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Sample records for international isa biomedical

  1. 'Standing on the shoulders of giants' at the ISAE international congress.

    PubMed

    2016-09-17

    The 50th anniversary of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) was celebrated in July, with the return of its annual international congress to Edinburgh, the city where the society was founded in 1966. Scientific legacy was a prevalent topic at the meeting, in line with the congress theme: standing on the shoulders of giants. The event was the biggest in the ISAE's history, spanning five days, from July 12 to 16, and comprising almost 200 talks. Rachel Orritt reflects on proceedings.

  2. linkedISA: semantic representation of ISA-Tab experimental metadata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reporting and sharing experimental metadata- such as the experimental design, characteristics of the samples, and procedures applied, along with the analysis results, in a standardised manner ensures that datasets are comprehensible and, in principle, reproducible, comparable and reusable. Furthermore, sharing datasets in formats designed for consumption by humans and machines will also maximize their use. The Investigation/Study/Assay (ISA) open source metadata tracking framework facilitates standards-compliant collection, curation, visualization, storage and sharing of datasets, leveraging on other platforms to enable analysis and publication. The ISA software suite includes several components used in increasingly diverse set of life science and biomedical domains; it is underpinned by a general-purpose format, ISA-Tab, and conversions exist into formats required by public repositories. While ISA-Tab works well mainly as a human readable format, we have also implemented a linked data approach to semantically define the ISA-Tab syntax. Results We present a semantic web representation of the ISA-Tab syntax that complements ISA-Tab's syntactic interoperability with semantic interoperability. We introduce the linkedISA conversion tool from ISA-Tab to the Resource Description Framework (RDF), supporting mappings from the ISA syntax to multiple community-defined, open ontologies and capitalising on user-provided ontology annotations in the experimental metadata. We describe insights of the implementation and how annotations can be expanded driven by the metadata. We applied the conversion tool as part of Bio-GraphIIn, a web-based application supporting integration of the semantically-rich experimental descriptions. Designed in a user-friendly manner, the Bio-GraphIIn interface hides most of the complexities to the users, exposing a familiar tabular view of the experimental description to allow seamless interaction with the RDF representation, and visualising

  3. International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Jean, Ed.

    Proceedings from the International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes are provided. After a list of participants and summary of the highlights of the conference, the keynote address by H. Moser is presented. The following 13 papers are provided along with workshop recommendations and a list of main points elicited…

  4. International biomedical law in search for its normative status.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Atina

    2012-01-01

    The broad and multifaceted problem of global health law and global health governance has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The global community has failed to establish international legal regime that deals comprehensively with the 'technological revolution'. The latter has posed complex questions to regions of the world with widely differing cultural perspectives. At the same time, an increasing number of governmental and non-state actors have become significantly involved in the sector. They use legal, political, and other forms of decision-making that result in regulatory instruments of contrasting normative status. Law created in this heterogeneous environment has been said to be fragmented, inconsistent, and exacerbating uncertainties. Therefore, claims have been made that a centralised and institutionalised system would help address the problems of transparency, legitimacy and efficiency. Nevertheless, little scholarly consideration is paid to the normative status of international biomedical law. This paper explores whether formalisation and "constitutionalisation" of biomedical law are indeed inevitable for its establishment as a separate regulatory regime. It does so by analysing the proliferation of biomedical law in light of two the theory of fragmentation and the theory of global legal pluralism. Investigating the problem in this way helps determine the theoretical framework and methodology of future studies of biomedical law at the international level. This in turn should help its future development in a more consistent and harmonised manner.

  5. 78 FR 52777 - Implementation of the Revised International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is... International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals (``Guiding Principles''). The NIH is... INFORMATION CONTACT: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Office of Extramural Research, National...

  6. Comparative study on the immunopotentiator effect of ISA 201, ISA 61, ISA 50, ISA 206 used in trivalent foot and mouth disease vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ehab El-Sayed; Gamal, Wael Mossad; Hassan, Amr Ismail; Mahdy, Safy El-Din; Hegazy, Akram Zakria; Abdel-Atty, Magdy Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A comparison study was conducted to explore the best internationally available adjuvant that could be used in production of a highly potent foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine, that could stimulate a strong immune response and possibly give greater protection against FMD. Materials and Methods: Four experimental batches of trivalent FMD vaccine were prepared with different available oil adjuvants which included Montanide ISA 201, 206, 61 and 50. Results: The results indicated that vaccines emulsified using Montanide ISA 201 and Montanide ISA 206 adjuvants elicited a protective humoral immune response from the 2nd week postvaccination (WPV) as for ISA 201 with serum neutralization test (SNT) and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titers of 1.62±0.047a and 1.8±0.049a, 1.59±0.076a and 1.836±0.077a, and 1.71±0.06b and 1.96±0.074b for serotypes O, A, SAT2, respectively, and for ISA 206 at SNT and ELISA antibody titers of 1.5±0.082a and 1.84±0.084a, 1.56±0.037a and 1.818±0.052a, and 1.5±0.106a,b and 1.81±0.104a,b for FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT2, respectively. For ISA 61 and ISA 50, the protective antibody titer appeared in the 3rd WPV. In the ISA 61 FMD vaccine, SNT and ELISA titer were 1.59±0.076a and 1.9±0.094a, 1.53±0.056a and 1.83±0.070a, and 1.5±0.082a and 1.84±0.094a for serotypes O, A and SAT2, respectively, and in the case of ISA 50 FMD vaccine, the SNT, and ELISA titer were recorded for serotypes O, A and SAT2 respectively, 1.59±0.037a and 1.8±0.030a, 1.68±0.056a,b and 1.916±0.065a,b, and 1.65±0.082a and 1.9±0.09a. On estimating the cellular immune response, the highest delta optical density levels for ISA 201 (0.395-0.460) and ISA 206 (0.375-0.428) were observed on 14 and 21 days post vaccination (DPV) respectively, while the highest levels of lymphoproliferation for ISA 61 (0.375-0.455) and ISA 50 (0.411-0.430) were on 21 and 28 DPV, respectively. Conclusion: The duration of immunity from Montanide ISA oils

  7. Proceedings of the fifth PTCOG meeting and international workshop on biomedical accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    This volume contains the proceeding and individual papers presented at the Fifth PTCOG meeting and International Workshop on Biomedical Accelerators. The meeting was divided into sessions on the biomedical aspects of therapy delivery, new biomedical accelerators, facilities, and beam localization and status report. Individual papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  8. The role of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) in the global development of animal welfare science and its relationship with the OIE; strength through partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this presentation is to introduce the ISAE and to highlight members’ roles in the development and implementation of OIE’s animal welfare standards. Animal welfare science is a young discipline. Originally, welfare science was heavily focused on animal behavior (ethology), but it is ...

  9. The Recognition of Biomedical Engineering Within the International Council for Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Forty years separate the emergence of Biomedical Engineering in a meeting in Paris at UNESCO in 1959 from its recognition together with Medical...Physics in 1999 by the International Council for Science. The main problems of definition and of identity of Biomedical Engineering as a scientific

  10. International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-09-01

    The International Conference on Bio-Medical Instrumentation and related Engineering and Physical Sciences (BIOMEP 2015) took place in the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Greece on June 18-20, 2015 and was organized by the Department of Biomedical Engineering. The scope of the conference was to provide a forum on the latest developments in Biomedical Instrumentation and related principles of Physical and Engineering sciences. Scientists and engineers from academic, industrial and health disciplines were invited to participate in the Conference and to contribute both in the promotion and dissemination of the scientific knowledge.

  11. Function of isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes ISA1 and ISA2 in the Zea mays leaf.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiaohui; Facon, Maud; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Dinges, Jason R; Wattebled, Fabrice; D'Hulst, Christophe; Hennen-Bierwagen, Tracie A; Myers, Alan M

    2013-12-01

    Conserved isoamylase-type starch debranching enzymes (ISAs), including the catalytic ISA1 and noncatalytic ISA2, are major starch biosynthesis determinants. Arabidopsis thaliana leaves require ISA1 and ISA2 for physiological function, whereas endosperm starch is near normal with only ISA1. ISA functions were characterized in maize (Zea mays) leaves to determine whether species-specific distinctions in ISA1 primary structure, or metabolic differences in tissues, are responsible for the differing ISA2 requirement. Genetic methods provided lines lacking ISA1 or ISA2. Biochemical analyses characterized ISA activities in mutant tissues. Starch content, granule morphology, and amylopectin fine structure were determined. Three ISA activity forms were observed in leaves, two ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimers and one ISA1 homomultimer. ISA1 homomultimer activity existed in mutants lacking ISA2. Mutants without ISA2 differed in leaf starch content, granule morphology, and amylopectin structure compared with nonmutants or lines lacking both ISA1 and ISA2. The data imply that both the ISA1 homomultimer and ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimer function in the maize leaf. The ISA1 homomultimer is present and functions in the maize leaf. Evolutionary divergence between monocots and dicots probably explains the ability of ISA1 to function as a homomultimer in maize leaves, in contrast to other species where the ISA1/ISA2 heteromultimer is the only active form.

  12. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document outlining the basic steps and criteria used in developing the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA). Previously included as part of the ISA, it will now be referenced by each ISA as...

  13. Biomedical PhD education--an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Mulvany, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    The PhD, otherwise known as the doctor of philosophy or Dr. Phil., is an internationally recognized degree, indicating that the PhD graduate has received training in research under supervision. Traditionally, the PhD was the route to an academic career, with most successful PhD graduates receiving tenured university positions. However, over the past 20-30 years, and particularly the past 10 years, the situation has changed dramatically. Governments in many countries have invested massively in PhD education, believing that trained researchers will contribute to the 'knowledge society', and thus increase the competitiveness of their countries in the future economies of the world. Thus, only a small fraction of PhD graduates now end up in academic research. Yet, the PhD remains a research degree, and indeed, institutions have become heavily dependent on PhD students for their research output. The situation has thus created a paradox. On the one hand, it has become essential for institutions to have many PhD students and for the research performed to be of the highest level. On the other hand, the careers of PhD students are not necessarily going to be directly related to the research performed during their PhD studies. The purpose of this article is to explore how this seeming paradox is being addressed in biomedicine and to show that far from being inconsistent that the two aspects are in fact complementary. The article is based on the author's experience as Head of Aarhus Graduate School of Health Sciences 2002-2011 and his work with graduate schools across Europe and internationally through the organization ORPHEUS.

  14. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In the 13 years since it was first published the "Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals" (the Vancouver style), developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, has been widely accepted by both authors and editors; over 400 journals have stated that they will consider manuscripts that conform to its requirements. This is the fourth edition of the "Uniform requirements." PMID:8287338

  15. Project-based learning with international collaboration for training biomedical engineers.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Training biomedical engineers while effectively keeping up with the fast paced scientific breakthroughs and the growth in technical innovations poses arduous challenges for educators. Traditional pedagogical methods are employed for coping with the increasing demands in biomedical engineering (BME) training and continuous improvements have been attempted with some success. Project-based learning (PBL) is an academic effort that challenges students by making them carry out interdisciplinary projects aimed at accomplishing a wide range of student learning outcomes. PBL has been shown to be effective in the medical field and has been adopted by other fields including engineering. The impact of globalization in healthcare appears to be steadily increasing which necessitates the inclusion of awareness of relevant international activities in the curriculum. Numerous difficulties are encountered when the formation of a collaborative team is tried, and additional difficulties occur as the collaboration team is extended to international partners. Understanding and agreement of responsibilities becomes somewhat complex and hence the collaborative project has to be planned and executed with clear understanding by all partners and participants. A model for training BME students by adopting PBL with international collaboration is proposed. The results of previous BME project work with international collaboration fit partially into the model. There were many logistic issues and constraints; however, the collaborative projects themselves greatly enhanced the student learning outcomes. This PBL type of learning experience tends to promote long term retention of multidisciplinary material and foster high-order cognitive activities such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In addition to introducing the students to experiences encountered in the real-life workforce, the proposed approach enhances developing professional contracts and global networking. In conclusion, despite

  16. [Design and implementation of management system of international academic conference on biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiaohong; Guo, Xinhai; Fan, Yubo

    2009-04-01

    To meet the demands of managing international academic conferences on Biomedical Engineering, a management system was designed and implemented based on Internet. The system was aimed to implement the cooperation of different departments to manage common affair and academic papers of the conference together. In addition, it could be connected to the membership management system of Chinese Society of Biomedical Engineering. With its advanced, practical, humanized and expansible characteristics, the system performed seven main functions, including the management in general information, participant information, papers, reviewer information, booking, exhibition and manager information. The system proved to be feasible and optimized as well in the 7th Asia-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering.

  17. [Presence of the biomedical periodicals of Hungarian editions in international databases].

    PubMed

    Vasas, Lívia; Hercsel, Imréné

    2006-01-15

    Presence of the biomedical periodicals of Hungarian editions in international databases. The majority of Hungarian scientific results in medical and related sciences are published in scientific periodicals of foreign edition with high impact factor (IF) values, and they appear in international scientific literature in foreign languages. In this study the authors dealt with the presence and registered citation in international databases of those periodicals only, which had been published in Hungary and/or in cooperation with foreign publishing companies. The examination went back to year 1980 and covered a 25-year long period. 110 periodicals were selected for more detailed examination. The authors analyzed the situation of the current periodicals in the three most often visited databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science), and discovered, that the biomedical scientific periodicals of Hungarian interests were not represented with reasonable emphasis in the relevant international bibliographic databases. Because of the great number of data the scientific literature of medicine and related sciences could not be represented in its entirety, this publication, however, might give useful information for the inquirers, and call the attention of the competent people.

  18. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Clinical and biomedical prevention science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether to initiate ART at higher CD4+ cell counts than currently recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines received much attention at the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008). If studies presented at the conference ultimately lead to a revision of WHO treatment guidance, the estimated number of people who will need ART globally will increase substantially. Task-shifting is emerging as an important strategy for dealing with the acute shortage of health care workers in many high-burden countries, and several studies presented at AIDS 2008 demonstrated the impressive health system efficiencies garnered by using nurses or other health care providers to deliver HIV care and treatment. Other key presentations and discussion at the conference focused on the optimal time to start TB treatment in HIV-infected patients, the growing risk of resistance in high-burden countries, including its impact on future treatment options, and several large cohort trials testing optimal drug regimens in resource-limited settings. Biomedical prevention research continues to confirm the long-term, protective benefits of circumcision. Several studies involving HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples have produced data suggesting a strong protective effect of ART for HIV-negative partners. Disappointing results from recent vaccine and non-ARV based microbicides trials are nevertheless providing important data to this field, and the expanding number of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials and ARV-based microbicides appear to provide the best hope for a new, efficacious biomedical prevention intervention. PMID:19811670

  19. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of sulfur oxides. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide. The references considered for inclusion in or cited in the external review draft ISA are available at https://hero.epa.gov/hero/sulfur-oxides. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes an assessment of scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure sciences, dosimetry, mode of action, animal and human toxicology, and epidemiology. Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for sulfur oxides (SOx) are included; Annexes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last SOx ISA which was published in 2008.

  20. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. The Integrated Plan for Review of the NAAQS for CO {U.S. EPA, 2008 #8615} identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this review of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS, and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes and presents the scientific evidence such that it, when considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations, will help the EPA address these questions during the NAAQS review:

  1. The physical characteristics of the members during the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic.

    PubMed

    Brotherhood, J R; Budd, G M; Regnard, J; Hendrie, A L; Jeffery, S E; Lincoln, G J

    1986-01-01

    Twelve male medical scientists formed the International Biomedical Expedition to the Antarctic (IBEA). Their physical characteristics and maximum oxygen uptakes (VO2max) were measured in association with three series of thermal tolerance tests in Sydney, twice before and once after going to the Antarctic. In the Antarctic they lived in tents and spent 15 days travelling by motor toboggan. Their body mass (BM) and skinfold thickness (SFT) were measured four times during the 69 days the expedition spent in the field. The characteristics of the group were (ranges): age 26-52 years, height 1680-1889 mm, BM 58.5-103.4 kg, fatness 16-34% BM and VO2max 33-49 ml X kg-1 X min-1. In the Antarctic 9 men lost between 0.7 and 5.5 kg (mean 2.7 kg) of BM with a decrease in SFT, whilst 2 men increased BM by 1.2 and 1.9 kg without change in SFT. One man retired early from the expedition. BM and SFT were regained and physical fitness lost during the return voyage to Australia. Consequently there was no difference in average SFT between the pre- and post-Antarctic laboratory tests, but BM was greater after the Antarctic implying gains in fat free mass. VO2max was lower in the final laboratory tests than in the tests before Antarctica.

  2. Ten years of international collaboration in biomedical informatics and beyond: the AMAUTA program in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne; Garcia, Patricia J; Holmes, King K; Kimball, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    Well-trained people are urgently needed to tackle global health challenges through information and communication technologies. In this report, AMAUTA, a joint international collaborative training program between the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and the University of Washington, which has been training Peruvian health professionals in biomedical and health informatics since 1999, is described. Four short-term courses have been organized in Lima, offering training to more than 200 graduate-level students. Long-term training to masters or doctorate level has been undertaken by eight students at the University of Washington. A combination of short-term and long-term strategies was found to be effective for enhancing institutional research and training enterprise. The AMAUTA program promoted the development and institution of informatics research and training capacity in Peru, and has resulted in a group of trained people playing important roles at universities, non-government offices, and the Ministry of Health in Peru. At present, the hub is being extended into Latin American countries, promoting South-to-South collaborations. PMID:20595317

  3. Review of the complexation of tetravalent actinides by ISA and gluconate under alkaline to hyperalkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Gaona, X; Montoya, V; Colàs, E; Grivé, M; Duro, L

    2008-12-12

    Isosaccharinic (ISA) and gluconic acids (GLU) are polyhydroxy carboxylic compounds showing a high affinity to metal complexation. Both organic ligands are expected in the cementitious environments usually considered for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The hyperalkaline conditions imposed by cementitious materials contribute to the formation of ISA through cellulose degradation, whereas GLU is commonly used as a concrete additive. Despite the high stability attributed to ISA/GLU complexes of tetravalent actinides, the number and reliability of available experimental studies is still limited. This work aims at providing a general and comprehensive overview of the state of the art regarding Th, U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) complexes with ISA and GLU. In the presence of ISA/GLU concentrations in the range 10(-5)-10(-2) M and absence of calcium, An(IV)(OH)x(L)y complexes (An(IV)=Th, U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV); L=ISA, GLU) are expected to dominate the aqueous speciation of tetravalent actinides in the alkaline pH range. There is a moderate agreement among their stability, although the stoichiometry of certain An(IV)-GLU complexes is still ill-defined. Under hyperalkaline conditions and presence of calcium, the species CaTh(OH)4(L)2(aq) has been described for both ISA and GLU, and similar complexes may be expected to form with other tetravalent actinides. In the present work, the available thermodynamic data for An(IV)-ISA/GLU complexes have been reviewed and re-calculated to ensure the internal consistency of the stability constants assessed. Further modelling exercises, estimations based on Linear Free-Energy Relationships (LFER) among tetravalent actinides, as well as direct analogies between ISA and GLU complexes have also been performed. This approach has led to the definition of a speciation scheme for the complexes of Th, U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) with ISA and GLU forming in alkaline to hyperalkaline pH conditions, both in the absence and

  4. Review of the complexation of tetravalent actinides by ISA and gluconate under alkaline to hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, X.; Montoya, V.; Colàs, E.; Grivé, M.; Duro, L.

    2008-12-01

    Isosaccharinic (ISA) and gluconic acids (GLU) are polyhydroxy carboxylic compounds showing a high affinity to metal complexation. Both organic ligands are expected in the cementitious environments usually considered for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The hyperalkaline conditions imposed by cementitious materials contribute to the formation of ISA through cellulose degradation, whereas GLU is commonly used as a concrete additive. Despite the high stability attributed to ISA/GLU complexes of tetravalent actinides, the number and reliability of available experimental studies is still limited. This work aims at providing a general and comprehensive overview of the state of the art regarding Th, U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) complexes with ISA and GLU. In the presence of ISA/GLU concentrations in the range 10 - 5 -10 - 2 M and absence of calcium, An(IV)(OH) x(L) y complexes (An(IV) = Th, U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV); L = ISA, GLU) are expected to dominate the aqueous speciation of tetravalent actinides in the alkaline pH range. There is a moderate agreement among their stability, although the stoichiometry of certain An(IV)-GLU complexes is still ill-defined. Under hyperalkaline conditions and presence of calcium, the species CaTh(OH) 4(L) 2(aq) has been described for both ISA and GLU, and similar complexes may be expected to form with other tetravalent actinides. In the present work, the available thermodynamic data for An(IV)-ISA/GLU complexes have been reviewed and re-calculated to ensure the internal consistency of the stability constants assessed. Further modelling exercises, estimations based on Linear Free-Energy Relationships (LFER) among tetravalent actinides, as well as direct analogies between ISA and GLU complexes have also been performed. This approach has led to the definition of a speciation scheme for the complexes of Th, U(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) with ISA and GLU forming in alkaline to hyperalkaline pH conditions, both in the

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Second ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  6. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumova, A. V.; Khodanovich, M. Y.; Yarnykh, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Second International Conference and Young Scientist School ''Magnetic resonance imaging in biomedical research'' was held on the campus of the National Research Tomsk State University (Tomsk, Russia) on September 7-9, 2015. The conference was focused on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications for biomedical research. The main goal was to bring together basic scientists, clinical researchers and developers of new MRI techniques to bridge the gap between clinical/research needs and advanced technological solutions. The conference fostered research and development in basic and clinical MR science and its application to health care. It also had an educational purpose to promote understanding of cutting-edge MR developments. The conference provided an opportunity for researchers and clinicians to present their recent theoretical developments, practical applications, and to discuss unsolved problems. The program of the conference was divided into three main topics. First day of the conference was devoted to educational lectures on the fundamentals of MRI physics and image acquisition/reconstruction techniques, including recent developments in quantitative MRI. The second day was focused on developments and applications of new contrast agents. Multinuclear and spectroscopic acquisitions as well as functional MRI were presented during the third day of the conference. We would like to highlight the main developments presented at the conference and introduce the prominent speakers. The keynote speaker of the conference Dr. Vasily Yarnykh (University of Washington, Seattle, USA) presented a recently developed MRI method, macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping, as a unique tool for modifying image contrast and a unique tool for quantification of the myelin content in neural tissues. Professor Yury Pirogov (Lomonosov Moscow State University) described development of new fluorocarbon compounds and applications for biomedicine. Drs. Julia Velikina and Alexey

  7. [International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].

    PubMed

    de Lecuona, Itziar

    2013-01-01

    The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in

  8. International Space Station as Analog of Interplanetary Transit Vehicle For Biomedical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Astronaut missions lasting up to six months aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common with interplanetary flights, especially the outbound, Earth-to-Mars transit portion of a Mars mission. Utilization of ISS and other appropriate platforms to prepare for crewed expeditions to planetary destinations including Mars has been the work of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) since 2005. HRP is charged specifically to understand and reduced the risks to astronaut health and performance in space exploration missions: everything HRP does and has done is directly related to that responsibility. Two major categories of human research have capitalized on ISS capabilities. The first category centers on the biomedical aspects of long-duration exposure to spaceflight factors, including prolonged weightlessness, radiation exposure, isolation and confinement, and actual risk to life and limb. These studies contribute to astronaut safety, health and efficiency on any long-duration missions, whether in low Earth orbit (LEO) or beyond. Qualitatively, weightlessness is weightlessness, whether in LEO or en route to Mars. The HRP sponsors investigations into losses in muscle and bone integrity, cardiovascular function, sensory-motor capability, immune capacity and psychosocial health, and development and demonstration of appropriate treatments and preventative measures. The second category includes studies that are focused on planetary expeditions beyond LEO. For these, ISS offers a high fidelity analog to investigate the combined effects of spaceflight factors (described above) plus the isolation and autonomy associated with simulated increasing distance from Earth. Investigations address crew cohesion, performance and workload, and mission control performance. The behavioral health and performance and space human factors aspects of planetary missions dominate this category. Work has already begun on a new investigation in this category which will examine the

  9. Potential commercial use of the International Space Station by the biotechnology/pharmaceutical/biomedical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Stodieck, Louis

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the linch-pin of NASA's future space plans. It emphasizes scientific research by providing a world-class scientific laboratory in which to perform long-term basic science experiments in the space environment of microgravity, radiation, vacuum, vantage-point, etc. It will serve as a test-bed for determining human system response to long-term space flight and for developing the life support equipment necessary for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The ISS will also provide facilities (up to 30% of the U.S. module) for testing material, agricultural, cellular, human, aquatic, and plant/animal systems to reveal phenomena heretofore shrouded by the veil of 1-g. These insights will improve life on Earth and will provide a commercial basis for new products and services. In fact, some products, e.g., rare metal-alloys, semiconductor chips, or protein crystals that cannot now be produced on Earth may be found to be sufficiently valuable to be manufactured on-orbit. Biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical experiments have been regularly flown on 10-16 day Space Shuttle flights and on three-month Mir flights for basic science knowledge and for life support system and commercial product development. Since 1985, NASA has created several Commercial Space Centers (CSCs) for the express purpose of bringing university, government and industrial researchers together to utilize space flight and space technology to develop new industrial products and processes. BioServe Space Technologies at the University of Colorado at Boulder and Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, is such a NASA sponsored CSC that has worked with over 65 companies and institutions in the Biotech Sector in the past 11 years and has successfully discovered and transferred new product and process information to its industry partners. While tests in the space environment have been limited to about two weeks on Shuttle or a few

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO. The development of this document is part of the Agency's periodic review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for CO. The recently completed CO ISA and supplementary annexes, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments developed by EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, will provide the scientific basis to inform EPA decisions related to the review of the current CO NAAQS. The integrated Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (U.S. EPA, 2008, 193995) identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this assessment of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS for CO and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes, presents, and integrates the scientific evidence which is considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations to help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) address these questions during the NAAQS review.

  11. The Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine: a new look at international biomedical law and ethics.

    PubMed

    Salako, Solomon E

    2008-06-01

    The Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine is European in conception but has a wider territorial application since non-Member States which have participated in its elaboration may sign it. This article evaluates the Convention as the first legally binding international biomedical law and ethics document to uphold human dignity as a fundamental concept and to provide a legal framework for societies with different sociocultural and philosophical backgrounds. It is argued that such a legal framework must be underpinned by a monist-naturalist conception of justice privileging human dignity as one of its guiding principles.

  12. Meeting report: Fifth International Conference on Ethical Issues in Biomedical Engineering.

    PubMed

    El-Gendi, Hebah; Saha, Subrata

    2009-01-01

    Ethical issues in biomedical engineering is a crucial topic that must be addressed. In the spring of 2009, attendees from various professions attended a conference regarding ethical issues at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. Abstracts representing distinct aspects of the engineering and biotechnology fields and associated ethical concerns were presented. The event featured a debate that engaged participants and panel members in intriguing ethical discussions, and concluded with a social banquet.

  13. Critically engaging: integrating the social and the biomedical in international microbicides research.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M; Pool, Robert

    2011-09-27

    Randomized controlled trials and critical social theory are known not to be happy bedfellows. Such trials are embedded in a positivist view of the world, seeking definitive answers to testable questions; critical social theory questions the methods by which we deem the world knowable and may consider experiments in the biomedical sciences as social artifacts. Yet both of these epistemologically and methodologically divergent fields offer potentially important advances in HIV research. In this paper, we describe collaboration between social and biomedical researchers on a large, publicly funded programme to develop vaginal microbicides for HIV prevention. In terms of critical engagement, having integrated and qualitative social science components in the protocol meant potentially nesting alternative epistemologies at the heart of the randomized controlled trial. The social science research highlighted the fallibility and fragility of trial data by demonstrating inconsistencies in key behavioural measurements. It also foregrounded the disjuncture between biomedical conceptions of microbicides and the meanings and uses of the study gel in the context of users' everyday lives. These findings were communicated to the clinical and epidemiological members of the team on an ongoing basis via a feedback loop, through which new issues of concern could also be debated and, in theory, data collection adjusted to the changing needs of the programme. Although critical findings were taken on board by the trialists, a hierarchy of evidence nonetheless remained that limited the utility of some social science findings. This was in spite of mutual respect between clinical epidemiologists and social scientists, equal representation in management and coordination bodies, and equity in funding for the different disciplines. We discuss the positive role that social science integrated into an HIV prevention trial can play, but nonetheless highlight tensions that remain where a hierarchy

  14. Critically engaging: integrating the social and the biomedical in international microbicides research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials and critical social theory are known not to be happy bedfellows. Such trials are embedded in a positivist view of the world, seeking definitive answers to testable questions; critical social theory questions the methods by which we deem the world knowable and may consider experiments in the biomedical sciences as social artifacts. Yet both of these epistemologically and methodologically divergent fields offer potentially important advances in HIV research. In this paper, we describe collaboration between social and biomedical researchers on a large, publicly funded programme to develop vaginal microbicides for HIV prevention. In terms of critical engagement, having integrated and qualitative social science components in the protocol meant potentially nesting alternative epistemologies at the heart of the randomized controlled trial. The social science research highlighted the fallibility and fragility of trial data by demonstrating inconsistencies in key behavioural measurements. It also foregrounded the disjuncture between biomedical conceptions of microbicides and the meanings and uses of the study gel in the context of users’ everyday lives. These findings were communicated to the clinical and epidemiological members of the team on an ongoing basis via a feedback loop, through which new issues of concern could also be debated and, in theory, data collection adjusted to the changing needs of the programme. Although critical findings were taken on board by the trialists, a hierarchy of evidence nonetheless remained that limited the utility of some social science findings. This was in spite of mutual respect between clinical epidemiologists and social scientists, equal representation in management and coordination bodies, and equity in funding for the different disciplines. We discuss the positive role that social science integrated into an HIV prevention trial can play, but nonetheless highlight tensions that remain where a hierarchy

  15. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Section 108(a) of the Clean Air Act directs the EPA Administrator to identify certain pollutants that “cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare” and to issue air quality criteria for them. These air quality criteria are to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of such pollutant in the ambient air….” Under section 109 of the Act, EPA is to establish national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for each pollutant for which EPA has issued criteria. Section 109(d) of the Act requires periodic review and, if appropriate, revision of existing air quality criteria to reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the pollutant on public health or welfare. EPA is also to revise the NAAQS, if appropriate, based on the revised air quality criteria.

  16. IUPESM: the international umbrella organisation for biomedical engineering and medical physics

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    An account of the development, aims and activities of the International Union for Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine (IUPESM) is presented. Associations with the International Council of Science (ICSU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) are leading to exciting new projects towards improving global health, healthcare, quality of life and support of health technologies in developing countries. PMID:21614293

  17. Evaluation of Montanide ISA 71 VG adjuvant during profilin vaccination against experimental coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus ISA 70 VG (ISA 70) or ISA 71 VG (ISA 71) water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin...

  18. The ISA accelerometer for BepiColombo mission .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.

    The Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) will give a fundamental contribution to the Radio Science Experiments of BepiColombo mission, enabling substantial improvement of the knowledge of Mercury's orbit and rotation, and of the relativistic dynamics in the solar system. ISA is a three-axis accelerometer devoted to the measurement of the non-gravitational acceleration of Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), whose knowledge is important in order to fully exploit the quality of the tracking data. ISA shall have an intrinsic noise level of (10^{-9} m/s^2/&sqrt;{Hz}) in the (3 \\cdot 10^{-5}) Hz to (10^{-1}) Hz frequency range, to guarantee the fulfilment of the RSE scientific goals. A comprehensive presentation of ISA accelerometer is given, including details about its scientific and technological features, the updated measurement error budget, the ongoing experimental activities and foreseen calibration and science operations strategies.

  19. Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA) for Live Virtual Constructive (LVC) environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Christine L.; Harkrider, Susan; Harrell, John; Hepp, Jared

    2014-06-01

    The Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA) is an interoperability solution that allows for the sharing of information between sensors and systems in a dynamic tactical environment. The ISA created a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that identifies common standards and protocols which support a net-centric system of systems integration. Utilizing a common language, these systems are able to connect, publish their needs and capabilities, and interact with other systems even on disadvantaged networks. Within the ISA project, three levels of interoperability were defined and implemented and these levels were tested at many events. Extensible data models and capabilities that are scalable across multi-echelons are supported, as well as dynamic discovery of capabilities and sensor management. The ISA has been tested and integrated with multiple sensors, platforms, and over a variety of hardware architectures in operational environments.

  20. Multilateral Biomedical Data Sharing in the One-year Joint US-Russian Mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Haven, C.; Johnson-Throop, K.; Van Baalen, M.; McFather, J.

    2014-01-01

    The One Year Mission (1YM) by two astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), starting in March 2015, offers a unique opportunity to expand multilateral collaboration by sharing data and resources among the partner agencies in preparation for planned space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Agreements and protocols will be established for the collection, distribution, analysis and reporting of both research and clinical data. Data will be shared between the agencies sponsoring the investigators, and between the research and clinical medicine communities where common interests are identified. The assignment of only two astronauts, one Russian and the other American, to the 1YM necessitated creativity in bilateral efforts to maximize the biomedical return from the opportunity. Addition of Canadian, European and Japanese investigations make the effort even more integrative. There will be three types of investigations: joint, cross-participation and data-exchange. The joint investigations have US and Russian coprincipal investigators, and the data acquired will be their common responsibility. The other two types must develop data sharing agreements and processes specific to their needs. A multilateral panel of ISS partner space agencies will develop policies for international exchange of scientific information to meet their science objectives and priorities. They will promote archiving of space flight data and will inform each other and the scientific community at large about the results obtained from space life sciences studies. Integration tasks for the 1YM are based on current experience from the ISS and previous efforts on the Russian space station Mir. Closer coordination between international partners requires more common approaches to remove barriers to multilateral resource utilization on the ISS. Greater integration in implementation should increase utilization efficiency to benefit all participants in spaceflight human research. This

  1. The ISAS Synchrotron Microprobe at DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlen, Alex von; Kraemer, Markus; Hergenroeder, Roland; Berges, Ulf

    2007-01-19

    Since 2004 ISAS operates a dipole beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility DELTA at University of Dortmund. Synchrotron radiation is used at this beamline as an excellent excitation source for X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Among others, the high brilliance of the synchrotron radiation in contrast to conventional X-ray tubes, the strong polarization of the synchrotron radiation and the low divergence of the electron beam can be applied to XRF offering several advantages for spectroscopy. These outstanding features encouraged us to develop and operate a synchrotron radiation induced X-ray micro fluorescence probe connected to a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (SR-WDXRF). A relevant characteristic of such a device, namely, good lateral resolution at high spectral resolution can be applied for single spot-, line-scan and area map analyses of a variety of objects. The instrumentation of the SR-WDXRF and the performed experiments will be presented. Main task is the detection of light elements by their fluorescence K-lines and the specification of element compounds.

  2. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM 2.5 and PM 10 since the prior release of the assessment. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels). Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for oxides of nitrogen, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter for ecological effects are included; Appendixes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Appendixes serve to update and revise the last oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulfur ISA which was published in 2008 and the ecological portion of the last particulate matter ISA, which was published in 2009.

  3. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments Using the International Space Station (ISS) Light Microscopy Module (LMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurk, Michael A. (Andy)

    2015-01-01

    Techshot, Inc., has developed an observation platform for the LMM on the ISS that will enable biomedical and biotechnology experiments. The LMM Dynamic Stage consists of an electronics module and the first two of a planned suite of experiment modules. Specimens and reagent solutions can be injected into a small, hollow microscope slide-the heart of the innovation-via a combination of small reservoirs, pumps, and valves. A life science experiment module allows investigators to load up to two different fluids for on-orbit, real-time image cytometry. Fluids can be changed to initiate a process, fix biological samples, or retrieve suspended cells. A colloid science experiment module conducts microparticle and nanoparticle tests for investigation of colloid self-assembly phenomena. This module includes a hollow glass slide and heating elements for the creation of a thermal gradient from one end of the slide to the other. The electronics module supports both experiment modules and contains a unique illuminator/condenser for bright and dark field and phase contrast illumination, power supplies for two piezoelectric pumps, and controller boards for pumps and valves. This observation platform safely contains internal fluids and will greatly accelerate the research and development (R&D) cycle of numerous experiments, products, and services aboard the ISS.

  4. ISA-MIP: A co-ordinated intercomparison of Interactive Stratospheric Aerosol models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmreck, Claudia; Mann, Graham; Aquila, Valentina; Bruehl, Christoph; Chin, Mian; Dohmse, Sandip; English, Jason; Lee, Lindsay; Mills, Michael; Hommel, Rene; Neely, Ryan; Schmidt, Anja; Sheng, Jianxiong; Toohey, Matthew; Weisenstein, Debra

    2016-04-01

    The SPARC activity, "Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) was initiated to coordinate international research activities on modelling and observation of stratospheric sulphate aerosols (and precursor gases) in order to assess its climate forcing and feedback. With several international activities to extend and improve observational stratospheric aerosol capabilities and data sets, and a growing number of global models treating stratospheric aerosol interactively, a new model intercomparison activity "ISA-MIP" has been established in the frame of SSIRC. ISA-MIP will compare interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA) models using a range of observations to constrain and improve the models and to provide a sound scientific basis for future work. Four ISA-MIP experiments have been designed to assess different periods of the obervational stratospheric aerosol record, and to explore key processes which influence the formation and temporal development of stratospheric aerosol. The "Background" experiment will focus on the role of microphysical and transport processes under volcanically quiescent conditions, where the stratospheric aerosol size distribution is only modulated by seasonal circulations. The "Model intercomparison of Transient Aerosol Record" (MiTAR) experiment will focus on addressing the role of small- to moderate-magnitude volcanic eruptions and transport processes in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) aerosols loading over the period 1998-2011. Background and MiTAR simulations will be compared to recent in-situ and satellite observations to evaluate the performances of the model and understand their strengths and weaknesses. Two further experiments investigate the radiative forcing from historical major eruptions. The Historical Eruptions SO2 Emission Assessment (HErSEA) will involve models carrying out mini-ensembles of the stratospheric aerosol perturbations from each of the 1963 Agung, 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Pinatubo

  5. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices regarding Injection Safety and Related Biomedical Waste Management amongst Interns in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Delhi.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Priyanka; Khandekar, Jyoti; Bachani, Damodar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by needle sticks and sharps due to unsafe injection practices are the most common occupational hazard amongst health care personnel. The objectives of our study were to determine the existing knowledge and practices of interns and change in their level following an information education and communication (IEC) package regarding safe injection practices and related biomedical waste management and to determine the status of hepatitis B vaccination. We conducted a follow-up study among all (106) interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Delhi. A predesigned semistructured questionnaire was used. IEC package in the form of hands-on workshop and power point presentation was used. A highly significant (P < 0.001) improvement in the knowledge of interns was observed after intervention with respect to the "three criteria of a safe injection" and cleaning of injection site. Thus, the baseline knowledge of interns was good in certain aspects of injection safety, namely, diseases transmitted by unsafe injections and their prevention. We conclude that IEC intervention package was effective in significantly improving the interns' knowledge regarding safe injection practices and biomedical waste management. Almost two-thirds of interns were immunised against hepatitis B before the intervention and this proportion rose significantly after the intervention.

  6. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices regarding Injection Safety and Related Biomedical Waste Management amongst Interns in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Priyanka; Khandekar, Jyoti; Bachani, Damodar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by needle sticks and sharps due to unsafe injection practices are the most common occupational hazard amongst health care personnel. The objectives of our study were to determine the existing knowledge and practices of interns and change in their level following an information education and communication (IEC) package regarding safe injection practices and related biomedical waste management and to determine the status of hepatitis B vaccination. We conducted a follow-up study among all (106) interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Delhi. A predesigned semistructured questionnaire was used. IEC package in the form of hands-on workshop and power point presentation was used. A highly significant (P < 0.001) improvement in the knowledge of interns was observed after intervention with respect to the “three criteria of a safe injection” and cleaning of injection site. Thus, the baseline knowledge of interns was good in certain aspects of injection safety, namely, diseases transmitted by unsafe injections and their prevention. We conclude that IEC intervention package was effective in significantly improving the interns' knowledge regarding safe injection practices and biomedical waste management. Almost two-thirds of interns were immunised against hepatitis B before the intervention and this proportion rose significantly after the intervention. PMID:27433489

  7. Adapting ISA system warnings to enhance user acceptance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Felipe; Liang, Yingzhen; Aparicio, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    Inappropriate speed is a major cause of traffic accidents. Different measures have been considered to control traffic speed, and intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) systems are one of the alternatives. These systems know the speed limits and try to improve compliance with them. This paper deals with an informative ISA system that provides the driver with an advance warning before reaching a road section with singular characteristics that require a lower safe speed than the current speed. In spite of the extensive tests performed using ISA systems, few works show how warnings can be adapted to the driver. This paper describes a method to adapt warning parameters (safe speed on curves, zone of influence of a singular stretch, deceleration process and reaction time) to normal driving behavior. The method is based on a set of tests with and without the ISA system. This adjustment, as well as the analysis of driver acceptance before and after the adaptation and changes in driver behavior (changes in speed and path) resulting from the tested ISA regarding a driver's normal driving style, is shown in this paper. The main conclusion is that acceptance by drivers increased significantly after redefining the warning parameters, but the effect of speed homogenization was not reduced.

  8. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur – Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2 and SO2. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2 and SO2.

  9. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Third External ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the Third External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (First External ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS.

  11. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report, Jul 2013)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regard...

  12. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has released the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria. This final ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2 and SO2. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels). Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for NOX and SOX are included; Annexes provide a more detailed discussion of the most pertinent scientific literature. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last NOX and SOX AQCDs which were published in 1993 and 1982, respectively.

  13. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    isa_cover.jpg" vspace = "2" hspace="2" align="right" width="195" height="277" border="1" alt="Cover of the SOx ISA 2008 Report"> EPA has announced the release of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Su...

  14. [Biomedical informatics].

