with health-related institutions, the prescriptiveness of the decisions taken, the main core and the modalities to spread the assessment, and the type of funding. Twenty-four HTA Agencies answered the questionnaire: 25 percent in America, 4.2 percent in Australia, and 70.8 percent in Europe. Fifty-four percent of HTA Agencies are governmental institutions (83.3 percent have central government funding), while 62.5 percent have relationships with health-related governmental institutions. Of the agencies, 87 percent reported that their decisions are not prescriptive, while for 20.8 percent and 8.3 percent of them stated that this was the case totally or partially, respectively, especially for the governmental and American Agencies. Seventeen agencies (70.8 percent) declared their work on multiannual programs (77 percent of the governmental HTA Agencies and 100 percent of the American ones). The assessments mainly addressed diagnostic procedures (85.7 percent) and pharmaceuticals (25 percent). The most common way to disseminate results is by means of paper report (91.7 percent), followed by the Internet (16.7 percent), and seminars to expert audiences (12.5 percent). The comparative analysis of HTA Agencies showed that governmental and American Agencies have a profound impact on the prescriptiveness of their assessment, and this could be linked to the fact that these types of Agencies work on multiannual programs. European and American HTA Agencies have many similarities in terms of type of assessment, funding, and dissemination of results.

  19. A Brief History of INA and ICOH SCNP: International Neurotoxicology Association and International Congress on Occupational Health Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two international scientific societies dedicated to research in neurotoxicology and neurobehavioral toxicology are the International Neurotoxicology Association (INA) and the International Congress on Occupational Health International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effe...

  20. A Brief History of INA and ICOH SCNP: International Neurotoxicology Association and International Congress on Occupational Health Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two international scientific societies dedicated to research in neurotoxicology and neurobehavioral toxicology are the International Neurotoxicology Association (INA) and the International Congress on Occupational Health International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effe...

  1. Public health in action: effective school health needs renewed international attention.

    PubMed

    Benzian, Habib; Monse, Bella; Belizario, Vicente; Schratz, Alexander; Sahin, Murat; Helderman, Wim van Palenstein

    2012-01-01

    School health programmes as a platform to deliver high-impact health interventions are currently underrated by decision makers and do not get adequate attention from the international public health community. We describe the award-winning Fit for School Approach from the Philippines as an example of a large-scale, integrated, cost-effective and evidence-based programme that bridges the gap between sectors, and between evidence and practice. In view of the challenges to achieve the health and education related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in many countries, intensified efforts are required. We present the Fit for School Action Framework as a realistic and tested approach that helps to make schools places of public health for children and wider communities.

  2. Public health in action: effective school health needs renewed international attention

    PubMed Central

    Benzian, Habib; Monse, Bella; Belizario, Vicente; Schratz, Alexander; Sahin, Murat; Palenstein Helderman, Wim Van

    2012-01-01

    School health programmes as a platform to deliver high-impact health interventions are currently underrated by decision makers and do not get adequate attention from the international public health community. We describe the award-winning Fit for School Approach from the Philippines as an example of a large-scale, integrated, cost-effective and evidence-based programme that bridges the gap between sectors, and between evidence and practice. In view of the challenges to achieve the health and education related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in many countries, intensified efforts are required. We present the Fit for School Action Framework as a realistic and tested approach that helps to make schools places of public health for children and wider communities. PMID:22389644

  3. Conference summary: International Biomass Smoke Health Effects (IBSHE).

    PubMed

    Holian, Andrij; Stock, Allison; Migliaccio, Christopher; Noonan, Curtis; Ward, Tony

    2010-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the University of Montana's Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) co-hosted a conference entitled "International Biomass Smoke and Health Effects" in Missoula, MT, on August 21 and 22, 2007. The goal of this conference was to bring together experts from diverse fields to review the state of the science in several key areas involving biomass smoke research, as well as identify future research directions. Researchers, physicians, and representatives from regulatory agencies from around the country and world met for a cross-disciplinary exploration of many issues related to biomass smoke research. Major topics of discussion included risk assessment, biomarkers of exposure, toxicology and animal study design, health outcomes measures/study design, and communications gaps. In addition to multiple presentations, breakout sessions were focused on identifying future research directions. In this issue of Inhalation Toxicology, we present the findings from each of these breakout sessions in an effort to summarize what is known in these key areas, and to identify those emerging issues in the field of biomass smoke research.