    PubMed

    Capurro, Daniel; Soto, Mauricio; Vivent, Macarena; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Herskovic, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a new discipline that arose from the need to incorporate information technologies to the generation, storage, distribution and analysis of information in the domain of biomedical sciences. This discipline comprises basic biomedical informatics, and public health informatics. The development of the discipline in Chile has been modest and most projects have originated from the interest of individual people or institutions, without a systematic and coordinated national development. Considering the unique features of health care system of our country, research in the area of biomedical informatics is becoming an imperative.

  15. Biomedical Imaging,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    precision required from the task. This report details the technologies in surface and subsurface imaging systems for research and commercial applications. Biomedical imaging, Anthropometry, Computer imaging.

  16. The in-depth safety assessment (ISA) pilot projects in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C. A.

    1998-02-10

    Ukraine operates pressurized water reactors of the Soviet-designed type, VVER. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs). After approval of the SARS by the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, the plants will be granted longer-term operating licenses. In September 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine issued a new contents requirement for the safety analysis reports of VVERs in Ukraine. It contains requirements in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), through the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), has initiated an assistance and technology transfer program to Ukraine to assist their nuclear power stations in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARS. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) have been initiated at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1. USDOE/INSP have structured the ISA program in such a way as to provide maximum assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine while encouraging and supporting the Ukrainian plants to take the responsibility and initiative and to perform the required assessments.

  17. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Final Report ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb). This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  18. Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA) for Live Virtual Constructive (LVC) Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    of information between sensors and systems in a dynamic tactical environment. The ISA created a Service Oriented Architecture ( SOA ) that identifies...interoperability were defined and implemented and these levels were tested at many events. Extensible data models and capabilities that are scalable...uniformly considered essential in DoD programs7 they are rarely -- implemented while a system is being designed. Adding such measures afterwards can be a

  19. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and SO2). The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure and deposition, biogeochemistry, hydrology, soil science, marine science, plant physiology, animal physiology, and ecology conducted at multiple scales (e.g., population, community, ecosystem, landscape levels). Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for NOX and SOX are included; Annexes provide a more detailed discussion of the most pertinent scientific literature. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last NOX and SOX AQCDs which were published in 1993 and 1982, respectively.

  20. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding: results and interpretation of speed data.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Berthelsen, Kasper K; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007-2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA) was a sensitive measure for reflecting the effect of ISA, whereas mean free flow speed and the 85th percentile speed, were less sensitive to ISA effects. The PDA increased a little over time but still remained at a low level; however, when ISA was turned off, the participants' speeding relapsed to the baseline level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive.

  1. ISA implementation and uncertainty: a literature review and expert elicitation study.

    PubMed

    van der Pas, J W G M; Marchau, V A W J; Walker, W E; van Wee, G P; Vlassenroot, S H

    2012-09-01

    Each day, an average of over 116 people die from traffic accidents in the European Union. One out of three fatalities is estimated to be the result of speeding. The current state of technology makes it possible to make speeding more difficult, or even impossible, by placing intelligent speed limiters (so called ISA devices) in vehicles. Although the ISA technology has been available for some years now, and reducing the number of road traffic fatalities and injuries has been high on the European political agenda, implementation still seems to be far away. Experts indicate that there are still too many uncertainties surrounding ISA implementation, and dealing with these uncertainties is essential for implementing ISA. In this paper, a systematic and representative inventory of the uncertainties is made based upon the literature. Furthermore, experts in the field of ISA were surveyed and asked which uncertainties are barriers for ISA implementation, and how uncertain these uncertainties are. We found that the long-term effects and the effects of large-scale implementation of ISA are still uncertain and are the most important barriers for the implementation of the most effective types of ISA. One way to deal with these uncertainties would be to start implementation on a small scale and gradually expand the penetration, in order to learn how ISA influences the transport system over time.

  2. A dual infection of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus and a togavirus-like virus in ISA of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kibenge, F S; Whyte, S K; Hammell, K L; Rainnie, D; Kibenge, M T; Martin, C K

    2000-08-10

    Two viruses, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus and a novel togavirus-like virus, were isolated from ISA disease outbreaks that were first reported as a new syndrome, haemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS) affecting farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the East coast of Canada. Laboratory confirmation of ISA diagnosis was initially complicated by isolation of only the togavirus-like agent using the CHSE-214 cell line. Here we demonstrate that a clinical sample from a disease outbreak of ISA contained a mixture of ISA virus and togavirus-like virus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of both viruses during serial passage of cultures in SHK-1 and CHSE-214 cells. Virus harvested at passage level 3 in both cell lines caused high mortalities and severe gross pathology consistent with ISA virus infection in experimentally inoculated Atlantic salmon parr (approximately 35 g) in freshwater, beginning 12 d post inoculation. ISA virus was detected by virus isolation from kidney and liver tissues of all dead or moribund fish tested. A comparison of virus isolation, 1-step procedure RT-PCR and RNA dot-blot hybridization for detection of ISA virus (ISAV) in fish tissues showed virus isolation to have 100% sensitivity, followed by RT-PCR (66 and 28% sensitivity in kidney and liver, respectively), with RNA dot-blot hybridization as the least sensitive method (20 and 10% sensitivity in kidney and liver, respectively). No togavirus-like virus was detected in these samples by virus isolation. Moreover, another togavirus-like virus isolate grown in CHSE-214 cells in the absence of any other detectable pathogen was non-pathogenic in experimentally inoculated fish. This study confirms that the original ISA outbreaks in New Brunswick, Canada, were caused solely by ISAV.

  3. Research and development of space transportation systems in ISAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Junjirou

    1993-03-01

    An overview of the research and development activities in the ISAS (the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) focusing on the Mu-5 launch vehicle, the winged space vehicle, and the ATR (Air Turbo Ramjet) engine is presented. The design guidelines, characteristics, dimensions, and subsystems, such as rocket motor, nose fairing, and attitude control subsystem of the Mu-5 launch vehicle, one of the versions of Mu series rocket, which is capable of launching 1.8 tons of payload into LEO (Low Earth Orbit) are outlined. The research and development activities on winged space vehicle called the HIMES (Highly Maneuverable Experimental Space) Vehicle and the ATR propulsion system are outlined.

  4. Who Has Used Internal Company Documents for Biomedical and Public Health Research and Where Did They Find Them?

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, L. Susan; Rutkow, Lainie; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Rosman, Lori M.; Twose, Claire; Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. Results Our searches identified 9,305 citations of which 357 were eligible. Scanning of reference lists and consultation with colleagues identified 4 additional articles, resulting in 361 included articles. Most articles examined internal tobacco company documents (325/361; 90%). Articles using documents from pharmaceutical companies (20/361; 6%) were the next most common. Tobacco articles used documents from repositories; pharmaceutical documents were from a range of sources. Most included articles relied upon internal company documents obtained through litigation (350/361; 97%). The research questions posed were primarily about company strategies to promote or position the company and its products (326/361; 90%). Most articles (346/361; 96%) used information from miscellaneous documents such as memos or letters, or from unspecified types of documents. When explicit information about study funding was provided (290/361 articles), the most common source was the US-based National Cancer Institute. We developed an alternative and more sensitive search targeted at identifying additional research articles using internal pharmaceutical company documents, but the search retrieved an impractical number of citations for review. Conclusions Internal company documents provide an excellent source of information on health topics (e.g., corporate behavior, study data) exemplified by articles based on tobacco industry documents. Pharmaceutical and other industry documents appear to have been less used for

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2 and SO2. The current secondary NAAQS for SOX, set in 1973, is a 3-h average 0.5 ppm of SO2, not to be exceeded more than once per year. The secondary NOX NAAQS is identical to the primary standard set in 1971: 0.053 ppm NO2 as an annual average. These secondary standards are intended to protect against direct damage to vegetation by exposure to gas-phase NOX or SOX. Acute and chronic exposures to SO2 can have phytotoxic effects on vegetation, such as foliar injury, decreased photosynthesis and decreased growth. Similarly, exposure to sufficient concentrations of NO2, NO, PAN, and HNO3 can cause foliar injury, decreased photosynthesis and decreased growth. In addition, these gas-phase NOX may contribute to N saturation in some areas of the U.S. There is little new evidence overall for direct effects of exposure to gas-phase NOX or SOX on vegetation at current concentrations. However, there is some evidence that vegetation in regions with high concentrations of photochemical oxidants may be affected by HN

  6. Improving automation standards via semantic modelling: Application to ISA88.

    PubMed

    Dombayci, Canan; Farreres, Javier; Rodríguez, Horacio; Espuña, Antonio; Graells, Moisès

    2017-03-01

    Standardization is essential for automation. Extensibility, scalability, and reusability are important features for automation software that rely in the efficient modelling of the addressed systems. The work presented here is from the ongoing development of a methodology for semi-automatic ontology construction methodology from technical documents. The main aim of this work is to systematically check the consistency of technical documents and support the improvement of technical document consistency. The formalization of conceptual models and the subsequent writing of technical standards are simultaneously analyzed, and guidelines proposed for application to future technical standards. Three paradigms are discussed for the development of domain ontologies from technical documents, starting from the current state of the art, continuing with the intermediate method presented and used in this paper, and ending with the suggested paradigm for the future. The ISA88 Standard is taken as a representative case study. Linguistic techniques from the semi-automatic ontology construction methodology is applied to the ISA88 Standard and different modelling and standardization aspects that are worth sharing with the automation community is addressed. This study discusses different paradigms for developing and sharing conceptual models for the subsequent development of automation software, along with presenting the systematic consistency checking method.

  7. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  8. Biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Biomedical problems encountered by man in space which have been identified as a result of previous experience in simulated or actual spaceflight include cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone loss, muscle atrophy, red cell alterations, fluid and electrolyte loss, radiation effects, radiation protection, behavior, and performance. The investigations and the findings in each of these areas were reviewed. A description of how biomedical research is organized within NASA, how it is funded, and how it is being reoriented to meet the needs of future manned space missions is also provided.

  9. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Second External Review Draft, Mar 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science...

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Third External Review Draft, Nov 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the Third External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ...

  11. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (First External Review Draft, Dec 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and e...

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft, Mar 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of th...

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft, Jul 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  14. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft, Sep 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of t...

  15. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (First External Review Draft, May 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ...

  16. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur Ecological Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria. This final ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scienti...

  17. ISAS: The Instructional Systems Analysis and Selection Procedures. Part I: Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Kenneth I.; Matlick, Richard K.

    Litton Industries has been investigating methods for analyzing training problems and designing appropriate systems of individualized instruction to address those problems. This work can be referred to as the development of the Instructional Systems Analysis and Selection (ISAS) procedures. ISAS is a collection of questions, comparison matrices,…

  18. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced the release of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria final assessment. This ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EP...

  19. Asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere, Mount Isa terrane, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, P. G.; Lister, G. S.; O'Dea, M. G.

    1998-11-01

    The Middle Proterozoic Mount Isa Basin, of the Mount Isa terrane, hosts several large Pb-Zn-Ag deposits and is arguably one of the richest mineral provinces in the world. The deformed remnants of this basin extend from the eastern margin of the Leichhardt River Fault Trough through to the Murphy Tectonic Ridge in the far north of the terrane. The Mount Isa Basin initially evolved in response to NW-SE-directed extension during the Mount Isa Rift Event. This event began before ˜1708 Ma and had ceased by ˜1653 Ma. A sag basin continued to evolve thereafter until ˜1595 Ma. Regional analysis of the highest level cover rocks of the Mount Isa Basin reveals a notable difference in the locus of syn-rift sedimentation, syn-rift magmatism, and post-rift subsidence. Although crustal extension was widespread across the Mount Isa Basin, tectonic subsidence was focussed along the ˜N-S-oriented Mount Isa Rift. Approximately 3-5 km of fluvial to shallow marine clastic sediments were deposited into isolated rift basins. Bimodal volcanism and emplacement of shallow level plutons occurred along the western and northwestern margins of the Mount Isa Rift. Magmatic provinces mark the locus of significant subcrustal lithospheric thinning, asthenospheric upwelling, and mafic underplating. Within these magmatic provinces the syn-rift sequences are fewer and thinner (750-2000 m) and were dominantly deposited in subaerial environments, suggesting a relatively stable uplift and subsidence history. The position of maximum subcrustal lithospheric extension is determined by the position of greatest post-rift subsidence. This occurred beneath the northern Mount Isa terrane where the thickest post-rift sequences are preserved and the depositional history is more protracted. We propose that the evolution of the Mount Isa Basin is a consequence of asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere.

  20. Microflow1, a sheathless fiber-optic flow cytometry biomedical platform: demonstration onboard the international space station.

    PubMed

    Dubeau-Laramée, Geneviève; Rivière, Christophe; Jean, Isabelle; Mermut, Ozzy; Cohen, Luchino Y

    2014-04-01

    A fiber-optic based flow cytometry platform was designed to build a portable and robust instrument for space applications. At the core of the Microflow1 is a unique fiber-optic flow cell fitted to a fluidic system and fiber coupled to the source and detection channels. A Microflow1 engineering unit was first tested and benchmarked against a commercial flow cytometer as a reference in a standard laboratory environment. Testing in parabolic flight campaigns was performed to establish Microflow1's performance in weightlessness, before operating the new platform on the International Space Station. Microflow1 had comparable performances to commercial systems, and operated remarkably and robustly in weightlessness (microgravity). Microflow1 supported immunophenotyping as well as microbead-based multiplexed cytokine assays in the space environment and independently of gravity levels. Results presented here provide evidence that this fiber-optic cytometer technology is inherently compatible with the space environment with negligible compromise to analytical performance.

  1. ISA accelerometer onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter: error budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Lucchesi, David M.; Nozzoli, Sergio; Santoli, Francesco

    2007-03-01

    We have estimated a preliminary error budget for the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) that will be allocated onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the European Space Agency (ESA) space mission to Mercury named BepiColombo. The role of the accelerometer is to remove from the list of unknowns the non-gravitational accelerations that perturb the gravitational trajectory followed by the MPO in the strong radiation environment that characterises the orbit of Mercury around the Sun. Such a role is of fundamental importance in the context of the very ambitious goals of the Radio Science Experiments (RSE) of the BepiColombo mission. We have subdivided the errors on the accelerometer measurements into two main families: (i) the pseudo-sinusoidal errors and (ii) the random errors. The former are characterised by a periodic behaviour with the frequency of the satellite mean anomaly and its higher order harmonic components, i.e., they are deterministic errors. The latter are characterised by an unknown frequency distribution and we assumed for them a noise-like spectrum, i.e., they are stochastic errors. Among the pseudo-sinusoidal errors, the main contribution is due to the effects of the gravity gradients and the inertial forces, while among the random-like errors the main disturbing effect is due to the MPO centre-of-mass displacements produced by the onboard High Gain Antenna (HGA) movements and by the fuel consumption and sloshing. Very subtle to be considered are also the random errors produced by the MPO attitude corrections necessary to guarantee the nadir pointing of the spacecraft. We have therefore formulated the ISA error budget and the requirements for the satellite in order to guarantee an orbit reconstruction for the MPO spacecraft with an along-track accuracy of about 1 m over the orbital period of the satellite around Mercury in such a way to satisfy the RSE requirements.

  2. [Ethics and biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Goussard, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Ethics in biomedical research took off from the 1947 Nuremberg Code to its own right in the wake of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. Since then, (inter)national regulations and guidelines providing a framework for clinical studies and protection for study participants have been drafted and implemented, while ethics committees and drug evaluation agencies have sprung up throughout the world. These two developments were crucial in bringing about the protection of rights and safety of the participants and harmonization of the conduct of biomedical research. Ethics committees and drug evaluation agencies deliver ethical and scientific assessments on the quality and safety of the projects submitted to them and issue respectively approvals and authorizations to carry out clinical trials, while ensuring that they comply with regulatory requirements, ethical principles, and scientific guidelines. The advent of biomedical ethics, together with the responsible commitment of clinical investigators and of the pharmaceutical industry, has guaranteed respect for the patient, for whom and with whom research is conducted. Just as importantly, it has also ensured that patients reap the benefit of what is the primary objective of biomedical research: greater life expectancy, well-being, and quality of life.

  3. Enhancing quality and integrity in biomedical research in Africa: an international call for greater focus, investment and standardisation in capacity strengthening for frontline staff.

    PubMed

    Kombe, Francis

    2015-11-13

    The integrity of biomedical research depends heavily on the quality of research data collected. In turn, data quality depends on processes of data collection, a task undertaken by frontline research staff in many research programmes in Africa and elsewhere. These frontline research staff often have additional responsibilities including translating and communicating research in local languages, seeking informed consent for study participation and maintaining supportive relationships between research institutions and study participants and wider communities. The level of skills that fieldworkers need to undertake these responsibilities clearly affects the quality of data collected, the ethics of research 'on the ground' and the short and long term acceptability of research.We organised an international workshop in Kenya in July 2014 to discuss the role of frontline staff in scientific research. A total of 25 field managers from 9 African countries and the UK met for 2.5 days to discuss the relationship between data quality and institutional performance management systems and how they affect career progression and supportive supervision policies of research frontline staff.From this workshop, and supporting an expanding literature on the role of fieldworkers in international health research, participants agreed that fieldworkers' roles present them with practical and ethical challenges that their routine training does not adequately prepare them for. We argue that the common and complex challenges facing fieldworkers should in part be addressed through increased investment and collaborative agreements across types of research institutions in Africa. We call for standardization of core elements of training for this critically important cadre of research staff who perform similar roles and encounter similar challenges in many African settings. Although many valuable training elements are offered in institutions, there is a need to develop broader, more grounded and

  4. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  5. Spanish personal name variations in national and international biomedical databases: implications for information retrieval and bibliometric studies

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, R.; López-Cózar, E. Delgado; Jiménez-Contreras, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study sought to investigate how Spanish names are handled by national and international databases and to identify mistakes that can undermine the usefulness of these databases for locating and retrieving works by Spanish authors. Methods: The authors sampled 172 articles published by authors from the University of Granada Medical School between 1987 and 1996 and analyzed the variations in how each of their names was indexed in Science Citation Index (SCI), MEDLINE, and Índice Médico Español (IME). The number and types of variants that appeared for each author's name were recorded and compared across databases to identify inconsistencies in indexing practices. We analyzed the relationship between variability (number of variants of an author's name) and productivity (number of items the name was associated with as an author), the consequences for retrieval of information, and the most frequent indexing structures used for Spanish names. Results: The proportion of authors who appeared under more then one name was 48.1% in SCI, 50.7% in MEDLINE, and 69.0% in IME. Productivity correlated directly with variability: more than 50% of the authors listed on five to ten items appeared under more than one name in any given database, and close to 100% of the authors listed on more than ten items appeared under two or more variants. Productivity correlated inversely with retrievability: as the number of variants for a name increased, the number of items retrieved under each variant decreased. For the most highly productive authors, the number of items retrieved under each variant tended toward one. The most frequent indexing methods varied between databases. In MEDLINE and IME, names were indexed correctly as “first surname second surname, first name initial middle name initial” (if present) in 41.7% and 49.5% of the records, respectively. However, in SCI, the most frequent method was “first surname, first name initial second name initial” (48.0% of

  6. Viewpoint on ISA TR84.0.02--simplified methods and fault tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Summers, A E

    2000-01-01

    ANSI/ISA-S84.01-1996 and IEC 61508 require the establishment of a safety integrity level for any safety instrumented system or safety related system used to mitigate risk. Each stage of design, operation, maintenance, and testing is judged against this safety integrity level. Quantitative techniques can be used to verify whether the safety integrity level is met. ISA-dTR84.0.02 is a technical report under development by ISA, which discusses how to apply quantitative analysis techniques to safety instrumented systems. This paper discusses two of those techniques: (1) Simplified equations and (2) Fault tree analysis.

  7. A review of environmental lead exposure and management in Mount Isa, Queensland.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Malcolm; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The public health leadership and management of lead exposure in a lead mining and smelting community in Mount Isa is an ongoing issue. There exists deficiencies in public health and environmental legal frameworks that regulate lead exposure and management in Mount Isa, Queensland. Although some positive practical measures on lead containment have been implemented, evidence suggests they are currently inadequate. Greater investments in public health leadership at a local and state level are required to address the ongoing issue of lead in Mount Isa.

  8. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  9. ISA extensions for high-radix online floating-point addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormiani, Pouya; Ercegovac, Miloš D.; Colavin, O.

    2007-09-01

    ISA extensions for DLX type architectures are proposed to perform high radix online floating point addition on fixed point units with extended feature sets. Online arithmetic allows most significant digit first computation of results, allowing overlapped execution of dependent operations and offers greater instruction scheduling opportunities than software implementations of conventional floating point addition. In this paper we seek an ISA formulation to find a middle ground between full hardware floating point addition units and software implementations strictly based on available ALU logic.

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing the availability of the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria for public comment and independent peer review. This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of oxides of nitrogen. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) national ambient air quality standards for nitrogen dioxide. The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, existing air quality criteria and NAAQS. The CAA also requires an independent scientific committee to review the criteria and to advise the Administrator regarding any recommended revisions to the existing criteria and standards, as may be appropriate. The Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) of EPA’s Science Advisory Board serves as this independent scientific committee. The ISA is one of the four major elements of the NAAQS review process that will inform the Agency’s final decisions; other components of the process are an integrated plan highlighting the key policy-relevant issues; a risk/exposure assessment if warranted; and an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) reflecting the Agency’s views regarding options to retain or revise the NO2 NAAQS based on the evaluation of key information cont

  11. BepiColombo ISA accelerometer: ready for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesco, Santoli; Valerio, Iafolla; Emiliano, Fiorenza; Carlo, Lefevre; Lucchesi David, M.; Marco, Lucente; Carmelo, Magnafico; Sergio, Nozzoli; Roberto, Peron

    2016-04-01

    To be launched in 2017, ESA mission BepiColombo will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. Among the wide range of its scientific objectives, an important set is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. The fulfilment of these scientific objectives will be made possible by a precise orbit determination of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), at the same time estimating a number of relevant parameters. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering these parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the MPO probe will be used: the first time for a deep-space probe. After a long path of design and development, the instrument is now ready for integration into MPO. Following a brief description of the RSE in the context of the mission, the instrument and its capabilities will be reviewed. Emphasis will be given to the foreseen strategies for its operation in the various phases of the mission, along with the manifold calibration possibilities.

  12. ISA accelerometer: fundamental support for the exploration of planet Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Reale, Andrea; Santoli, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The development of BepiColombo mission is proceeding, in view of the launch, foreseen for 2014. This mission will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. An important set of scientific objectives is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering the relevant parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) will be used: this will be the first time for a deep-space probe. Following a brief description of the mission and RSE, the instrument and its wide capabilities will be reviewed. The focus will be in particular on the updated error budget, operational procedures and extended use of the instrument in the various parts of the RSE. It will be also described the procedure for on-ground calibration of the accelerometer.

  13. Measuring gravitation near Mercury: the contribution of ISA accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David; Santoli, Francesco; Lefevre, Carlo; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Nozzoli, Sergio; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo

    2012-07-01

    The forthcoming BepiColombo mission for the exploration of the planet Mercury will include a comprehensive set of experiments --- the so--called Radio Science Experiments (RSE) --- in order to measure the gravitational field of the planet, its rotation, and to perform precise tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Fundamental piece of RSE is the high--sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) accelerometer. It will directly measure the strong non--gravitational perturbations acting on Mercury Planetary Orbiter spacecraft, which are an important source of error in the RSE meaurements. Being the first time for an high--sensitivity accelerometer onboard an interplanetary mission, a number of choices had to be made and several issues had to be faced in the design phases. Following a general description of the instrument scientific objectives, its working and operations will be described. Emphasis will be given on the complex calibration procedures required in the various mission phases and on the integration of the measurements with the overall RSE operations and data analysis.

  14. Preclinical Vaccine Study of Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein Derived-Synthetic Polypeptides Formulated in Montanide ISA 720 and Montanide ISA 51 Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Vera, Omaira; Castellanos, Angélica; Céspedes, Nora; Soto, Liliana; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a leading malaria vaccine candidate previously assessed in animals and humans. Here, combinations of three synthetic polypeptides corresponding to amino (N), central repeat (R), and carboxyl (C) regions of the CS protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720 or Montanide ISA 51 adjuvants were assessed for immunogenicity in rodents and primates. BALB/c mice and Aotus monkeys were divided into test and control groups and were immunized three times with doses of 50 and 100 μg of vaccine or placebo. Antigen-specific antimalarial antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent antibody test, and IFN-γ responses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELIspot). Both vaccine formulations were highly immunogenic in both species. Mice developed better antibody responses against C and R polypeptides, whereas the N polypeptide was more immunogenic in monkeys. Anti-peptide antibodies remained detectable for several months and recognized native proteins on sporozoites. Differences between Montanide ISA 720 and Montanide ISA 51 formulations were not significant. PMID:21292874

  15. Functional Diversity of Isoamylase Oligomers: The ISA1 Homo-Oligomer Is Essential for Amylopectin Biosynthesis in Rice Endosperm1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Utsumi, Chikako; Sawada, Takayuki; Fujita, Naoko; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm has two isoamylase (ISA) oligomers, ISA1 homo-oligomer and ISA1-ISA2 hetero-oligomer. To examine their contribution to starch synthesis, expression of the ISA1 or ISA2 gene was differently regulated in various transgenic plants. Although suppression of ISA2 gene expression caused the endosperm to have only the homo-oligomer, no significant effects were detected on the starch phenotypes. In contrast, ISA2 overexpression led to endosperm having only the hetero-oligomer, and starch synthesis in the endosperm was drastically impaired, both quantitatively and qualitatively, because the starch was devoid of typical starch features, such as thermal and x-ray diffraction properties, and water-soluble highly branched maltodextrins were accumulated. In the ISA2 overexpressed line, about 60% to 70% of the ISA1-ISA2 hetero-oligomer was bound to starch, while the ISA homo- and hetero-oligomers from the wild type were mostly present in the soluble form at the early milking stage of the endosperm. Detailed analysis of the relative amounts of homo- and hetero-oligomers in various lines also led us to the conclusion that the ISA1 homo-oligomer is essential, but not the ISA1-ISA2 oligomer, for starch production in rice endosperm. The relative amounts of ISA1 and ISA2 proteins were shown to determine the ratio of both oligomers and the stoichiometry of both ISAs in the hetero-oligomer. It was noted when compared with the homo-oligomer that all the hetero-oligomers from rice endosperm and leaf and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber were much more stable at 40°C. This study provides substantial data on the structural and functional diversity of ISA oligomers between plant tissues and species. PMID:21436381

  16. Biomedical ultrasonoscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The combination of a "C" mode scan electronics in a portable, battery powered biomedical ultrasonoscope having "A" and "M" mode scan electronics, the latter including a clock generator for generating clock pulses, a cathode ray tube having X, Y and Z axis inputs, a sweep generator connected between the clock generator and the X axis input of the cathode ray tube for generating a cathode ray sweep signal synchronized by the clock pulses, and a receiver adapted to be connected to the Z axis input of the cathode ray tube. The "C" mode scan electronics comprises a plurality of transducer elements arranged in a row and adapted to be positioned on the skin of the patient's body for converting a pulsed electrical signal to a pulsed ultrasonic signal, radiating the ultrasonic signal into the patient's body, picking up the echoes reflected from interfaces in the patient's body and converting the echoes to electrical signals; a plurality of transmitters, each transmitter being coupled to a respective transducer for transmitting a pulsed electrical signal thereto and for transmitting the converted electrical echo signals directly to the receiver, a sequencer connected between the clock generator and the plurality of transmitters and responsive to the clock pulses for firing the transmitters in cyclic order; and a staircase voltage generator connected between the clock generator and the Y axis input of the cathode ray tube for generating a staircase voltage having steps synchronized by the clock pulses.

  17. The Genomes and Metagenomes (GEM) Catalogue (first presentation) and The ISA-GCDML Workshop (second presentation) (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Field, Dawn [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Sansone, Susanna [EBI

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding ''Research Coordination Network'' from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Dawn Field of the NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology briefly introduces the GEM Catalogue, followed by Susanna Sansone of the European Bioinformatics Institute who talks about the ISA-GCDML workshop at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

  18. Biomedical Research and Technology. A Prognosis for International Economic Leadership. Commission on Academic Medical Centers and the Economy of New England [Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New England Board of Higher Education, Boston, MA.

    The focus of the work of the Commission on Academic Medical Centers and the Economy of New England is the financing competitors strength and future development of academic centers and biomedical companies in New England. Among the findings and recommendations of the Commission are the following: (1) the New England region will require several…

  19. "Fly-by-Wireless" Vehicles and Evaluations of ISA 100 Applications to Space-Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George F.

    2009-01-01

    "Fly-by-Wireless" (What is it?) Vision: To minimize cables and connectors and increase functionality across the aerospace industry by providing reliable, lower cost, modular, and higher performance alternatives to wired data connectivity to benefit the entire vehicle/program life-cycle. Focus Areas: 1. System Engineering and Integration to reduce cables and connectors. 2. Provisions for modularity and accessibility in the vehicle architecture. 3. Develop Alternatives to wired connectivity (the "tool box").NASA and Aerospace depend more and more on cost-effective solutions that can meet our requirements. ISA-100.11 a is a promising new standard and NASA wants to evaluate it. NASA should be involved in understanding and contributing to other ISA-100 efforts that contribute to "Fly-by-Wireless" and it's objectives. ISA can engage other aerospace groups that are working on similar goals and obtain more aerospace industry perspective.

  20. Tannic acid inhibits Staphylococcus aureus surface colonization in an IsaA-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Payne, David E; Martin, Nicholas R; Parzych, Katherine R; Rickard, Alex H; Underwood, Adam; Boles, Blaise R

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on a variety of host tissues and implanted medical devices. Biofilm-associated infections resist antimicrobial chemotherapy and attack from the host immune system, making these infections particularly difficult to treat. In order to gain insight into environmental conditions that influence S. aureus biofilm development, we screened a library of small molecules for the ability to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation. This led to the finding that the polyphenolic compound tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation in multiple biofilm models without inhibiting bacterial growth. We present evidence that tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation via a mechanism dependent upon the putative transglycosylase IsaA. Tannic acid did not inhibit biofilm formation of an isaA mutant. Overexpression of wild-type IsaA inhibited biofilm formation, whereas overexpression of a catalytically dead IsaA had no effect. Tannin-containing drinks like tea have been found to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal colonization. We found that black tea inhibited S. aureus biofilm development and that an isaA mutant resisted this inhibition. Antibiofilm activity was eliminated from tea when milk was added to precipitate the tannic acid. Finally, we developed a rodent model for S. aureus throat colonization and found that tea consumption reduced S. aureus throat colonization via an isaA-dependent mechanism. These findings provide insight into a molecular mechanism by which commonly consumed polyphenolic compounds, such as tannins, influence S. aureus surface colonization.

  1. Tannic Acid Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Surface Colonization in an IsaA-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Payne, David E.; Martin, Nicholas R.; Parzych, Katherine R.; Rickard, Alex H.; Underwood, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on a variety of host tissues and implanted medical devices. Biofilm-associated infections resist antimicrobial chemotherapy and attack from the host immune system, making these infections particularly difficult to treat. In order to gain insight into environmental conditions that influence S. aureus biofilm development, we screened a library of small molecules for the ability to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation. This led to the finding that the polyphenolic compound tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation in multiple biofilm models without inhibiting bacterial growth. We present evidence that tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation via a mechanism dependent upon the putative transglycosylase IsaA. Tannic acid did not inhibit biofilm formation of an isaA mutant. Overexpression of wild-type IsaA inhibited biofilm formation, whereas overexpression of a catalytically dead IsaA had no effect. Tannin-containing drinks like tea have been found to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal colonization. We found that black tea inhibited S. aureus biofilm development and that an isaA mutant resisted this inhibition. Antibiofilm activity was eliminated from tea when milk was added to precipitate the tannic acid. Finally, we developed a rodent model for S. aureus throat colonization and found that tea consumption reduced S. aureus throat colonization via an isaA-dependent mechanism. These findings provide insight into a molecular mechanism by which commonly consumed polyphenolic compounds, such as tannins, influence S. aureus surface colonization. PMID:23208606

  2. A shortened intraplate rift system in the Proterozoic Mount Isa terrane, NW Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Mark G.; Lister, Gordon S.; Betts, Peter G.; Pound, Katherine S.

    1997-06-01

    The Leichhardt River Fault Trough of the Mount Isa terrane developed a complex extensional architecture between approximately 1800 and 1600 Ma, forming the underlying template upon which compressional structures were superimposed during the 1590 to 1500 Ma Isan Orogeny. Basin-fill material accumulated during at least five multiphase periods of rifting and associated postrift subsidence forming a stacked succession of unconformity-bounded sequences. Initial E-W extension was associated with a massive magmatic event. Half graben greater than 50 km in width and of alternating asymmetry localized the extrusion of up to 4 km of continental tholeiites. Thereafter a period of N-S extension resulted in southward tapering north tilted half graben in which synrift basaltic and siliciclastic strata accumulated. N-S extension was followed by regional postrift subsidence and the deposition of a laterally continuous quartzite-carbonate package. A multiphase period of E-W to NW-SE extension ensued during which time two unconformity-bounded sequences accumulated. The stratal architectures of these sequences are strongly asymmetric in cross section, exhibiting a pronounced rotational thickening toward the east, consistent with their deposition in the hanging walls of east dipping tilt blocks between 15 and 40 km in width. Finally, a period of N-S extension resulted in the development of E-W trending F1 drag synclines in the highest level cover rocks. The association of angular unconformities and block-bounding faults, E-W trending synclines and E-W striking faults, and the unique internal fold geometries of fault blocks suggest that many fault-bounded blocks originated as coherent structural entities during rifting and continued to act as such during subsequent shortening.

  3. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria (First External Review Draft, Dec 2007)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur – Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise ...

  4. One-Year Test-Retest Reliability of the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury (ISAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a growing public health problem among adolescents and young adults. The Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS) is a self-report measure designed to assess NSSI behaviors and functions. The current study examines the one-year test-retest reliability of the ISAS in a sample of young adult self-injurers.…

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur Environmental Criteria (Second External Review Draft, Aug 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a conci...

  6. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria (Second External Review Draft, Aug 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Environmental Criteria has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a conci...

  7. Perceptions regarding biomedical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James E.

    1995-10-01

    Perceptions of biomedical engineering are important because they can influence private and public decisions on R&D funding and public policy. A survey was conducted of a group of persons active in biomedical engineering research in an attempt to determine the perceptions of the general public and of the biomedical community regarding biomedical engineering. The public is believed to have 'a little' knowledge of biomedical engineering, and to have a wide range of opinions on what biomedical engineers do. The survey respondents believe they are in general agreement with the public on several questions regarding biomedical engineering. However, the public is believed to be more inclined than workers in the field to think that biomedical engineering increases the cost of health care, and to be less supportive of increased R&D funding for health care technology.

  8. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Final Report, Jan 2010)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO...

  9. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Final Report, Dec 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to p...

  10. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria (Final Report, Sep 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria final assessment. This report represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scien...

  11. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria (Final Report, Dec 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur - Ecological Criteria. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the ...

  12. Year 2000 compliance concerns with the ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software system

    SciTech Connect

    Saviz, K.

    1998-05-26

    The year 2000 is rapidly approaching, and there is a good chance that computer systems that utilize two digit year dates will experience problems in retrieval of date information. The ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software and computer system has been reviewed for Year 2000 compliance issues.

  13. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding: a case of test driver recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Næss, Teresa; Juhl, Jens; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers, but it never succeeded in recruiting that number of drivers. After several design changes, the project eventually went forward with 153 test drivers of all ages. This number represents approximately one thousandth of all car owners in the proving ground of North Jutland in Denmark. Furthermore the project was terminated before its scheduled closing date. This article describes the project with an emphasis on recruitment efforts and the project's progress. We include a discussion of possible explanations for the failure to recruit volunteers for the project and reflect upon the general barriers to using ISA with ordinary drivers.

  14. Biomedical Engineering Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The Masters of Engineering program with concentration in Biomedical Engineering at Tennessee State University was established in fall 2000. Under... biomedical engineering . The lab is fully equipped with 10 Pentium5-based, 2 Pentium4-based laptops for mobile experiments at remote locations, 8 Biopac...students (prospective graduate students in biomedical engineering ) are regularly using this lab. This summer, 8 new prospective graduate students

  15. Changes in Soil Chemistry and Agricultural Return Flow in an Integrated Seawater Agriculture System (ISAS) Demonstration in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Q.; Matiin, W. A.; Ahmad, F.

    2012-12-01

    Growing halophytes using Integrated Seawater Agriculture Systems (ISAS) offers a sustainable solution for the generation of biomass feedstock for carbon neutral biofuels - halophytes do not enter the foodchain and they do not compete with food-crops for natural resources. A field demonstration of ISAS in the coastal regions of Abu Dhabi, UAE, scheduled to start in 2013, will likely face a number of region-specific challenges not encountered in past demonstrations of ISAS at coastal locations in Mexico and Eritrea. The arid climate, unique soil chemistry (evaporite deposits, especially gypsum), and hypersaline coastal hydrogeology of Abu Dhabi will affect long-term halophyte agricultural productivity when Arabian Gulf seawater is applied to coastal soils as part of ISAS. Therefore, the changes in irrigation return flow quality and soil chemistry must be monitored closely over time to establish transient salt and water balances in order to assess the sustainability of ISAS in the region. As an initial phase of the ISAS demonstration project, numerical modeling of different seawater loadings onto coastal soils was conducted to estimate the chemical characteristics of soil and the irrigation return flow over time. These modeling results will be validated with field monitoring data upon completion of one year of ISAS operation. The results from this study could be used to (i) determine the optimal saline water loading that the soils at the ISAS site can tolerate, (ii) potential for sodicity of the soil with saline water application, (iii) impacts of land application of saline water on underlying coastal groundwater, and (iv) develop strategies to control soil water activities in favor of halophyte agricultural productivity.

  16. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  17. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  18. Methods of the international study on soccer at altitude 3600 m (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Gregory D; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Pepper, Mark; Edwards, Alistair; Cuenca, Douglas; Vidmar, Tony; Spielvogel, Hilde; Schmidt, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    Background We describe here the 3-year process underpinning a multinational collaboration to investigate soccer played at high altitude—La Paz, Bolivia (3600 m). There were two main aims: first, to quantify the extent to which running performance would be altered at 3600 m compared with near sea level; and second, to characterise the time course of acclimatisation of running performance and underlying physiology to training and playing at 3600 m. In addition, this project was able to measure the physiological changes and the effect on running performance of altitude-adapted soccer players from 3600 m playing at low altitude. Methods A U20 Bolivian team (‘The Strongest’ from La Paz, n=19) played a series of five games against a U17 team from sea level in Australia (The Joeys, n=20). 2 games were played near sea level (Santa Cruz 430 m) over 5 days and then three games were played in La Paz over the next 12 days. Measures were (1) game and training running performance—including global positioning system (GPS) data on distance travelled and velocity of movement; (2) blood—including haemoglobin mass, blood volume, blood gases and acid–base status; (3) acclimatisation—including resting heart rate variability, perceived altitude sickness, as well as heart rate and perceived exertion responses to a submaximal running test; and (4) sleep patterns. Conclusions Pivotal to the success of the project were the strong professional networks of the collaborators, with most exceeding 10 years, the links of several of the researchers to soccer federations, as well as the interest and support of the two head coaches. PMID:24282214

  19. Monothiol glutaredoxin Grx5 interacts with Fe-S scaffold proteins Isa1 and Isa2 and supports Fe-S assembly and DNA integrity in mitochondria of fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyoung-Dong; Chung, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Chang; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2010-02-12

    Mitochondrial monothiol glutaredoxins that bind Fe-S cluster are known to participate in Fe-S cluster assembly. However, their precise role has not been well understood. Among three monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3, 4, and 5) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe only Grx5 resides in mitochondria. The {Delta}grx5 mutant requires cysteine on minimal media, and does not grow on non-fermentable carbon source such as glycerol. We found that the mutant is low in the activity of Fe-S enzymes in mitochondria as well as in the cytoplasm. Screening of multi-copy suppressor of growth defects of the mutant identified isa1{sup +} gene encoding a putative A-type Fe-S scaffold, in addition to mas5{sup +} and hsc1{sup +} genes encoding putative chaperones for Fe-S assembly process. Examination of other scaffold and chaperone genes revealed that isa2{sup +}, but not isu1{sup +} and ssc1{sup +}, complemented the growth phenotype of {Delta}grx5 mutant as isa1{sup +} did, partly through restoration of Fe-S enzyme activities. The mutant also showed a significant decrease in the amount of mitochondrial DNA. We demonstrated that Grx5 interacts in vivo with Isa1 and Isa2 proteins in mitochondria by observing bimolecular fluorescence complementation. These results indicate that Grx5 plays a central role in Fe-S assembly process through interaction with A-type Fe-S scaffold proteins Isa1 and Isa2, each of which is an essential protein in S. pombe, and supports mitochondrial genome integrity as well as Fe-S assembly.

  20. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    PubMed

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  1. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H.; Chibucos, Marcus C.; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A.; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L.; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A.; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Taylor, Chris F.; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A.; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  2. Advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Ying; Burkhart, Timothy A; González Penedo, Manuel Francisco; Ma, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2014), held in Beijing from the 25th to the 28th of September 2014, is an annual conference that intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners around the world to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, amongst others. The papers published in this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2013-2014.

  3. Improving AMS Detection of the Biomedical Radiotracer 41Ca with Segmented Radio-Frequency Quadrupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alary, Jean-Francois; Javahery, Gholamreza; Kieser, William E.; Litherland, Albert E.; Cousins, Lisa M.

    41Ca is an important biomedical radiotracer finding many applications in biological, nutritional and medical studies. The detection of 41Ca by AMS is however limited by an important background signal of 41K originating from biological samples and from contaminated cesium in the source. An approach consisting of using PbF2-assisted in-source fluorination in combination with an Isobar Separator for Anions (ISA), a device incorporating a low energy radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) gas cell, promises to push down the limit of detection of 41Ca attainable on small (<3 MV) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) systems by several orders of magnitude. Such on-line reduction of 41K should also result in a simplification of biological sample preparation and less concern about variable 41K contamination of the cesium beam. The selective collision-induced fragmentation of KF3- versus CaF3-, occurring in the gas cell of an ISA equipped with a double segment RFQ, have been reported earlier1), leading to K being suppressed by a factor of 1e4 over Ca. We present here the future configuration of the ISA, redesigned using multi-segmented RFQ to enhance further this effect and improve transmission through the gas cell. A segmented RFQ is an appropriate tool to finely control ion energy down to the few eV's separating the fragmentation energies of the two fluoride species. This pre-commercial ISA destined to be used at the newly established A. E. Lalonde AMS laboratory at University of Ottawa (Canada) will be presented. Some practicalities of integrating a low energy RFQ-based device in a high energy AMS system will also be discussed.

  4. Biomedical patents and ethics: a Canadian solution.

    PubMed

    Gold, E R

    2000-05-01

    World Trade Organization member states are preparing for the upcoming renegotiation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. One of the important elements of that renegotiation is the ethical considerations regarding the patenting of higher life forms and their component parts (e.g. DNA and cell-lines). The interface between the genetic revolution, patentability, and ethical considerations is the subject of this article. The author identifies, explores, and critiques four possible positions Canada may adopt in respect of patentability of biomedical material. First, Canada could do nothing. This approach would mean keeping biomedical materials outside the patent system and outside the stream of commerce. Canada would simply wait for an international consensus to develop before adopting a position of its own. Second, Canada could go it alone. It could implement a policy that balances the incentive effects of patents with the need to incorporate ethical and social values into the decision-making process regarding the use of biomedical materials. In respect of this option, the author proposes a model whereby non-profit bodies would hold the exclusive rights to research, use, and exploit biomedical materials. Third, Canada could follow the United States, Europe, and Japan by providing for almost unrestricted patenting of biomedical materials. This would be the most industry-friendly alternative. The fourth and final option is to use the medicare system to promote discussion of ethical considerations involved in the use of biomedical materials. The power of provincial health agencies may be used as a lever to ensure the discussion of ethical considerations concerning the use of biomedical materials. The author concludes that the fourth and final option is the best alternative for Canada while waiting for an international consensus to emerge.

  5. Biomedical system based on the Discrete Hidden Markov Model using the Rocchio-Genetic approach for the classification of internal carotid artery Doppler signals.

    PubMed

    Uğuz, Harun; Güraksın, Gür Emre; Ergün, Uçman; Saraçoğlu, Rıdvan

    2011-07-01

    When the maximum likelihood approach (ML) is used during the calculation of the Discrete Hidden Markov Model (DHMM) parameters, DHMM parameters of the each class are only calculated using the training samples (positive training samples) of the same class. The training samples (negative training samples) not belonging to that class are not used in the calculation of DHMM model parameters. With the aim of supplying that deficiency, by involving the training samples of all classes in calculating processes, a Rocchio algorithm based approach is suggested. During the calculation period, in order to determine the most appropriate values of parameters for adjusting the relative effect of the positive and negative training samples, a Genetic algorithm is used as an optimization technique. The purposed method is used to classify the internal carotid artery Doppler signals recorded from 136 patients as well as of 55 healthy people. Our proposed method reached 97.38% classification accuracy with fivefold cross-validation (CV) technique. The classification results showed that the proposed method was effective for the classification of internal carotid artery Doppler signals.

  6. The Encyclopedia of Systems Biology and OMICS (first presentation) and The ISA Infrastructure for Multi-omics Data (second presentation) (GSC8 Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolker, Eugene; Sansone, Susanna

    2011-09-11

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Eugene Kolker from Seattle Children's Hospital briefly discusses "The Encyclopedia of Systems Biology and OMICS," followed by Susanna Sansone from the EBI on "The ISA Infrastructure for multi-omics data" at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 11, 2009.

  7. The Encyclopedia of Systems Biology and OMICS (first presentation) and The ISA Infrastructure for Multi-omics Data (second presentation) (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kolker, Eugene [Seattle Children's Hospital; Sansone, Susanna [EBI

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Eugene Kolker from Seattle Children's Hospital briefly discusses "The Encyclopedia of Systems Biology and OMICS," followed by Susanna Sansone from the EBI on "The ISA Infrastructure for multi-omics data" at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 11, 2009.

  8. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an…

  9. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  10. Montanide ISA 71 VG is Advantageous to Freund's Adjuvant in Immunization Against S. aureus Infection of Mice.

    PubMed

    Klimka, A; Michels, L; Glowalla, E; Tosetti, B; Krönke, M; Krut, O

    2015-05-01

    The enormous capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to acquire antibiotic resistance makes it a permanent task to search for and to develop new anti-infectives. One of the possible approaches is the early active immunization of risk patients and animal stocks to prevent S. aureus infections. Based on a S. aureus proteome screen with S. aureus-specific human antiserum, we have previously identified several anchorless cell wall proteins to be used as novel vaccine candidates. To develop an efficient anti-S. aureus vaccine, the supplemented adjuvants Montanide(™) ISA 71 VG and ISA 206 were compared to Freund's adjuvant in terms of handling, induction of cytokine profile, triggering antigen-specific immunoglobulin production of different IgG subclasses and provision of increased survival rates in our S. aureus sepsis mouse model. Immunization with ISA 71 VG in comparison with Freund's adjuvant induced slightly delayed but comparably strong increase of antigen-specific antibody titres and conferred protective effect against S. aureus challenge. In contrast using ISA 206 as adjuvant, significantly lower IgG titres and consequently, no protective effect against S. aureus infection were observed. Handling and tolerability of the Montanide is superior to Freund's adjuvant. Montanide(™) ISA 71 VG can serve as an effective adjuvant replacement for Freund's adjuvant in research with a prospective usage in animal and human vaccines against bacterial pathogens.

  11. Five biomedical experiments flown in an Earth orbiting laboratory: Lessons learned from developing these experiments on the first international microgravity mission from concept to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lashbrook, J. J.; Callahan, P. X.; Schaefer, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    There are numerous problems associated with accommodating complex biological systems in microgravity in the flexible laboratory systems installed in the Orbiter cargo bay. This presentation will focus upon some of the lessons learned along the way from the University laboratory to the IML-1 Microgravity Laboratory. The First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission contained a large number of specimens, including: 72 million nematodes, US-1; 3 billion yeast cells, US-2; 32 million mouse limb-bud cells, US-3; and 540 oat seeds (96 planted), FOTRAN. All five of the experiments had to undergo significant redevelopment effort in order to allow the investigator's ideas and objectives to be accommodated within the constraints of the IML-1 mission. Each of these experiments were proposed as unique entities rather than part of the mission, and many procedures had to be modified from the laboratory practice to meet IML-1 constraints. After a proposal is accepted by NASA for definition, an interactive process is begun between the Principal Investigator and the developer to ensure a maximum science return. The success of the five SLSPO-managed experiments was the result of successful completion of all preflight biological testing and hardware verification finalized at the KSC Life Sciences Support Facility housed in Hangar L. The ESTEC Biorack facility housed three U.S. experiments (US-1, US-2, and US-3). The U.S. Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility housed GTHRES and FOTRAN. The IML-1 mission (launched from KSC on 22 Jan. 1992, and landed at Dryden Flight Research Facility on 30 Jan. 1992) was an outstanding success--close to 100 percent of the prelaunch anticipated science return was achieved and, in some cases, greater than 100 percent was achieved (because of an extra mission day).

  12. Italian spring accelerometer (ISA) a high sensitive accelerometer for ``BepiColombo'' ESA CORNERSTONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.

    2001-12-01

    The targets of the ESA CORNERSTONE mission to Mercury "BepiColombo" are concerned with both planetary and magnetospheric physics and to test some aspects of the general relativity. A payload devoted to a set of experiments named radio science is located within one of the three proposed modules, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). In particular, a high sensitivity accelerometer ( a min<10 -9√g/ Hz in the range 10 -4- 10 -1 Hz) will measure the inertial acceleration acting on the MPO. Such data, together with tracking data are used to evaluate the purely gravitational trajectory of the MPO, transforming it to a virtual drag-free satellite system. The ISA accelerometer, considered for this mission, is a well-studied instrument developed at the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (IFSI), with the financial support of the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). A prototype of such an instrument was constructed, matching the requirements of the radio science experiment. Results of the study concerning the use of ISA in the BepiColombo mission are reported here, particular care being devoted to the description of the instrument and to its sensitivity and thermal stabilisation.

  13. Vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized with clostridial recombinant proteins with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal le...

  14. Montanide ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-ediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, and host imm...

  15. Pinatubo Emulation in Multiple Models (POEMs): co-ordinated experiments in the ISA-MIP model intercomparison activity component of the SPARC Stratospheric Sulphur and it's Role in Climate initiative (SSiRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lindsay; Mann, Graham; Carslaw, Ken; Toohey, Matthew; Aquila, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Research Program's SPARC initiative has a new international activity "Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) to better understand changes in stratospheric aerosol and precursor gaseous sulphur species. One component of SSiRC involves an intercomparison "ISA-MIP" of composition-climate models that simulate the stratospheric aerosol layer interactively. Within PoEMS each modelling group will run a "perturbed physics ensemble" (PPE) of interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA) simulations of the Pinatubo eruption, varying several uncertain parameters associated with the eruption's SO2 emissions and model processes. A powerful new technique to quantify and attribute sources of uncertainty in complex global models is described by Lee et al. (2011, ACP). The analysis uses Gaussian emulation to derive a probability density function (pdf) of predicted quantities, essentially interpolating the PPE results in multi-dimensional parameter space. Once trained on the ensemble, a Monte Carlo simulation with the fast Gaussian emulator enabling a full variance-based sensitivity analysis. The approach has already been used effectively by Carslaw et al., (2013, Nature) to quantify the uncertainty in the cloud albedo effect forcing from a 3D global aerosol-microphysics model allowing to compare the sensitivy of different predicted quantities to uncertainties in natural and anthropogenic emissions types, and structural parameters in the models. Within ISA-MIP, each group will carry out a PPE of runs, with the subsequent analysis with the emulator assessing the uncertainty in the volcanic forcings predicted by each model. In this poster presentation we will give an outline of the "PoEMS" analysis, describing the uncertain parameters to be varied and the relevance to further understanding differences identified in previous international stratospheric aerosol assessments.

  16. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  17. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  18. Supporting undergraduate biomedical entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P E

    2004-01-01

    As biomedical innovations become more sophisticated and expensive to bring to market, an approach is needed to ensure the survival of the best ideas. The tactic used by Iowa State University to provide entrepreneurship opportunities for undergraduate students in biomedical areas is a model that has proven to be both distinctive and effective. Iowa State supports and fosters undergraduate student entrepreneurship efforts through the Pappajohn Center for Entrepreneurship. This unique partnership encourages ISU faculty, researchers, and students to become involved in the world of entrepreneurship, while allowing Iowa's business communities to gain access to a wide array of available resources, skills, and information from Iowa State University.

  19. Ethics in biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.

  20. Biomedical implantable microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Meindl, J D

    1980-10-17

    Innovative applications of microelectronics in new biomedical implantable instruments offer a singular opportunity for advances in medical research and practice because of two salient factors: (i) beyond all other types of biomedical instruments, implants exploit fully the inherent technical advantages--complex functional capability, high reliability, lower power drain, small size and weight-of microelectronics, and (ii) implants bring microelectronics into intimate association with biological systems. The combination of these two factors enables otherwise impossible new experiments to be conducted and new paostheses developed that will improve the quality of human life.

  1. A biomedical engineer's library.

    PubMed

    Webster, J G

    1982-01-01

    A survey resulted in a list of the 101 textbooks used by 62 biomedical engineering educational programs. A second list shows the textbooks used by each school. A third list shows the 27 textbooks used at two or more schools and the number of times each is used. This selected compilation should be useful to (a) biomedical engineering curriculum committees considering program revision, (b) teachers considering course revision, (c) university and industrial librarians updating their collections, (d) individuals building a personal library, and (e) students desiring information about the emphasis of various educational programs.

  2. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  3. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bertrand, François; Dupuis, Laurent; Deville, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, and host immune responses were evaluated. After secondary immunization, antigen-specific antibody and T-cell responses were higher in the group which received profilin plus ISA 71 VG compared with the other groups. Furthermore, body weight gains and fecal oocyst shedding were evaluated following oral challenge infection with live E. acervulina or Eimeria tenella oocysts. Vaccination with profilin plus ISA 71 VG reduced oocyst shedding compared with animals immunized with profilin alone. These results demonstrate that the recombinant profilin subunit vaccine, when given in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG, augments protective immunity against E. acervulina and E. tenella.

  4. Risk factors perceived predictive of ISA spread in Chile: applications to decision support.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, L; Antognoli, M; Lara Fica, M; Ibarra, R; Mancilla, J; Sandoval Del Valle, O; Enriquez Sais, R; Perez, A; Aguilar, D; Madrid, E; Bustos, P; Clement, A; Godoy, M G; Johnson, C; Remmenga, M

    2014-11-01

    Aquaculture is anticipated to be a critical element in future solutions to global food shortage. However, diseases can impede industry efficiency and sustainability. Consequently, diseases can and have led to dramatic re-structuring in industry or regulatory practices. The emergence of infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Chile is one such example. As in other countries, many mitigations were instituted universally, and many incurred considerable costs as they introduced a new layer of coordination of farming activities of marine sites within common geographic areas (termed 'neighborhoods' or 'barrios'). The aggregate response led to a strong reduction in ISA incidence and impact. However, the relative value of individual mitigations is less clear, especially where response policies were universally applied and retrospective analyses are missing 'controls' (i.e., areas where a mitigation was not applied). Further, re-focusing policies around disease prevention following resolution of an outbreak is important to renew sustainable production; though, again, field data to guide this shift in purpose are often lacking. Expert panels can offer timely decision support in the absence of empirical data. We convened a panel of fish health experts to weight risk factors predictive of ISA virus (ISAV) introduction or spread between Atlantic salmon barrios in Chile. Barrios, rather than sites, were the unit of interest because many of the new mitigations operate at this level and few available studies examine their efficacy. Panelists identified barrio processing plant biosecurity, fallowing strategies, adult live fish transfers, fish and site density, smolt quality, hydrographic connection with other neighborhoods, presence of sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi), and harvest vessel biosecurity as factors with the greatest predictive strength for ISAV virulent genotype ('HPR-deleted') occurrence. Fewer factors were considered predictive of ISAV HPR0 genotype ('HPR0') occurrence

  5. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  6. Texture in Biomedical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Maria

    An overview of texture analysis methods is given and the merits of each method for biomedical applications are discussed. Methods discussed include Markov random fields, Gibbs distributions, co-occurrence matrices, Gabor functions and wavelets, Karhunen-Loève basis images, and local symmetry and orientation from the monogenic signal. Some example applications of texture to medical image processing are reviewed.

  7. Careers in biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Madrid, R E; Rotger, V I; Herrera, M C

    2010-01-01

    Although biomedical engineering was started in Argentina about 35 years ago, it has had a sustained growth for the last 25 years in human resources, with the emergence of new undergraduate and postgraduate careers, as well as in research, knowledge, technological development, and health care.

  8. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

  9. Biomedical Results of Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. S. (Editor); Dietlein, L. F. (Editor); Berry, C. A. (Editor); Parker, James F. (Compiler); West, Vita (Compiler)

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical program developed for Apollo is described in detail. The findings are listed of those investigations which are conducted to assess the effects of space flight on man's physiological and functional capacities, and significant medical events in Apollo are documented. Topics discussed include crew health and inflight monitoring, preflight and postflight medical testing, inflight experiments, quarantine, and life support systems.

  10. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  11. Biomedical applications in EELA.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Miguel; Hernández, Vicente; Mayo, Rafael; Blanquer, Ignacio; Perez-Griffo, Javier; Isea, Raul; Nuñez, Luis; Mora, Henry Ricardo; Fernández, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The current demand for Grid Infrastructures to bring collabarating groups between Latina America and Europe has created the EELA proyect. This e-infrastructure is used by Biomedical groups in Latina America and Europe for the studies of ocnological analisis, neglected diseases, sequence alignments and computation plygonetics.

  12. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  13. What is biomedical informatics?

    PubMed

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Smith, Jack W; Johnson, Todd R

    2010-02-01

    Biomedical informatics lacks a clear and theoretically-grounded definition. Many proposed definitions focus on data, information, and knowledge, but do not provide an adequate definition of these terms. Leveraging insights from the philosophy of information, we define informatics as the science of information, where information is data plus meaning. Biomedical informatics is the science of information as applied to or studied in the context of biomedicine. Defining the object of study of informatics as data plus meaning clearly distinguishes the field from related fields, such as computer science, statistics and biomedicine, which have different objects of study. The emphasis on data plus meaning also suggests that biomedical informatics problems tend to be difficult when they deal with concepts that are hard to capture using formal, computational definitions. In other words, problems where meaning must be considered are more difficult than problems where manipulating data without regard for meaning is sufficient. Furthermore, the definition implies that informatics research, teaching, and service should focus on biomedical information as data plus meaning rather than only computer applications in biomedicine.

  14. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen, Oxides of Sulfur and Particulate Matter Ecological Criteria (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM 2.5 and PM 10 since the prior re...

  15. An ISA-TAB-Nano based data collection framework to support data-driven modelling of nanotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Marchese Robinson, Richard L; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Rallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary Analysis of trends in nanotoxicology data and the development of data driven models for nanotoxicity is facilitated by the reporting of data using a standardised electronic format. ISA-TAB-Nano has been proposed as such a format. However, in order to build useful datasets according to this format, a variety of issues has to be addressed. These issues include questions regarding exactly which (meta)data to report and how to report them. The current article discusses some of the challenges associated with the use of ISA-TAB-Nano and presents a set of resources designed to facilitate the manual creation of ISA-TAB-Nano datasets from the nanotoxicology literature. These resources were developed within the context of the NanoPUZZLES EU project and include data collection templates, corresponding business rules that extend the generic ISA-TAB-Nano specification as well as Python code to facilitate parsing and integration of these datasets within other nanoinformatics resources. The use of these resources is illustrated by a “Toy Dataset” presented in the Supporting Information. The strengths and weaknesses of the resources are discussed along with possible future developments. PMID:26665069

  16. The Beginnings of the International Education Movement; Part IV; The Birth of the IB Diploma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Documents the history of the development of the International Baccalaureate (IB) program. Reports that the International Schools Association (ISA) created the International Schools Examination Syndicate (ISES), which produced the first draft profile of an IB diploma program in 1964. Offers a brief biography of Desmond Cole-Baker, who was…

  17. Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA): A fundamental support to BepiColombo Radio Science Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Morbidini, A.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Persichini, M.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio Science Experiments of the BepiColombo mission will enable substantial improvement of the knowledge of Mercury's orbit and rotation, and the relativistic dynamics in the solar system. A fundamental support to the spacecraft tracking data will be given by the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA). This is a three-axis accelerometer devoted to the measurement of the non-gravitational perturbations acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), whose knowledge is important in order to fully exploit the quality of the tracking data. The intrinsic noise level of the instrument that will be onboard MPO, 10-9m/s2/√{Hz} in the 3×10-5 to 10-1Hz frequency range, guarantees the fulfilment of the RSE requirements. The main scientific and technological features of the instrument are discussed, together with its current error budget, experimental activities and foreseen calibration strategies.

  18. Biomedical application of the nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindh, Ulf

    1987-04-01

    The Studsvik Nuclear Microprobe (SMP) has mainly been devoted to applications in the biomedical field. Its ultimate resolution is reached at 2.9×2.9 μm 2 with a proton current of 100 pA. With this performance the SMP has been used in a wide range of disciplines covering environmental hygiene, toxicology, various aspects of internal medicine and trace element physiology. Examples of recent applications in these fields are described.

  19. [The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    2001-01-01

    On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl).

  20. Biomedical image processing.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    1981-01-01

    Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis have been reviewed together with examples. The state-of-the-art image processing systems have been introduced and discussed in two categories: general purpose image processing systems and image analyzers. In order for these systems to be effective for biomedical applications, special biomedical image processing languages have to be developed. The combination of both hardware and software leads to clinical imaging devices. Two different types of clinical imaging devices have been discussed. There are radiological imagings which include radiography, thermography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and CT. Among these, thermography is the most noninvasive but is limited in application due to the low energy of its source. X-ray CT is excellent for static anatomical images and is moving toward the measurement of dynamic function, whereas nuclear imaging is moving toward organ metabolism and ultrasound is toward tissue physical characteristics. Heart imaging is one of the most interesting and challenging research topics in biomedical image processing; current methods including the invasive-technique cineangiography, and noninvasive ultrasound, nuclear medicine, transmission, and emission CT methodologies have been reviewed. Two current federally funded research projects in heart imaging, the dynamic spatial reconstructor and the dynamic cardiac three-dimensional densitometer, should bring some fruitful results in the near future. Miscrosopic imaging technique is very different from the radiological imaging technique in the sense that

  1. New frontiers in biomedical science and engineering during 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lagoa, Ricardo; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB) is an international meeting held once a year. This, the fourth International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB2015), will be held in Shanghai, China, during August 18th-21st, 2015. This annual conference intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners at home and abroad to present the most recent frontiers and future challenges in the fields of biomedical science, biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, etc. The papers published in this issue are selected from this Conference, which witness the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2014-2015.

  2. [Biomedical engineering today : An overview from the viewpoint of the German Biomedical Engineering Society].

    PubMed

    Schlötelburg, C; Becks, T; Stieglitz, T

    2010-08-01

    Biomedical engineering is characterized by the interdisciplinary co-operation of technology, science, and ways of thinking, probably more than any other technological area. The close interaction of engineering and information sciences with medicine and biology results in innovative products and methods, but also requires high standards for the interdisciplinary transfer of ideas into products for patients' benefits. This article describes the situation of biomedical engineering in Germany. It displays characteristics of the medical device industry and ranks it with respect to the international market. The research landscape is described as well as up-to-date research topics and trends. The national funding situation of research in biomedical engineering is reviewed and existing innovation barriers are discussed.

  3. Graphene for Biomedical Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas; Podila, Ramakrishna; Alexis, Frank; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Bioengineering Team; Clemson Physics Team

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we used graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms, to modify the surfaces of existing implant materials to enhance both bio- and hemo-compatibility. This novel effort meets all functional criteria for a biomedical implant coating as it is chemically inert, atomically smooth and highly durable, with the potential for greatly enhancing the effectiveness of such implants. Specifically, graphene coatings on nitinol, a widely used implant and stent material, showed that graphene coated nitinol (Gr-NiTi) supports excellent smooth muscle and endothelial cell growth leading to better cell proliferation. We further determined that the serum albumin adsorption on Gr-NiTi is greater than that of fibrinogen, an important and well understood criterion for promoting a lower thrombosis rate. These hemo-and biocompatible properties and associated charge transfer mechanisms, along with high strength, chemical inertness and durability give graphene an edge over most antithrombogenic coatings for biomedical implants and devices.

  4. Biochemiluminescence and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Champiat, D; Roux, A; Lhomme, O; Nosenzo, G

    1994-12-01

    Although used for analytical purposes for more than 40 years it is only recently that biochemiluminescence (BCL) has found widespread acceptance. Methods employing BCL reactions now play an important role in biomedical research and laboratory medicine. The main attractions for the assay technology include exquisite sensitivity (attomole-zeptomole), high selectivity, speed and simplicity. In biomedical research, the most important applications of BCL are: (1) to estimate microbial numbers and to assess cellular states (e.g., after exposure to antibiotic or cytotoxic agents) and in reporter gene studies (firefly luciferase gene); (2) NAD(P)H involved in redox/dehydrogenase studies using Vibrio luciferase complex; (3) BCL labels and CL detection of enzyme labels in immunoassays are the most widespread routine application for this technology. BCL enzyme immunoassays represent the most active area of development, e.g., enhanced BCL method for peroxidase and BCL assays for alkaline phosphatase labels using adamantyl 1,2-dioxetane.

  5. Glyconanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chang-Ming

    2011-03-01

    Over the past two decades, glycosylated nanoparticles (i.e., glyconanoparticles having sugar residues on the surface) received much attention for biomedical applications such as bioassays and targeted drug delivery. This minireview focuses on three aspects: (1) glycosylated gold nanoparticles, (2) glycosylated quantum dots, and (3) glyconanoparticles self-assembled from amphiphilic glycopolymers. The synthetic methods and the multivalent interactions between glyconanoparticles and lectins is shortly illustrated.

  6. Adaptive Biomedical Innovation.

    PubMed

    Honig, P K; Hirsch, G

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive Biomedical Innovation (ABI) is a multistakeholder approach to product and process innovation aimed at accelerating the delivery of clinical value to patients and society. ABI offers the opportunity to transcend the fragmentation and linearity of decision-making in our current model and create a common collaborative framework that optimizes the benefit and access of new medicines for patients as well as creating a more sustainable innovation ecosystem.

  7. Biomedical applications of photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Chan, Barbara Pui

    2010-10-01

    Photochemistry is the study of photochemical reactions between light and molecules. Recently, there have been increasing interests in using photochemical reactions in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. This work revisits the components and mechanisms of photochemistry and reviews biomedical applications of photochemistry in various disciplines, including oncology, molecular biology, and biosurgery, with particular emphasis on tissue engineering. Finally, potential toxicities and research opportunities in this field are discussed.

  8. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  9. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

  10. Hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral mapping of structural related mineralizations around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Sandra; Salati, Sanaz; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Alone or combined with other remote sensing data, hyperspectral mineral mapping can be used to investigate mineralizations and deposits via alteration minerals. Their kind, abundance and spatial distribution can deliver important statements about the occurrence and formation of mineralizations and their relation to structural features. The high spectral and spatial resolution of HyMap data exceeds multispectral data distinctly and makes the recognition of even smaller geological structures possible. The spectral unmixing of single endmembers can be used for the accurate mapping of specific materials or minerals. The support of hyperspectral imaging by spectral data gathered in the field and the analysis of the composition of rock samples can help to determine endmembers and to identify absorption features. This study demonstrates the possibilities and limitations of remote sensing, especially hyperspectral data, for mineral mapping purposes, using the example of the Mount Isa Inlier. This geological area is situated in Northern Queensland, Australia, and is known for its considerable ore deposits and consequent mining of predominantly copper, zinc, lead, silver and gold. Beside hyperspectral HyMap data, multispectral Landsat 8 and SRTM digital elevation data were analyzed. A three-week field study in 2014 supported the investigations. After preprocessing and vegetation masking the data were analyzed using Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) for alteration mineral mapping. The outcomes were combined with results from decorrelation stretch, band ratioing, topographic indices and automated lineament analysis. Additional information was provided by field spectrometer measurements and the XRF and XRD analysis of rock samples. Throughout the study, mineral mapping using remote sensing data, especially hyperspectral data, turned out to deliver high qualitative results when it is supported by additional information. In situ

  11. NASA Participation in the ISAS MUSES C Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) have agreed to cooperate on the first mission to collect samples from the surface of an asteroid and return them to Earth for in-depth study. The MUSES-C mission will be launched on a Japanese MV launch vehicle in January 2002 from Kagoshima Space Center, Japan, toward a touchdown on the asteroid Nereus in September 2003. A NASA-provided miniature rover will conduct in-situ measurements on the surface. The asteroid samples will be returned to Earth by MUSES-C via a parachute-borne recovery capsule in January 2006. NASA and ISAS will cooperate on several aspects of the mission, including mission support and scientific analysis. In addition to providing the rover, NASA will arrange for the testing of the MUSES-C re-entry heat shield at NASA/Ames Research Center, provide supplemental Deep Space Network tracking of the spacecraft, assist in navigating the spacecraft and provide arrangements for the recovery of the sample capsule at a landing site in the U. S. Scientific coinvestigators from the U.S. and Japan will share data from the instruments on the rover and the spacecraft. They will also collaborate on the investigations of the returned samples. With a mass of about I kg, the rover experiment will be a direct descendant of the technology used to build the Sojourner rover. The rover will carry three science instruments: a visible imaging camera, a near-infrared point spectrometer and an alpha X ray spectrometer. The solarpowered rover will move around the surface of Nereus collecting imagery data which are complimentary to the spacecraft investigation. The imaging system will be capable of making surface texture, composition, and morphology measurements at resolutions better than 1 cm. The rover will transmit this data to the spacecraft for relay back to Earth. Due to the microgravity environment on Nereus, the rover has been designed to right itself in case it flips over. Solar panels on all

  12. Three types of IS-A statement in diagnostic classifications: three types of knowledge needed for development and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Flier, F J; de Vries Robbé, P F; Zanstra, P E

    1998-11-01

    Update mechanisms for diagnostic classifications should capture changes in medical knowledge but also allow for comparability across versions. This paper provides a basis for such a mechanism by describing types of IS-A statement and types of knowledge used in the construction of diagnostic classifications. Three types of IS-A statement are used: 'A is by definition a B', 'A is probably a B' and 'A is in theory necessarily a B'. Each relates to a different type of knowledge: knowledge of linguistic conventions, of probabilities, and of empirical theories and their status, respectively. Consequently, the development and maintenance of diagnostic classifications requires a collaboration of medical terminologists and medical scientists. The role of the latter is especially important during updating. Updating is necessitated by changing probabilities and by the introduction or changing status of empirical theories. The linguistic notion of hyponymy oversimplifies the issue.

  13. The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) dry scrubber residue.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Malin; Berg, Magnus; Ifwer, Karin; Sjöblom, Rolf; Ecke, Holger

    2007-06-01

    Co-landfilling of incineration ash and cellulose might facilitate the alkaline degradation of cellulose. A major degradation product is isosaccharinic acid (ISA), a complexing agent for metals. The impact of ISA on the mobility of Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd from a municipal solid waste incineration dry scrubber residue was studied at laboratory using a reduced 2(5-1) factorial design. Factors investigated were the amount of calcium isosaccharinate (Ca(ISA)(2)), L/S ratio, temperature, contact time and type of atmosphere (N(2), air, O(2)). The effects of pH and Ca(ISA)(2) as well as other factors on the leaching of metals were quantified and modelled using multiple linear regression (alpha=0.05). Cd was excluded from the study since the concentrations were below the detection limit. The presence of Ca(ISA)(2) resulted in a higher leaching of Cu indicating complex formation. Ca(ISA)(2) alone had no effect on the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr. A secondary effect on the mobilization was predicted to occur since Ca(ISA)(2) had a positive effect on the pH and the leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr increased with increasing pH. The leaching of Pb varied from 24 up to 66 wt.% of the total Pb amount (1.74+/-0.02 g(kgTS)(-1)) in the dry scrubber residue. The corresponding interval for Zn (7.29+/-0.07 g(kgTS)(-1)) and Cu (0.50+/-0.02 g(kgTS)(-1)) were 0.5-14 wt.% of Zn and 0.8-70wt.% of Cu. Maximum leaching of Cr (0.23+/-0.03 g(kgTS)(-1)) was 4.0 wt.%. At conditions similar to a compacted and covered landfill (4 degrees C, 7 days, 0 vol.% O(2)) the presence of ISA can increase the leaching of Cu from 2 to 46 wt.% if the amount of cellulose-based waste increases 20 times, from the ratio 1:100 to 1:5. As well, the leaching of Pb, Zn, and Cr can increase from 32 to 54 wt.% (Pb), 0.8-8.0 wt.% (Zn), and 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% (Cr) depending on the amount of cellulose and L/S ratio and pH value. Therefore, a risk (alpha=0.05) exists that higher amounts of metals are leached from landfills where cellulose

  14. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is difficult for today's public institutions to gain access to all the scientific literature. Open access is thus imperative, as demonstrated through the positions taken by a growing number of research funding bodies, the development of open access journals and efforts made in promoting open archives. This article describes the setting up of an Inserm portal for publication in the context of the French national protocol for open-access self-archiving and in an international context.

  15. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Richard

    Biomedical imaging, and in particular MRI and CT, is often identified as among the top 10 most significant advances in healthcare in the 20th century. This presentation will describe some of the recent advances in medical physics and imaging being funded by NIH in this century and current funding opportunities. The presentation will also highlight the role of multidisciplinary research in bringing concepts from the physical sciences and applying them to challenges in biological and biomedical research.. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging.

  16. The PRIME Lab biomedical program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, George S.; Elmore, David; Rickey, Frank A.; Musameh, Sharif M.; Sharma, Pankaj; Hillegonds, Darren; Coury, Louis; Kissinger, Peter

    2000-10-01

    The biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) initiative at PRIME Lab including the status of equipment and sample preparation is described. Several biomedical projects are underway involving one or more of the nuclides: 14C, 26Al and 41Ca. Routine production of CaF 2 and graphite is taking place. Finally, the future direction and plans for improvement of the biomedical program at PRIME Lab are discussed.

  17. Biomedical systems analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Biomedical monitoring programs which were developed to provide a system analysis context for a unified hypothesis for adaptation to space flight are presented and discussed. A real-time system of data analysis and decision making to assure the greatest possible crew safety and mission success is described. Information about man's abilities, limitations, and characteristic reactions to weightless space flight was analyzed and simulation models were developed. The predictive capabilities of simulation models for fluid-electrolyte regulation, erythropoiesis regulation, and calcium regulation are discussed.

  18. Anatomy for biomedical engineers.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen W; Robb, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that were of particular interest to them. Following completion of all the dissections, the students presented what they had learned to the entire class in the anatomy laboratory. This course has fulfilled an important need for our students.

  19. China's growing biomedical industry.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei

    2009-06-01

    The biomedical industry in China is developing rapidly, and new biological drugs are increasing their share of the pharmaceutical market based on people's needs. China is the largest producer and user of vaccines in the world, but the existing production of vaccines is far from enough to meet the needs of the market. The entire market of biological drugs in China is still smaller than that for traditional medicines and chemicals. Therefore, the biopharmaceutical industry has the potential to be the rising star in the pharmaceutical market in the future.

  20. The Twin Cities biomedical consortium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A S

    1975-07-01

    Twenty-eight health science libraries in the St. Paul-Minneapolis area formed the Twin Cities Biomedical Consortium with the intention of developing a strong network of biomedical libraries in the Twin Cities area. Toward this end, programs were designed to strengthen lines of communication and increase cooperation among local health science libraries; improve access to biomedical information at the local level; and enable the Consortium, as a group, to meet an increasing proportion of its members' needs for biomedical information. Presently, the TCBC comprises libraries in twenty-two hospitals, two county medical societies, one school of nursing, one junior college, and two private corporations.

  1. Contributions of ISA accelerometer to BepiColombo exploration of planet Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Lucchesi, David; Magnafico, Carmelo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Reale, Andrea; Ricotta, Angelo; Santoli, Francesco

    To be launched in 2014, ESA mission BepiColombo will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. Among the wide range of its scientific objectives, an important set is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering the relevant parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) will be used — the first time for a deep-space probe — in the orbit determination and parameter estimation procedure. Following a brief description of the mission and RSE, the instrument and its wide capabilities will be reviewed. In particular the updated error budget for the acceleration measurements will be shown, together with a discussion of the calibration procedures, both on-ground and in-orbit, which are currently under definition.

  2. Contributions of ISA accelerometer to BepiColombo exploration of planet Mercury: status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Massimo Lucchesi, David; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Santoli, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    To be launched in 2016, ESA mission BepiColombo will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. Among the wide range of its scientific objectives, an important set is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering the relevant parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) will be used - the first time for a deep-space probe - in the orbit determination and parameter estimation procedure. Following a brief description of the RSE in the context of the mission, the instrument and its wide capabilities will be reviewed. In particular the overall measurement procedure will be discussed, along with recent and current work on instrument calibration (both on-ground and in-orbit), operations planning, data handling and processing and archiving.

  3. Contributions of ISA accelerometer to BepiColombo exploration of planet Mercury: current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Lucente, M.; Magnafico, C.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.

    2013-09-01

    The BepiColombo ESA mission will perform a thorough study of the planet Mercury and its environment. Among the wide range of its scientific objectives, an important set is constituted by the so-called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), which will study the gravitational field and rotation of the planet, and will perform very precise tests of general relativity theory. In order to reach the required level of accuracy in recovering the relevant parameters, the data coming from the high-sensitivity ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) instrument onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) will be used — the first time for a deep-space probe — in the orbit determination and parameter estimation procedure. Following a brief description of the RSE in the context of the mission, the instrument and its wide capabilities will be reviewed. In particular the overall measurement procedure will be discussed, along with recent and current work on instrument calibration —both on-groun d and in-orbit—operations planning, data handling and processing and archiving.

  4. Laboratory simulation of intact capture of cometary and asteroidal dust particles in ISAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Nakamura, A.; Kadono, T.

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop a collector for intact capturing of cometary dust particles in the SOCCER mission and regolith dust particles released from asteroid surfaces by the impact of projectiles launched from a flying-by spacecraft, various kinds of materials as the collector candidates have been exposed to hypervelocity projectiles in our laboratory. Data based on the penetration characteristics of various materials (penetration depth, hole profile, effectiveness for intact capturing) are greatly increased. The materials tested for these simulation experiments include various kinds of low-density media and multisheet stacks; these are foamed plastics (polystyrene 0.01 g/cc), silica aerogels (0.04 g/cc), air (0.001 g/cc), liquid, and multisheet stack consisting of thin Al sheets (thickness 0.002 to 0.1 mm) or polyethylene sheets. Projectiles used are spheres or cylinders of nylon, polycarbonate, basalt, copper, iron, and volatile organics (e.g.,paradichlorobenzene) of size ranging from 30 micrometers to 1 cm launched by a two-stage light gas gun and a rail gun in ISAS at velocity up to about 7 km/s. Some results obtained by using nylon projectiles of velocity less than about 5 km/s are presented; the penetration depth vs. bulk density of the collector material for several kinds of materials and the velocity at which the projectiles begin to fragment vs. material density for foamed polystyrene.

  5. Laboratory simulation of intact capture of cometary and asteroidal dust particles in ISAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, A.; Nakamura, A.; Kadono, T.

    In order to develop a collector for intact capturing of cometary dust particles in the SOCCER mission and regolith dust particles released from asteroid surfaces by the impact of projectiles launched from a flying-by spacecraft, various kinds of materials as the collector candidates have been exposed to hypervelocity projectiles in our laboratory. Data based on the penetration characteristics of various materials (penetration depth, hole profile, effectiveness for intact capturing) are greatly increased. The materials tested for these simulation experiments include various kinds of low-density media and multisheet stacks; these are foamed plastics (polystyrene 0.01 g/cc), silica aerogels (0.04 g/cc), air (0.001 g/cc), liquid, and multisheet stack consisting of thin Al sheets (thickness 0.002 to 0.1 mm) or polyethylene sheets. Projectiles used are spheres or cylinders of nylon, polycarbonate, basalt, copper, iron, and volatile organics (e.g.,paradichlorobenzene) of size ranging from 30 micrometers to 1 cm launched by a two-stage light gas gun and a rail gun in ISAS at velocity up to about 7 km/s. Some results obtained by using nylon projectiles of velocity less than about 5 km/s are presented; the penetration depth vs. bulk density of the collector material for several kinds of materials and the velocity at which the projectiles begin to fragment vs. material density for foamed polystyrene.

  6. Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project: BIP (Biomedical Instrumentation Package) User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    Described is the Biomedical Instrument Package (BIP) and its use. The BIP was developed for use in understanding colorimetry, sound, electricity, and bioelectric phenomena. It can also be used in a wide range of measurements such as current, voltage, resistance, temperature, and pH. Though it was developed primarily for use in biomedical science…

  7. Regulation of biomedical products.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant; Saville-Cook, Donald

    2010-05-01

    Two recent decisions, one from Australia and one from Canada, should cause us to examine the ethical issues surrounding the regulation of biomedical products. The protection of vulnerable consumers from variable quality and poorly prepared drugs with uncertain parameters of safety and efficacy is a priority for any community and should not have to be weighed against possible costs based on restrictions of trade. However, the possibility of an environment in which the multinational biomedical industry edges out any other players in the treatment of various illnesses has its own dangers. Not least is the apparent collusion between regulators and industry that ramps up the costs and intensity of licensing and risk management so that only an industry-type budget can sustain the costs of compliance. This has the untoward effect of delivering contemporary health care into the hands of those who make immense fortunes out of it. An approach to regulation that tempers bureaucratic mechanisms with a dose of common sense and realistic evidence-based risk assessment could go a long way in avoiding the Scylla and Charybdis awaiting the clinical world in these troubled waters.

  8. The BepiColombo mission to Mercury: state of the art of the ISA accelerometer implementation onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Lucente, M.; Magnafico, C.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Nozzoli, S.; Argada, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) has been selected by ESA to fly onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the BepiColombo space mission. Mercury's exploration represents one of the most important challenges of modern planetary sciences and the mission aims to reach a much better understanding of the internal structure and composition of the planet, which in turn are needed for a deeper comprehension of the formation of the terrestrial planets, hence of that of our solar system. Moreover, because of its proximity to the Sun, Mercury represents a unique opportunity to test Einstein's theory for the gravitational interaction with respect to other proposed theories of gravitation. The BepiColombo Radio Science Experiments (RSE) are devoted to reach the above ambitious goals and the measurements of the onboard accelerometer are necessary to remove (a posteriori) the very complex to model, strong and subtle, non-gravitational accelerations due to the very strong radiation environment around Mercury. We focus on the accelerometer characteristics and performance, on the functional tests that are necessary for its implementation onboard the MPO and in the procedures that are necessary for the reduction of the accelerometer measurements in order to be used in the context of the RSE. We finally introduce the description of the accelerometer proof-masses non linearities, their impact in the measurements and the way to handle such effects.

  9. Biomedical Knowledge and Clinical Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    A study examined the application and availability of clinical and biomedical knowledge in the clinical reasoning of physicians as well as possible mechanisms responsible for changes in the organization of clinical and biomedical knowledge in the development from novice to expert. Subjects were 28 students (10 second year, 8 fourth year, and 10…

  10. Space Biomedical Research in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ogawa, Megumi; Kawashima, Shino; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazunari; Mukai, Chiaki; Tachibana, Shoichi

    This paper introduces the activity of the newly launched JAXA Space Biomedical Research Office, including ongoing space clinical medicine research. It also explains the new office's goals, policy, criteria for prioritizing research themes, and process for conducting research, as well as some topics of space biomedical research.