  4. Building international genomics collaboration for global health security

    DOE PAGES

    Cui, Helen H.; Erkkila, Tracy; Chain, Patrick S. G.; ...

    2015-12-07

    Genome science and technologies are transforming life sciences globally in many ways and becoming a highly desirable area for international collaboration to strengthen global health. The Genome Science Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is leveraging a long history of expertise in genomics research to assist multiple partner nations in advancing their genomics and bioinformatics capabilities. The capability development objectives focus on providing a molecular genomics-based scientific approach for pathogen detection, characterization, and biosurveillance applications. The general approaches include introduction of basic principles in genomics technologies, training on laboratory methodologies and bioinformatic analysis of resulting data, procurement, and installationmore » of next-generation sequencing instruments, establishing bioinformatics software capabilities, and exploring collaborative applications of the genomics capabilities in public health. Genome centers have been established with public health and research institutions in the Republic of Georgia, Kingdom of Jordan, Uganda, and Gabon; broader collaborations in genomics applications have also been developed with research institutions in many other countries.« less

  5. 76 FR 37037 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ62 Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health..., Health care, Health insurance, Pensions, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Proposed Amendments to... the Center for Consumer Information & Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human...

  6. 75 FR 43109 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ62 Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health... taxes, Health care, Health insurance, Pensions, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Proposed... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar...

  7. Pacific Northwest election results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qamar, Anthony

    Six AGU members have been elected members of the Regional Committee of the AGU Pacific Northwest Region. Their terms are July 1, 1986, to June 30, 1988. The Regional Committee, which directs the activities of the branch, is composed of a representative of each of the AGU sections taking part in branch activities.Those elected are Robert M. Ellis, Tectonophysics Section; Stephen L. Gillett, Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism Section; Tark S. Hamilton, Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section; Renner B. Hofmann, Seismology Section; Charles W. Slaughter, Hydrology Section; and Richard E. Thomson, Ocean Sciences Section.

  8. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    PubMed

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  9. Addressing health literacy through clear health communication: a training program for internal medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Green, Jamie A; Gonzaga, Alda Maria; Cohen, Elan D; Spagnoletti, Carla L

    2014-04-01

    To develop, pilot, and test the effectiveness of a clear health communication curriculum to improve resident knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding health literacy. Thirty-one internal medicine residents participated in a small group curriculum that included didactic teaching, practice with a standardized patient, and individualized feedback on videotaped encounters with real patients. Outcomes were assessed using a pre-post survey and a communication skills checklist. Mean knowledge scores increased significantly from 60.3% to 77.6% (p<0.001). Residents also reported increased familiarity with the concept of health literacy (mean response 3.2 vs. 4.5 on a 5 point scale), importance placed on health literacy (4.2 vs. 4.9), frequency of considering health literacy in patient care (3.3 vs. 4.0), and confidence in communicating with low literacy patients (3.3 vs. 4.1) (all p<0.001). Use of plain language increased significantly from 33% to 86% (p=0.023). There were nonsignificant increases in the use of teach-back (0-36%, p=0.116) and encouraging questions (0-14%, p=0.502). Training in clear health communication improves resident knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding health literacy. The increased use of clear health communication techniques can significantly improve the care and outcomes of vulnerable patients with limited health literacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 26 CFR 1.179-1 - Election to expense certain depreciable assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election to expense certain depreciable assets. 1.179-1 Section 1.179-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations (continued) § 1.179-1 Election to expense certain depreciable assets. (a) In general. Section 179...

  11. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules...

  12. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules...

  13. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules...

  14. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating to...

  15. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating to...

  16. 26 CFR 1.472-3 - Time and manner of making election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time and manner of making election. 1.472-3 Section 1.472-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories § 1.472-3 Time and manner of making election. (a...