  11. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  12. Zirconium: biomedical and nephrological applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, David B N; Roberts, Martin; Bluchel, Christian G; Odell, Ross A

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of zirconium (Zr)-containing compounds in artificial internal organs. Examples include dental implants and other restorative practices, total knee and hip replacement, and middle-ear ossicular chain reconstruction. In nephrological practice, Zr-containing sorbents have been used in hemofiltration, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and in the design and construction of wearable artificial kidneys. Zr compounds continue to be widely and extensively used in deodorant and antiperspirant preparations. In the public health arena, Zr compounds have been studied or used in controlling phosphorus pollution and in the reclamation of poison and bacteria-contaminated water. Experimental and clinical studies support the general consensus that Zr compounds are biocompatible and exhibit low toxicity. Reports on possible Zr-associated adverse reactions are rare and, in general, have not rigorously established a cause-and-effect relationship. Although publications on the use of Zr compounds have continued to increase in recent years, reports on Zr toxicity have virtually disappeared from the medical literature. Nevertheless, familiarity with, and continued vigilant monitoring of, the use of these compounds are warranted. This article provides an updated review on the biomedical use of Zr compounds.

  13. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  14. Biomedical applications of collagens.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, John A M

    2016-05-01

    Collagen-based biomedical materials have developed into important, clinically effective materials used in a range of devices that have gained wide acceptance. These devices come with collagen in various formats, including those based on stabilized natural tissues, those that are based on extracted and purified collagens, and designed composite, biosynthetic materials. Further knowledge on the structure and function of collagens has led to on-going developments and improvements. Among these developments has been the production of recombinant collagen materials that are well defined and are disease free. Most recently, a group of bacterial, non-animal collagens has emerged that may provide an excellent, novel source of collagen for use in biomaterials and other applications. These newer collagens are discussed in detail. They can be modified to direct their function, and they can be fabricated into various formats, including films and sponges, while solutions can also be adapted for use in surface coating technologies.

  15. Skylab biomedical hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffstetler, W. J., Jr.; Lem, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The development of hardware to support biomedical experimentation and operations in the Skylab vehicle presented unique technical problems. Designs were required to enable the accurate measurement of many varied physiological parameters and to compensate for zero g such that uninhibited equipment operation would be possible. Because of problems that occurred during the orbital workshop launch, special tests were run and new equipment was designed and built for use by the first Skylab crew. Design concepts used in the development of hardware to support cardiovascular, pulmonary, vestibular, body, and specimen mass measuring experiments are discussed. Additionally, major problem areas and the corresponding design solutions, as well as knowledge gained that will be pertinent for future life sciences hardware development, are presented.

  16. Biomedical studies by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afarideh, H.; Amirabadi, A.; Hadji-Saeid, S. M.; Mansourian, N.; Kaviani, K.; Zibafar, E.

    1996-04-01

    In the present biomedical research, PIXE a powerful technique for elemental analysis was employed to illustrate the importance of multi-elemental determination of serum trace elements in two cases of great medical interest. Those are evaluation of the desferroxamine drug (DPO), a widely used therapy for patient with β-thalassemia-Major (β-thal-M), and investigation of elemental variations in blood-serum in hyperbilirubinamia new-borns before and after blood transfusion (BT). The purpose of the work is to demonstrate the various aspects of PIXE analysis by some practical examples as well as to draw some general conclusions regarding the cure of those patients with the above mentioned disorders or diseases. To present in details each case, we divide the paper in two parts: part 1 and part 2 to consider the experimental procedure as well as the results individually.

  17. Customization of biomedical terminologies.

    PubMed

    Homo, Julien; Dupuch, Laëtitia; Benbrahim, Allel; Grabar, Natalia; Dupuch, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Within the biomedical area over one hundred terminologies exist and are merged in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus, which gives over 1 million concepts. When such huge terminological resources are available, the users must deal with them and specifically they must deal with irrelevant parts of these terminologies. We propose to exploit seed terms and semantic distance algorithms in order to customize the terminologies and to limit within them a semantically homogeneous space. An evaluation performed by a medical expert indicates that the proposed approach is relevant for the customization of terminologies and that the extracted terms are mostly relevant to the seeds. It also indicates that different algorithms provide with similar or identical results within a given terminology. The difference is due to the terminologies exploited. A special attention must be paid to the definition of optimal association between the semantic similarity algorithms and the thresholds specific to a given terminology.

  18. A Commentary on the Biomedical Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph, III; Hayes, Robert M.

    1970-01-01

    The Biomedical Information System is described as one which includes closed intermediate and open data, mobilizing all biomedical information for physicians, teachers, students and administrators. (Editor/IE)

  19. [Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Ricardo; Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group.

  20. Biomedical education for clinical engineers.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Francois; Donadey, Alain; Hadjes, Pierre; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical equipment Master's degree is recognized by the French Ministry of Health, since its creation in 1975 under the denomination of "Specialization for Hospital Biomedical Engineers". Since the new national status of technical staff in the public service by decree of September 5th of 1991, it allows to access directly to the level of Chief Hospital Engineer (first category, second class, by ordinance of October 23rd, 1992). Biomedical Engineers jobs in French hospitals are selected after an examination organized by the recruiting hospital. Master's graduates are most often the best qualified.

  1. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In June 1996, NASA released a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) inviting proposals to establish a National Space Biomedical Research Institute (9-CAN-96-01). This CAN stated that: The Mission of the Institute will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. The Institute will be the focal point of NASA sponsored space biomedical research. This statement has not been amended by NASA and remains the mission of the NSBRI.

  2. The BepiColombo mission to Mercury: ISA accelerometer on-ground and in-flight calibration procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D.; Fiorenza, E.; Lucente, M.; Lefevre, C.; Magnafico, C.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Nozzoli, S.; Argada, A.

    2012-04-01

    The key role of the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) in the radio science measurements of the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury is to remove, aposteriori, the non-gravitational accelerations acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) due to the very strong radiation environment around Mercury. This presentation is devoted to describe the main on-ground and in-flight calibration procedures that are necessary to guarantee the accelerometer performance in order to reach the very ambitious objectives of the Radio Science Experiments (RSE) of the ESA mission: the accelerometer sensitivity has to be 10-8 m/s2/√Hz in the frequency band 3·10-5 -10-1 Hz. ISA is a three axes torsional accelerometer and the calibration procedures are necessary in order to estimate scale factors and axes misalignments and couplings. The on-ground calibration procedures are primarily finalized to the determination of the actuator transducer factor of the proof-masses capacitor plates and to the determination of the proof-masses axes orthogonality and orientation with respect to a reference optical cube. The in-flight calibration procedures are devoted to the determination of the accelerometer pick-up transducer factors, which are different from those determined on-ground during the calibration of ISA's actuators, and to the determination of the axes alignment in order to check if launch shocks have produced possible variations with respect to their nominal orientation in the MPO body-fixed frame as determined during the pre-launch characterization and calibration. A by-product of the in-flight calibration procedures is the determination of ISA proof-masses position with respect to spacecraft effective center-of-mass. This allows to check if the MPO center-of-mass variations are in line with on-ground estimates based on fuel consumption computations and the mass distribution of the spacecraft appendices and movable parts, as in the case of the orientation of the solar array panels and

  3. Issues in biomedical ethics.

    PubMed

    Vevaina, J R; Nora, L M; Bone, R C

    1993-12-01

    Bioethics is the discipline of ethics dealing with moral problems arising in the practice of medicine and the pursuit of biomedical research. Physicians may confront ethical dilemmas regularly in their individual relationships with patients and in institutional and societal decisions on health care policy. Ethical problem solving requires the application of certain ethical rules and principles to specific situations. Although ethical theories differ, certain ethical rules and principles appear consistently. These include nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for individual autonomy, confidentiality, and justice. This article discusses some of the ethical issues that arise in clinical practice, including informed consent, do-not-resuscitate orders, noninitiation and termination of medical therapy, genetic intervention, allocation of scarce health resources, and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some of these problems require ethical analysis at the bedside; others require physician involvement on a broader level. Perspectives on the different ethical issues are presented; however, absolute answers to these ethical dilemmas are not provided. Interpretation of the ethical principles and the application of these principles to each clinical situation demands the thoughtful attention of the practitioner.

  4. Towards a 21st century roadmap for biomedical research and drug discovery: Consensus report and recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research. Following an international workshop attended by experts from academia, govern...

  5. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  6. Biomedical research publications, 1982 - 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcik, C.; Pleasant, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, blood cell alterations, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, and general biomedical research are covered in a bibliography of 444 items.

  7. Towards automated biomedical ontology harmonization.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Gustavo A; Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomedical ontologies is increasing, especially in the context of health systems interoperability. Ontologies are key pieces to understand the semantics of information exchanged. However, given the diversity of biomedical ontologies, it is essential to develop tools that support harmonization processes amongst them. Several algorithms and tools are proposed by computer scientist for partially supporting ontology harmonization. However, these tools face several problems, especially in the biomedical domain where ontologies are large and complex. In the harmonization process, matching is a basic task. This paper explains the different ontology harmonization processes, analyzes existing matching tools, and proposes a prototype of an ontology harmonization service. The results demonstrate that there are many open issues in the field of biomedical ontology harmonization, such as: overcoming structural discrepancies between ontologies; the lack of semantic algorithms to automate the process; the low matching efficiency of existing algorithms; and the use of domain and top level ontologies in the matching process.

  8. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.

  9. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  10. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  11. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) sponsors and performs fundamental and applied space biomedical research with the mission of leading a world-class, national effort in integrated, critical path space biomedical research that supports NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Strategic Plan. It focuses on the enabling of long-term human presence in, development of, and exploration of space. This will be accomplished by: designing, implementing, and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight; defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures; establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level, and deliver quality medical care; transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the benefit of mankind in space and on Earth, including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth; and ensuring open involvement of the scientific community, industry, and the public at large in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through Johnson Space Center.

  12. Biomedical Results of ISS Expeditions 1-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, Jennifer; Sams, Clarence F.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on biomedical data from International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 1-12 is shown. The topics include: 1) ISS Expeditions 1-12; 2) Biomedical Data; 3) Physiological Assessments; 4) Bone Mineral Density; 5) Bone Mineral Density Recovery; 6) Orthostatic Tolerance; 7) Postural Stability Set of Sensory Organ Test 6; 8) Performance Assessment; 9) Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; 10) Pre-flight Aerobic Fitness of ISS Astronauts; 11) In-flight and Post-flight Aerobic Capacity of the Astronaut Corps; and 12) ISS Functional Fitness Expeditions 1-12.

  13. NASA's Biomedical Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The biomedical research program has been established to investigate the major physiological and psychological problems encountered by man when he undertakes spaceflight. The program seeks to obtain a better definition of each problem, an understanding of its underlying mechanism, and ultimately a means of prevention. In pursuing these goals the program also includes a major effort to develop the research tools and procedures it needs where these are not being developed elsewhere. After almost twenty years of manned spaceflight activities and after a much longer period of space related ground-based research, the program now recognizes two characteristics of spaceflight which are truly unique to space. These are weightlessness and one specific form of radiation. In its present stage of maturity much of the research focuses on mechanisms underlying the basic responses of man and animals to weightlessness. The program consists of nine elements. Eight of these are referable to specific physiological problems that have either been encountered in previous manned spaceflight or which are anticipated to occur as spaceflights last longer, traverse steeper orbital inclinations, or are otherwise different from previous missions. The ninth addresses problems that have neither arisen nor can be reasonably predicted but are suspected on the basis of theoretical models, ground-based animal research, or for other reasons. The program's current emphasis is directed toward the motion sickness problem because of its relevance to Space Shuttle operations. Increased awareness and understanding of the radiation hazard has resulted in more emphasis being placed on the biological effects of high energy, high mass number particulate radiation and upon radiation protection . Cardiovascular and musculoskeleta1 studies are pursued in recognition of the considerable fundamental knowledge that must be acquired in these areas before effective countermeasures to the effects of repetitive or long

  14. The BepiColombo mission to Mercury: Reaction wheels desaturation manoeuvres and the ISA accelerometer Δ V⇒ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D.-M.; Nozzoli, S.; Santoli, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Mercury Planetary Orbiter will be a three-axis stabilized spacecraft and nadir pointing to Mercury center-of-mass. The pointing accuracy, needed for the very ambitious goals of the ESA space mission to Mercury denominated BepiColombo, is reached thanks to the onboard reaction wheels, and it is also required during the unobserved arcs. The unavoidable manoeuvres of desaturation of the reaction wheels, which are necessary to remove the accumulated angular momentum, represent a clear reduction of the accuracy of the objectives of the ESA space mission. Indeed, these manoeuvres are performed through the spacecraft thrusters and directly impact the accuracy of the propagated state-vector of the satellite at the beginning of the subsequent observed arc. Their impact is quantified by their number, position along the orbit and, especially, in the uncertainty in the linear momentum transferred to the spacecraft. The present paper is devoted to prove the feasibility of the speed variation measurements produced by the thruster thanks to the onboard accelerometer, ISA. Therefore, such measurements may be an essential ingredient in order to preserve the accuracy of the BepiColombo Radio Science Experiments and of other onboard instruments pointing accuracy, as is the case of BELA. This additional capability of ISA strengthens once more the key role of the accelerometer in the BepiColombo mission to Mercury.

  15. The BepiColombo Mission to Mercury: reaction wheels desaturation manoeuvres and the ISA accelerometer Δ →V measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Nozzoli, Sergio; Lucchesi, David; Santoli, Francesco; Peron, Roberto; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Reale, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The MPO will be a three-axis stabilized spacecraft and nadir pointing to Mercury center-of-mass. Such a pointing, needed for the very ambitious goals of the ESA space mission to Mercury denominated BepiColombo, is reached thanks to the onboard reaction wheels, and it is also required during the unobserved (from Earth) arcs. The unavoidable manoeuvres of desaturation of the reaction wheels, which are necessary to remove the accumulated angular momentum, represent a clear reduction of the accuracy of the objectives of the ESA space mission. Indeed, during these manoeuvres the spacecraft thrusters are fired -- to guarantee the planet center-of-mass pointing -- and directly impact the accuracy of the propagated state-vector of the satellite at the beginning of the subsequent observed arc. Their impact is quantified by their number, position along the orbit and, especially, in the uncertainty in the linear momentum transferred to the spacecraft. This presentation is devoted to prove the feasibility of the measurements of the transferred momentum by the thruster thanks to the onboard accelerometer ISA. Therefore, such measurements will be an essential ingredient in order to preserve the accuracy of the BepiColombo Radio Science Experiments and of the pointing accuracy of other onboard instruments, as is the case of BELA. This additional capability of ISA strengthen once more the key rôle of the accelerometer in the BepiColombo mission to Mercury.

  16. The Genome Sequence of the Highly Acetic Acid-Tolerant Zygosaccharomyces bailii-Derived Interspecies Hybrid Strain ISA1307, Isolated From a Sparkling Wine Plant

    PubMed Central

    Mira, Nuno P.; Münsterkötter, Martin; Dias-Valada, Filipa; Santos, Júlia; Palma, Margarida; Roque, Filipa C.; Guerreiro, Joana F.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília; Güldener, Ulrich; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, it is described the sequencing and annotation of the genome of the yeast strain ISA1307, isolated from a sparkling wine continuous production plant. This strain, formerly considered of the Zygosaccharomyces bailii species, has been used to study Z. bailii physiology, in particular, its extreme tolerance to acetic acid stress at low pH. The analysis of the genome sequence described in this work indicates that strain ISA1307 is an interspecies hybrid between Z. bailii and a closely related species. The genome sequence of ISA1307 is distributed through 154 scaffolds and has a size of around 21.2 Mb, corresponding to 96% of the genome size estimated by flow cytometry. Annotation of ISA1307 genome includes 4385 duplicated genes (∼90% of the total number of predicted genes) and 1155 predicted single-copy genes. The functional categories including a higher number of genes are ‘Metabolism and generation of energy’, ‘Protein folding, modification and targeting’ and ‘Biogenesis of cellular components’. The knowledge of the genome sequence of the ISA1307 strain is expected to contribute to accelerate systems-level understanding of stress resistance mechanisms in Z. bailii and to inspire and guide novel biotechnological applications of this yeast species/strain in fermentation processes, given its high resilience to acidic stress. The availability of the ISA1307 genome sequence also paves the way to a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the generation and selection of more robust hybrid yeast strains in the stressful environment of wine fermentations. PMID:24453040

  17. The genome sequence of the highly acetic acid-tolerant Zygosaccharomyces bailii-derived interspecies hybrid strain ISA1307, isolated from a sparkling wine plant.

    PubMed

    Mira, Nuno P; Münsterkötter, Martin; Dias-Valada, Filipa; Santos, Júlia; Palma, Margarida; Roque, Filipa C; Guerreiro, Joana F; Rodrigues, Fernando; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília; Güldener, Ulrich; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2014-06-01

    In this work, it is described the sequencing and annotation of the genome of the yeast strain ISA1307, isolated from a sparkling wine continuous production plant. This strain, formerly considered of the Zygosaccharomyces bailii species, has been used to study Z. bailii physiology, in particular, its extreme tolerance to acetic acid stress at low pH. The analysis of the genome sequence described in this work indicates that strain ISA1307 is an interspecies hybrid between Z. bailii and a closely related species. The genome sequence of ISA1307 is distributed through 154 scaffolds and has a size of around 21.2 Mb, corresponding to 96% of the genome size estimated by flow cytometry. Annotation of ISA1307 genome includes 4385 duplicated genes (∼ 90% of the total number of predicted genes) and 1155 predicted single-copy genes. The functional categories including a higher number of genes are 'Metabolism and generation of energy', 'Protein folding, modification and targeting' and 'Biogenesis of cellular components'. The knowledge of the genome sequence of the ISA1307 strain is expected to contribute to accelerate systems-level understanding of stress resistance mechanisms in Z. bailii and to inspire and guide novel biotechnological applications of this yeast species/strain in fermentation processes, given its high resilience to acidic stress. The availability of the ISA1307 genome sequence also paves the way to a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the generation and selection of more robust hybrid yeast strains in the stressful environment of wine fermentations.

  18. Towards a 21st century roadmap for biomedical research and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Decades of costly failures in translating drug candidates from preclinical disease models to human therapeutic use warrant reconsideration of the priority placed on animal models in biomedical research. Following an international workshop attended by experts from academia, government institutions, research funding bodies and the corporate and NGO sectors, this consensus report analyses, as case studies, five disease areas with major unmet needs for new treatments. In view of the scientifically driven transition towards a human pathways-based paradigm in toxicology, a similar paradigm shift appears to be justified in biomedical research. There is a pressing need for an approach that strategically implements advanced, human biology-based models and tools to understand disease pathways at multiple biological scales. We present recommendations to help achieve this. To discover and develop new therapies, we need 21-century roadmaps for biomedical research based on multiscale human disease pathways, and supported by policy and funding strategies that prioritise human relevance.

  19. Career development in Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering: a student's roadmap.

    PubMed

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O

    2008-01-01

    Bioengineering/biomedical engineering education has progressed since the late 1950s and is still evolving in leading academic institutions worldwide. Today, Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering is acclaimed as one of the most reputable fields within the global arena, and will likely be the catalyst for any future breakthroughs in Medicine and Biology. This paper provides a set of strategies and recommendations to be pursued by individuals aiming at planning and developing careers in this field. The paper targets the international student contemplating bioengineering/biomedical engineering as a career, with an underlying emphasis on the student within developing and transitional countries where career guidance is found deficient. The paper also provides a comprehensive definition of the field and an enumeration of its subdivisions.

  20. 78 FR 5238 - Request for Comments on an International Services Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... negotiations for an International Services Agreement (ISA) with an initial group of 20 trading partners. The... following twenty trading partners have expressed their intention to participate in negotiations with the... negotiations proceed, includes a range of developed and developing economies, representing nearly two-thirds...

  1. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Experimental Parasitology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, ...

  2. The biomedical discourse relation bank

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB), in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB), which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89). These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28), mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57). Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more annotated data. The poor

  3. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  4. Graduate Program in Biomedical Communication *

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Susan M.

    1969-01-01

    The need for harnessing the achievements of communication technology to the burgeoning mass of biomedical information is critical. Recognizing this problem and aware of the short supply of professionals with the skills necessary for the job, a group of leaders from the fields of medicine and communications formed a consortium in 1967 and have developed a twelve month graduate program in biomedical communication. Designed to ground the advanced student in the development and administration of biomedical communication programs, the curriculum focuses on the principles and practice of communication and the development of communications media. Courses are given in the control and communication of information; the printed and spoken word; visual media of photographic arts, television, and motion pictures; computer science; and administration and systems analysis. PMID:5823505

  5. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell-cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future.

  6. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan; Huang, Yonggang; Amsden, Jason

    2014-03-04

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between the implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.

  7. BepiColombo mission to Mercury: ISA accelerometer DeltaV measurements and the reaction wheels desaturation manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Lucchesi, David; Nozzoli, Sergio; Santoli, Francesco; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Peron, Roberto; Lefevre, Carlo; Reale, Andrea

    Mercury exploration is one of the most important challenges of modern planetary sciences. The results are a way to constrain the physics of the terrestrial planet formation and, at the end, of the whole solar system. The level of knowledge we can reach is strongly conditioned by the accuracy of the Radio Science Experiments (RSE) that will be performed using Earth—bound radar tracking stations. Such very ambitious objectives need an onboard accelerometer in or-der to measure and remove the strong, and subtle, nongravitational accelerations of the very severe radiation environment of the innermost planet of our solar system. The Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) has been selected to fly onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the ESA space mission to Mercury denominated BepiColombo. The MPO will be a three-axis stabilized spacecraft and nadir pointing to Mercury center-of-mass. Such a pointing, needed for the very ambitious goals the mission, is reached thanks to the onboard reaction wheels, and it is also required during the unobserved (from Earth) arcs. The unavoidable manoeuvres of desaturation of the reaction wheels, which are necessary to remove the accumulated angular momentum, represent a clear reduction of the accuracy of the objectives of the ESA space mission. Indeed, during these manoeuvres the spacecraft thrusters are fired — to still guar-antee the pointing to the planet center-of-mass — and directly impact on the accuracy of the propagated state-vector of the satellite at the beginning of the subsequent observed arc. Their impact is quantified by their number, position along the orbit and, especially, in the uncertainty in the linear momentum transferred to the spacecraft. This presentation is devoted to prove the feasibility of the measurements and knowledge of the transferred momentum by the thruster thanks to the onboard ISA accelerometer. Such measurements will be an essential ingredient in order to preserve the accuracy of the Bepi

  8. Alginate: properties and biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Mooney, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers. PMID:22125349

  9. Biomedical Polar Research Workshop Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This workshop was conducted to provide a background of NASA and National Science Foundation goals, an overview of previous and current biomedical research, and a discussion about areas of potential future joint activities. The objectives of the joint research were: (1) to develop an understanding of the physiological, psychological, and behavioral alterations and adaptations to extreme environments of the polar regions; (2) to ensure the health, well-being, and performance of humans in these environments; and (3) to promote the application of biomedical research to improve the quality of life in all environments.

  10. EDITORIAL: Recent developments in biomedical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruikang K.; Hebden, Jeremy C.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-04-01

    The rapid growth in laser and photonic technology has resulted in new tools being proposed and developed for use in the medical and biological sciences. Specifically, a discipline known as biomedical optics has emerged which is providing a broad variety of optical techniques and instruments for diagnostic, therapeutic and basic science applications. New laser sources, detectors and measurement techniques are yielding powerful new methods for the study of diseases on all scales, from single molecules, to specific tissues and whole organs. For example, novel laser microscopes permit spectroscopic and force measurements to be performed on single protein molecules; new optical devices provide information on molecular dynamics and structure to perform `optical biopsy' non-invasively and almost instantaneously; and optical coherence tomography and diffuse optical tomography allow visualization of specific tissues and organs. Using genetic promoters to derive luciferase expression, bioluminescence methods can generate molecular light switches, which serve as functional indicator lights reporting cellular conditions and responses in living animals. This technique could allow rapid assessment of and response to the effects of anti-tumour drugs, antibiotics, or antiviral drugs. This issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology highlights recent research in biomedical optics, and is based on invited contributions to the International Conference on Advanced Laser Technology (Focused on Biomedical Optics) held at Cranfield University at Silsoe on 19--23 September 2003. This meeting included sessions devoted to: diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy; optical coherence tomography and coherent domain techniques; optical sensing and applications in life science; microscopic, spectroscopic and opto-acoustic imaging; therapeutic and diagnostic applications; and laser interaction with organic and inorganic materials. Twenty-one papers are included in this special issue. The first paper

  11. A prime-boost regime that combines Montanide ISA720 and Alhydrogel to induce antibodies against the HIV-1 derived multiepitope polypeptide TAB9.

    PubMed

    Raya, N E; Quintana, D; Carrazana, Y; Gómez, C E; Duarte, C A

    1999-06-04

    A phase I clinical trial with the HIV-1-derived multi-epitope polypeptide (MEP) TAB9 in the oil adjuvant Montanide ISA720 (M-ISA720) was recently performed. Although severe local reactions were reported after the second and third injections of this vaccine candidate, the first inoculation was well tolerated. In this article we evaluated a prime-boost regime consisting of one inoculation of TAB9 in M-ISA720 followed by a booster with the same antigen in aluminum hydroxide. This combination of adjuvants elicited similar antibody levels in rabbits than the traditional two-dose schedule with M-ISA720. A control group injected three times with TAB9 in aluminum hydroxide developed markedly lower antibody titers. These results showed that although oil adjuvants are better than alum for priming the immune system for antibody production against TAB9, both kinds of adjuvants can be equally effective in booster immunizations. Therefore, by using the more reactogenic oil adjuvant only for priming, we should be able to eliminate the undesirable reactions characteristic of these compounds while achieving equivalent levels of specific antibodies.

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen, Oxides of Sulfur and Particulate Matter - Ecological Criteria (First External Review Draft, Mar 2017)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM 2.5 and PM 10 since the prior re...

  13. Advancing biomedical imaging.

    PubMed

    Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2015-11-24

    Imaging reveals complex structures and dynamic interactive processes, located deep inside the body, that are otherwise difficult to decipher. Numerous imaging modalities harness every last inch of the energy spectrum. Clinical modalities include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and light-based methods [endoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT)]. Research modalities include various light microscopy techniques (confocal, multiphoton, total internal reflection, superresolution fluorescence microscopy), electron microscopy, mass spectrometry imaging, fluorescence tomography, bioluminescence, variations of OCT, and optoacoustic imaging, among a few others. Although clinical imaging and research microscopy are often isolated from one another, we argue that their combination and integration is not only informative but also essential to discovering new biology and interpreting clinical datasets in which signals invariably originate from hundreds to thousands of cells per voxel.

  14. Advancing biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Imaging reveals complex structures and dynamic interactive processes, located deep inside the body, that are otherwise difficult to decipher. Numerous imaging modalities harness every last inch of the energy spectrum. Clinical modalities include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and light-based methods [endoscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT)]. Research modalities include various light microscopy techniques (confocal, multiphoton, total internal reflection, superresolution fluorescence microscopy), electron microscopy, mass spectrometry imaging, fluorescence tomography, bioluminescence, variations of OCT, and optoacoustic imaging, among a few others. Although clinical imaging and research microscopy are often isolated from one another, we argue that their combination and integration is not only informative but also essential to discovering new biology and interpreting clinical datasets in which signals invariably originate from hundreds to thousands of cells per voxel. PMID:26598657

  15. The BepiColombo mission to Mercury and the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) role in the Radio Science Experiments measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Lucente, M.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Argada, A.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Magnafico, C.

    2011-10-01

    The BepiColombo mission to Mercury [1, 10] of the European Space Agency (ESA) aims to perform a set of experiments, the so called Radio Science Experiments (RSE), that will be devoted to the study of the gravity field and rotational state of Mercury [8] as well as to verify the theory of general relativity to an unprecedented level of accuracy [9]. One of the key ingredients in order to reach the very ambitious objectives of this mission, in the context of the RSE, is represented by the measurements of the onboard accelerometer [5, 2]. The Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) has been selected by ESA to measure and then allow to remove, a posteriori, the disturbing nongravitational accelerations acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) surface. This paper is devoted to describe the accelerometer characteristics and performance and to introduce some of the experimental procedures in order to calibrate its measurements on ground and during the nominal phase of the mission.

  16. Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

  17. Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Silvia; Berneschi, Simone; Brenci, Massimo; Cosi, Franco; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi; Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C.

    2011-01-01

    Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field. PMID:22346603

  18. Biomedical informatics in Switzerland: need for action.

    PubMed

    Lovis, Christian; Blaser, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical informatics (BMI) is an umbrella scientific field that covers many domains, as defined several years ago by the International Medical Informatics Association and the American Medical Informatics Association, two leading players in the field. For example, one of the domains of BMI is clinical informatics, which has been formally recognised as a medical subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialty since 2011. Most OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries offer very strong curricula in the field of BMI, strong research and development funding with clear tracks and, for most of them, inclusion of BMI in the curricula of health professionals, but BMI remains only marginally recognised in Switzerland. Recent major changes, however, such as the future federal law on electronic patient records, the personalised health initiative or the growing empowerment of citizens towards their health data, are adding much weight to the need for BMI capacity-building in Switzerland.

  19. [The need for information in biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Kumate, J

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on the need of every researcher to be informed on advances in his field. It reviews the means available for keeping abreast of developments in a specific area of scientific inquiry. In the author's view, articles in reference journals on a specific specialty are the best source of information. However, the interval between the writing and publication of a scientific paper is sometimes long, which poses a considerable impediment to the use of the traditional media as a means of keeping up. He also examines the limitations of information in biomedical research and reviews the characteristics of this research in Latin America. Finally, he makes a number of recommendations for improving scientific communications and making the most of the services of national and international information dissemination systems.

  20. [The role of science in policy making--EuSANH-ISA project, framework for science advice for health].

    PubMed

    Cianciara, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Maria; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2012-01-01

    Governments and other authorities (including MPs) should be well informed on issues of science and technology. This is particularly important in the era of evidence-based practice. This implies the need to get expert advice. The process by which scientific knowledge is transmitted, along with proposals how to solve the problem, is called science advice. The main aim of the article is to discuss the issue of science advice--definitions, interaction between science and policymaking, and its position in contemporary policies. The second aim is to present European Science Advisory Network for Health (EuSANH), EuSANH-ISA project, and framework for science advice for health which was developed by participants. Furthermore, the role of civil society in decision-making process and science advice is also discussed. Interaction between scientists and policy-makers are described in terms of science-push approach (technocratic model), policy-pull (decisionistic) and simultaneous push-pull approach (pragmatic). The position of science advice is described in historical perspective from the 50s, especially in the last two decades. Description relies to USA, Canada and UK. Principles of scientific advice to government (Government Office for Science, UK) are quoted. Some important documents related to science advice in EU and UN are mentioned. EuSANH network is described as well as EuSANH-ISA project, with its objectives and outcomes. According to findings of this project, the process of science advice for health should follow some steps: framing the issue to be covered; planning entire process leading to the conclusion; drafting the report; reviewing the report and revision; publishing report and assessing the impact on policy.

  1. Using the Gene Ontology tool to produce de novo protein-protein interaction networks with IS_A relationship.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, G S; Santos, A R

    2016-12-19

    Since the first assembled genomes, gene sequences alone have not been sufficient to understand complex metabolic processes involving several genes, each playing distinct roles. To identify their roles, a network of interactions, wherein each gene is a node, should be created. Edges connecting nodes are evidence of interaction, for instance, of gene products coexisting in the same cellular component. Such interaction networks are called protein-protein interactions (PPIs). After genome assembling, PPI mapping is used to predict the possibility of proteins interacting with other proteins based on literature evidence and several databases, thus enriching genome annotations. Identifying PPIs involves analyzing each possible protein pair for a set of features, for instance, participation in the same biological process and having the same function and status in a cellular component. Here, we investigated using the three categories of the Gene Ontology (GO) database for efficient PPI prediction, because it provides data about the three features exemplified here. For a broader conclusion, we investigated the genomes of ten different human pathogens, looking for commonality regarding the GO hierarchical relationship-denominated IS_A. The plasmids were examined separately from their main genomes. Protein pairs sharing at least one IS_A value were considered as interacting proteins. STRING results certified the probed interactions as sensitivity (score >0.75) and specificity (score <0.25) analysis. The average areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for all organisms were 0.66 and 0.53 for their genomes and plasmids, respectively. Thus, GO categories alone could not potentially provide reliable PPI prediction. However, using additional features can improve predictions.

  2. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the National Space Biomedical Research Institute's (NSBRI) activities during FY 2004, the Institute's seventh year. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Institute's lead institution, Baylor College of Medicine.

  3. Sparse Methods for Biomedical Data.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jieping; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-01

    Following recent technological revolutions, the investigation of massive biomedical data with growing scale, diversity, and complexity has taken a center stage in modern data analysis. Although complex, the underlying representations of many biomedical data are often sparse. For example, for a certain disease such as leukemia, even though humans have tens of thousands of genes, only a few genes are relevant to the disease; a gene network is sparse since a regulatory pathway involves only a small number of genes; many biomedical signals are sparse or compressible in the sense that they have concise representations when expressed in a proper basis. Therefore, finding sparse representations is fundamentally important for scientific discovery. Sparse methods based on the [Formula: see text] norm have attracted a great amount of research efforts in the past decade due to its sparsity-inducing property, convenient convexity, and strong theoretical guarantees. They have achieved great success in various applications such as biomarker selection, biological network construction, and magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art sparse methods and their applications to biomedical data.

  4. Sparse Methods for Biomedical Data

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jieping; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Following recent technological revolutions, the investigation of massive biomedical data with growing scale, diversity, and complexity has taken a center stage in modern data analysis. Although complex, the underlying representations of many biomedical data are often sparse. For example, for a certain disease such as leukemia, even though humans have tens of thousands of genes, only a few genes are relevant to the disease; a gene network is sparse since a regulatory pathway involves only a small number of genes; many biomedical signals are sparse or compressible in the sense that they have concise representations when expressed in a proper basis. Therefore, finding sparse representations is fundamentally important for scientific discovery. Sparse methods based on the ℓ1 norm have attracted a great amount of research efforts in the past decade due to its sparsity-inducing property, convenient convexity, and strong theoretical guarantees. They have achieved great success in various applications such as biomarker selection, biological network construction, and magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art sparse methods and their applications to biomedical data. PMID:24076585

  5. Biomedical research publications: 1980 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleasant, L. G.; Limbach, L.

    1982-01-01

    Publications concerning the major physiological and psychological problems encountered by man when he undertakes space flight are listed. Nine research areas are included: cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, blood cell alterations, fluid and eletrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, and general biomedical research.

  6. Supporting Connectivity for Biomedical Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Effectiveness Research • Health Disparities in Underserved Populations • Public Health Monitoring, Biosurveillance , and Situational Awareness...promote healthy behaviors in communities, to better inform academic research, and to increase situational awareness (e.g., biosurveillance ...including biomedical and behavioral researchers. 1.5 Public health monitoring, biosurveillance , and situational awareness The promise of epidemiologic

  7. Ellipsoidal reflectors in biomedical diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglyi, M. A.; Bezuglaya, N. V.

    2013-11-01

    In this work were considered photometric tools for biomedical diagnostics, which contain a mirror ellipsoid of revolution. Proposed schemes with ellipsoidal reflectors for diagnostics in reflected and in reflected and transmitted light. A comparative analysis of measurement standards scattering surfaces was held.

  8. Biocompatibility of implantable biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Suping

    2008-03-01

    Biomedical devices have been broadly used to treat human disease, especially chronic diseases where pharmaceuticals are less effective. Heart valve and artificial joint are examples. Biomedical devices perform by delivering therapies such as electric stimulations, mechanical supports and biological actions. While the uses of biomedical devices are highly successful they can trigger adverse biological reactions as well. The property that medical devices perform with intended functions but not causing unacceptable adverse effects was called biocompatibility in the early time. As our understanding of biomaterial-biological interactions getting broader, biocompatibility has more meanings. In this talk, I will present some adverse biological reactions observed with implantable biomedical devices. Among them are surface fouling of implantable sensors, calcification with vascular devices, restenosis with stents, foreign particle migration and mechanical fractures of devices due to inflammation reactions. While these effects are repeatable, there are very few quantitative data and theories to define them. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce this biocompatibility concept to biophysicists to stimulate research interests at different angles. An open question is how to quantitatively understand the biocompatibility that, like many other biological processes, has not been quantified experimentally.

  9. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  10. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) activities during FY 2001, the fourth year of the NSBRI's programs. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine (NSBRI).

  11. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This report outlines the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 2003, the sixth year of the NSBRI's programs. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Institute's lead institution, Baylor College of Medicine.

  12. Remotely-actuated biomedical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1969-01-01

    Remotely-actuated biomedical switching circuit using transistors consumes no power in the off position and can be actuated by a single-frequency telemetry pulse to control implanted instrumentation. Silicon controlled rectifiers permit the circuit design which imposes zero drain on supply batteries when not in use.

  13. On Biomedical Research Policy in the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    0 ON BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE Albert P. Williams January 1989 DTIC ELECTE P-7520 "’T,, . The RAND Corporation Papers are issued by...BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE[l] Mr. Walden, members of the Science Policy Task Force, I am honored to be invited to appear on this panel and...to offer my thoughts on future biomedical research policy . My perspective is that of an outsider with a longstanding interest in federal biomedical

  14. Biomedical engineering degrees at Lyon 1 University.

    PubMed

    Perrin, E; Berger-Vachon, C; Ray, C; Canet-Soulas, E; Hartmann, D; Oudin-Dardun, F; Briguet, A

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical diploma degrees have a long tradition at Lyon 1, Claude Bernard University. Since 2004, the transition towards the LMD system leaded to a unified Bachelor and Master Degree in Biomedical Engineering. A next evolution plans the creation of a Biomedical Engineering Department in the future Polytechnic School of Claude Bernard University. This department will form professionals in Biomedical Engineering, Medical Physics and for academic employment in Universities and research structures.

  15. Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) | DSITP

    Cancer.gov

    The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC), located in Frederick Maryland (MD), provides HPC resources for both NIH/NCI intramural scientists and the extramural biomedical research community. Its mission is to provide HPC support, to provide collaborative research, and to conduct in-house research in various areas of computational biology and biomedical research.

  16. The first International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum.

    PubMed

    McGiven, J; Taylor, A; Duncombe, L; Sayers, R; Albert, D; Banai, M; Blasco, J M; Elena, S; Fretin, D; Garin-Bastuji, B; Melzer, F; Muñoz, P M; Nielsen, K; Nicola, A; Scacchia, M; Tittarelli, M; Dias, I Travassos; Walravens, K; Stack, J

    2011-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) requested an International Standard anti-Brucella melitensis Serum (ISaBmS) to standardise diagnostic tests and reagents for sheep and goats. The agreed criteria were the highest dilution (in negative serum) of the standard which must give a positive result and the lowest dilution (in negative serum) which must simultaneously give a negative result. The two dilutions for each assay were, respectively: indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) 1/64 and 1/750, competitive ELISA (cELISA) 1/8 and 1/300, fluorescent polarisation assay (FPA) 1/16 and 1/200, Rose Bengal test (RBT) 1/16 and 1/200. The OIE International Standard Serum (OIEISS) will remain the primary standard for the RBT; the ISaBmS is an additional standard. It was impossible to set criteria for the complement fixation test, therefore the OIEISS will remain the primary standard. The ISaBmS can be used to standardise iELISA, cELISA and FPA to diagnose sheep and goat brucellosis. This standard should facilitate harmonisation of tests used for brucellosis surveillance and international trade in these species.

  17. Outcome of a workshop on applications of protein models in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Torsten; Sali, Andrej; Honig, Barry; Levitt, Michael; Berman, Helen M; Jones, David; Brenner, Steven E; Burley, Stephen K; Das, Rhiju; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Dunbrack, Roland L; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Fiser, Andras; Godzik, Adam; Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Humblet, Christine; Jacobson, Matthew P; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Krystek, Stanley R; Kortemme, Tanja; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Montelione, Gaetano T; Moult, John; Murray, Diana; Sanchez, Roberto; Sosnick, Tobin R; Standley, Daron M; Stouch, Terry; Vajda, Sandor; Vasquez, Max; Westbrook, John D; Wilson, Ian A

    2009-02-13

    We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the "Workshop on Applications of Protein Models in Biomedical Research" (the Workshop) that was held at the University of California, San Francisco on 11 and 12 July, 2008. At the Workshop, international scientists involved with structure modeling explored (i) how models are currently used in biomedical research, (ii) the requirements and challenges for different applications, and (iii) how the interaction between the computational and experimental research communities could be strengthened to advance the field.

  18. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  19. Managing biomedical uncertainty: the technoscientific illness identity.

    PubMed

    Sulik, Gayle A

    2009-11-01

    This paper analyses how the biomedical uncertainty of breast cancer contributes to the development of a new type of illness identity that is grounded in biomedical knowledge, advanced technology, and biomedical health and risk surveillance. The technoscientific identity (TSI) develops through the application of sciences and technologies to one's sense of self. Analysing narrative data from 60 in-depth interviews with women diagnosed with breast cancer, this research demonstrates how women diagnosed with breast cancer develop and maintain TSIs through four processes: (1) immersion in professional biomedical knowledge, (2) locating themselves within a technoscientific framework, (3) receiving support for the emerging TSI from the medical system and support networks, and (4) eventually prioritising their biomedical classifications over their suffering. Developing a TSI enables people to make sense of biomedical information, make decisions, and manage medical processes and relationships in the face of biomedical and personal uncertainty even as it extends the reach of technoscience and biomedicalisation.

  20. The possibility of a universal declaration of biomedical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hedayat, K M

    2007-01-01

    Statements on issues in biomedical ethics, purporting to represent international interests, have been put forth by numerous groups. Most of these groups are composed of thinkers in the tradition of European secularism, and do not take into account the values of other ethical systems. One fifth of the world's population is accounted for by Islam, which is a universal religion, with more than 1400 years of scholarship. Although many values are held in common by secular ethical systems and Islam, their inferences are different. The question, “Is it possible to derive a truly universal declaration of biomedical ethics?” is discussed here by examining the value and extent of personal autonomy in Western and Islamic biomedical ethical constructs. These constructs are then tested vis‐à‐vis the issue of abortion. It is concluded that having a universal declaration of biomedical ethics in practice is not possible, although there are many conceptual similarities and agreements between secular and Islamic value systems, unless a radical paradigm shift occurs in segments of the world's deliberative bodies. The appellation “universal” should not be used on deliberative statements unless the ethical values of all major schools of thought are satisfied. PMID:17209104

  1. Palladium alloys for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Shor, Kavita

    2010-07-01

    In the biomedical field, palladium has primarily been used as a component of alloys for dental prostheses. However, recent research has shown the utility of palladium alloys for devices such as vascular stents that do not distort magnetic resonance images. Dental palladium alloys may contain minor or major percentages of palladium. As a minor constituent, palladium hardens, strengthens and increases the melting range of alloys. Alloys that contain palladium as the major component also contain copper, gallium and sometimes tin to produce strong alloys with high stiffness and relatively low corrosion rates. All current evidence suggests that palladium alloys are safe, despite fears about harmful effects of low-level corrosion products during biomedical use. Recent evidence suggests that palladium poses fewer biological risks than other elements, such as nickel or silver. Hypersensitivity to palladium alone is rare, but accompanies nickel hypersensitivity 90-100% of the time. The unstable price of palladium continues to influence the use of palladium alloys in biomedicine.

  2. Nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels mimic native tissue microenvironment due to their porous and hydrated molecular structure. An emerging approach to reinforce polymeric hydrogels and to include multiple functionalities focuses on incorporating nanoparticles within the hydrogel network. A wide range of nanoparticles, such as carbon-based, polymeric, ceramic, and metallic nanomaterials can be integrated within the hydrogel networks to obtain nanocomposites with superior properties and tailored functionality. Nanocomposite hydrogels can be engineered to possess superior physical, chemical, electrical, and biological properties. This review focuses on the most recent developments in the field of nanocomposite hydrogels with emphasis on biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. In particular, we discuss synthesis and fabrication of nanocomposite hydrogels, examine their current limitations and conclude with future directions in designing more advanced nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:24264728

  3. Carbon nanotubes: engineering biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Burgos, Juan C; Yu, Jiamei; Balbuena, Perla B

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinder-shaped allotropic forms of carbon, most widely produced under chemical vapor deposition. They possess astounding chemical, electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. Being among the most promising materials in nanotechnology, they are also likely to revolutionize medicine. Among other biomedical applications, after proper functionalization carbon nanotubes can be transformed into sophisticated biosensing and biocompatible drug-delivery systems, for specific targeting and elimination of tumor cells. This chapter provides an introduction to the chemical and electronic structure and properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, followed by a description of the main synthesis and post-synthesis methods. These sections allow the reader to become familiar with the specific characteristics of these materials and the manner in which these properties may be dependent on the specific synthesis and post-synthesis processes. The chapter ends with a review of the current biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes, highlighting successes and challenges.

  4. Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite /BESS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Tremor, J. W.; Aepli, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    The Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) program is proposed to provide a long-duration, earth-orbiting facility to expose selected specimens in a series of biomedical experiments through the 1980's. Launched and retrieved by the Space Transportation System, the fully reusable, free-flying BESS will contain all systems necessary to conduct a six-month to one-year spaceflight mission. The spacecraft system will consist of a large pressurized experiment module and a standard NASA service module currently conceived as the Goddard Multi-Mission Spacecraft (MMS). The experiment module will contain the life-support systems, waste management system, specimen-holding facilities, and monitoring, evaluating, and data-handling equipment. Although a variety of specimens will be flown in basic biological and medical studies, the primate was taken as the principal design driver since it has a maximal life-support demand.

  5. On-Chip Biomedical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and micro electromechanical systems achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lensfree holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lensfree optical tomography. PMID:23558399

  6. Micromachining technology and biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Fujimasa, I

    1993-03-01

    Medical science and clinical medicine include many microscopic environments. Recent micromachining techniques fit the microscopic environments and are applied to microsurgery, fiberscopic operation, micromanipulation, artificial organs, and drug delivery systems. Microactuators, microsensors, and micro mechanical parts will be prepared for such medical devices and techniques. Virtual reality, stereovision, and fiber imaging support handling of cells and small targets of living body. The paper reports some perspectives of microtechnologies in biomedical engineering.

  7. New biomedical applications of radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The potential of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radiocarbon in biomedical applications is being investigated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A measurement of the dose-response curve for DNA damage caused by a carcinogen in mouse liver cells was an initial experiment. This demonstrated the sensitivity and utility of AMS for detecting radiocarbon tags and led to numerous follow-on experiments. The initial experiment and follow-on experiments are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 4 figs. (SM)

  8. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NSBRI partners with NASA to develop countermeasures against the deleterious effects of long duration space flight. NSBRI's science and technology projects are directed toward this goal, which is accomplished by: 1. Designing, testing and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight. 2. Defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures. 3. Establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level and deliver quality medical care. 4. Transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the general benefit of humankind; including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth. and 5. ensuring open involvement of the scientific community,industry and the public in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through JSC.

  9. ISIFC - dual Biomedical Engineering School.

    PubMed

    Butterlin, Nadia; Soto-Romero, Georges; Duffaud, Jacques; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    The Superior Institute for Biomedical Engineering (ISIFC), created in 2001, is part of the Franche-Comté University and is accredited by the French Ministry of National Education. Its originality lies in its innovative course of studies, which trains engineers in the scientific and medical fields to get both competencies. The Institute therefore collaborates with the University Hospital Centre of Besançon (CHU), biomedical companies and National Research Centres (CNRS and INSERM). The dual expertise trainees will have acquired at the end of their 3 years course covers medical and biological skills, scientific and Technical expertises. ISIFC engineers answer to manufacturer needs for skilled scientific and technical staff in instrumentation and techniques adapted to diagnosis, therapeutics and medical control, as well as the needs of potential users for biomedical devices, whether they are doctors, hospital staff, patients, laboratories, etc... Both the skills and the knowledge acquired by an ISIFC engineer will enable him/her to fulfil functions of study, research and development in the industrial sector.

  10. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  11. Biomedical Applications of Nanodiamond (Review).

    PubMed

    Turcheniuk, Kostiantyn; Mochalin, Vadym

    2017-04-03

    The interest to applications of nanodiamond in biology and medicine is on the rise over the recent years. This is due to the unique combination of properties that nanodiamond provides. Small size (~ 5 nm), low cost, scalable production, negligible toxicity, chemical inertness of diamond core and rich chemistry of nanodiamond surface, as well as bright and robust fluorescence resistant to photobleaching are the distinct parameters that render nanodiamond superior to any other nanomaterial when it comes to biomedical applications. The most exciting recent results have been related to the use of nanodiamonds for drug delivery and diagnostics - two components of quickly growing area of biomedical research dubbed theranostics. However, nanodiamond offers much more in addition: it can be used to produce biodegradable bone surgery devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, kill drug resistant microbes, help us to fight viruses, and deliver genetic material into cell nucleus. All these exciting opportunities require an in-depth understanding of nanodiamond. This review covers the recent progress as well as general trends in biomedical applications of nanodiamond, and underlines the importance of purification, characterization, and rational modification of this nanomaterial when designing nanodiamond based theranostic platforms.

  12. Biomedical journals in Republic of Macedonia: the current state.

    PubMed

    Polenakovic, Momir; Danevska, Lenche

    2014-01-01

    Several biomedical journals in the Republic of Macedonia have succeeded in maintaining regular publication over the years, but only a few have a long-standing tradition. In this paper we present the basic characteristics of 18 biomedical journals that have been published without a break in the Republic of Macedonia. Of these, more details are given for 14 journals, a particular emphasis being on the journal Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Section of Medical Sciences as one of the journals with a long-term publishing tradition and one of the journals included in the Medline/PubMed database. A brief or broad description is given for the following journals: Macedonian Medical Review, Acta Morphologica, Physioacta, MJMS-Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, International Medical Journal Medicus, Archives of Public Health, Epilepsy, Macedonian Orthopaedics and Traumatology Journal, BANTAO Journal, Macedonian Dental Review, Macedonian Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Macedonian Veterinary Review, Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics, Contributions of the Macedonian Scientific Society of Bitola, Vox Medici, Social Medicine: Professional Journal for Public Health, and Prilozi/Contributions of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Journals from Macedonia should aim to be published regularly, should comply with the Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, and with the recommendations of reliable organizations working in the field of publishing and research. These are the key prerequisites which Macedonian journals have to accomplish in order to be included in renowned international bibliographic databases. Thus the results of biomedical science from the Republic of Macedonia will be presented to the international scientific arena.

  13. Academic program models for undergraduate biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shankar M

    2014-01-01

    There is a proliferation of medical devices across the globe for the diagnosis and therapy of diseases. Biomedical engineering (BME) plays a significant role in healthcare and advancing medical technologies thus creating a substantial demand for biomedical engineers at undergraduate and graduate levels. There has been a surge in undergraduate programs due to increasing demands from the biomedical industries to cover many of their segments from bench to bedside. With the requirement of multidisciplinary training within allottable duration, it is indeed a challenge to design a comprehensive standardized undergraduate BME program to suit the needs of educators across the globe. This paper's objective is to describe three major models of undergraduate BME programs and their curricular requirements, with relevant recommendations to be applicable in institutions of higher education located in varied resource settings. Model 1 is based on programs to be offered in large research-intensive universities with multiple focus areas. The focus areas depend on the institution's research expertise and training mission. Model 2 has basic segments similar to those of Model 1, but the focus areas are limited due to resource constraints. In this model, co-op/internship in hospitals or medical companies is included which prepares the graduates for the work place. In Model 3, students are trained to earn an Associate Degree in the initial two years and they are trained for two more years to be BME's or BME Technologists. This model is well suited for the resource-poor countries. All three models must be designed to meet applicable accreditation requirements. The challenges in designing undergraduate BME programs include manpower, facility and funding resource requirements and time constraints. Each academic institution has to carefully analyze its short term and long term requirements. In conclusion, three models for BME programs are described based on large universities, colleges, and

  14. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Lunney, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    This review is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease progression. The pig model allows for deliberately timed studies, imaging of internal vessels and organs using standard human technologies, and collection of repeated peripheral samples and, at kill, detailed mucosal tissues. The ability to use pigs from the same litter, or cloned or transgenic pigs, facilitates comparative analyses and genetic mapping. The availability of numerous well defined cell lines, representing a broad range of tissues, further facilitates testing of gene expression, drug susceptibility, etc. Thus the pig is an excellent biomedical model for humans. For genomic applications it is an asset that the pig genome has high sequence and chromosome structure homology with humans. With the swine genome sequence now well advanced there are improving genetic and proteomic tools for these comparative analyses. The review will discuss some of the genomic approaches used to probe these models. The review will highlight genomic studies of melanoma and of infectious disease resistance, discussing issues to consider in designing such studies. It will end with a short discussion of the potential for genomic approaches to develop new alternatives for control of the most economically important disease of pigs, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), and the potential for applying knowledge gained with this virus for human viral infectious disease studies. PMID:17384736

  15. The ISA-MIP Historical Eruption SO2 Emissions Assessment (HErSEA): an intercomparison for interactive stratospheric aerosol models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Graham; Dhomse, Sandip; Sheng, Jianxiong; Mills, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Major historical volcanic eruptions have injected huge amounts of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere with observations showing an enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer for several years (ASAP, 2006). Such long-lasting increases in stratospheric aerosol loading cool the Earth's surface by scattering incoming solar radiation and warm the stratosphere via absorption of near infra-red solar and long-wave terrestrial radiation with complex effects on climate (e.g. Robock, 2000). Two recent modelling studies of Mount Pinatubo (Dhomse et al., 2014; Sheng et al. 2015) have highlighted that observations suggest the sulphur loading of the volcanically enhanced stratospheric aerosol may have been considerably lower than suggested by measurements of the injected SO2. This poster describes a new model intercomparison activity "ISA-MIP" for interactive stratospheric aerosol models within the framework of the SPARC initiative on Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate (SSiRC). The new "Historical Eruption SO2 emissions Assessment" (HErSEA) will intercompare model simulations of the three largest volcanic perturbations to the stratosphere in the last 50 years, 1963 Mt Agung, 1982 El Chichon and 1991 Mt Pinatubo. The aim is to assess how effectively the emitted SO2 translates into perturbations to stratospheric aerosol properties and simulated radiative forcings in different composition-climate models with interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA). Each modelling group will run a mini-ensemble of transient AMIP-type runs for the 3 eruptions with a control no-eruption run followed by upper and lower bound injection amount estimates and 3 different injection height settings for two shallow (e.g. 19-21km amd 23-25km) and one deep (e.g. 19-25km) injection. First order analysis will intercompare stratospheric aerosol metrics such as 2D-monthly AOD(550nm, 1020nm) and timeseries of tropical and NH/SH mid-visible extinction at three different models levels (15, 20 and 25km

  16. ISA - An Accelerometer to Detect the Disturbing Accelerations Acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter of the BepiColombo ESA Cornerstone Mission to Mercury: on Ground Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Nozzoli, S.; Santoli, F.; Fois, M.; Persichini, M.

    2006-06-01

    To reach the ambitious goals of the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury, among which the planet structure and rotation and test Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) to an unprecedented accuracy, an accelerometer has been selected to fly on-board the MPO (Mercury Planetary Orbiter), the main spacecraft of the two to be placed around the innermost planet of our solar system around 2017. The key role of the on-board accelerometer is to remove from the list of unknowns the non-gravitational accelerations that disturbs the pure gravitational orbit of the MPO spacecraft in the strong radiation environment of Mercury. In this way the ``corrected'' orbit of the MPO may be regarded as a geodesic in the field of Mercury. Then, thanks to the very precise tracking from Earth, the possibility to study Mercury's center-of-mass around the Sun and estimate several parameters related to the planet structure and verify the theory of GR. The selected accelerometer named ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) is an high sensitive instrument with an intrinsic noise of 10-10 g⊕ / Hz (with g⊕ ≅ 9.8 m / s2) in the frequency band 3 . 10-5 -10-1 Hz. ISA is a three axis accelerometer with a characteristic configuration, in order to minimize the disturbing accelerations due to the gravity-gradients and the apparent forces on the Nadir pointing MPO spacecraft. Because of the complex and strong radiation environment of Mercury, the modelling of the non-gravitational acceleration is quite difficult, while, with the use of ISA accelerometer we are able to gain a factor 100 in accuracy. In this brief paper we will focus on the characteristics of the ISA accelerometer, on its positioning on-board the MPO and in particularly to the techniques for on ground calibration, avoiding the effects of the Earth gravity.

  17. Biomedical communications centers--a profile/evaluation instrument study of underlying standards.

    PubMed

    Glickman, J T; Eicholzer, W A

    1987-01-01

    The "ABCD Profile/Evaluation Instrument" offers directors of individual biomedical communications centers a way to measure their own progress towards meeting standards of excellence. It provides guidelines for review of biomedical communications centers in a model similar to the clinical and basic medical science departments' review. Based on the results of this study, many of the directors seemed to be looking for more formal structure of biomedical communications centers involvement. Use of the Profile/Evaluation Instrument helps address this need and allows discussion in areas such as the department's existence and function in relation to its host institution. In March of 1985, the ABCD used the Profile/Evaluation Instrument standards as parameters of responsibility and service provided by biomedical communications units in its analysis and response to the AAMC GPEP report (Allan and Bradford 1985). The instrument also triggers discussion of new areas of review needed within departments. The process of matching biomedical communications job requirements and assessment training criteria will be explored in the future expansion of the personnel section of the instrument. These and other areas are crucial to the survival and well-being of biomedical communications centers. The "ABCD Profile/Evaluation Instrument" establishes a concrete reference for external review by outside agencies and internal review by administration or the department directors themselves. It offers a continuing body of information that provides the basis for future planning in the field of biomedical communications.

  18. Biomedical Ontologies in Action: Role in Knowledge Management, Data Integration and Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, O.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objectives To provide typical examples of biomedical ontologies in action, emphasizing the role played by biomedical ontologies in knowledge management, data integration and decision support. Methods Biomedical ontologies selected for their practical impact are examined from a functional perspective. Examples of applications are taken from operational systems and the biomedical literature, with a bias towards recent journal articles. Results The ontologies under investigation in this survey include SNOMED CT, the Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC), the Foundational Model of Anatomy, the Gene Ontology, RxNorm, the National Cancer Institute Thesaurus, the International Classification of Diseases, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The roles played by biomedical ontologies are classified into three major categories: knowledge management (indexing and retrieval of data and information, access to information, mapping among ontologies); data integration, exchange and semantic interoperability; and decision support and reasoning (data selection and aggregation, decision support, natural language processing applications, knowledge discovery). Conclusions Ontologies play an important role in biomedical research through a variety of applications. While ontologies are used primarily as a source of vocabulary for standardization and integration purposes, many applications also use them as a source of computable knowledge. Barriers to the use of ontologies in biomedical applications are discussed. PMID:18660879

  19. Securing a biomedical communications future: thinking strategically.

    PubMed

    Stein, D

    1985-11-01

    Ensuring continued growth and viability of the biomedical communication function has become a critical task of the biomedical communications director. Thinking strategically is a cognitive process which assists a director in visualizing programs and tactics which meet clients needs, creates competitive advantages for the biomedical communications unit and builds on existing unit strengths. Thinking strategically can be divided into five phases: strategic vision, strategy development, strategic plan implementation, strategic plan dissemination, and strategic plan evaluation. Each sequence leads the biomedical communications director through a process designed to increase the effectiveness of the biomedical unit and to meet the challenges posed by an environment characterized by diminished financial, material, and human resources as well as respond to threats and opportunities posed by increased competition in the biomedical communications product and marketplace.

  20. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery.

  1. Data acquisition and pulse generation system for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers on a single PC-ISA compatible board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosetti, R.; Ranieri, G. A.; Ricci, D.

    1998-08-01

    A data acquisition and pulse generation system for NMR spectrometers is described. It has been implemented on a single board for MS-DOS personal computers with an ISA standard bus interface and uses a simple architecture optimizing the integration of the hardware and software resources. The system, owing to its versatility and low cost, is particularly suitable to upgrade old pulsed NMR instruments with outdated data and control systems, for applications where expensive new cryomagnetic instruments would be inappropriate, such as in industrial control or as educational tools. The board provides two simultaneous data acquisition channels allowing 250 000 12-bit conversions per second per channel, including real-time signal averaging, and is able to produce essentially any pulse sequence on several output lines. The duration of each pulse can range from 0957-0233/9/8/024/img6s to 180 s with a minimum pulse separation of 0957-0233/9/8/024/img7s and with a resolution of 0957-0233/9/8/024/img6s. All classic NMR pulse sequences are allowed in addition to those required for self-diffusion coefficient measurements using pulsed magnetic field gradients. All functions of the system are managed by machine-language routines callable from within a VisualBASIC program. The cost of the hardware of this device is under US500.

  2. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  3. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    This bibliography contains 725 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1982. There are 553 references to articles published in journals and books and 172 references to reports. The citations appear once ordered by the first author's division or by the performing division. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions are represented alphabetically. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference. Reprints of articles referenced in this bibliography can be obtained from the author or the author's division.

  4. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography contains 690 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1980. There are 529 references to articles published in journals and books and 161 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly and bimonthly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Computer Sciences.

  5. Chapter 1: Biomedical knowledge integration.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  6. Chapter 1: Biomedical Knowledge Integration

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R. O.

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  7. External-beam methods in biomedical work.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, J

    1987-04-01

    The useability of external-beam proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) and gamma-ray (PIGE) emission, backscattering spectrometry (BS), and the particle-particle method in biomedical work is demonstrated. Detection limit values obtainable by the methods for typical biomedical samples under practical conditions are given and compared. Advantages, drawbacks, and restrictions of the methods are discussed. Examples of the applications of the methods in biomedical work are given.

  8. Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

  9. Microfabrication materials for biomedical microdevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansford, Derek James

    Major hurdles to the implementation of microfabricated devices for therapeutic applications include materials processing and biocompatibility issues. This dissertation reports research on improving the materials selection and fabrication for biomedical microdevices, using a microfabricated immunoisolation biocapsule as an example. Two material classes in the microfabrication protocol were examined based on the requirements determined for biomedical microdevices: the adhesive layer for bonding devices to encapsulate delicate biological substances and the thin film structural materials for surface structures, such as the biocapsule membrane. The major requirements for the adhesive layer material included non-cytotoxicity during bonding, adhesive strength, and durability under physiological conditions. Low glassy-phase transition temperature (Tg) methacrylates were found to be suitable candidates for adhesives of biomedical microdevices. A comparison study of poly propy1methacrylate (PPMA), poly (butyl, ethyl) methacrylate (PBEMA), and the higher Tg PMMA showed that all of the methacrylates had similar biocompatibility, adhesive strength, and durability. The adhesive strengths were found to be suitable for the adhesion of biomedical microdevices, as shown by measurement using a pressurized plate test and the current use of PMMA as bone cement. None of the methacrylates showed evidence of cytotoxicity, as measured by both optical and cytometric cell culture cytotoxicity tests. A protocol for the selective placement of smooth, thin films of PPMA using a Gel-PakTM transfer substrate was developed and demonstrated. The major requirements determined for the thin film structural materials were based on processing, mechanical, and biological parameters. Several candidates were identified as for structural materials based on these requirements: polycrystalline silicon. silicon nitride, fluoropolymers, PMMA, and silicone. A new fabrication protocol was developed to allow the

  10. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 1999, the second full year of existence of the NSBRI's research program, and is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine (NSBRI). The report consists of progress reports on projects related to the effects of microgravity and space on physiology. The research is broken up in nine areas: (1) Bone loss, (2) Cardiovascular alterations, (3) human performance, (3) immunology, infection and hematology, (4) muscle alterations and atrophy,(5) Neurovestibular adaptation, radiation effects, (6) technology development, and (7) synergy projects.

  11. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  12. Superhydrophobic materials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Falde, Eric J; Yohe, Stefan T; Colson, Yolonda L; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air layer at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors' future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic biomaterials for medical applications.

  13. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    PubMed

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  14. Project Alexander the Great: a study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education.

    PubMed

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O

    2008-01-01

    Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering is considered amongst the most reputable fields within the global arena, and will likely be the primer for any future breakthroughs in Medicine and Biology. Bioengineering/biomedical engineering education has evolved since late 1950s and is undergoing advancement in leading academic institutions worldwide. This paper delineates an original study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and bears the name 'Project Alexander the Great'. The initial step of the project was to survey all 10448 universities, recognized by the International Association of Universities, spread among the 193 member states of the United Nations within the six continents. The project aims at identifying, disseminating, and networking, through the world-wide-web, those institutions of higher learning that provide bioengineering/biomedical engineering education. The significance of this project is multifold: i) the inception of a web-based 'world-map' in bioengineering/biomedical engineering education for the potential international student desiring to pursue a career in this field; ii) the global networking of bioengineering/biomedical engineering academic/research programs; iii) the promotion of first-class bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and the catalysis of global proliferation of this field; iv) the erection of bridges among educational institutions, industry, and professional societies or organizations involved in Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering; and v) the catalysis in the establishment of framework agreements for cooperation among the identified institutions offering curricula in this field. This paper presents the results obtained from Africa and North America. The whole project is due to be completed by 2009.

  15. Biomedical Masters Program: Local Joint Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a part-time master's program in biomedical science initiated by the Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Maryland and administered by Hood College. Coursework consists mainly of biology and biochemistry and prepares students for biomedical research. (MLH)

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  17. Polymetamorphism accompanied switching in horizontal shortening during Isan Orogeny: Example from the Eastern Fold Belt, Mount Isa Inlier, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Sharib, A. S. A. A.; Sanislav, I. V.

    2013-03-01

    Mesoproterozoic low-P/high-T volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Soldiers Cap Group, the southeastern corner of Mount Isa Inlier, record a complex polymetamorphic history that accompanied four periods of bulk horizontal shortening directed NE-SW, N-S, W-E and NW-SE during the long-lived Isan Orogeny (~ 1650-1500 Ma). Low-P/high-T metamorphism (M1) prevailed during a period of NE-SW bulk horizontal shortening as indicated by the early growth of cordierite porphyroblasts, which entrap monazite grains that gave an average age of 1649 ± 12 Ma. This was followed by medium-P/high-T (M2) and high-P/high-T (M3) metamorphisms that accompanied periods of N-S and W-E bulk horizontal shortening, respectively. Growth of first generation garnet, andalusite and staurolite porphyroblasts having an average age of 1645 ± 7 Ma identify the former, whereas growth of the 1591 ± 10 Ma second generation garnet, staurolite and andalusite porphyroblasts together with fewer kyanite porphyroblasts characterizes the latter. The sediments of the Soldiers Cap Group were deposited in a tectonic setting that has the characteristics of an intra-continental rift basin. The upper limit of the age of sedimentation is constrained by detrital zircons at 1654 ± 4 Ma suggesting that tectonism and metamorphism were either active during the final stage of the basin filling or immediate after deposition. Introduction of mafic dykes and sills at different stratigraphic levels over a wide time span was the major source of heat.

  18. Publishing priorities of biomedical research funders

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the publishing priorities, especially in relation to open access, of 10 UK biomedical research funders. Design Semistructured interviews. Setting 10 UK biomedical research funders. Participants 12 employees with responsibility for research management at 10 UK biomedical research funders; a purposive sample to represent a range of backgrounds and organisation types. Conclusions Publicly funded and large biomedical research funders are committed to open access publishing and are pleased with recent developments which have stimulated growth in this area. Smaller charitable funders are supportive of the aims of open access, but are concerned about the practical implications for their budgets and their funded researchers. Across the board, biomedical research funders are turning their attention to other priorities for sharing research outputs, including data, protocols and negative results. Further work is required to understand how smaller funders, including charitable funders, can support open access. PMID:24154520

  19. Biomedical Aspects Of Optical Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greguss, Pal

    1989-01-01

    An attempt is made to survey optical testing methods currently being investigated for biological research and/or clinical diagnostics. The notation "optics" is used in a broad sense, i.e., for wavelengths in which the flow of electromagnetic energy can be modified with mirrors, lenses and/or gratings. The reviewed optical testing methods are based either on the change of the prop.gation p rameters of the electromagnetic radiation or on the fact that optical radiation is provoking changes in the material to be tested and the resulting signals not necessarily of optical n ture are used for rating. When and how optical testing methods used already in engineering are applicable to biomedical testing is also discussed.

  20. Tritium AMS for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-08-01

    We are developing {sup 3}H-AMS to measure {sup 3}H activity of mg-sized biological samples. LLNL has already successfully applied {sup 14}C AMS to a variety of problems in the area of biomedical research. Development of {sup 3}H AMS would greatly complement these studies. The ability to perform {sup 3}H AMS measurements at sensitivities equivalent to those obtained for {sup 14}C will allow us to perform experiments using compounds that are not readily available in {sup 14}C-tagged form. A {sup 3}H capability would also allow us to perform unique double-labeling experiments in which we learn the fate, distribution, and metabolism of separate fractions of biological compounds.

  1. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  2. Cell mechanics in biomedical cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the deformation behaviours of cellular entities, such as coated microbubbles and liposomes subject to a cavitation flow, become increasingly important for the advancement of ultrasonic imaging and drug delivery. Numerical simulations for bubble dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents based on the boundary integral method are presented in this work. The effects of the encapsulating shell are estimated by adapting Hoff's model used for thin-shell contrast agents. The viscosity effects are estimated by including the normal viscous stress in the boundary condition. In parallel, mechanical models of cell membranes and liposomes as well as state-of-the-art techniques for quantitative measurement of viscoelasticity for a single cell or coated microbubbles are reviewed. The future developments regarding modelling and measurement of the material properties of the cellular entities for cutting-edge biomedical applications are also discussed. PMID:26442142

  3. Biomedical aspects of artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Vil-Viliams, I F; Kotovskaya, A R; Shipov, A A

    1997-07-01

    Artificial gravity (AG) is the basic challenge for space biology and medicine. The importance of this problem is associated with the fact that duration of the space missions will become progressively longer, but the presently available countermeasures do not provide reason enough to predict the human health safety during space missions of any duration. The creation of AG could be an efficient method for removing the negative effects of microgravity. Two principle methods of generating AG, rotation of space system (SS) and building of short arm centrifuge (SAC), have been proposed. The purpose of the present work is to review the biomedical aspects of AG in the context of its use in long-term space missions.

  4. Electrospinning polydioxanone for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Boland, Eugene D; Coleman, Branch D; Barnes, Catherine P; Simpson, David G; Wnek, Gary E; Bowlin, Gary L

    2005-01-01

    Polydioxanone (PDS) is a colorless, crystalline, bioabsorbable polymer that was first developed specifically for wound closure sutures. The compatibility, degradation rate, and mechanical properties (including shape memory) of PDS are of interest when considering the design of tissue engineering scaffolds. This research presents the electrospinning of PDS to fabricate unique nanofibrous structures for a variety of biomedical applications. Electrospinning is a polymer processing technique that utilizes an electric field to form fibers from a polymer solution or melt and allows the fabrication of nanofibrous non-woven structures. Results demonstrate the ability to control the fiber diameter of PDS as a function of solution concentrations and the fiber orientation with our prototype electrospinning apparatus. The results also show dependence between the fiber orientation and the elastic modulus, peak stress, and strain to failure of PDS in a uniaxial model.

  5. Ethics, regulation, and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Weed, Matthew

    2004-12-01

    Controversy has surrounded the institutions that facilitate discussion and regulation of American biomedical research for years. Recent challenges to the legitimacy of the President's Council on Bioethics have been focused on stem cell research. These arguments represent an opportunity to reconsider the legislation under which stem cell research is regulated, as well as to consider preexisting bodies like the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee and National Bioethics Advisory Commission. This paper proposes a Federal Life Sciences Policy Commission, a novel commission with advisory and regulatory powers that would benefit from the positive and negative lessons learned under the legislation that currently shapes the formation and institutional characteristics of advisory bodies in the United States. The Federal Life Sciences Policy Commission would have institutional independence not present in previous advisory bodies, while maintaining the tradition of broad societal representation and thoughtful discourse that has developed in the United States.

  6. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  7. Biomedical Applications for Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszynski, J. A.; Dixon, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Can be utilized in either Algebra or Calculus-based courses and is available either as a standalone text or as a supplement for books like Cutnell PHYSICS, 5e or Halliday, Resnick, & Walker FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS, 6e.

  8. Math level is Algebra & Trigonometry; however, a few examples require the use of integration and differentiation. Unlike competing supplements, Tuszinski offers both a wealth of engaging biomedical applications as well as quantitative problem-solving. The quantitative problem-solving is presented in the form of worked examples and homework problems. The quantitative problem-solving is presented in the form of worked examples and homework problems. The standard organization facilitates the integration of the material into most introductory courses.

  9. Animals in biomedical space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  10. Use of statistical analysis in the biomedical informatics literature.

    PubMed

    Scotch, Matthew; Duggal, Mona; Brandt, Cynthia; Lin, Zhenqui; Shiffman, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is an essential aspect of biomedical informatics. To examine the use of statistics in informatics research, a literature review of recent articles in two high-impact factor biomedical informatics journals, the Journal of American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA) and the International Journal of Medical Informatics was conducted. The use of statistical methods in each paper was examined. Articles of original investigations from 2000 to 2007 were reviewed. For each journal, the results by statistical methods were analyzed as: descriptive, elementary, multivariable, other regression, machine learning, and other statistics. For both journals, descriptive statistics were most often used. Elementary statistics such as t tests, chi(2), and Wilcoxon tests were much more frequent in JAMIA, while machine learning approaches such as decision trees and support vector machines were similar in occurrence across the journals. Also, the use of diagnostic statistics such as sensitivity, specificity, precision, and recall, was more frequent in JAMIA. These results highlight the use of statistics in informatics and the need for biomedical informatics scientists to have, as a minimum, proficiency in descriptive and elementary statistics.

  11. Metrological reliability of optical coherence tomography in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloni, C. M.; Temporão, G. P.; Monteiro, E. C.

    2013-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proving to be an efficient diagnostics technique for imaging in vivo tissues, an optical biopsy with important perspectives as a diagnostic tool for quantitative characterization of tissue structures. Despite its established clinical use, there is no international standard to address the specific requirements for basic safety and essential performance of OCT devices for biomedical imaging. The present work studies the parameters necessary for conformity assessment of optoelectronics equipment used in biomedical applications like Laser, Intense Pulsed Light (IPL), and OCT, targeting to identify the potential requirements to be considered in the case of a future development of a particular standard for OCT equipment. In addition to some of the particular requirements standards for laser and IPL, also applicable for metrological reliability analysis of OCT equipment, specific parameters for OCT's evaluation have been identified, considering its biomedical application. For each parameter identified, its information on the accompanying documents and/or its measurement has been recommended. Among the parameters for which the measurement requirement was recommended, including the uncertainty evaluation, the following are highlighted: optical radiation output, axial and transverse resolution, pulse duration and interval, and beam divergence.

  12. Raman spectroscopy of biomedical polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2017-03-27

    With the development of three-dimensional Raman algorithms for local mapping of oxidation and plastic strain, and the ability to resolve molecular orientation patterns with microscopic spatial resolution, there is an opportunity to re-examine many of the foundations on which our understanding of biomedical grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPEs) are based. By implementing polarized Raman spectroscopy into an automatized tool with an improved precision in non-destructively resolving Euler angles, oxidation levels, and microscopic strain, we become capable to make accurate and traceable measurements of the in vitro and in vivo tribological responses of a variety of commercially available UHMWPE bearings for artificial hip and knee joints. In this paper, we first review the foundations and the main algorithms for Raman analyses of oxidation and strain of biomedical polyethylene. Then, we critically re-examine a large body of Raman data previously collected on different polyethylene joint components after in vitro testing or in vivo service, in order to shed new light on an area of particular importance to joint orthopedics: the microscopic nature of UHMWPE surface degradation in the human body. A complex scenario of physical chemistry appears from the Raman analyses, which highlights the importance of molecular-scale phenomena besides mere microstructural changes. The availability of the Raman microscopic probe for visualizing oxidation patterns unveiled striking findings related to the chemical contribution to wear degradation: chain-breaking and subsequent formation of carboxylic acid sites preferentially occur in correspondence of third-phase regions, and they are triggered by emission of dehydroxylated oxygen from ceramic oxide counterparts. These findings profoundly differ from more popular (and simplistic) notions of mechanistic tribology adopted in analyzing joint simulator data.

  13. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, M; Mazare, A; Gongadze, E; Perutkova, Š; Kralj-Iglič, V; Milošev, I; Schmuki, P; A Iglič; Mozetič, M

    2015-02-13

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  14. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  15. Nonlinear aspects of acoustic radiation force in biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrovsky, Lev; Tsyuryupa, Sergey; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2015-10-28

    In the past decade acoustic radiation force (ARF) became a powerful tool in numerous biomedical applications. ARF from a focused ultrasound beam acts as a virtual “finger” for remote probing of internal anatomical structures and obtaining diagnostic information. This presentation deals with generation of shear waves by nonlinear focused beams. Albeit the ARF has intrinsically nonlinear origin, in most cases the primary ultrasonic wave was considered in the linear approximation. In this presentation, we consider the effects of nonlinearly distorted beams on generation of shear waves by such beams.

  16. Misconduct Policies in High-Impact Biomedical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Xavier; Hernández, Cristina; Pericas, Juan M.; Doti, Pamela; Marušić, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background It is not clear which research misconduct policies are adopted by biomedical journals. This study assessed the prevalence and content policies of the most influential biomedical journals on misconduct and procedures for handling and responding to allegations of misconduct. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of misconduct policies of 399 high-impact biomedical journals in 27 biomedical categories of the Journal Citation Reports in December 2011. Journal websites were reviewed for information relevant to misconduct policies. Results Of 399 journals, 140 (35.1%) provided explicit definitions of misconduct. Falsification was explicitly mentioned by 113 (28.3%) journals, fabrication by 104 (26.1%), plagiarism by 224 (56.1%), duplication by 242 (60.7%) and image manipulation by 154 (38.6%). Procedures for responding to misconduct were described in 179 (44.9%) websites, including retraction, (30.8%) and expression of concern (16.3%). Plagiarism-checking services were used by 112 (28.1%) journals. The prevalences of all types of misconduct policies were higher in journals that endorsed any policy from editors’ associations, Office of Research Integrity or professional societies compared to those that did not state adherence to these policy-producing bodies. Elsevier and Wiley-Blackwell had the most journals included (22.6% and 14.8%, respectively), with Wiley journals having greater a prevalence of misconduct definition and policies on falsification, fabrication and expression of concern and Elsevier of plagiarism-checking services. Conclusions Only a third of top-ranking peer-reviewed journals had publicly-available definitions of misconduct and less than a half described procedures for handling allegations of misconduct. As endorsement of international policies from policy-producing bodies was positively associated with implementation of policies and procedures, journals and their publishers should standardize their policies globally in order to

  17. Evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Dumontier, Michel; Gkoutos, Georgios V

    2013-11-01

    Ontologies are now pervasive in biomedicine, where they serve as a means to standardize terminology, to enable access to domain knowledge, to verify data consistency and to facilitate integrative analyses over heterogeneous biomedical data. For this purpose, research on biomedical ontologies applies theories and methods from diverse disciplines such as information management, knowledge representation, cognitive science, linguistics and philosophy. Depending on the desired applications in which ontologies are being applied, the evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies must follow different strategies. Here, we provide a classification of research problems in which ontologies are being applied, focusing on the use of ontologies in basic and translational research, and we demonstrate how research results in biomedical ontologies can be evaluated. The evaluation strategies depend on the desired application and measure the success of using an ontology for a particular biomedical problem. For many applications, the success can be quantified, thereby facilitating the objective evaluation and comparison of research in biomedical ontology. The objective, quantifiable comparison of research results based on scientific applications opens up the possibility for systematically improving the utility of ontologies in biomedical research.

  18. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  19. Standards and biomedical terminologies: the CEN TC 251 and ISO TC 215 categorial structures. A step towards increased interoperability.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jean M; Kumar, Anand; Bousquet, Cédric; Trombert, Béatrice

    2008-01-01

    Among different biomedical terminologies standardisation strategies the European Standard Body CEN TC 251 followed by the ISO TC 215 have stated that it was not possible to convince the different European or international member states using different national languages to agree on a reference clinical terminology or to standardise a detailed language independent biomedical ontology. Since 1990, they have developed an approach named categorial structure as a step standardising only the terminologies model structure. The methodology and the review of the different existing categorial structures are presented as a step towards increased interoperability between biomedical terminologies thanks to conformity to a minimum set of ontological requirements.

  20. Copper mobility in the Eastern Creek Volcanics, Mount Isa, Australia: evidence from laser ablation ICP-MS of iron-titanium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Melissa J.

    2006-10-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Eastern Creek Volcanics are a series of copper-rich tholeiitic basalts which occur adjacent to the giant sediment-hosted Mount Isa copper deposit in Queensland, Australia. The volcanic rocks are often cited as the source of metals for the deposit. New laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of iron-titanium oxides from the basalts provide evidence for the local mobilisation of copper during regional greenschist facies metamorphism. This interpretation is based on the observation that copper-bearing magmatic titanomagnetite was destabilised during greenschist facies metamorphism, and the new magnetite which crystallised was copper poor. Petrological observations, regional geochemical signatures and geochemical modelling suggest that the mobilised copper was concentrated in syn-metamorphic epidote-rich alteration zones, creating a pre-concentration of copper before the main mineralisation event at Mount Isa. Geochemical modelling demonstrates this process is enhanced by the addition of CO2 from adjacent carbonate-rich sediments during metamorphic devolatilisation. Regional geochemical data illustrate elevated copper concentrations in epidote-rich zones (high CaO), but where these zones are overprinted by potassic alteration (high K2O), copper is depleted. A two-stage model is proposed whereby after metamorphic copper enrichment in epidote-titanite alteration zones, an oxidised potassium-rich fluid leached copper from the epidote-altered metabasalts and deposited it in the overlying sedimentary rocks to form the Mount Isa copper deposit. This ore-forming fluid is expressed regionally as potassium feldspar-rich veins and locally as biotite-rich alteration, which formed around major fluid conduits between the metabasalt metal source rocks and the overlying deposit host sequence. This model is consistent with the remobilisation of copper from mafic source rocks, as has been found at other world-class copper deposits.

  21. Evaluation of the efficacy of a new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG FMD vaccine as a potential vaccine for cattle.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, A; Madadgar, O; Soleimanjahi, H; Keyvanfar, H; Mahravani, H

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Inactivated whole particle virus vaccines are still widely used in prophylactic vaccination campaigns. The choice of adjuvant is a very important factor in enhancing immune responses and the efficacy of inactivated vaccines. Montanide ISA 61 VG is a new ready-to-use mineral oil-based adjuvant developed by SEPPIC Inc. (SEPPIC, France) with high-potential immune responses needed for clinical protection against FMD infection. In this study, we compared the efficacy of two FMD vaccines either formulated with the new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG and saponin, or with aluminum hydroxide gel and saponin. Both vaccines contained the same antigen payloads of O2010/IR. Two groups of 15 naive cattle received a single vaccination with different doses (full dose, 1/3 dose and 1/9 dose) to calculate their PD50 (50% protective dose) after being challenged with the homologous virulent virus. The mean neutralizing antibody titer was determined at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination, measured by a micro neutralization test. The new vaccine improved humoral immune responses by 19%, while inducing a higher geometric mean. The titer for neutralizing antibodies was 2.91 log10 compared to the alum-gel based adjuvant vaccine which was 2.44 log10 (P-value=0.1782). The new vaccine showed a PD50 value of 10.05 as compared to a PD50 value of 4.171, respectively. According to the results, the FMD vaccine formulated with the new oil adjuvant, ISA 61 VG, shows potential as an alternative vaccine for routine and emergency vaccinations in the FMD enzootic region.