  17. 26 CFR 1.195-1 - Election to amortize start-up expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election to amortize start-up expenditures. 1.195-1 Section 1.195-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... (continued) § 1.195-1 Election to amortize start-up expenditures. For further guidance, see § 1.195-1T....

  18. 26 CFR 1.195-1 - Election to amortize start-up expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to amortize start-up expenditures. 1.195-1 Section 1.195-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....195-1 Election to amortize start-up expenditures. For further guidance, see § 1.195-1T....

  19. 26 CFR 1.1293-1 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. 1.1293-1 Section 1.1293-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Losses § 1.1293-1 Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. (a) In general. (1) Other...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1293-1 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. 1.1293-1 Section 1.1293-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1293-1 Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. (a) In general. (1...

  1. Global health security agenda and the international health regulations: moving forward.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; Sorrell, Erin M; Kornblet, Sarah A; Fischer, Julie E

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) in February 2014 capped over a decade of global efforts to develop new approaches to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases-part of the growing recognition that disease events, whether natural, accidental, or intentional, threaten not just public health, but national, regional, and global security interests. In 2005, the United States, along with other Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO), adopted the revised International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)]. The IHR (2005) conferred new responsibilities on WHO and the global health community to coordinate resources for capacity building and emergency response, and on the now-196 States Parties to develop the core capacities required to detect, assess, report, and respond to potential public health emergencies of international concern. Both GHSA and the IHR aim to elevate political attention and encourage participation, coordination, and collaboration by multiple stakeholders, while leveraging previously existing commitments and multilateral efforts. GHSA and the IHR (2005) are platforms for action; how efforts under each will complement each other remains unclear. Mechanisms that measure progress under these 2 overlapping frameworks will aid in focusing resources and in sustaining political momentum for IHR implementation after 2016.

  2. Reinventing public health: A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians and its international impact

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Study objective To examine the Canadian origins of the Lalonde Report and its impact on British and American health promotion activities. Design: A brief history of the development of key Canadian documents and their use by politicians and public health activists in the United Kingdom and United States. Setting: This paper focuses on the impact of the Canadian model on Canada, the United Kingdom and United States. Main results: This paper argues that internal political and economic forces are as important as international trends in determining healthcare policy initiatives. Conclusions: In the 1970s all the English‐speaking developed nations were facing deficits as curative costs rose. Adopting health promotion policies permitted them to shift responsibility back to local governments and individuals while limiting their expenditures. Health and community activists, however, used this concept to broaden their focus to include the social, economic and political determinants of health and thus reinvented public health discourse and practice for the 21st century. PMID:17933952

  3. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization

    PubMed Central

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term “pharmaceuticalization” in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health. PMID:25431535

  4. International law, public health, and the meanings of pharmaceuticalization.

    PubMed

    Cloatre, Emilie; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-10-02

    Recent social science scholarship has employed the term "pharmaceuticalization" in analyses of the production, circulation and use of drugs. In this paper, we seek to open up further discussion of the scope, limits and potential of this as an analytical device through consideration of the role of law and legal processes in directing pharmaceutical flows. To do so, we synthesize a range of empirical and conceptual work concerned with the relationships between access to medicines and intellectual property law. This paper suggests that alongside documenting the expansion or reduction in demand for particular drugs, analysts of pharmaceuticalization attend to the ways in which socio-legal developments change (or not) the identities of drugs, and the means through which they circulate and come to be used by states and citizens. Such scholarship has the potential to more precisely locate the biopolitical processes that shape international agendas and targets, form markets, and produce health.

  5. 42 CFR 418.28 - Revoking the election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revoking the election of hospice care. 418.28... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.28 Revoking the election of hospice care. (a) An individual or representative may revoke the...

  6. 42 CFR 418.21 - Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.21 Duration of hospice care coverage—Election periods. (a) Subject to the conditions set forth...

  7. 42 CFR 422.52 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs..., and Enrollment § 422.52 Eligibility to elect an MA plan for special needs individuals. (a) General rule. In order to elect a specialized MA plan for a special needs individual (Special Needs MA plan,...