  1. Multichannel biomedical time series clustering via hierarchical probabilistic latent semantic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Sun, Xiangping; Nahavandi, Saeid; Kouzani, Abbas; Wu, Yuchuan; She, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Biomedical time series clustering that automatically groups a collection of time series according to their internal similarity is of importance for medical record management and inspection such as bio-signals archiving and retrieval. In this paper, a novel framework that automatically groups a set of unlabelled multichannel biomedical time series according to their internal structural similarity is proposed. Specifically, we treat a multichannel biomedical time series as a document and extract local segments from the time series as words. We extend a topic model, i.e., the Hierarchical probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (H-pLSA), which was originally developed for visual motion analysis to cluster a set of unlabelled multichannel time series. The H-pLSA models each channel of the multichannel time series using a local pLSA in the first layer. The topics learned in the local pLSA are then fed to a global pLSA in the second layer to discover the categories of multichannel time series. Experiments on a dataset extracted from multichannel Electrocardiography (ECG) signals demonstrate that the proposed method performs better than previous state-of-the-art approaches and is relatively robust to the variations of parameters including length of local segments and dictionary size. Although the experimental evaluation used the multichannel ECG signals in a biometric scenario, the proposed algorithm is a universal framework for multichannel biomedical time series clustering according to their structural similarity, which has many applications in biomedical time series management.

  2. Career development initiatives in biomedical health informatics.

    PubMed

    Wagholikar, Amol

    2012-01-01

    The disciplines of biomedical engineering and health informatics complement each other. These two scientific fields sometimes strive independently to deliver better health care services. The rapid evolution in data-intensive methods has made practitioners to think about reviewing the educational needs of the biomedical health informatics workforces. This paper discusses the changing skills requirements in biomedical health informatics discipline. The author reports on the challenges faced by IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology (EMBS) in the context of continuous career development of the EMBS members. This paper discusses Queensland chapter's initiative towards an integrated career development to address challenges faced by IEEE EMBS.

  3. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    PubMed

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  4. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    PubMed

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2015-06-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  5. Dynamic Programming Based Segmentation in Biomedical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ungru, Kathrin; Jiang, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    Many applications in biomedical imaging have a demand on automatic detection of lines, contours, or boundaries of bones, organs, vessels, and cells. Aim is to support expert decisions in interactive applications or to include it as part of a processing pipeline for automatic image analysis. Biomedical images often suffer from noisy data and fuzzy edges. Therefore, there is a need for robust methods for contour and line detection. Dynamic programming is a popular technique that satisfies these requirements in many ways. This work gives a brief overview over approaches and applications that utilize dynamic programming to solve problems in the challenging field of biomedical imaging.

  6. Enhancing biomedical design with design thinking.

    PubMed

    Kemnitzer, Ronald; Dorsa, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The development of biomedical equipment is justifiably focused on making products that "work." However, this approach leaves many of the people affected by these designs (operators, patients, etc.) with little or no representation when it comes to the design of these products. Industrial design is a "user focused" profession which takes into account the needs of diverse groups when making design decisions. The authors propose that biomedical equipment design can be enhanced, made more user and patient "friendly" by adopting the industrial design approach to researching, analyzing, and ultimately designing biomedical products.

  7. Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) represents the transition within the US Space program from the 'heroic' era of space flight (characterized most vividly by the Mercury and Apollo programs) to an epoch characterized by routine access to the space environment. In this new era, the unique characteristics of the microgravity environment will enable new types of research activities, primarily in the life sciences, materials science, and biotechnology fields. In addition to its role as a'microgravity science laboratory,' Space Station Freedom (SSF) constitutes the operational platform on which the knowledge and skills needed to continue our exploration of space will be acquired. In the area of spacecraft operations, these skills include the ability to assemble, operate, and maintain large structures in space. In the area of crew operations, the potentially harmful effects of extended exposure to microgravity must be understood in order to keep the crew mission capable. To achieve this goal, the complex process of physiological deconditioning must be monitored, and countermeasures utilized as needed to keep the individual crew members within acceptable physiological limits. The countermeasures program under development for the SSF Program is titled the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures (BMAC) program. As implied by the name, this activity has two primary products, a biomedical monitoring element and a countermeasures development effort. The program is a critical path element in the overall SSF Program, and should be considered an essential element of operations on board the space station. It is readily apparent that the capability to both protect and optimize the health and performance of the human operators on board SSF will be a critical element in the overall success of the SSFP. Previous experience within the Russian space program has demonstrated that the time required for countermeasures on extended missions can become a monumental operational burden

  8. Biomedical applications of tetrazine cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Neal K; Weissleder, Ralph

    2011-09-20

    Disease mechanisms are increasingly being resolved at the molecular level. Biomedical success at this scale creates synthetic opportunities for combining specifically designed orthogonal reactions in applications such as imaging, diagnostics, and therapy. For practical reasons, it would be helpful if bioorthogonal coupling reactions proceeded with extremely rapid kinetics (k > 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) and high specificity. Improving kinetics would minimize both the time and amount of labeling agent required to maintain high coupling yields. In this Account, we discuss our recent efforts to design extremely rapid bioorthogonal coupling reactions between tetrazines and strained alkenes. These selective reactions were first used to covalently couple conjugated tetrazine near-infrared-emitting fluorophores to dienophile-modifed extracellular proteins on living cancer cells. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated efficient and selective labeling, and control experiments showed minimal background fluorescence. Multistep techniques were optimized to work with nanomolar concentrations of labeling agent over a time scale of minutes: the result was successful real-time imaging of covalent modification. We subsequently discovered fluorogenic probes that increase in fluorescence intensity after the chemical reaction, leading to an improved signal-to-background ratio. Fluorogenic probes were used for intracellular imaging of dienophiles. We further developed strategies to react and image chemotherapeutics, such as trans-cyclooctene taxol analogues, inside living cells. Because the coupling partners are small molecules (<300 Da), they offer unique steric advantages in multistep amplification. We also describe recent success in using tetrazine reactions to label biomarkers on cells with magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles. Two-step protocols that use bioorthogonal chemistry can significantly amplify signals over both one-step labeling procedures as well as two-step procedures that

  9. Status of marine biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, O

    1976-01-01

    A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

  10. [Evaluation indicators of biomedical research].

    PubMed

    García Romero, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of R + D activities and the politics that promote them is essential to justify the investment done as well as to optimize their results. In this context, the evaluation should be understood as the group of techniques and procedures that allow obtaining useful information to take decisions in the field of R + D. This article has two main objectives: (i) to present the basic concepts associated with the evaluation of research, and (ii) to offer a general and updated panoramic view of which are the most frequently used methods to evaluate research. For that, in addition to considering the most conventional evaluation, focused on scientific results, we also think about the need of evaluating the impacts that scientific results generate on the social-economic context, and that in the case of biomedical research, these may be presented in terms of quality and life expectancy, improvements in patient care, etc. Therefore, the motivation of present article is to give a modern and updated perspective that allows the reader who is interested to study in-depth this emerging field of Science, if he/she wants.

  11. Educating about biomedical research ethics.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Bratislav; Stankovic, Mirjana

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the global and worsening problem of research misconduct as it relates to bio-medico-legal education. While research misconduct has serious legal implications, few adequate legal remedies exist to deal with it. With respect to teaching, research ethics education should be mandatory for biomedical students and physicians. Although teaching alone will not prevent misconduct, it promotes integrity, accountability, and responsibility in research. Policies and law enforcement should send a clear message that researchers should adhere to the highest standards of ethics in research. It is vital that researchers and physicians understand basic aspects of law and the legal system in order to develop understanding of the medico-legal issues not just in the legal context, but with a sound grounding in ethics, social and theoretical contexts so that they can practice good medicine. Routine and holistic research ethics education across the curriculum for medical students and resident physicians, and continuing medical education for practicing doctors, are probably the best ways to accomplish this goal.

  12. Narrowband, crystal-controlled biomedical telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Telemetry system utilizing miniature, single-channel, crystal-controlled transmitter is described suitable for biomedical applications. Receiver used in conjunction with transmitter is narrowband superheterodyne FM receiver with crystal control in both conversion stages.

  13. NIH/NSF accelerate biomedical research innovations

    Cancer.gov

    A collaboration between the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health will give NIH-funded researchers training to help them evaluate their scientific discoveries for commercial potential, with the aim of accelerating biomedical in

  14. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  15. Calixarenes in bio-medical researches.

    PubMed

    Rodik, Roman V; Boyko, Vyacheslav I; Kalchenko, Vitaly I

    2009-01-01

    Application of calixarene derivatives in bio-medical researches is reviewed in this article. Antiviral, bactericidal, antithrombothic, antituberculosis, anticancer activity as well as specific protein complexation, membranotropic properties and toxicity of modified calixarenes are discussed.

  16. Biomedical research tools from the seabed.

    PubMed

    Folmer, Florence; Houssen, Wael E; Scott, Roderick H; Jaspars, Marcel

    2007-03-01

    This review covers the applications of small-molecule and peptidic compounds isolated from marine organisms for biomedical research. Enzymes and proteins from marine sources are already on the market for biomedical applications, but the use of small-molecule biomedical research tools of marine origin is less developed. For many studies involving these molecules the ultimate goal is the application of small-molecule therapeutics in the clinic, but those that do not succeed in the clinic still have clearly defined biological activities, which may be of use as biomedical research tools. In other cases, the investigation of marine-derived compounds has led directly to the discovery of therapeutics with clinical applications. Both as tools and therapeutics, these small-molecule compounds are effective for investigating biological processes, and in this review the authors have chosen to concentrate on the ability of marine natural products to affect membrane processes, ion channels and intracellular processes.

  17. The Obligation to Participate in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G. Owen; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Wertheimer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing view is that participation in biomedical research is above and beyond the call of duty. While some commentators have offered reasons against this, we propose a novel public goods argument for an obligation to participate in biomedical research. Biomedical knowledge is a public good, available to any individual even if that individual does not contribute to it. Participation in research is a critical way to support that important public good. Consequently, we all have a duty to participate. The current social norm is that people participate only if they have a good reason to do so. The public goods argument implies that people should participate unless they have a good reason not to. Such a shift would be of great aid to the progress of biomedical research, eventually making our society significantly healthier and longer-lived. PMID:19567441

  18. Is biomedical research a good investment?

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Norman R.

    2014-01-01

    As the US addresses its budget dilemma, the easiest items to cut are those with the longest-term payoff. Research stands out among this group. Biomedical research has already been markedly reduced, and further reductions appear to be in store. As a frequent witness in Congressional hearings on such matters, here I discuss the challenge of assessing the value of investments in biomedical research. PMID:25438057

  19. Biomedical Applications of Enzymes From Marine Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K; Sivaperumal, P

    2017-01-01

    Marine microbial enzyme technologies have progressed significantly in the last few decades for different applications. Among the various microorganisms, marine actinobacterial enzymes have significant active properties, which could allow them to be biocatalysts with tremendous bioactive metabolites. Moreover, marine actinobacteria have been considered as biofactories, since their enzymes fulfill biomedical and industrial needs. In this chapter, the marine actinobacteria and their enzymes' uses in biological activities and biomedical applications are described.

  20. Is biomedical research a good investment?

    PubMed

    Augustine, Norman R

    2014-12-01

    As the US addresses its budget dilemma, the easiest items to cut are those with the longest-term payoff. Research stands out among this group. Biomedical research has already been markedly reduced, and further reductions appear to be in store. As a frequent witness in Congressional hearings on such matters, here I discuss the challenge of assessing the value of investments in biomedical research.

  1. Protein-based nanotubes for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2012-03-01

    This review presents highlights of our latest results of studies directed at developing protein-based smart nanotubes for biomedical applications. These practical biocylinders were prepared using an alternate layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of protein and oppositely charged poly(amino acid) into a nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) membrane (pore diameter, 400 nm), with subsequent dissolution of the template. The tube wall typically comprises six layers of poly-l-arginine (PLA) and human serum albumin (HSA) [(PLA/HSA)3]. The obtained (PLA/HSA)3 nanotubes (NTs) can be dispersed in aqueous medium and are hydrated significantly. Several ligands for HSA, such as zinc(ii) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), were bound to the HSA component in the cylindrical wall. Similar NTs comprising recombinant HSA mutant, which has a strong binding affinity for ZnPP, captured the ligand more tightly. The Fe3O4-coated NTs can be collected easily by exposure to a magnetic field. The hybrid NTs bearing a single avidin layer as an internal wall captured biotin-labeled nanoparticles into the central channel when their particle size is sufficiently small to enter the pores. The NTs with an antibody surface interior entrapped human hepatitis B virus with size selectivity. It is noteworthy that the infectious Dane particles were encapsulated completely into the hollows. Other HSA-based NTs having an α-glucosidase inner wall hydrolysed a glucopyranoside to yield α-d-glucose. A perspective of the practical use of the protein-based NTs is also described.

  2. Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Bakken, Suzanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Kimura, Michio; Koch, Sabine; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Moen, Anne; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Leong, Tze Yun; McCray, Alexa T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. Objectives To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Methods Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. Results A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. Conclusions The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes.

  3. Exploring subdomain variation in biomedical language

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Applications of Natural Language Processing (NLP) technology to biomedical texts have generated significant interest in recent years. In this paper we identify and investigate the phenomenon of linguistic subdomain variation within the biomedical domain, i.e., the extent to which different subject areas of biomedicine are characterised by different linguistic behaviour. While variation at a coarser domain level such as between newswire and biomedical text is well-studied and known to affect the portability of NLP systems, we are the first to conduct an extensive investigation into more fine-grained levels of variation. Results Using the large OpenPMC text corpus, which spans the many subdomains of biomedicine, we investigate variation across a number of lexical, syntactic, semantic and discourse-related dimensions. These dimensions are chosen for their relevance to the performance of NLP systems. We use clustering techniques to analyse commonalities and distinctions among the subdomains. Conclusions We find that while patterns of inter-subdomain variation differ somewhat from one feature set to another, robust clusters can be identified that correspond to intuitive distinctions such as that between clinical and laboratory subjects. In particular, subdomains relating to genetics and molecular biology, which are the most common sources of material for training and evaluating biomedical NLP tools, are not representative of all biomedical subdomains. We conclude that an awareness of subdomain variation is important when considering the practical use of language processing applications by biomedical researchers. PMID:21619603

  4. Writing intelligible English prose for biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Ludbrook, John

    2007-01-01

    1. I present a combination of semi-objective and subjective evidence that the quality of English prose in biomedical scientific writing is deteriorating. 2. I consider seven possible strategies for reversing this apparent trend. These refer to a greater emphasis on good writing by students in schools and by university students, consulting books on science writing, one-on-one mentoring, using 'scientific' measures to reveal lexical poverty, making use of freelance science editors and encouraging the editors of biomedical journals to pay more attention to the problem. 3. I conclude that a fruitful, long-term, strategy would be to encourage more biomedical scientists to embark on a career in science editing. This strategy requires a complementary initiative on the part of biomedical research institutions and universities to employ qualified science editors. 4. An immediately realisable strategy is to encourage postgraduate students in the biomedical sciences to undertake the service courses provided by many universities on writing English prose in general and scientific prose in particular. This strategy would require that heads of departments and supervisors urge their postgraduate students to attend such courses. 5. Two major publishers of biomedical journals, Blackwell Publications and Elsevier Science, now provide lists of commercial editing services on their web sites. I strongly recommend that authors intending to submit manuscripts to their journals (including Blackwell's Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology) make use of these services. This recommendation applies especially to those for whom English is a second language.

  5. Automatic discourse connective detection in biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Prasad, Rashmi; Miller, Tim; Harrington, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective Relation extraction in biomedical text mining systems has largely focused on identifying clause-level relations, but increasing sophistication demands the recognition of relations at discourse level. A first step in identifying discourse relations involves the detection of discourse connectives: words or phrases used in text to express discourse relations. In this study supervised machine-learning approaches were developed and evaluated for automatically identifying discourse connectives in biomedical text. Materials and Methods Two supervised machine-learning models (support vector machines and conditional random fields) were explored for identifying discourse connectives in biomedical literature. In-domain supervised machine-learning classifiers were trained on the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank, an annotated corpus of discourse relations over 24 full-text biomedical articles (∼112 000 word tokens), a subset of the GENIA corpus. Novel domain adaptation techniques were also explored to leverage the larger open-domain Penn Discourse Treebank (∼1 million word tokens). The models were evaluated using the standard evaluation metrics of precision, recall and F1 scores. Results and Conclusion Supervised machine-learning approaches can automatically identify discourse connectives in biomedical text, and the novel domain adaptation techniques yielded the best performance: 0.761 F1 score. A demonstration version of the fully implemented classifier BioConn is available at: http://bioconn.askhermes.org. PMID:22744958

  6. Effect of dietary supplementation with a probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) on production performance, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in ISA brown laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, J W; Jeong, J S; Lee, S I; Kim, I H

    2016-12-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to resistance issues has urged scientists to find alternatives to antibiotics. Entercoccus faecium is one of the probiotics which have been used as an alternative to antibiotics in the livestock industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation on production performance, feed intake, egg quality, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in laying hens. A total of 288 ISA brown laying hens were used in a 27 wk feeding experiment and randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 12 birds each. The treatments were CON (basal diet), PB1 (basal diet + 0.005% E. faecium), and PB2 (basal diet + 0.01% E. faecium). Overall, our results demonstrated that E. faecium supplementation resulted in a significant increase in egg production, egg shell thickness, and nutrient digestibility (dry matter, nitrogen, and energy) in laying hens, and a significant reduction in fecal coliform counts as compared with CON. The shift of excreta fecal microbial composition by E. faecium supplementation was accompanied by increased nutrient retention and reduction in nutrient excretion, leading to improved nutrient digestibility and reduced excreta ammonia emission. Overall, E. faecium supplementation appears to have a beneficial effect in ISA brown laying hens and should be considered as a positive diet supplement to use in the industry.

  7. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ying

    Nanotechnology is revolutionizing human's life. Synthesis and application of magnetic nanoparticles is a fast burgeoning field which has potential to bring significant advance in many fields, for example diagnosis and treatment in biomedical area. Novel nanoparticles to function efficiently and intelligently are in desire to improve the current technology. We used a magnetron-sputtering-based nanocluster deposition technique to synthesize magnetic nanoparticles in gas phase, and specifically engineered nanoparticles for different applications. Alternating magnetic field heating is emerging as a technique to assist cancer treatment or drug delivery. We proposed high-magnetic-moment Fe3Si particles with relatively large magnetic anisotropy energy should in principle provide superior performance. Such nanoparticles were experimentally synthesized and characterized. Their promising magnetic properties can contribute to heating performance under suitable alternating magnetic field conditions. When thermal energy is used for medical treatment, it is ideal to work in a designed temperature range. Biocompatible and "smart" magnetic nanoparticles with temperature self-regulation were designed from both materials science and biomedicine aspects. We chose Fe-Si material system to demonstrate the concept. Temperature dependent physical property was adjusted by tuning of exchange coupling between Fe atoms through incorporation of various amount of Si. The magnetic moment can still be kept in a promising range. The two elements are both biocompatible, which is favored by in-vivo medical applications. A combination of "smart" magnetic particles and thermo-sensitive polymer were demonstrated to potentially function as a platform for drug delivery. Highly sensitive diagnosis for point-of-care is in desire nowadays. We developed composition- and phase-controlled Fe-Co nanoparticles for bio-molecule detection. It has been demonstrated that Fe70Co30 nanoparticles and giant

  8. Nonlinear acoustics in biomedical ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Robin O.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound is widely used to image inside the body; it is also used therapeutically to treat certain medical conditions. In both imaging and therapy applications the amplitudes employed in biomedical ultrasound are often high enough that nonlinear acoustic effects are present in the propagation: the effects have the potential to be advantageous in some scenarios but a hindrance in others. In the case of ultrasound imaging the nonlinearity produces higher harmonics that result in images of greater quality. However, nonlinear effects interfere with the imaging of ultrasound contrast agents (typically micron sized bubbles with a strong nonlinear response of their own) and nonlinear effects also result in complications when derating of pressure measurements in water to in situ values in tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a non-invasive therapeutic modality which can result in thermal ablation of tissue. For thermal ablation, the extra effective attenuation resulting from nonlinear effects can result in enhanced heating of tissue if shock formation occurs in the target region for ablation - a highly desirable effect. However, if nonlinearity is too strong it can also result in undesired near-field heating and reduced ablation in the target region. The disruption of tissue (histotripsy) and fragmentation of kidney stones (lithotripsy) exploits shock waves to produce mechanically based effects, with minimal heating present. In these scenarios it is necessary for the waves to be of sufficient amplitude that a shock exists when the waveform reaches the target region. This talk will discuss how underlying nonlinear phenomenon act in all the diagnostic and therapeutic applications described above.

  9. [Electrochemical methods for biomedical investigations].

    PubMed

    Shumyantseva, V V; Bulko, T V; Suprun, E V; Kuzikov, A V; Agafonova, L E; Archakov, A I

    2015-01-01

    In the review, authors discussed recently published experimental data concerning highly sensitive electrochemical methods and technologies for biomedical investigations in the postgenomic era. Developments in electrochemical biosensors systems for the analysis of various bio objects are also considered: cytochrome P450s, cardiac markers, bacterial cells, the analysis of proteins based on electro oxidized amino acids as a tool for analysis of conformational events. The electroanalysis of catalytic activity of cytochromes P450 allowed developing system for screening of potential substrates, inhibitors or modulators of catalytic functions of this class of hemoproteins. The highly sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor has been developed for analysis of bio affinity interactions of antibodies with troponin I in plasma. The QCM technique allowed real-time monitoring of the kinetic differences in specific interactions and nonspecific sorption, with out multiple labeling procedures and separation steps. The affinity binding process was characterized by the association (ka) and the dissociation (kd) kinetic constants and the equilibrium association (K) constant, calculated using experimental data. Based on the electroactivity of bacterial cells, the electrochemical system for determination of sensitivity of the microbial cells to antibiotics cefepime, ampicillin, amikacin, and erythromycin was proposed. It was shown that the minimally detectable cell number corresponds to 106 CFU per electrode. The electrochemical method allows estimating the degree of E.coli JM109 cells resistance to antibiotics within 2-5 h. Electrosynthesis of polymeric analogs of antibodies for myoglobin (molecularly imprinted polymer, MIP) on the surface of graphite screen-printed electrodes as sensor elements with o- phenylenediamine as the functional monomer was developed. Molecularly imprinted polymers demonstrate selective complementary binding of a template protein molecule

  10. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can provide a substantial benefit in spacecraft systems, reducing launch weight and providing unprecedented flexibility by allowing instrumentation capabilities to grow and change over time. Achieving data transport reliability on par with that of wired systems, however, can prove extremely challenging in practice. Fortunately, much progress has been made in developing standard WSN radio protocols for applications from non-critical home automation to mission-critical industrial process control. The relative performances of candidate protocols must be compared in representative aerospace environments, however, to determine their suitability for spaceflight applications. In this paper, we will present the results of a rigorous laboratory analysis of the performance of two standards-based, low power, low data rate WSN protocols: ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a. Both are based on IEEE 802.15.4 and augment that standard's specifications to build complete, multi-hop networking stacks. ZigBee Pro targets primarily the home and office automation markets, providing an ad-hoc protocol that is computationally lightweight and easy to implement in inexpensive system-on-a-chip components. As a result of this simplicity, however, ZigBee Pro can be susceptible to radio frequency (RF) interference. ISA100.11a, on the other hand, targets the industrial process control market, providing a robust, centrally-managed protocol capable of tolerating a significant amount of RF interference. To achieve these gains, a coordinated channel hopping mechanism is employed, which entails a greater computational complexity than ZigBee and requires more sophisticated and costly hardware. To guide future aerospace deployments, we must understand how well these standards relatively perform in analog environments under expected operating conditions. Specifically, we are interested in evaluating goodput -- application level throughput -- in a representative crewed environment

  11. Rhenium-osmium systematics of the Mount Isa copper orebody and the Eastern Creek Volcanics, Queensland, Australia: implications for ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Melissa J.; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Keays, Reid R.; Wilde, Andy R.

    2008-07-01

    The syn-tectonic breccia-hosted Mount Isa Cu deposit in northwest Queensland is the largest sediment-hosted Cu deposit in Australia. Whole-rock samples of chalcopyrite-rich Cu ore form an isochron with a Re-Os age of 1,372 ± 41 Ma. This age is more than 100 Ma younger than the previously accepted age of Cu ore formation, an Ar-Ar mineral age for biotite separated from the host rocks within the alteration envelope to the Cu orebody. This discrepancy cannot be unequivocally resolved due to a lack of other absolute geochronological constraints for Cu mineralisation or the deformation event associated with Cu emplacement. The 1,372 ± 41 Ma date may reflect (a) the time of Cu deposition, (b) the time of a hydrothermal event that reset the Re-Os signature of the Cu ore or (c) mixing of the Re-Os isotope systematics between the host rocks and Cu-bearing fluids. However, a range of published Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr dates for potassic alteration associated with Cu mineralisation also records an event between 1,350 and 1,400 Ma and these are consistent with the 1,372 Ma Re-Os age. The 1.8 Ga Eastern Creek Volcanics are a series of tholeiitic basalts with a primary magmatic Cu enrichment which occur adjacent to the Mount Isa Cu deposit. The whole-rock Os isotopic signature of the Eastern Creek Volcanics ranges from mantle-like values for the upper Pickwick Member, to more radiogenic/crustal values for the lower Cromwell Member. The Re-Os isotope signature of the Cu ores overlaps with those calculated for the two volcanic members at 1,372 Ma; hence, the Os isotope data are supportive of the concept that the Os in the Cu ores was sourced from the Eastern Creek Volcanics. By inference, it is therefore postulated that the Eastern Creek Volcanics are the source of Cu in the Mount Isa deposit, as both Os and Cu are readily transported by oxidised hydrothermal fluids, such as those that are thought to have formed the Cu orebody. The Pickwick Member yields a Re-Os isochron age of 1,833

  12. In-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction for biomedical specimens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Tan, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast micro computed tomography (micro-CT) can non-destructively provide the internal structure information of soft tissues and low atomic number materials. It has become an invaluable analysis tool for biomedical specimens. Here an in-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction technique is reported, which consists of a projection extraction method and the conventional filter back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. The projection extraction is implemented by applying the Fourier transform to the forward projections of in-line phase contrast micro-CT. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a biomedical specimen dataset measured at an X-ray tube source micro-CT setup. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented technique can improve the imaging contrast of biomedical specimens. It will be of interest for a wide range of in-line phase contrast micro-CT applications in medicine and biology.

  13. Evaluation of biomedical informatics innovations and their impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, I N

    2012-01-01

    This issue of Methods of Information in Medicine contains four feature articles that are focused on the theme of evaluation. Evaluation approaches are increasingly essential in the assessment of determining the potential impact of contemporary informatics innovations. The featured articles offer practical perspectives to determining the impact of advancements. Internationally, there are significant advances being made across biomedical informatics and its related sub-disciplines. As with any scientific discipline, it is important for practitioners to be able to relate the potential importance of findings. To this end, it is especially important for biomedical informaticians to convey, in a quantifiable and comparable form, the significance of the informatics findings -not only to peers but also to those across the biomedical research spectrum. As such, the feature articles in this issue describe the evaluation of core infrastructure and fundamental informatics innovations as well as evaluation of informatics-based resources that are a core aspect of public health initiatives.

  14. Essential Components of Educational Programs on Biomedical Writing, Editing, and Publishing.

    PubMed

    Barroga, Edward; Vardaman, Maya

    2015-10-01

    The primary objective of educational programs on biomedical writing, editing, and publishing is to nurture ethical skills among local and international researchers and editors from diverse professional backgrounds. The mechanics, essential components, and target outcomes of these programs are described in this article. The mechanics covers the objectives, design, benefits, duration, participants and qualifications, program formats, administrative issues, and mentorship. The essential components consist of three core schedules: Schedule I Basic aspects of biomedical writing, editing, and communications; Schedule II Essential skills in biomedical writing, editing, and publishing; and Schedule III Interactive lectures on relevant topics. The target outcomes of the programs comprise knowledge acquisition, skills development, paper write-up, and journal publication. These programs add to the prestige and academic standing of the host institutions.

  15. Biomedical and development paradigms in AIDS prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Wolffers, I.

    2000-01-01

    In the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic different approaches can be distinguished, reflecting professional backgrounds, world views and political interests. One important distinction is between the biomedical and the development paradigms. The biomedical paradigm is characterized by individualization and the concept of "risk". This again is related to the concept of the market where health is a product of services and progress a series of new discoveries that can be marketed. The development paradigm is characterized by participation of the different stakeholders and by community work. The concept "vulnerability" is important in the development paradigm and emphasis is placed on efforts to decrease this vulnerability in a variety of sustainable ways. Biomedical technology is definitely one of the tools in these efforts. In the beginning of the pandemic the biomedical approach was important for the discovery of the virus and understanding its epidemiology. Later, stakeholders became involved. In the light of absence of treatment or vaccines, the development paradigm became more important and the two approaches were more in balance. However, since the reports about effective treatment of AIDS and hope of development of vaccines, the biomedical paradigm has become a leading principle in many HIV/AIDS prevention programmes. There is a need for a better balance between the two paradigms. Especially in developing countries, where it is not realistic to think that sustainable biomedical interventions can be organized on a short-term basis, it would be counterproductive to base our efforts to deal with HIV/AIDS exclusively on the biomedical approach. PMID:10743300

  16. Manpower development for the biomedical industry space.

    PubMed

    Goh, James C H

    2013-01-01

    The Biomedical Sciences (BMS) Cluster is one of four key pillars of the Singapore economy. The Singapore Government has injected research funding for basic and translational research to attract companies to carry out their commercial R&D activities. To further intensify the R&D efforts, the National Research Foundation (NRF) was set up to coordinate the research activities of different agencies within the larger national framework and to fund strategic R&D initiatives. In recent years, funding agencies began to focus on support of translational and clinical research, particularly those with potential for commercialization. Translational research is beginning to have traction, in particular research funding for the development of innovation medical devices. Therefore, the Biomedical Sciences sector is projected to grow which means that there is a need to invest in human capital development to achieve sustainable growth. In support of this, education and training programs to strengthen the manpower capabilities for the Biomedical Sciences industry have been developed. In recent years, undergraduate and graduate degree courses in biomedical engineering/bioengineering have been developing at a rapid rate. The goal is to train students with skills to understand complex issues of biomedicine and to develop and implement of advanced technological applications to these problems. There are a variety of career opportunities open to graduates in biomedical engineering, however regardless of the type of career choices, students must not only focus on achieving good grades. They have to develop their marketability to employers through internships, overseas exchange programs, and involvement in leadership-type activities. Furthermore, curriculum has to be developed with biomedical innovation in mind and ensure relevance to the industry. The objective of this paper is to present the NUS Bioengineering undergraduate program in relation to manpower development for the biomedical

  17. On the Crisis in Biomedical Education: Is There an Overproduction of Biomedical PhDs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domer, Judith E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The debate over whether there is an oversupply of doctorates in the biomedical sciences is examined, and a case study of doctoral graduates and postdoctoral fellows at the Tulane University (Louisiana) Medical Center is reported. It is concluded that there is no biomedical doctoral glut and that doctoral program downsizing would have serious…

  18. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9%) originated from King Saud University (KSU). About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF) of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1). Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25657608

  19. Reengineering the biomedical-equipment procurement process through an integrated management information system.

    PubMed

    Larios, Y G; Matsopoulos, G K; Askounis, D T; Nikita, K S

    2000-01-01

    The design of each new hospital site is typically preceded by decisions on the most appropriate level of biomedical equipment which significantly influences the layout of the hospital departments which are under construction. The most appropriate biomedical equipment should ideally be decided upon considering a series of demographic and social parameters of the hospital and international regulations and standards. This information should ultimately be distilled to proper technical specifications. This paper proposes a streamlined management process related to the procurement of biomedical equipment for new hospital sites or for those under expansion. The new management process aims to increase the efficiency of the experts involved in the definition of the most appropriate level of equipment and its technical specifications. It also addresses all aspects of the biomedical equipment-selection cycle, including the evaluation of the bids submitted by the equipment suppliers. The proposed process is assisted by a management information system, which integrates all related data-handling operations. It provides extensive decision-support facilities to the expert and a platform for the support of knowledge re-use in the field of biomedical-equipment selection.

  20. Bio-functionalization of biomedical metals.

    PubMed

    Xiao, M; Chen, Y M; Biao, M N; Zhang, X D; Yang, B C

    2017-01-01

    Bio-functionalization means to endow biomaterials with bio-functions so as to make the materials or devices more suitable for biomedical applications. Traditionally, because of the excellent mechanical properties, the biomedical metals have been widely used in clinic. However, the utilized functions are basically supporting or fixation especially for the implantable devices. Nowadays, some new functions, including bioactivity, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, and so on, are introduced to biomedical metals. To realize those bio-functions on the metallic biomedical materials, surface modification is the most commonly used method. Surface modification, including physical and chemical methods, is an effective way to alter the surface morphology and composition of biomaterials. It can endow the biomedical metals with new surface properties while still retain the good mechanical properties of the bulk material. Having analyzed the ways of realizing the bio-functionalization, this article briefly summarized the bio-functionalization concepts of six hot spots in this field. They are bioactivity, bony tissue inducing, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, anticoagulation, and drug loading functions.

  1. Independent component analysis for biomedical signals.

    PubMed

    James, Christopher J; Hesse, Christian W

    2005-02-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is increasing in popularity in the field of biomedical signal processing. It is generally used when it is required to separate measured multi-channel biomedical signals into their constituent underlying components. The use of ICA has been facilitated in part by the free availability of toolboxes that implement popular flavours of the techniques. Fundamentally ICA in biomedicine involves the extraction and separation of statistically independent sources underlying multiple measurements of biomedical signals. Technical advances in algorithmic developments implementing ICA are reviewed along with new directions in the field. These advances are specifically summarized with applications to biomedical signals in mind. The basic assumptions that are made when applying ICA are discussed, along with their implications when applied particularly to biomedical signals. ICA as a specific embodiment of blind source separation (BSS) is also discussed, and as a consequence the criterion used for establishing independence between sources is reviewed and this leads to the introduction of ICA/BSS techniques based on time, frequency and joint time-frequency decomposition of the data. Finally, advanced implementations of ICA are illustrated as applied to neurophysiologic signals in the form of electro-magnetic brain signals data.

  2. Simbody: multibody dynamics for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michael A; Seth, Ajay; Delp, Scott L

    Multibody software designed for mechanical engineering has been successfully employed in biomedical research for many years. For real time operation some biomedical researchers have also adapted game physics engines. However, these tools were built for other purposes and do not fully address the needs of biomedical researchers using them to analyze the dynamics of biological structures and make clinically meaningful recommendations. We are addressing this problem through the development of an open source, extensible, high performance toolkit including a multibody mechanics library aimed at the needs of biomedical researchers. The resulting code, Simbody, supports research in a variety of fields including neuromuscular, prosthetic, and biomolecular simulation, and related research such as biologically-inspired design and control of humanoid robots and avatars. Simbody is the dynamics engine behind OpenSim, a widely used biomechanics simulation application. This article reviews issues that arise uniquely in biomedical research, and reports on the architecture, theory, and computational methods Simbody uses to address them. By addressing these needs explicitly Simbody provides a better match to the needs of researchers than can be obtained by adaptation of mechanical engineering or gaming codes. Simbody is a community resource, free for any purpose. We encourage wide adoption and invite contributions to the code base at https://simtk.org/home/simbody.

  3. [Biomedical research in Revista de Biologia Tropical].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, José María

    2002-01-01

    The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particularly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica and at Hospital San Juan de Dios. The relative weight of Biomedicine in the following decades diminished, due to the outstanding increment in publications in Biological Sciences; however, the absolute number of contributions in Biomedical Sciences remained constant throughout the last decades, with around 80 contributions per decade. In spite of the predominance of Parasitology as the main biomedical subject, the last decades have witnessed the emergence of new areas of interest in the Revista, such as Pharmacology of natural products, Toxinology, especially related to snake venoms, and Human Genetics. This retrospective analysis evidences that Biomedical Sciences, particularly those related to Tropical Medicine, were a fundamental component during the first years of Revista de Biología Tropical, and have maintained a significant presence in the scientific output of this journal, the most relevant scientific publication in biological sciences in Central America.

  4. Biomedical engineering education--status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Magjarevic, Ratko; Zequera Diaz, Martha L

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering programs are present at a large number of universities all over the world with an increasing trend. New generations of biomedical engineers have to face the challenges of health care systems round the world which need a large number of professionals not only to support the present technology in the health care system but to develop new devices and services. Health care stakeholders would like to have innovative solutions directed towards solving problems of the world growing incidence of chronic disease and ageing population. These new solutions have to meet the requirements for continuous monitoring, support or care outside clinical settlements. Presence of these needs can be tracked through data from the Labor Organization in the U.S. showing that biomedical engineering jobs have the largest growth at the engineering labor market with expected 72% growth rate in the period from 2008-2018. In European Union the number of patents (i.e. innovation) is the highest in the category of biomedical technology. Biomedical engineering curricula have to adopt to the new needs and for expectations of the future. In this paper we want to give an overview of engineering professions in related to engineering in medicine and biology and the current status of BME education in some regions, as a base for further discussions.

  5. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  6. Ranking Biomedical Annotations with Annotator's Semantic Relevancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator's knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user's vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large. PMID:24899918

  7. Ranking biomedical annotations with annotator's semantic relevancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Aihua

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator's knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user's vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large.

  8. Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, < 16 days and routinely had 4 to 6 crewmembers for a total of 135 flights. Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and

  9. Tsinghua-Johns Hopkins Joint Center for Biomedical Engineering Research: scientific and cultural exchange in undergraduate engineering.

    PubMed

    Wisneski, Andrew D; Huang, Lixia; Hong, Bo; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    A model for an international undergraduate biomedical engineering research exchange program is outlined. In 2008, the Johns Hopkins University in collaboration with Tsinghua University in Beijing, China established the Tsinghua-Johns Hopkins Joint Center for Biomedical Engineering Research. Undergraduate biomedical engineering students from both universities are offered the opportunity to participate in research at the overseas institution. Programs such as these will not only provide research experiences for undergraduates but valuable cultural exchange and enrichment as well. Currently, strict course scheduling and rigorous curricula in most biomedical engineering programs may present obstacles for students to partake in study abroad opportunities. Universities are encouraged to harbor abroad opportunities for undergraduate engineering students, for which this particular program can serve as a model.

  10. Data management integration for biomedical core facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Szymanski, Jacek; Wilson, David

    2007-03-01

    We present the design, development, and pilot-deployment experiences of MIMI, a web-based, Multi-modality Multi-Resource Information Integration environment for biomedical core facilities. This is an easily customizable, web-based software tool that integrates scientific and administrative support for a biomedical core facility involving a common set of entities: researchers; projects; equipments and devices; support staff; services; samples and materials; experimental workflow; large and complex data. With this software, one can: register users; manage projects; schedule resources; bill services; perform site-wide search; archive, back-up, and share data. With its customizable, expandable, and scalable characteristics, MIMI not only provides a cost-effective solution to the overarching data management problem of biomedical core facilities unavailable in the market place, but also lays a foundation for data federation to facilitate and support discovery-driven research.

  11. Finding and accessing diagrams in biomedical publications.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar and line charts by the shape and relative location of the different image elements that make up the charts. With recall and precisions of close to 90% for the detection of relevant figures, we discuss the use of this technology in an existing biomedical image search engine, and outline how it enables new forms of literature queries over biomedical relationships that are represented in these charts.

  12. NASA Biomedical Informatics Capabilities and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2009-01-01

    To improve on-orbit clinical capabilities by developing and providing operational support for intelligent, robust, reliable, and secure, enterprise-wide and comprehensive health care and biomedical informatics systems with increasing levels of autonomy, for use on Earth, low Earth orbit & exploration class missions. Biomedical Informatics is an emerging discipline that has been defined as the study, invention, and implementation of structures and algorithms to improve communication, understanding and management of medical information. The end objective of biomedical informatics is the coalescing of data, knowledge, and the tools necessary to apply that data and knowledge in the decision-making process, at the time and place that a decision needs to be made.

  13. Biomedical signals monitoring based in mobile computing.

    PubMed

    Serigioli, Nilton; Reina Munoz, Rodrigo; Rodriguez, Edgar Charry

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this project consists in the development of a biomedical instrumentation prototype for acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals. These biomedical signals are acquired and then processed with a microcontroller. After processing, all data are sent to a communication interface that can send this information to a personal computer or a cell phone. The prototype developed, which is a digital blood pressure meter, is intended to allow remote monitoring of patients living in areas with limited access to medical assistance or scarce clinical resources. We believe that this development could be helpful to improve people's quality of life, as well as to allow an improvement in the government attendance indices.

  14. Biomedical data analysis by supervised manifold learning.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Meza, A M; Daza-Santacoloma, G; Castellanos-Dominguez, G

    2012-01-01

    Biomedical data analysis is usually carried out by assuming that the information structure embedded into the biomedical recordings is linear, but that statement actually does not corresponds to the real behavior of the extracted features. In order to improve the accuracy of an automatic system to diagnostic support, and to reduce the computational complexity of the employed classifiers, we propose a nonlinear dimensionality reduction methodology based on manifold learning with multiple kernel representations, which learns the underlying data structure of biomedical information. Moreover, our approach can be used as a tool that allows the specialist to do a visual analysis and interpretation about the studied variables describing the health condition. Obtained results show how our approach maps the original high dimensional features into an embedding space where simple and straightforward classification strategies achieve a suitable system performance.