  8. 42 CFR 418.28 - Revoking the election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revoking the election of hospice care. 418.28... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.28 Revoking the election of hospice care. (a) An individual or representative may revoke...

  9. 42 CFR 418.21 - Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.21 Duration of hospice care coverage—Election periods. (a) Subject to...

  10. 42 CFR 418.28 - Revoking the election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revoking the election of hospice care. 418.28... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.28 Revoking the election of hospice care. (a) An individual or representative may revoke...

  11. 42 CFR 418.21 - Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.21 Duration of hospice care coverage—Election periods. (a) Subject to...

  12. 42 CFR 418.21 - Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.21 Duration of hospice care coverage—Election periods. (a) Subject to the conditions set forth...

  13. 42 CFR 418.28 - Revoking the election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Revoking the election of hospice care. 418.28... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.28 Revoking the election of hospice care. (a) An individual or representative may revoke...

  14. 42 CFR 418.28 - Revoking the election of hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revoking the election of hospice care. 418.28... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.28 Revoking the election of hospice care. (a) An individual or representative may revoke the...

  15. 42 CFR 418.21 - Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of hospice care coverage-Election periods... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.21 Duration of hospice care coverage—Election periods. (a) Subject to...

  16. Development, health, and international policy: the research and innovation dimension.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Chamas, Claudia; Faid, Miriam; Morel, Carlos

    2016-11-03

    This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs. The article concludes, first, that much remains to be done for the Agenda to truly represent a coherent and viable international political pact, and that the two macro-processes related to innovation in health need to be streamlined. But this requires democratization of participation by the main stakeholders - patients and the general population of the poorest countries - since this is the only way to overcome a "zero sum" result in the clash in the current debates among member State representatives. Resumo: O objetivo central deste texto é discutir desenvolvimento e saúde sob a ótica da influência da governança da saúde global, utilizando como traçador a dimensão das políticas de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação em saúde, que se referem, de um lado, a insumos importantes para o sistema de saúde - como fármacos e medicamentos, vacinas, reativos para diagnóstico e equipamentos e, de outro, a conceitos e práticas inovadoras para o aperfeiçoamento dos sistemas de saúde e da saúde pública. Examina os dois principais macroprocessos que influenciam o desenvolvimento e a saúde: a Agenda do Desenvolvimento para o pós-2015 e o processo sobre pesquisa e desenvolvimento, propriedade intelectual e acesso a insumos em saúde em curso na Organiza

  17. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  18. Consumer Arithmetic Elective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatham, Don

    1977-01-01

    An elective course aimed at giving tenth-grade students some experience with practical arithmetic problems is outlined. The two-week course is designed primarily for students who will be leaving at the end of the year and includes topics such as calculators; earning, spending, and saving money; tax; and buying a car. (MN)

  19. AGU elects 1989 Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twenty-two distinguished scientists have been elected Fellows of the Union. Fellows are scientists who are judged by their peers as having attained ackowledged eminence in a branch of geophysics. The number of Fellows elected each year is limited to 0.1 % of the total membership at the time of election. The newly elected Fellows are Walter Alvarez, University of California, Berkeley; John R. Booker, University of Washington, Seattle; Peter G. Brewer, Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.; Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif.; Gedeon Dagan, Tel Aviv University, Israel; James H. Dieterich, USGS, Menlo Park; Thomas Dunne, University of Washington, Seattle; Jack Fooed Evernden, USGS, Menlo Park; Edward A. Flinn, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.; Gerhard Haerendel, Max Planck Institut, Garching, Federal Republic of Germany; David L. Kohlstedt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Robert A. Langel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; James G. Moore, USGS, Menlo Park; Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Robert C. Newton, University of Chicago, Illinois; John A. Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; Robert B. Smith, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bengt U. Sonnerup, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.; Martin A. Uman, University of Florida, Gainesville; Joe Veverka, Cornell University; and James C.G. Walker, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

  20. Elective English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm Springs High School, CA.

    This document contains course descriptions of 37 elective English courses divided into five levels for sophomore, junior, and senior high school students--the higher levels having more difficult reading and more demanding work, and requiring better writing skills and more independent study habits. An explanation of the composition, grammar,…