  15. Biomedical engineering and society: policy and ethics.

    PubMed

    Flexman, J A; Lazareck, L

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineering impacts health care and contributes to fundamental knowledge in medicine and biology. Policy, such as through regulation and research funding, has the potential to dramatically affect biomedical engineering research and commercialization. New developments, in turn, may affect society in new ways. The intersection of biomedical engineering and society and related policy issues must be discussed between scientists and engineers, policy-makers and the public. As a student, there are many ways to become engaged in the issues surrounding science and technology policy. At the University of Washington in Seattle, the Forum on Science Ethics and Policy (FOSEP, www.fosep.org) was started by graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in improving the dialogue between scientists, policymakers and the public and has received support from upper-level administration. This is just one example of how students can start thinking about science policy and ethics early in their careers.

  16. [The future of biomedical research at universities].

    PubMed

    Jimenez García, Rodrigo; Gil Miguel, Angel

    2003-01-01

    The present article reviews the historic background of research in the Spanish University and particularly biomedical research in our country. We analyze the last set of data facilitated by the University Council and the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. We also review the implications that the National Plan of Quality has had on university research, clearly stimulating and improving the system, and new transformations that the Organic Law of Universities brings implied, and more specifically the National System of Qualification for the access to university teaching staff, which has research work of the teachers as the essential key. Finally, we review the biomedical scientific production during the last years by topics and universities, reflecting the improvement seen during the last decade not only in quantity but also in quality, which is more important. In conclusion, the review reflects a notable change in biomedical research in our universities opening an encouraging track for the future of research.

  17. Personalized biomedical devices & systems for healthcare applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I.-Ming; Phee, Soo Jay; Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Chee Kian

    2011-03-01

    With the advancement in micro- and nanotechnology, electromechanical components and systems are getting smaller and smaller and gradually can be applied to the human as portable, mobile and even wearable devices. Healthcare industry have started to benefit from this technology trend by providing more and more miniature biomedical devices for personalized medical treatments in order to obtain better and more accurate outcome. This article introduces some recent development in non-intrusive and intrusive biomedical devices resulted from the advancement of niche miniature sensors and actuators, namely, wearable biomedical sensors, wearable haptic devices, and ingestible medical capsules. The development of these devices requires carful integration of knowledge and people from many different disciplines like medicine, electronics, mechanics, and design. Furthermore, designing affordable devices and systems to benefit all mankind is a great challenge ahead. The multi-disciplinary nature of the R&D effort in this area provides a new perspective for the future mechanical engineers.

  18. Finding and Accessing Diagrams in Biomedical Publications

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar and line charts by the shape and relative location of the different image elements that make up the charts. With recall and precisions of close to 90% for the detection of relevant figures, we discuss the use of this technology in an existing biomedical image search engine, and outline how it enables new forms of literature queries over biomedical relationships that are represented in these charts. PMID:23304318

  19. Biomedical sensor design using analog compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    The main drawback of current healthcare systems is the location-specific nature of the system due to the use of fixed/wired biomedical sensors. Since biomedical sensors are usually driven by a battery, power consumption is the most important factor determining the life of a biomedical sensor. They are also restricted by size, cost, and transmission capacity. Therefore, it is important to reduce the load of sampling by merging the sampling and compression steps to reduce the storage usage, transmission times, and power consumption in order to expand the current healthcare systems to Wireless Healthcare Systems (WHSs). In this work, we present an implementation of a low-power biomedical sensor using analog Compressed Sensing (CS) framework for sparse biomedical signals that addresses both the energy and telemetry bandwidth constraints of wearable and wireless Body-Area Networks (BANs). This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of biomedical signals that are suitable for a variety of diagnostic and treatment purposes. At the transmitter side, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) in order to generate the compressed version of the input analog bio-signal. At the receiver side, a reconstruction algorithm based on Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) condition is applied in order to reconstruct the original bio-signals form the compressed bio-signals with high probability and enough accuracy. We examine the proposed algorithm with healthy and neuropathy surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The proposed algorithm achieves a good level for Average Recognition Rate (ARR) at 93% and reconstruction accuracy at 98.9%. In addition, The proposed architecture reduces total computation time from 32 to 11.5 seconds at sampling-rate=29 % of Nyquist rate, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD)=26 %, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE)=3 %.

  20. National Space Biomedical Research Institute Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 2000. The NSBRI is responsible for the development of countermeasures against the deleterious effects of long-duration space flight and performs fundamental and applied space biomedical research directed towards this specific goal. Its mission is to lead a world-class, national effort in integrated, critical path space biomedical research that supports NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Strategic Plan by focusing on the enabling of long-term human presence in, development of, and exploration of space. This is accomplished by: designing, testing and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight; defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures; establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level, and deliver quality medical care; transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the general benefit of mankind, including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth; and ensuring open involvement of the scientific community, industry and the public at large in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. Attachment:Appendices (A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O, and P.).

  1. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J.B.

    1982-07-01

    This bibliography contains 698 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1981. There are 520 references to articles published in journals and books and 178 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Instrumentation and Controls, Computer Sciences, Energy, Engineering Technology, Solid State, Central Management, Operations, and Environmental Sciences. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference.

  2. Making light work: illuminating the future of biomedical optics.

    PubMed

    Elwell, Clare E; Cooper, Chris E

    2011-11-28

    In 1996, the Royal Society held a Discussion Meeting entitled 'Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of living systems'. In 2010, this topic was revisited in a Theo Murphy Royal Society Scientific Discussion Meeting entitled 'Making light work: illuminating the future of biomedical optics'. The second meeting provided the opportunity for leading researchers to reflect on how the technology, methods and applications have evolved over the past 14 years and assess where they have made a major impact. Particular emphasis was placed on discussions of future prospects and associated challenges. This Introduction provides an overview of the state of the art of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and biomedical optics, with specific reference to the contributed papers from the invited speakers included in this issue. Importantly, we also reflect on the contributions from all of the attendees by highlighting the issues raised during oral presentations, facilitated panel sessions and discussions, and use these to summarize the current opinion on the development and application of optical systems for use in the clinical and life sciences. A notable outcome from the meeting was a plan to establish a biennial international conference for developers and users of NIRS technologies.

  3. Complex biomedical systems: from basic science to translation.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Biomedical Engineering (BME) of the University of Southern California (BME@USC) has a longstanding tradition of advancing biomedicine through the development and application of novel engineering ideas. More than 80 primary and affiliated faculty members conduct cutting-edge research in a wide variety of areas, such as neuroengineering, biosystems and biosignal analysis, medical devices (including biomicroelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS) and bionanotechnology), biomechanics, bioimaging, and imaging informatics. Currently, the department hosts six internationally recognized research centers: the Biomimetic MicroElectronic Systems Engineering Research Center (funded by the National Science Foundation), the Biomedical Simulations Resource [funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)], the Medical Ultrasonic Transducer Center (funded by NIH), the Center for Neural Engineering, the Center for Vision Science and Technology (funded by an NIH Bioengineering Research Partnership Grant), and the Center for Genomic and Phenomic Studies in Autism (funded by NIH). BME@USC ranks in the top tier of all U.S. BME departments in terms of research funding per faculty.

  4. Towards an ethics safe harbor for global biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Zawati, Ma'n H.

    2014-01-01

    Although increasingly global, data-driven genomics and other ‘omics’-focused research hold great promise for health discoveries, current research ethics review systems around the world challenge potential improvements in human health from such research. To overcome this challenge, we propose a ‘Safe Harbor Framework for International Ethics Equivalency’ that facilitates the harmonization of ethics review of specific types of data-driven international research projects while respecting globally transposable research ethics norms and principles. The Safe Harbor would consist in part of an agency supporting an International Federation for Ethics Review (IFER), formed by a voluntary compact among countries, granting agencies, philanthropies, institutions, and healthcare, patient advocacy, and research organizations. IFER would be both a central ethics review body, and also a forum for review and follow-up of policies concerning ethics norms for international research projects. It would be built on five principle elements: (1) registration, (2) compliance review, (3) recognition, (4) monitoring and enforcement, and (5) public participation. The Safe Harbor would create many benefits for researchers, countries, and the general public, and may eventually have application beyond (gen)omics to other areas of biomedical research that increasingly engage in secondary use of data and present only negligible risks. PMID:27774154

  5. NASA Now Minute: Astronaut Health on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space environment is extreme. Hear how Stephanie Carrizales Flint,a biomedical engineer at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, and her teamdevelop and monitor systems making the International Spac...

  6. NASA Now: Biology: Astronaut Health on the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space environment is extreme. Hear how Stephanie Carrizales Flint, a biomedical engineer at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, and her team develop and monitor systems making the International Spac...

  7. Bio-Medical Factors and External Hazards in Space Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olling, Edward H.

    1966-01-01

    The design of space-station configurations is influenced by many factors, Probably the most demanding and critical are the biomedical and external hazards requirements imposed to provide the proper environment and supporting facilities for the crew and the adequate protective measures necessary to provide a configuration in which the crew can live and work efficiently in relative comfort and safety. The major biomedical factors, such as physiology, psychology, nutrition, personal hygiene, waste management, and recreation, all impose their own peculiar requirements. The commonality and integration of these requirements demand the utmost ingenuity and inventiveness be exercised in order to achieve effective configuration compliance. The relationship of biomedical factors for the internal space-station environment will be explored with respect to internal atmospheric constituency, atmospheric pressure levels, oxygen positive pressure, temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, and atmospheric contamination. The range of these various parameters and the recommended levels for design use will be analyzed. Requirements and criteria for specific problem areas such as zero and artificial gravity and crew private quarters will be reviewed and the impact on the design of representative solutions will be presented. In the areas of external hazards, the impact of factors such as meteoroids, radiation, vacuum, temperature extremes, and cycling on station design will be evaluated. Considerations with respect to operational effectiveness and crew safety will be discussed. The impact of such factors on spacecraft design to achieve acceptable launch and reentry g levels, crew rotation intervals, etc., will be reviewed. Examples of configurations, subsystems, and internal a arrangement and installations to comply with such biomedical factor requirements will ber presented. The effects of solutions to certain biomedical factors on configuration weight, operational convenience, and

  8. Ontology-Oriented Programming for Biomedical Informatics.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Ontologies are now widely used in the biomedical domain. However, it is difficult to manipulate ontologies in a computer program and, consequently, it is not easy to integrate ontologies with databases or websites. Two main approaches have been proposed for accessing ontologies in a computer program: traditional API (Application Programming Interface) and ontology-oriented programming, either static or dynamic. In this paper, we will review these approaches and discuss their appropriateness for biomedical ontologies. We will also present an experience feedback about the integration of an ontology in a computer software during the VIIIP research project. Finally, we will present OwlReady, the solution we developed.

  9. Trends in modeling Biomedical Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Luciano; Romano, Paolo; Castellani, Gastone; Remondini, Daniel; Liò, Petro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we provide an introduction to the techniques for multi-scale complex biological systems, from the single bio-molecule to the cell, combining theoretical modeling, experiments, informatics tools and technologies suitable for biological and biomedical research, which are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary, multidimensional and information-driven. The most important concepts on mathematical modeling methodologies and statistical inference, bioinformatics and standards tools to investigate complex biomedical systems are discussed and the prominent literature useful to both the practitioner and the theoretician are presented. PMID:19828068

  10. Core/shell nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Sarkar, Sreerupa; Jagajjanani Rao, K; Paria, Santanu

    2014-07-01

    Nanoparticles have several exciting applications in different areas and biomedial field is not an exception of that because of their exciting performance in bioimaging, targeted drug and gene delivery, sensors, and so on. It has been found that among several classes of nanoparticles core/shell is most promising for different biomedical applications because of several advantages over simple nanoparticles. This review highlights the development of core/shell nanoparticles-based biomedical research during approximately past two decades. Applications of different types of core/shell nanoparticles are classified in terms of five major aspects such as bioimaging, biosensor, targeted drug delivery, DNA/RNA interaction, and targeted gene delivery.

  11. Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates, Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. A number of Liquids Mixing Apparatus (LMA) syringes like this one will be used in the experiments. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  12. Perspective on nanoparticle technology for biomedical use

    PubMed Central

    Raliya, Ramesh; Chadha, Tandeep Singh; Hadad, Kelsey; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    This review gives a short overview on the widespread use of nanostructured and nanocomposite materials for disease diagnostics, drug delivery, imaging and biomedical sensing applications. Nanoparticle interaction with a biological matrix/entity is greatly influenced by its morphology, crystal phase, surface chemistry, functionalization, physicochemical and electronic properties of the particle. Various nanoparticle synthesis routes, characteristization, and functionalization methodologies to be used for biomedical applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular probing of underlying mechanisms and concepts are described with several examples (150 references). PMID:26951098

  13. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Liao, Susan; Li, Jiajia

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matrix composites, and CNTs reinforced ceramic matrix composites), their mechanical properties, cell experiments in vitro, and biocompatibility tests in vivo. PMID:24707488

  14. Carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Liao, Susan; Li, Jiajia

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matrix composites, and CNTs reinforced ceramic matrix composites), their mechanical properties, cell experiments in vitro, and biocompatibility tests in vivo.

  15. The Association of Biomedical Communications Directors.

    PubMed

    Christen, F L

    1979-07-01

    The Association of Biomedical Communications Directors (ABCD) has recently completed the fifth in its series of surveys of biomedical communications units. The fourth survey, published in 1975, reported staffing patterns, salary data, degrees held, and a variety of other information from units directed by members of the ABCD in the United States and Canada. The current report covers similar data from the 1977-78 academic year and in addition includes information from units whose directors were not members of ABCD but who wished to cooperate in the survey.

  16. Biomedical engineering education through global engineering teams.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, C; Blanckenberg, M; Garth-Davis, B; Eisenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    Most industrial projects require a team of engineers from a variety of disciplines. The team members are often culturally diverse and geographically dispersed. Many students do not acquire sufficient skills from typical university courses to function efficiently in such an environment. The Global Engineering Teams (GET) programme was designed to prepare students such a scenario in industry. This paper discusses five biomedical engineering themed projects completed by GET students. The benefits and success of the programme in educating students in the field of biomedical engineering are discussed.

  17. Should biomedical research be like Airbnb?

    PubMed

    Bonazzi, Vivien R; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-04-01

    The thesis presented here is that biomedical research is based on the trusted exchange of services. That exchange would be conducted more efficiently if the trusted software platforms to exchange those services, if they exist, were more integrated. While simpler and narrower in scope than the services governing biomedical research, comparison to existing internet-based platforms, like Airbnb, can be informative. We illustrate how the analogy to internet-based platforms works and does not work and introduce The Commons, under active development at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and elsewhere, as an example of the move towards platforms for research.

  18. Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Their Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Pooja M.; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A.; Singh, Shree R.

    2011-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles are being extensively used in various biomedical applications due to their small size to volume ratio and extensive thermal stability. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are an obvious choice due to their amenability of synthesis and functionalization, less toxicity and ease of detection. The present review focuses on various methods of functionalization of GNPs and their applications in biomedical research. Functionalization facilitates targeted delivery of these nanoparticles to various cell types, bioimaging, gene delivery, drug delivery and other therapeutic and diagnostic applications. This review is an amalgamation of recent advances in the field of functionalization of gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in the field of medicine and biology.

  19. The BepiColombo mission to Mercury and the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) on-ground and in-flight calibration procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V. A.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Lucente, M.; Magnafico, C.; Nozzoli, S.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.

    2012-09-01

    BepiColombo, the forthcoming ESA (cornerstone) mission to Mercury [1,10], will include a comprehensive set of experiments  denominated Radio Science Experiments (RSE)  in order to measure the gravitational field of the planet and its rotation [8] and to perform precise tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity versus other metric theories of gravity [9]. Among the onboard instruments, a fundamental role in the RSE will be played by ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) [5,2]. This paper is devoted to describe the accelerometer characteristics, performance and measurements, as well as to introduce the experimental procedures in order to calibrate its measurements on-ground and inflight, during the cruise phase to Mercury and during the nominal phase of the mission around Mercury.

  20. Kavalactone content and chemotype of kava beverages prepared from roots and rhizomes of Isa and Mahakea varieties and extraction efficiency of kavalactones using different solvents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Qu, Weiyue; Bittenbender, Harry C; Li, Qing X

    2015-02-01

    The South Pacific islanders have consumed kava beverage for thousands of years. The quality of kava and kava beverage is evaluated through determination of the content of six major kavalactones including methysticin, dihydromethysticin, kavain, dihydrokavain, yangonin and desmethoxyyangonin. In this study, we determined contents of kavalactones in and chemotype of kava beverages prepared from roots and rhizomes of Isa and Mahakea varieties and extraction efficiency of five different solvents including hexane, acetone, methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate. The six major kavalactones were detected in all kava beverages with these five solvents. Different solvents had different extraction efficiencies for kavalactones from the lyophilized kava preparations. The contents of kavalactones in the extracts with acetone, ethanol, and methanol did not differ significantly. Ethanol had the highest extraction efficiency for the six major kavalactones whereas hexane gave the lowest extraction efficiency.

  1. Biomedical Biopolymers, their Origin and Evolution in Biomedical Sciences: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Harsh; Shah, Veena Gowri; Shah, Gaurav; Dhaka, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymers provide a plethora of applications in the pharmaceutical and medical applications. A material that can be used for biomedical applications like wound healing, drug delivery and tissue engineering should possess certain properties like biocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic products, low antigenicity, high bio-activity, processability to complicated shapes with appropriate porosity, ability to support cell growth and proliferation and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as maintaining mechanical strength. This paper reviews biodegradable biopolymers focusing on their potential in biomedical applications. Biopolymers most commonly used and most abundantly available have been described with focus on the properties relevant to biomedical importance. PMID:26501034

  2. Biomedical Biopolymers, their Origin and Evolution in Biomedical Sciences: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Preeti; Yadav, Harsh; Shah, Veena Gowri; Shah, Gaurav; Dhaka, Gaurav

    2015-09-01

    Biopolymers provide a plethora of applications in the pharmaceutical and medical applications. A material that can be used for biomedical applications like wound healing, drug delivery and tissue engineering should possess certain properties like biocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic products, low antigenicity, high bio-activity, processability to complicated shapes with appropriate porosity, ability to support cell growth and proliferation and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as maintaining mechanical strength. This paper reviews biodegradable biopolymers focusing on their potential in biomedical applications. Biopolymers most commonly used and most abundantly available have been described with focus on the properties relevant to biomedical importance.

  3. Vaccination with NY-ESO-1 overlapping peptides mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and montanide ISA-51 in patients with cancers expressing the NY-ESO-1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hisashi; Isobe, Midori; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Mizote, Yu; Eikawa, Shingo; Sato, Eiichi; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Udono, Heiichiro; Seto, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Pan, Linda; Venhaus, Ralph; Oka, Mikio; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a clinical trial of an NY-ESO-1 cancer vaccine using 4 synthetic overlapping long peptides (OLP; peptides #1, 79-108; #2, 100-129; #3, 121-150; and #4, 142-173) that include a highly immunogenic region of the NY-ESO-1 molecule. Nine patients were immunized with 0.25 mg each of three 30-mer and a 32-mer long NY-ESO-1 OLP mixed with 0.2 KE Picibanil OK-432 and 1.25 mL Montanide ISA-51. The primary endpoints of this study were safety and NY-ESO-1 immune responses. Five to 18 injections of the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine were well tolerated. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever and injection site reaction (grade 1 and 2). Two patients showed stable disease after vaccination. An NY-ESO-1-specific humoral immune response was observed in all patients and an antibody against peptide #3 (121-150) was detected firstly and strongly after vaccination. NY-ESO-1 CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were elicited in these patients and their epitopes were identified. Using a multifunctional cytokine assay, the number of single or double cytokine-producing cells was increased in NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells after vaccination. Multiple cytokine-producing cells were observed in PD-1 (-) and PD-1 (+) CD4 T cells. In conclusion, our study indicated that the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51 was well tolerated and elicited NY-ESO-1-specific humoral and CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in immunized patients.

  4. Students as Signal Sources in the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Laboratory courses are used throughout Biomedical Engineering curriculum to give students hands-on, practical experience in scientific, computing and... biomedical engineering principles as well as increase student appreciation of the scientific process.

  5. Biomedical computing facility interface design plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puckett, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of a design study performed to establish overall system interface requirements for the Biomedical Laboratories Division's Sigma-3 computer system. Emphasis has been placed upon the definition of an overall implementation plan and associated schedule to meet both near-term and long-range requirements within the constraints at available resources.

  6. Prussian blue type nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Long, J; Guari, Y; Guérin, C; Larionova, J

    2016-11-28

    Prussian blue type nanoparticles are exciting nano-objects that combine the advantages of molecule-based materials and nanochemistry. Here we provide a short overview focalizing on the recent advances of these nano-objects designed for biomedical applications and give an outlook on the future research orientations in this domain.

  7. An appraisal of future space biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

  8. Biomedical Equipment Technology: How Much Math?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Philip

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the level of mathematics needed in biomedical technology programs. Technical institutes and community colleges across the country have varying math requirements, from first-year college algebra on into calculus. He suggests a study to determine the reasons for the variance, leading eventually to uniform quality. (MF)

  9. Educating the Handicapped in Biomedical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbrier, Gilbert N.

    1974-01-01

    Handicapped community college students recruited for a one-year pilot career program (Biomedical Equipment Technology) proved that when architectual barriers are removed, educational and career fulfillment become possible. Innovations introduced to assist handicapped students now benifit every college student; new programs for paraplegics and the…

  10. Integrating image data into biomedical text categorization.

    PubMed

    Shatkay, Hagit; Chen, Nawei; Blostein, Dorothea

    2006-07-15

    Categorization of biomedical articles is a central task for supporting various curation efforts. It can also form the basis for effective biomedical text mining. Automatic text classification in the biomedical domain is thus an active research area. Contests organized by the KDD Cup (2002) and the TREC Genomics track (since 2003) defined several annotation tasks that involved document classification, and provided training and test data sets. So far, these efforts focused on analyzing only the text content of documents. However, as was noted in the KDD'02 text mining contest-where figure-captions proved to be an invaluable feature for identifying documents of interest-images often provide curators with critical information. We examine the possibility of using information derived directly from image data, and of integrating it with text-based classification, for biomedical document categorization. We present a method for obtaining features from images and for using them-both alone and in combination with text-to perform the triage task introduced in the TREC Genomics track 2004. The task was to determine which documents are relevant to a given annotation task performed by the Mouse Genome Database curators. We show preliminary results, demonstrating that the method has a strong potential to enhance and complement traditional text-based categorization methods.

  11. Biomedical engineering at UCT - challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Tania S

    2012-03-02

    The biomedical engineering programme at the University of Cape Town has the potential to address some of South Africa's unique public health challenges and to contribute to growth of the local medical device industry, directly and indirectly, through research activities and postgraduate education. Full realisation of this potential requires engagement with the clinical practice environment and with industry.

  12. Biomedical Engineering Education: A Conservative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Eugene E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the demand for graduates from biomedical engineering programs as being not yet fully able to absorb the supply. Suggests small schools interested in entering the field consider offering their programs at the undergraduate level via a minor or an option. Examples of such options and student projects are included. (CC)

  13. Time Resolved Microfluorescence In Biomedical Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1985-12-01

    A measuring system combining subnanosecond laser-induced fluorescence with microscopic signal detection was installed and used for diverse projects in the biomedical and environmental fields. These projects range from tumor diagnosis and enzymatic analysis to measurements of the activity of methanogenic bacteria, which affect biogas production and waste water cleaning. The advantages of this method and its practical applicability are discussed.

  14. Time-Resolved Microfluorescence In Biomedical Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneckenburger, Herbert

    1985-02-01

    A measuring system combining subnanosecond laser-induced fluorescence with microscopic signal detection was installed and used for diverse projects in the biomedical and environmental field. These projects are ranging from tumor diagnosis and enzymatic analysis to measurements of the activity of methanogenic bacteria which effect biogas production and waste water cleaning. The advantages of this method and its practical applicability are discussed.

  15. Veterinarians in biomedical research: building national capacity.

    PubMed

    Buss, Daryl D; Atchison, Michael L; Corps, Kara N; Falkowski, Lauren B; Fox, James G; Hendricks, Joan C; Mexas, Angela M; Rosol, Thomas J; Stromberg, Bert E

    2009-01-01

    This Executive Summary provides the conclusions from the presentations and discussions at the conference Veterinarians in Biomedical Research-Building National Capacity, a meeting coordinated by the AAVMC and held at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, August 1-4, 2007.

  16. Status of Research in Biomedical Engineering 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This status report is divided into eight sections. The first four represent the classical engineering or building aspects of bioengineering and deal with biomedical instrumentation, prosthetics, man-machine systems and computer and information systems. The next three sections are related to the scientific, intellectual and academic influence of…

  17. Opportunities for Minority Students in Biomedical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Information in this pamphlet provides the science student with ideas about where to look for career opportunities in biomedical research and what further information to seek. The primary research programs of each division of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute are outlined and are accompanied by descriptions of important research areas…

  18. A modular framework for biomedical concept recognition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concept recognition is an essential task in biomedical information extraction, presenting several complex and unsolved challenges. The development of such solutions is typically performed in an ad-hoc manner or using general information extraction frameworks, which are not optimized for the biomedical domain and normally require the integration of complex external libraries and/or the development of custom tools. Results This article presents Neji, an open source framework optimized for biomedical concept recognition built around four key characteristics: modularity, scalability, speed, and usability. It integrates modules for biomedical natural language processing, such as sentence splitting, tokenization, lemmatization, part-of-speech tagging, chunking and dependency parsing. Concept recognition is provided through dictionary matching and machine learning with normalization methods. Neji also integrates an innovative concept tree implementation, supporting overlapped concept names and respective disambiguation techniques. The most popular input and output formats, namely Pubmed XML, IeXML, CoNLL and A1, are also supported. On top of the built-in functionalities, developers and researchers can implement new processing modules or pipelines, or use the provided command-line interface tool to build their own solutions, applying the most appropriate techniques to identify heterogeneous biomedical concepts. Neji was evaluated against three gold standard corpora with heterogeneous biomedical concepts (CRAFT, AnEM and NCBI disease corpus), achieving high performance results on named entity recognition (F1-measure for overlap matching: species 95%, cell 92%, cellular components 83%, gene and proteins 76%, chemicals 65%, biological processes and molecular functions 63%, disorders 85%, and anatomical entities 82%) and on entity normalization (F1-measure for overlap name matching and correct identifier included in the returned list of identifiers: species 88

  19. The diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research may be influenced by biomedical funding.

    PubMed

    Erick Peirson, B R; Kropp, Heather; Damerow, Julia; Laubichler, Manfred D

    2017-03-30

    Contrary to concerns of some critics, we present evidence that biomedical research is not dominated by a small handful of model organisms. An exhaustive analysis of research literature suggests that the diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research has increased substantially since 1975. There has been a longstanding worry that organism-centric funding policies can lead to biases in experimental organism choice, and thus negatively impact the direction of research and the interpretation of results. Critics have argued that a focus on model organisms has unduly constrained the diversity of experimental organisms. The availability of large electronic databases of scientific literature, combined with interest in quantitative methods among philosophers of science, presents new opportunities for data-driven investigations into organism choice in biomedical research. The diversity of organisms used in NIH-funded research may be considerably lower than in the broader biomedical sciences, and may be subject to greater constraints on organism choice.

  20. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  1. Biomedical technology prosperity game{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.W.; Wesenberg, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Biomedical Technology Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Koop Foundation, Inc. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in biomedical technologies including patients, hospitals, doctors, insurance companies, legislators, suppliers/manufacturers, regulators, funding organizations, universities/laboratories, and the legal profession. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) Identify advanced/critical technology issues that affect the cost and quality of health care. (2) Explore the development, patenting, manufacturing and licensing of needed technologies that would decrease costs while maintaining or improving quality. (3) Identify policy and regulatory changes that would reduce costs and improve quality and timeliness of health care delivery. (4) Identify and apply existing resources and facilities to develop and implement improved technologies and policies. (5) Begin to develop Biomedical Technology Roadmaps for industry and government cooperation. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning biomedical issues. Significant progress was made in the roadmapping of key areas in the biomedical technology field.

  2. Trends in biochemical and biomedical applications of mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelpi, Emilio

    1992-09-01

    This review attempts an in-depth evaluation of progress and achievements made since the last 11th International Mass Spectrometry Conference in the application of mass spectrometric techniques to biochemistry and biomedicine. For this purpose, scientific contributions in this field at major international meetings have been monitored, together with an extensive appraisal of literature data covering the period from 1988 to 1991. A bibliometric evaluation of the MEDLINE database for this period provides a total of almost 4000 entries for mass spectrometry. This allows a detailed study of literature and geographical sources of the most frequent applications, of disciplines where mass spectrometry is most active and of types of sample and instrumentation most commonly used. In this regard major efforts according to number of publications (over 100 literature reports) are concentrated in countries like Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, UK and the USA. Also, most of the work using mass spectrometry in biochemistry and biomedicine is centred on studies on biotransformation, metabolism, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology, which have been carried out on samples of blood, urine, plasma and tissue, by order of frequency of use. Human and animal studies appear to be evenly distributed in terms of the number of reports published in the literature in which the authors make use of experimental animals or describe work on human samples. Along these lines, special attention is given to the real usefulness of mass spectrometry (MS) technology in routine medical practice. Thus the review concentrates on evaluating the progress made in disease diagnosis and overall patient care. As regards prevailing techniques, GCMS continues to be the mainstay of the state of the art methods for multicomponent analysis, stable isotope tracer studies and metabolic profiling, while HPLC--MS and tandem MS are becoming increasingly important in biomedical research. However

  3. International Perspectives on Plagiarism and Considerations for Teaching International Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees’ scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  4. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism.

  5. ISO Standards for the Presentation of Scientific Periodicals: Little Known and Little Used by Spanish Biomedical Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Cozar, Emilio Delgado

    1999-01-01

    Compliance with International Standardization Organization (ISO) standards for the presentation of periodical publications was evaluated in 221 Spanish biomedical journals to determine the degree to which the standards are actually used, and to develop recommendations for improving standards and increasing familiarity with them among authors,…

  6. Symposium on Career Opportunities in Biomedical and Public Health Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Walter W.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Symposium on Career Opportunities in Biomedical and Public Health Sciences is to encourage minority collegiate and junior and senior high school students to pursue careers in biomedical and public health sciences. The objectives of the Symposium are to: (1) Provide information to participants concerning biomedical and public health science careers in government, academe and industry; (2) Provide information to minority students about training activities necessary to pursue a biomedical or public health science career and the fiscal support that one can obtain for such training; and (3) Provide opportunities for participating minority biomedical and public health role models to interact with participants.

  7. The exploration of Halley's comet - An example of international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, Jurgen H.; Newburn, Ray L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The history of international cooperation in studies of comets started with observations in 1577 and 1680, when Tycho Brahe and Newton, respectively, collected position measurements made in different countries to determine the paths of the comets observed. In the fall of 1979, a worldwide Comet Halley watch was proposed. As a result of international cooperation, Comet Halley was explored during its recent appearance from the ground, earth orbit, Venus orbit, interplanetary space, and from within the comet itself. The various activities in space were coordinated by the ESA, the USSR Intercosmos, the Japanese ISAS, and NASA, through the Inter-Agency Consultative Group. The activities of the ground-based observers were coordinated by the International Halley Watch.

  8. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    PubMed

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  9. Alternative methods for the use of non-human primates in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Burm, Saskia M; Prins, Jan-Bas; Langermans, Jan; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    The experimental use of non-human primates (NHP) in Europe is tightly regulated and is only permitted when there are no alternatives available. As a result, NHP are most often used in late, pre-clinical phases of biomedical research. Although the impetus for scientists, politicians and the general public to replace, reduce and refine NHP in biomedical research is strong, the development of 3Rs technology for NHP poses specific challenges. In February 2014 a workshop on "Alternative methods for the use of NHP in biomedical research" was organized within the international exchange program of EUPRIM-Net II, a European infrastructure initiative that links biomedical primate research centers. The workshop included lectures by key scientists in the field of alternatives as well as by experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. Furthermore, parallel sessions were organized to stimulate discussion on the challenges of advancing the use of alternative methods for NHP. Subgroups voted on four statements and together composed a list with opportunities and priorities. This report summarizes the presentations that were held, the content of the discussion sessions and concludes with recommendations on 3Rs development for NHP specifically. These include technical, conceptual as well as political topics.

  10. Flexible piezoelectric thin-film energy harvesters and nanosensors for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geon-Tae; Byun, Myunghwan; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Lee, Keon Jae

    2015-04-02

    The use of inorganic-based flexible piezoelectric thin films for biomedical applications has been actively reported due to their advantages of highly piezoelectric, pliable, slim, lightweight, and biocompatible properties. The piezoelectric thin films on plastic substrates can convert ambient mechanical energy into electric signals, even responding to tiny movements on corrugated surfaces of internal organs and nanoscale biomechanical vibrations caused by acoustic waves. These inherent properties of flexible piezoelectric thin films enable to develop not only self-powered energy harvesters for eliminating batteries of bio-implantable medical devices but also sensitive nanosensors for in vivo diagnosis/therapy systems. This paper provides recent progresses of flexible piezoelectric thin-film harvesters and nanosensors for use in biomedical fields. First, developments of flexible piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices by using high-quality perovskite thin film and innovative flexible fabrication processes are addressed. Second, their biomedical applications are investigated, including self-powered cardiac pacemaker, acoustic nanosensor for biomimetic artificial hair cells, in vivo energy harvester driven by organ movements, and mechanical sensor for detecting nanoscale cellular deflections. At the end, future perspective of a self-powered flexible biomedical system is also briefly discussed with relation to the latest advancements of flexible electronics.

  11. Dynamic Nanoparticle Assemblies for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangyuan; Lu, Jingxiong; Kong, Xueqian; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Ling, Daishun

    2017-02-22

    Designed synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles assisted by their surface ligands can create "smart" materials with programmed responses to external stimuli for biomedical applications. These assemblies can be designed to respond either exogenously (for example, to magnetic field, temperature, ultrasound, light, or electric pulses) or endogenously (to pH, enzymatic activity, or redox gradients) and play an increasingly important role in a diverse range of biomedical applications, such as biosensors, drug delivery, molecular imaging, and novel theranostic systems. In this review, the recent advances and challenges in the development of stimuli-responsive nanoparticle assemblies are summarized; in particular, the application-driven design of surface ligands for stimuli-responsive nanoparticle assemblies that are capable of sensing small changes in the disease microenvironment, which induce the related changes in their physico-chemical properties, is described. Finally, possible future research directions and problems that have to be addressed are briefly discussed.

  12. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Wei; Freudiger, Christian W.; Lu, Sijia; He, Chengwei; Kang, Jing X.; Xie, X. Sunney

    2009-02-01

    Label-free chemical contrast is highly desirable in biomedical imaging. Spontaneous Raman microscopy provides specific vibrational signatures of chemical bonds, but is often hindered by low sensitivity. Here we report a 3D multi-photon vibrational imaging technique based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The sensitivity of SRS is significantly greater than that of spontaneous Raman scattering, and is further enhanced by high-frequency (MHz) phase-sensitive detection. SRS microscopy has a major advantage over previous coherent Raman techniques in that it offers background-free and easily interpretable chemical contrast. We show a variety of biomedical applications, such as differentiating distributions of omega-3 fatty acids and saturated lipids in living cells, imaging of brain and skin tissues based on intrinsic lipid contrast.

  13. Biomedical applications of dipeptides and tripeptides.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Torcato, Inês; Castanho, Miguel A R B

    2012-01-01

    Peptides regulate many physiological processes, acting at some sites as endocrine or paracrine signals and at others as neurotransmitters or growth factors, for instance. These molecules represent a major evolution in medical and industrial fields, as it is becoming mandatory to design and exploit molecules that do not necessarily fit the description of classical drug classes. The list of peptides with potential biomedical applications is huge and is growing each year. These biomedical applications range from uses as drugs to flavor-active peptides as ingredients in natural health products, nutraceuticals and functional foods. Among the peptide family, dipeptides and tripeptides are very appealing for drug discovery and development because of their cost-effectiveness, possibility of oral administration, and simplicity to perform molecular structural and quantitative structure-activity studies. Our objective is to review different actual and future uses of dipeptides and tripeptides as well as the major advances and obstacles in this growing area.

  14. Biomedical applications reviewed: Hot topic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. A.; Wells, K.

    2013-04-01

    Making reference to the British Journal of Radiology and competitor journal titles, we look at the general area of biomedical physics, reviewing some of the associated topics in ionising radiation research attracting interest over the past 2 years. We also reflect on early developments that have paved the way for these endeavours. The talk is illustrated by referring to a number of biomedical physics areas in which this group has been directly involved, including novel imaging techniques that address compositional and structural makeup as well as use of elastically scattered X-ray phase contrast, radiation damage linking to possible pericardial effects in radiotherapy, simulation of microvascularity and oxygenation with a focus of radiation resistant hypoxic tumours, issues of high spatial resolution dosimetry and tissue interface radiotherapy with doses enhanced through use of high atomic number photoelectron conversion media.

  15. Toxicity of inorganic nanomaterials in biomedical imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxia; Chang, Xueling; Chen, Xiaoxia; Gu, Zhanjun; Zhao, Feng; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles have shown promising potentials as novel biomedical imaging agents with high sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolution. To translate the laboratory innovations into clinical applications, their potential toxicities are highly concerned and have to be evaluated comprehensively both in vitro and in vivo before their clinical applications. In this review, we first summarized the in vivo and in vitro toxicities of the representative inorganic nanoparticles used in biomedical imagings. Then we further discuss the origin of nanotoxicity of inorganic nanomaterials, including ROS generation and oxidative stress, chemical instability, chemical composition, the surface modification, dissolution of nanoparticles to release excess free ions of metals, metal redox state, and left-over chemicals from synthesis, etc. We intend to provide the readers a better understanding of the toxicology aspects of inorganic nanomaterials and knowledge for achieving optimized designs of safer inorganic nanomaterials for clinical applications.

  16. Microbubble Compositions, Properties and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sirsi, Shashank

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been significant progress towards the development of microbubbles as theranostics for a wide variety of biomedical applications. The unique ability of microbubbles to respond to ultrasound makes them useful agents for contrast ultrasound imaging, molecular imaging, and targeted drug and gene delivery. The general composition of a microbubble is a gas core stabilized by a shell comprised of proteins, lipids or polymers. Each type of microbubble has its own unique advantages and can be tailored for specialized functions. In this review, different microbubbles compositions and physiochemical properties are discussed in the context of current progress towards developing novel constructs for biomedical applications, with specific emphasis on molecular imaging and targeted drug/gene delivery. PMID:20574549

  17. Titanium oxide antibacterial surfaces in biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Visai, Livia; De Nardo, Luigi; Punta, Carlo; Melone, Lucio; Cigada, Alberto; Imbriani, Marcello; Arciola, Carla Renata

    2011-09-01

    Titanium oxide is a heterogeneous catalyst whose efficient photoinduced activity, related to some of its allotropic forms, paved the way for its widespread technological use. Here, we offer a comparative analysis of the use of titanium oxide as coating for materials in biomedical devices. First, we introduce the photoinduced catalytic mechanisms of TiO2 and their action on biological environment and bacteria. Second, we overview the main physical and chemical technologies for structuring suitable TiO2 coatings on biomedical devices. We then present the approaches for in vitro characterization of these surfaces. Finally, we discuss the main aspects of TiO2 photoactivated antimicrobial activity on medical devices and limitations for these types of applications.

  18. Ultralow-power electronics for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chandrakasan, Anantha P; Verma, Naveen; Daly, Denis C

    2008-01-01

    The electronics of a general biomedical device consist of energy delivery, analog-to-digital conversion, signal processing, and communication subsystems. Each of these blocks must be designed for minimum energy consumption. Specific design techniques, such as aggressive voltage scaling, dynamic power-performance management, and energy-efficient signaling, must be employed to adhere to the stringent energy constraint. The constraint itself is set by the energy source, so energy harvesting holds tremendous promise toward enabling sophisticated systems without straining user lifestyle. Further, once harvested, efficient delivery of the low-energy levels, as well as robust operation in the aggressive low-power modes, requires careful understanding and treatment of the specific design limitations that dominate this realm. We outline the performance and power constraints of biomedical devices, and present circuit techniques to achieve complete systems operating down to power levels of microwatts. In all cases, approaches that leverage advanced technology trends are emphasized.

  19. Harnessing supramolecular peptide nanotechnology in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Lee, Wei Hao; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The harnessing of peptides in biomedical applications is a recent hot topic. This arises mainly from the general biocompatibility of peptides, as well as from the ease of tunability of peptide structure to engineer desired properties. The ease of progression from laboratory testing to clinical trials is evident from the plethora of examples available. In this review, we compare and contrast how three distinct self-assembled peptide nanostructures possess different functions. We have 1) nanofibrils in biomaterials that can interact with cells, 2) nanoparticles that can traverse the bloodstream to deliver its payload and also be bioimaged, and 3) nanotubes that can serve as cross-membrane conduits and as a template for nanowire formation. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how various peptides, in their various self-assembled nanostructures, possess great promise in a wide range of biomedical applications and what more can be expected. PMID:28223805

  20. Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates' Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Student Marnix Aklian and ITA's Mark Bem prepare biological samples for flight as part of ITA's hands-on student outreach program on STS-95. Similar activities are a part of the CIBX-2 payload. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  1. Body motion for powering biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Romero, Edwar; Warrington, Robert O; Neuman, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic energy harvesting has been demonstrated as a useful technique for powering portable electronic devices. Body motion can be used to generate energy to power small electronic devices for biomedical applications. These scavengers can recharge batteries, extending their operation lifetime or even replace them. This paper addresses the generation of energy from human activities. An axial flux generator is presented using body motion for powering miniature biomedical devices. This generator presents a gear-shaped planar coil and a multipole NdFeB permanent magnet (PM) ring with an attached eccentric weight. The device generates energy by electromagnetic induction on the planar coil when subject to a changing magnetic flux due to the generator oscillations produced by body motion. A 1.5 cm(3) prototype has generated 3.9 microW of power while walking with the generator placed laterally on the ankle.

  2. Bioengineered collagens: emerging directions for biomedical materials.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, John A M; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Dumsday, Geoff J

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian collagen has been widely used as a biomedical material. Nevertheless, there are still concerns about the variability between preparations, particularly with the possibility that the products may transmit animal-based diseases. Many groups have examined the possible application of bioengineered mammalian collagens. However, translating laboratory studies into large-scale manufacturing has often proved difficult, although certain yeast and plant systems seem effective. Production of full-length mammalian collagens, with the required secondary modification to give proline hydroxylation, has proved difficult in E. coli. However, recently, a new group of collagens, which have the characteristic triple helical structure of collagen, has been identified in bacteria. These proteins are stable without the need for hydroxyproline and are able to be produced and purified from E. coli in high yield. Initial studies indicate that they would be suitable for biomedical applications.

  3. Phage-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rebecca; Choi, Dong Shin; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology enable us to manipulate and produce materials with molecular level control. In the newly emerging field of bionanomedicine, it is essential to precisely control the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials. Among other biological building blocks, viruses are a promising nanomaterial that can be functionalized with great precision. Since the production of viral particles is directed by the genetic information encapsulated in their protein shells, the viral particles create precisely defined sizes and shapes. In addition, the composition and surface properties of the particles can be controlled through genetic engineering and chemical modification. In this manuscript, we review the advances of virus-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications in three different areas: phage therapy, drug delivery and tissue engineering. By exploiting and manipulating the original functions of viruses, viral particles hold great possibilities in these biomedical applications to improve human health.

  4. Biodegradable polymers for electrospinning: towards biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kai, Dan; Liow, Sing Shy; Loh, Xian Jun

    2014-12-01

    Electrospinning has received much attention recently due to the growing interest in nano-technologies and the unique material properties. This review focuses on recent progress in applying electrospinning technique in production of biodegradable nanofibers to the emerging field of biomedical. It first introduces the basic theory and parameters of nanofibers fabrication, with focus on factors affecting the morphology and fiber diameter of biodegradable nanofibers. Next, commonly electrospun biodegradable nanofibers are discussed, and the comparison of the degradation rate of nanoscale materials with macroscale materials are highlighted. The article also assesses the recent advancement of biodegradable nanofibers in different biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, biosensor and immunoassay. Future perspectives of biodegradable nanofibers are discussed in the last section, which emphasizes on the innovation and development in electrospinning of hydrogels nanofibers, pore size control and scale-up productions.

  5. Stress and morale of academic biomedical scientists.

    PubMed

    Holleman, Warren L; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Gritz, Ellen R

    2015-05-01

    Extensive research has shown high rates of burnout among physicians, including those who work in academic health centers. Little is known, however, about stress, burnout, and morale of academic biomedical scientists. The authors interviewed department chairs at one U.S. institution and were told that morale has plummeted in the past five years. Chairs identified three major sources of stress: fear of not maintaining sufficient funding to keep their positions and sustain a career; frustration over the amount of time spent doing paperwork and administrative duties; and distrust due to an increasingly adversarial relationship with the executive leadership.In this Commentary, the authors explore whether declining morale and concerns about funding, bureaucracy, and faculty-administration conflict are part of a larger national pattern. The authors also suggest ways that the federal government, research sponsors, and academic institutions can address these concerns and thereby reduce stress and burnout, increase productivity, and improve overall morale of academic biomedical scientists.

  6. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  7. Biomedical Applications of Nanodiamonds: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Passeri, D; Rinaldi, F; Ingallina, C; Carafa, M; Rossi, M; Terranova, M L; Marianecci, C

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamonds are a novel class of nanomaterials which have raised much attention for application in biomedical field, as they combine the possibility of being produced on large scale using relatively inexpensive synthetic processes, of being fluorescent as a consequence of the presence of nitrogen vacancies, of having their surfaces functionalized, and of having good biocompatibility. Among other applications, we mainly focus on drug delivery, including cell interaction, targeting, cancer therapy, gene and protein delivery. In addition, nanodiamonds for bone and dental implants and for antibacterial use is discussed. Techniques for detection and imaging of nanodiamonds in biological tissues are also reviewed, including electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, Raman mapping, atomic force microscopy, thermal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, either in vitro, in vivo, or ex vivo. Toxicological aspects related to the use of nanodiamonds are also discussed. Finally, patents, preclinical and clinical trials based on the use of nanodiamonds for biomedical applications are reviewed.

  8. Leveraging the national cyberinfrastructure for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    LeDuc, Richard; Vaughn, Matthew; Fonner, John M; Sullivan, Michael; Williams, James G; Blood, Philip D; Taylor, James; Barnett, William

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, the national cyberinfrastructure refers to a system of research supercomputer and other IT facilities and the high speed networks that connect them. These resources have been heavily leveraged by scientists in disciplines such as high energy physics, astronomy, and climatology, but until recently they have been little used by biomedical researchers. We suggest that many of the ‘Big Data’ challenges facing the medical informatics community can be efficiently handled using national-scale cyberinfrastructure. Resources such as the Extreme Science and Discovery Environment, the Open Science Grid, and Internet2 provide economical and proven infrastructures for Big Data challenges, but these resources can be difficult to approach. Specialized web portals, support centers, and virtual organizations can be constructed on these resources to meet defined computational challenges, specifically for genomics. We provide examples of how this has been done in basic biology as an illustration for the biomedical informatics community. PMID:23964072

  9. Leveraging the national cyberinfrastructure for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    LeDuc, Richard; Vaughn, Matthew; Fonner, John M; Sullivan, Michael; Williams, James G; Blood, Philip D; Taylor, James; Barnett, William

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, the national cyberinfrastructure refers to a system of research supercomputer and other IT facilities and the high speed networks that connect them. These resources have been heavily leveraged by scientists in disciplines such as high energy physics, astronomy, and climatology, but until recently they have been little used by biomedical researchers. We suggest that many of the 'Big Data' challenges facing the medical informatics community can be efficiently handled using national-scale cyberinfrastructure. Resources such as the Extreme Science and Discovery Environment, the Open Science Grid, and Internet2 provide economical and proven infrastructures for Big Data challenges, but these resources can be difficult to approach. Specialized web portals, support centers, and virtual organizations can be constructed on these resources to meet defined computational challenges, specifically for genomics. We provide examples of how this has been done in basic biology as an illustration for the biomedical informatics community.

  10. Biomedical Terminology Mapper for UML projects.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Julien C; Frey, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    As the biomedical community collects and generates more and more data, the need to describe these datasets for exchange and interoperability becomes crucial. This paper presents a mapping algorithm that can help developers expose local implementations described with UML through standard terminologies. The input UML class or attribute name is first normalized and tokenized, then lookups in a UMLS-based dictionary are performed. For the evaluation of the algorithm 142 UML projects were extracted from caGrid and automatically mapped to National Cancer Institute (NCI) terminology concepts. Resulting mappings at the UML class and attribute levels were compared to the manually curated annotations provided in caGrid. Results are promising and show that this type of algorithm could speed-up the tedious process of mapping local implementations to standard biomedical terminologies.

  11. Harnessing supramolecular peptide nanotechnology in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Lee, Wei Hao; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The harnessing of peptides in biomedical applications is a recent hot topic. This arises mainly from the general biocompatibility of peptides, as well as from the ease of tunability of peptide structure to engineer desired properties. The ease of progression from laboratory testing to clinical trials is evident from the plethora of examples available. In this review, we compare and contrast how three distinct self-assembled peptide nanostructures possess different functions. We have 1) nanofibrils in biomaterials that can interact with cells, 2) nanoparticles that can traverse the bloodstream to deliver its payload and also be bioimaged, and 3) nanotubes that can serve as cross-membrane conduits and as a template for nanowire formation. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how various peptides, in their various self-assembled nanostructures, possess great promise in a wide range of biomedical applications and what more can be expected.

  12. Combinatorial nanodiamond in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dae Gon; Prim, Racelly Ena; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Eunah; Park, Kinam; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2016-11-30

    One of the newly emerging carbon materials, nanodiamond (ND), has been exploited for use in traditional electric materials and this has extended into biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently, NDs have attained significant interests as a multifunctional and combinational drug delivery system. ND studies have provided insights into granting new potentials with their wide ranging surface chemistry, complex formation with biopolymers, and combination with biomolecules. The studies that have proved ND inertness, biocompatibility, and low toxicity have made NDs much more feasible for use in real in vivo applications. This review gives an understanding of NDs in biomedical engineering and pharmaceuticals, focusing on the classified introduction of ND/drug complexes. In addition, the diverse potential applications that can be obtained with chemical modification are presented.

  13. Wireless tuning fork gyroscope for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a Bluetooth enabled wireless tuning fork gyroscope for the biomedical applications, including gait phase detection system, human motion analysis and physical therapy. This gyroscope is capable of measuring rotation rates between -90 and 90 and it can read the rotation information using a computer. Currently, the information from a gyroscope can trigger automobile airbag deployment during rollover, improve the accuracy and reliability of GPS navigation systems and stabilize moving platforms such as automobiles, airplanes, robots, antennas, and industrial equipment. Adding wireless capability to the existing gyroscope could help to expand its applications in many areas particularly in biomedical applications, where a continuous patient monitoring is quite difficult. This wireless system provides information on several aspects of activities of patients for real-time monitoring in hospitals.

  14. The young person's guide to biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    van Bemmel, Jan H

    2006-01-01

    In a retrospective review, a parallel is drawn between the challenges by which a research department in biomedical informatics is confronted and those of a symphony orchestra. In both areas, different disciplines and different groups of instruments can be discerned. The importance of mastering one's instrument and the harmony between the team members is stressed. The conductor has to stimulate the individual players so that they can all have a successful career. Competition between orchestras and performance assessments determine survival and success. A record of refereed publications is crucial for continued existence. Conclusions are that biomedical informatics is typically multidisciplinary, that hypotheses underlying research should be carefully formulated, that the time from research to application may easily take 20 years or more, that mutual trust and knowing each other's competences is essential for success, that a good leader gives enough room to all team members to develop their careers, and that the outcomes of assessment studies are related to the quality of publications.

  15. Cyanine polyene reactivity: scope and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Alexander P; Nani, Roger R; Schnermann, Martin J

    2015-07-28

    Cyanines are indispensable fluorophores that form the chemical basis of many fluorescence-based applications. A feature that distinguishes cyanines from other common fluorophores is an exposed polyene linker that is both crucial to absorption and emission and subject to covalent reactions that dramatically alter these optical properties. Over the past decade, reactions involving the cyanine polyene have been used as foundational elements for a range of biomedical techniques. These include the optical sensing of biological analytes, super-resolution imaging, and near-IR light-initiated uncaging. This review surveys the chemical reactivity of the cyanine polyene and the biomedical methods enabled by these reactions. The overarching goal is to highlight the multifaceted nature of cyanine chemistry and biology, as well as to point out the key role of reactivity-based insights in this promising area.

  16. How biomedical investigators use library books.

    PubMed

    Raisig, L M; Smith, M; Cuff, R; Kilgour, F G

    1966-04-01

    Relatively few studies have been concerned with the use of biomedical books. This paper reports an investigation into use made of library books by biomedical investigators. Based on cancelled charge slips collected at the Yale Medical Library circulation desk, telephone appointments were made to interview those research investigators whose books had been returned the previous day. The interviewer obtained answers from the investigator to a questionnaire to discover how the investigator had learned of a book, if the book had been useful, and, if useful, how it had been used. During the six-month study period, 30.4 percent of researchers' volumes returned were monographs. Almost four-fifths of books borrowed supplied information wanted, and about four-fifths of books used had been printed in the previous decade. Nine-tenths of the use of books was research-related, the other tenth being for lecture preparation.

  17. Biomedical technology: using it during patient transport.

    PubMed

    Semonin-Holleran, R; Rouse, M

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this article has been to discuss and present some of the current biomedical technology available for patient transport. Recommendations were offered concerning the evaluation of these products, so that they can be effectively used in the air medical environment. There is one step yet that needs to be taken. This step involves identifying the most appropriate application of this technology to the care of the patient. As asked at the beginning of this article, how many pumps and monitors are needed for safe and high-quality patient transport? The answer to that question is not within the scope of this article, but pieces to the answer are. Through research, those of us who provide care during transport should be able to answer this question and develop guidelines for the use of biomedical technology when caring for the patient during air medical transport.

  18. Involvement of general public in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Pramesh, C. S.; Venkataramanan, R.; Suvarna, Viraj; Goel, Nishu Singh; Lakshman, S.; Venkatesh, Viji; Gupta, Vandana; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical research is crucial for any country's progress and the health of its ethnic population. This effort needs to be sustained and well supported for it to bear optimum results. The major stakeholders in medical research are the general public, patients, researchers, physicians (and medical institutions), the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, and the government. Much of the pressure to perform cutting edge research in developed countries is driven by the general public; however, this has been conspicuous by its absence in India. This is largely due to misconceptions that medical research in developing countries is an experimental exercise using human beings as guinea pigs, primarily benefiting only the pharmaceutical industry and a general lack of awareness about the importance of original research within the country. This editorial addresses various issues related to public involvement in biomedical research and suggests the need for solutions and imperative remedial measures. PMID:27843788

  19. Module for transmission of biomedical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirecki, Maciej; Zabolotny, Wojciech

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the conception of The Module for Transmission of Biomedical Data (MTBD). The prototype will acquire and process human vital signs and transmit collected information to a remote telemedicine centre for further analysis, taking advantage of GSM cellular infrastructure. The intention of MTBD prototype is providing care at the point and time of need without limiting of users' mobility. This should enhance the quality of life of patients. The article presents the conception of hardware platform designed for acquiring, processing and transmitting biomedical parameters using SMS, CSD, HSCD, GPRS services, provided by the GSM operators. Detailed analysis of prototype requirements is presented, taking into consideration GSM security aspects. The paper describes the main idea of MTBD in telemedicine system and basic conception of hardware and software solutions used in prototype device.

  20. Functional modification of chitosan for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ruogu

    Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide. Normally commercial chitosan consists of randomly distributed beta-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated proportion) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated proportion) together. Chitosan has been proved to be a multifunctional biopolymer that presents several unique properties due to free amino groups in the repeating unit therefore chitosan has been widely applied in various areas. To be specific, provided by the excellent biocompatibility, chitosan is expected to be used in biological and medical applications including wound dressing, implants, drug carrier/delivery, etc. In this thesis, we worked on chitosan functionalization for biomedical application. The thesis are composed of three parts: In the first part, we focused on modifying the chitosan thin film, chemically introducing the nitric oxide functional groups on chitosan film. We covalently bonded small molecule diazeniumdiolates onto the chitosan films and examined the antimicrobial function and biocompatibility. Commercial chitosan was cast into films from acidic aqueous solutions. Glutaraldehyde reacted with the chitosan film to introduce aldehyde groups onto the chitosan film (GA-CS film). GA-CS reacted with a small molecule NO donor, NOC-18, to covalently immobilize NONO groups onto the polymer (NO-CS film). The-CHO and [NONO] group were verified by FT IR, UV and Griess reagent. The NO releasing rate in aqueous solution and and thermal stability were studied quantitatively to prove its effectiveness. A series of antimicrobial tests indicated that NO-CS films have multiple functions: 1. It could inhibit the bacteria growth in nutrient rich environment; 2. It could directly inactivate bacteria and biofilm; 3. It could reduce the bacteria adherence on the film surface as well as inhibit biofilm formation. In addition, the NO-CS film was proved to be biocompatible with cell and it was also compatible with other antibiotics like Amoxicillin. In the second part, we

  1. Structure-Preserving Smoothing of Biomedical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Debora; Hernàndez-Sabaté, Aura; Burnat, Mireia; Jansen, Steven; Martínez-Villalta, Jordi

    Smoothing of biomedical images should preserve gray-level transitions between adjacent tissues, while restoring contours consistent with anatomical structures. Anisotropic diffusion operators are based on image appearance discontinuities (either local or contextual) and might fail at weak inter-tissue transitions. Meanwhile, the output of block-wise and morphological operations is prone to present a block structure due to the shape and size of the considered pixel neighborhood.

  2. Biomedical equipment and medical services in India.

    PubMed

    Sahay, K B; Saxena, R K

    Varieties of Biomedical Equipment (BME) are now used for quick diagnosis, flawless surgery and therapeutics etc. Use of a malfunctioning BME could result in faulty diagnosis and wrong treatment and can lead to damaging or even devastating aftermath. Modern Biomedical Equipments inevitably employ highly sophisticated technology and use complex systems and instrumentation for best results. To the best of our knowledge the medical education in India does not impart any knowledge on the theory and design of BME and it is perhaps not possible also. Hence there is need for a permanent mechanism which can maintain and repair the biomedical equipments routinely before use and this can be done only with the help of qualified Clinical Engineers. Thus there is a genuine need for well organized cadre of Clinical Engineers who would be persons with engineering background with specialization in medical instrumentation. These Clinical engineers should be made responsible for the maintenance and proper functioning of BME. Every hospital or group of hospitals in the advanced countries has a clinical engineering unit that takes care of the biomedical equipments and systems in the hospital by undertaking routine and preventive maintenance, regular calibration of equipments and their timely repairs. Clinical engineers should be thus made an essential part of modern health care system and services. Unfortunately such facilities and mechanism do not exist in India. To make BME maintenance efficient and flawless in India, study suggests following measures and remedies: (i) design and development of comprehensive computerized database for BME (ii) cadre of Clinical engineers (iii) online maintenance facility and (iv) farsighted managerial skill to maximize accuracy, functioning and cost effectiveness.

  3. Building interdisciplinary biomedical research using novel collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Katya; Faux, Russell; Corkey, Barbara; Coleman, David

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally, biomedical research has been carried out mainly within departmental boundaries. However, successful biomedical research increasingly relies on development of methods and concepts crossing these boundaries, requiring expertise in different disciplines. Recently, major research institutes have begun experimenting with ways to foster an interdisciplinary ethos. The Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research ("the Evans Center") at Boston University is a new organizational paradigm to address this challenge. The Evans Center is built around interdisciplinary research groups termed affinity research collaboratives (ARCs). Each ARC consists of investigators from several academic departments and at least two research disciplines, bound by a common goal to investigate biomedical problems concerning human disease. Novel aspects of the Evans Center include a "bottom-up" approach to identifying areas of ARC research (research vision and strategy are typically initiated by a core group of faculty with input from the center director); a pre-ARC period of faculty affiliation/project(s)' self-selection prior to formation of a peer-reviewed ARC; and Evans Center support for innovative ARCs for up to three years pending yearly metric evaluation, followed by continued administrative support as a group matures into an ARC program.Since its inception in early 2009, the Evans Center has documented achievements at discovery/publication, grant award, and educational levels. Enhanced interactions between members of individual ARCs, as assessed by quantitative networking analysis, are discussed in the context of high productivity. As universities seek new approaches to stimulate interdisciplinary research, the Evans Center and its ARCs are offered as a productive model for leveraging discovery.

  4. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse.

    PubMed

    Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Luneckaitė, Žydrunė; Peičius, Eimantas; Bagdonaitė, Živilė; Riklikienė, Olga; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2016-01-01

    The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational-logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question "Does a brain death mean death of a human being?" two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death.

  5. Nanostructured conducting polymers and their biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, G W; Lu, Y N; Wang, L P; Wang, H J; Wang, J Y

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to nanostructured conducting polymers due to their unique properties, which arise from their nanoscale size, such as their large surface area, high electrical conductivity, electrochemical stability and quantum effects. This article reviews three methods to synthesize nanostructured conducting polymers and their applications in the biomedical field, focusing specifically on neural probes, biosensors, artificial muscles or actuators and controlled drug release. Challenges and future directions of these nanostructured conducting polymer are also discussed.

  6. Biomedical Applications of NASA Science and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James N., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    During the period 15 September 1968 to 14 December 1968, the NASA supported Biomedical Application Team at the Research Triangle Institute has identified 6 new problems, performed significant activities on 15 of the active problems identified previously, performed 5 computer searches of the NASA aerospace literature, and maintained one current awareness search. As a partial result of these activities, one technology transfer was accomplished. As a part of continuing problem review, 13 problems were classified inactive. Activities during the quarter involved all phases of team activity with respect to biomedical problems. As has been observed in preceding years, it has been exceedingly difficult to arrange meetings with medical investigators during the fourth quarter of the calendar year. This is a result of a combination of factors. Teaching requirements, submission of grant applications and holidays are the most significant factors involved. As a result, the numbers of new problems identified and of transfers and potential transfers are relatively low during this quarter. Most of our activities have thus been directed toward obtaining information related to problems already identified. Consequently, during the next quarter we will follow up on these activities with the expectation that transfers will be accomplished on a number of them. In addition, the normal availability of researchers to the team is expected to be restored during this quarter, permitting an increase in new problem identification activities as well as follow-up with other researchers on old problems. Another activity scheduled for the next quarter is consultation with several interested biomedical equipment manufacturers to explore means of effective interaction between the Biomedical Application Team and these companies.

  7. Nanodiamonds of Laser Synthesis for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Perevedentseva, E; Peer, D; Uvarov, V; Zousman, B; Levinson, O

    2015-02-01

    In recent decade detonation nanodiamonds (DND), discovered 50 years ago and used in diverse technological processes, have been actively applied in biomedical research as a drug and gene delivery carrier, a contrast agent for bio-imaging and diagnostics and an adsorbent for protein separation and purification. In this work we report about nanodiamonds of high purity produced by laser assisted technique, compare them with DND and consider the prospect and advantages of their use in the said applications.

  8. Solid-phase microextraction in biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, S

    2000-12-01

    Chromatographic methods are preferred in the analysis of organic molecules with lower molecular mass (<500 g/mol) in body fluids, i.e., the assay of drugs, metabolites, endogenous substances and poisons as well as of environmental exposure by gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC), for example. Sample preparation in biomedical analysis is mainly performed by liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction. However, new methods are investigated with the aim to increase the sample throughput and to improve the quality of analytical methods. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was introduced about a decade ago and it was mainly applied to environmental and food analysis. All steps of sample preparation, i.e., extraction, concentration, derivatization and transfer to the chromatograph, are integrated in one step and in one device. This is accomplished by the intelligent combination of an immobilized extraction solvent (a polymer) with a special geometry (a fiber within a syringe). It was a challenge to test this novel principle in biomedical analysis. Thus, an introduction is provided to the theory of SPME in the present paper. A critical review of the first applications to biomedical analyses is presented in the main paragraph. The optimization of SPME as well as advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is concluded that, because of some unique characteristics, SPME can be introduced with benefit into several areas of biomedical analysis. In particular, the application of headspace SPME-GC-MS in forensic toxicology and environmental medicine appears to be promising. However, it seems that SPME will not become a universal method. Thus, on-line SPE-LC coupling with column-switching technique may be a good alternative if an analytical problem cannot be sufficiently dealt with by SPME.

  9. [Issues of biomedical support of explorations missions].

    PubMed

    Potapov, A N; Sinyak, Yu E; Petrov, V M

    2013-01-01

    Sine qua non for piloted exploration missions is a system of biomedical support. The future system will be considerably different from the analogous systems applied in current orbital missions. The reason is the challenging conditions in expeditions to remote space. In a mission to Mars, specifically, these are high levels of radiation, hypomagnetic environment, alternation of micro- and hypogravity, very long mission duration and autonomy. The paper scrutinizes the major issues of medical support to future explorers of space.

  10. [Basis of art phonetics in biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Li, Gelin; Ouyang, Kai; Liu, Yongxiang

    2002-01-01

    Art phonetics' medicine, a new branch of traditional medicine, has not been developed perfectly, especially in the aspects of objective and scientific study. In this paper, the acoustical and anatiomical basis of art phonetics in viewpoint of biomedical engineering is explored, and then our work of quantitative measurement and analysis of art phonetic is introduced. The experiment data show further that quantitative measurement and analysis plays an important role in art phonetic medicine.

  11. University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Dr. Ira

    2013-08-02

    This grant was awarded in support of Phase 2 of the University of Vermont Center for Biomedical Imaging. Phase 2 outlined several specific aims including: The development of expertise in MRI and fMRI imaging and their applications The acquisition of peer reviewed extramural funding in support of the Center The development of a Core Imaging Advisory Board, fee structure and protocol review and approval process.

  12. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants.

  13. Strategic planning: a biomedical communications model.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J E

    1991-01-01

    This article describes a biomedical communications approach to strategic planning. This model produces a short-term plan that allows a department to take the competitive advantage, react to technological change, and make timely decisions on new courses of action. The model calls for self-study, involving staff in brainstorming sessions where options are identified and ideas are prioritized into possible strategies for success. The article recommends that an evaluation and monitoring schedule be implemented after decisions have been made.

  14. Biomedical semantics in the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Splendiani, Andrea; Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott

    2011-03-07

    The Semantic Web offers an ideal platform for representing and linking biomedical information, which is a prerequisite for the development and application of analytical tools to address problems in data-intensive areas such as systems biology and translational medicine. As for any new paradigm, the adoption of the Semantic Web offers opportunities and poses questions and challenges to the life sciences scientific community: which technologies in the Semantic Web stack will be more beneficial for the life sciences? Is biomedical information too complex to benefit from simple interlinked representations? What are the implications of adopting a new paradigm for knowledge representation? What are the incentives for the adoption of the Semantic Web, and who are the facilitators? Is there going to be a Semantic Web revolution in the life sciences?We report here a few reflections on these questions, following discussions at the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences) workshop series, of which this Journal of Biomedical Semantics special issue presents selected papers from the 2009 edition, held in Amsterdam on November 20th.

  15. Biomedical Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement over the last several decades. Zinc oxide (ZnO), which can exhibit a wide variety of nanostructures, possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties hence has been investigated for a wide variety of applications. One of the most important features of ZnO nanomaterials is low toxicity and biodegradability. Zn2+ is an indispensable trace element for adults (~10 mg of Zn2+ per day is recommended) and it is involved in various aspects of metabolism. Chemically, the surface of ZnO is rich in -OH groups, which can be readily functionalized by various surface decorating molecules. In this review article, we summarized the current status of the use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as biomedical imaging (which includes fluorescence, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, as well as dual-modality imaging), drug delivery, gene delivery, and biosensing of a wide array of molecules of interest. Research in biomedical applications of ZnO nanomaterials will continue to flourish over the next decade, and much research effort will be needed to develop biocompatible/biodegradable ZnO nanoplatforms for potential clinical translation. PMID:24206130

  16. Graphene: a versatile nanoplatform for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, with its excellent physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, holds tremendous potential for a wide variety of biomedical applications. As research on graphene-based nanomaterials is still at a nascent stage, due to the very short time span since its initial report in 2004, a focused review on this topic is timely and necessary. In this feature review, we first summarize the results from toxicity studies of graphene and its derivatives. Although literature reports have mixed findings, we emphasize that the key question is not how toxic graphene itself is, but how to modify and functionalize it and its derivatives so that they do not exhibit acute/chronic toxicity, can be cleared from the body over time, and thereby can be best used for biomedical applications. Next, we discuss in detail the exploration of graphene-based nanomaterials for tissue engineering, molecular imaging, and drug/gene delivery applications. The future of graphene-based nanomaterials in biomedicine looks brighter than ever, and it is expected that they will find a wide range of biomedical applications with future research effort and interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:22653227

  17. Design of Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiang; Chung, Ung-Il; Sakai, Takamasa

    2015-11-18

    Hydrogels are considered key tools for the design of biomaterials, such as wound dressings, drug reservoirs, and temporary scaffolds for cells. Despite their potential, conventional hydrogels have limited applicability under wet physiological conditions because they suffer from the uncontrollable temporal change in shape: swelling takes place immediately after the installation. Swollen hydrogels easily fail under mechanical stress. The morphological change may cause not only the slippage from the installation site but also local nerve compression. The design of hydrogels that can retain their original shape and mechanical properties in an aqueous environment is, therefore, of great importance. On the one hand, the controlled degradation of used hydrogels has to be realized in some biomedical applications. This Progress Report provides a brief overview of the recent progress in the development of hydrogels for biomedical applications. Practical approaches to control the swelling properties of hydrogels are discussed. The designs of hydrogels with controlled degradation properties as well as the theoretical models to predict the degradation behavior are also introduced. Moreover, current challenges and limitation toward biomedical applications are discussed, and future directions are offered.

  18. Complementary ensemble clustering of biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Fodeh, Samah Jamal; Brandt, Cynthia; Luong, Thai Binh; Haddad, Ali; Schultz, Martin; Murphy, Terrence; Krauthammer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The rapidly growing availability of electronic biomedical data has increased the need for innovative data mining methods. Clustering in particular has been an active area of research in many different application areas, with existing clustering algorithms mostly focusing on one modality or representation of the data. Complementary ensemble clustering (CEC) is a recently introduced framework in which Kmeans is applied to a weighted, linear combination of the coassociation matrices obtained from separate ensemble clustering of different data modalities. The strength of CEC is its extraction of information from multiple aspects of the data when forming the final clusters. This study assesses the utility of CEC in biomedical data, which often have multiple data modalities, e.g., text and images, by applying CEC to two distinct biomedical datasets (PubMed images and radiology reports) that each have two modalities. Referent to five different clustering approaches based on the Kmeans algorithm, CEC exhibited equal or better performance in the metrics of micro-averaged precision and Normalized Mutual Information across both datasets. The reference methods included clustering of single modalities as well as ensemble clustering of separate and merged data modalities. Our experimental results suggest that CEC is equivalent or more efficient than comparable Kmeans based clustering methods using either single or merged data modalities.

  19. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  20. Computational Approaches for Predicting Biomedical Research Collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly collaborative, and successful collaborations often produce high impact work. Computational approaches can be developed for automatically predicting biomedical research collaborations. Previous works of collaboration prediction mainly explored the topological structures of research collaboration networks, leaving out rich semantic information from the publications themselves. In this paper, we propose supervised machine learning approaches to predict research collaborations in the biomedical field. We explored both the semantic features extracted from author research interest profile and the author network topological features. We found that the most informative semantic features for author collaborations are related to research interest, including similarity of out-citing citations, similarity of abstracts. Of the four supervised machine learning models (naïve Bayes, naïve Bayes multinomial, SVMs, and logistic regression), the best performing model is logistic regression with an ROC ranging from 0.766 to 0.980 on different datasets. To our knowledge we are the first to study in depth how research interest and productivities can be used for collaboration prediction. Our approach is computationally efficient, scalable and yet simple to implement. The datasets of this study are available at https://github.com/qingzhanggithub/medline-collaboration-datasets. PMID:25375164

  1. Biomedical research in a Digital Health Framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a Digital Health Framework (DHF), benefitting from the lessons learnt during the three-year life span of the FP7 Synergy-COPD project. The DHF aims to embrace the emerging requirements - data and tools - of applying systems medicine into healthcare with a three-tier strategy articulating formal healthcare, informal care and biomedical research. Accordingly, it has been constructed based on three key building blocks, namely, novel integrated care services with the support of information and communication technologies, a personal health folder (PHF) and a biomedical research environment (DHF-research). Details on the functional requirements and necessary components of the DHF-research are extensively presented. Finally, the specifics of the building blocks strategy for deployment of the DHF, as well as the steps toward adoption are analyzed. The proposed architectural solutions and implementation steps constitute a pivotal strategy to foster and enable 4P medicine (Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory) in practice and should provide a head start to any community and institution currently considering to implement a biomedical research platform. PMID:25472554

  2. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12. PMID:11121360

  3. Biomedical equipment considerations for aeromedical transports.

    PubMed

    Riha, C D

    1993-01-01

    Due to the eight stresses of flight and Federal Aeronautics Administration (FAA) requirements, biomedical equipment that is utilized in aeromedical transports presents certain challenges that the biomedical department should be aware of. U.S. Air Force military studies of a large number of specific models are available through the government. This author recommends prepurchase flight tests and input from flight crews to ensure safe operation of any new equipment. The equipment should also be designed for air transport. Permanent pacemakers should be programmed to a non-atrial sensing mode or an asynchronous mode before the patient is on board the aircraft. Temporary pacers and automatic defibrillators should also be set to a mode where the vibrations of flight will not trigger any errant behavior. With the proper precautions, aeromedical transports will continue to be a rapidly growing transport system for both trauma patients and intrahospital transfers. With a little research, the biomedical engineer can also be a valuable asset to the ground support crew.

  4. Successful aging: considering non-biomedical constructs

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Lisa F; Buchanan, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Successful aging continues to be applied in a variety of contexts and is defined using a number of different constructs. Although previous reviews highlight the multidimensionality of successful aging, a few have focused exclusively on non-biomedical factors, as was done here. Methods This scoping review searched Ovid Medline database for peer-reviewed English-language articles published between 2006 and 2015, offering a model of successful aging and involving research with older adults. Results Seventy-two articles were reviewed. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Common non-biomedical constructs associated with successful aging included engagement, optimism and/or positive attitude, resilience, spirituality and/or religiosity, self-efficacy and/or self-esteem, and gerotranscendence. Discussion Successful aging is a complex process best described using a multidimensional model. Given that the majority of elders will experience illness and/or disease during the life course, public health initiatives that promote successful aging need to employ non-biomedical constructs, facilitating the inclusion of elders living with disease and/or disability. PMID:27956828

  5. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  6. Efficient 41Ca measurements for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Schulze-König, T.; Synal, H.-A.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M. B.

    2015-10-01

    We present the performance of 41Ca measurements using low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the 500 kV facility TANDY at ETH Zurich. We optimized the measurement procedure for biomedical applications where reliability and high sample throughput is required. The main challenge for AMS measurements of 41Ca is the interfering stable isobar 41K. We use a simplified sample preparation procedure to produce calcium fluoride (CaF2) and extract calcium tri-fluoride ions (CaF3-) ions to suppress the stable isobar 41K. Although 41K is not completely suppressed we reach 41Ca/40Ca background level in the 10-12 range which is adequate for biomedical studies. With helium as a stripper gas we can use charge state 2+ at high transmission (∼50%). The new measurement procedure with the approximately 10 × improved efficiency and the higher accuracy due to 41K correction allowed us to measure more than 600 samples for a large biomedical study within only a few weeks of measurement time.

  7. Functional supramolecular polymers for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ruijiao; Zhou, Yongfeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xinyuan; Lu, Yunfeng; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-21

    As a novel class of dynamic and non-covalent polymers, supramolecular polymers not only display specific structural and physicochemical properties, but also have the ability to undergo reversible changes of structure, shape, and function in response to diverse external stimuli, making them promising candidates for widespread applications ranging from academic research to industrial fields. By an elegant combination of dynamic/reversible structures with exceptional functions, functional supramolecular polymers are attracting increasing attention in various fields. In particular, functional supramolecular polymers offer several unique advantages, including inherent degradable polymer backbones, smart responsiveness to various biological stimuli, and the ease for the incorporation of multiple biofunctionalities (e.g., targeting and bioactivity), thereby showing great potential for a wide range of applications in the biomedical field. In this Review, the trends and representative achievements in the design and synthesis of supramolecular polymers with specific functions are summarized, as well as their wide-ranging biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, protein delivery, bio-imaging and diagnosis, tissue engineering, and biomimetic chemistry. These achievements further inspire persistent efforts in an emerging interdisciplin-ary research area of supramolecular chemistry, polymer science, material science, biomedical engineering, and nanotechnology.

  8. Assessing the origin of old apparent ages derived by Pb stepwise leaching of vein-hosted epidote from Mount Isa, northwest Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Robert J.; Maas, Roland

    2014-12-01

    Epidote metasomatism affected large areas of tholeiitic metabasalts of the ~1,780 Ma Eastern Creek Volcanics in the Western Fold Belt of the Proterozoic Mount Isa inlier. Hydrothermal epidote generally occurs in quartz veins parallel to or boudinaged within the dominant S2 fabrics which formed during the regional metamorphic peak at ~1,570 Ma associated with the Isan orogeny. Previously published stable isotopic and halogen data suggest that the fluids responsible for epidote formation are metamorphic in origin (with an evaporitic component). Application of the Pb stepwise leaching technique to the epidote does not separate radiogenic Pb4+ and common Pb2+, generating little spread in 206Pb/204Pb (between 16.0 and 30.5). The causes for this relatively low range are twofold: There is little radiogenic Pb in the epidotes (the most radiogenic steps account for <1 % of Pb released) and both Pb2+ and uranogenic Pb4+ substitute into the same site in the epidote crystal lattice. Consequently, age regressions using the Pb stepwise leaching data give ages between 150 and 1,500 myrs older than the host rocks and over 450 myrs older than the thermal metamorphic peak. These old ages are attributed to chemical inheritance from the host metabasalts, via radiogenic Pb release by breakdown of phases such as zircon, monazite, titanomagnetite, and ilmenite during metamorphism. This idea is supported by trace element data and chrondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns that are similar to both the metabasalts and epidotes (except for a variable Eu anomaly in the latter). Relatively high fO2 during vein formation (Fe3+ dominates in the epidote crystal lattice) would allow the incorporation of Th4+ and exclusion of U6+ and would explain elevated Th/U ratios (up to 12) in epidote compared with the host metabasalts. Non-incorporation of U would explain the relatively low U/Pb ratios and non-radiogenic character of the epidote. This process may provide a source of metal for the small

  9. The biomedical disciplines and the structure of biomedical and clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nederbragt, H

    2000-11-01

    The relation between biomedical knowledge and clinical knowledge is discussed by comparing their respective structures. The knowledge of a disease as a biological phenomenon is constructed by the interaction of facts and theories from the main biomedical disciplines: epidemiology, diagnostics, clinical trial, therapy development and pathogenesis. Although these facts and theories are based on probabilities and extrapolations, the interaction provides a reliable and coherent structure, comparable to a Kuhnian paradigma. In the structure of clinical knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the patient with the disease, not only biomedical knowledge contributes to the structure but also economic and social relations, ethics and personal experience. However, the interaction between each of the participating "knowledges" in clinical knowledge is not based on mutual dependency and accumulation of different arguments from each, as in biomedical knowledge, but on competition and partial exclusion. Therefore, the structure of biomedical knowledge is different from that of clinical knowledge. This difference is used as the basis for a discussion in which the place of technology, evidence-based medicine and the gap between scientific and clinical knowledge are evaluated.

  10. Mission Possible: BioMedical Experiments on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, E.; Kreutzberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research, both applied and basic, was conducted on every Shuttle mission from 1981 to 2011. The Space Shuttle Program enabled NASA investigators and researchers from around the world to address fundamental issues concerning living and working effectively in space. Operationally focused occupational health investigations and tests were given priority by the Shuttle crew and Shuttle Program management for the resolution of acute health issues caused by the rigors of spaceflight. The challenges of research on the Shuttle included: limited up and return mass, limited power, limited crew time, and requirements for containment of hazards. The sheer capacity of the Shuttle for crew and equipment was unsurpassed by any other launch and entry vehicle and the Shuttle Program provided more opportunity for human research than any program before or since. To take advantage of this opportunity, life sciences research programs learned how to: streamline the complicated process of integrating experiments aboard the Shuttle, design experiments and hardware within operational constraints, and integrate requirements between different experiments and with operational countermeasures. We learned how to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and developed a hardware certification process with the flexibility to allow for design changes between flights. We learned the importance of end-to-end testing for experiment hardware with humans-in-the-loop. Most importantly, we learned that the Shuttle Program provided an excellent platform for conducting human research and for developing the systems that are now used to optimize research on the International Space Station. This presentation will include a review of the types of experiments and medical tests flown on the Shuttle and the processes that were used to manifest and conduct the experiments. Learning Objective: This paper provides a description of the challenges related to launching and implementing biomedical

  11. Community outreach at biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, M; Hedetniemi, J N; Herbert, E R; Sassaman, J S; Walker, B C

    2000-01-01

    For biomedical researchers to fulfill their responsibility for protecting the environment, they must do more than meet the scientific challenge of reducing the number and volume of hazardous materials used in their laboratories and the engineering challenge of reducing pollution and shifting to cleaner energy sources. They must also meet the public relations challenge of informing and involving their neighbors in these efforts. The experience of the Office of Community Liaison of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in meeting the latter challenge offers a model and several valuable lessons for other biomedical research facilities to follow. This paper is based on presentations by an expert panel during the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment held 1--2 November 1999 at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland. The risks perceived by community members are often quite different from those identified by officials at the biomedical research facility. The best antidote for misconceptions is more and better information. If community organizations are to be informed participants in the decision-making process, they need a simple but robust mechanism for identifying and evaluating the environmental hazards in their community. Local government can and should be an active and fully informed partner in planning and emergency preparedness. In some cases this can reduce the regulatory burden on the biomedical research facility. In other cases it might simplify and expedite the permitting process or help the facility disseminate reliable information to the community. When a particular risk, real or perceived, is of special concern to the community, community members should be involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of targeted risk assessment activities. Only by doing so will the community have confidence in the results of those activities. NIH has involved community members in joint efforts to deal with topics as varied as recycling and soil

  12. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer.

    PubMed

    Newell, Jonathan C

    2012-12-12

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field.

  13. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field. PMID:23234267

  14. A Brief History of Biomedical Research Ethics in Iran: Conflict of Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Aramesh, Kiarash

    2015-08-01

    During the past two decades, Iran has experienced a noteworthy growth in its biomedical research sector. At the same time, ethical concerns and debates resulting from this burgeoning enterprise has led to increasing attention paid to biomedical ethics. In Iran, Biomedical research ethics and research oversight passed through major periods during the past decades, separated by a paradigm shift. Period 1, starting from the early 1970s, is characterized by research paternalism and complete reliance on researchers as virtuous and caring physicians. This approach was in concordance with the paternalistic clinical practice of physicians outside of research settings during the same period. Period 2, starting from the late 1990s, was partly due to revealing of ethical flaws that occurred in biomedical research in Iran. The regulatory and funding bodies concluded that it was not sufficient to rely solely on the personal and professional virtues of researchers to safeguard human subjects' rights and welfare. The necessity for independent oversight, emphasized by international declarations, became obvious and undeniable. This paradigm shift led to the establishment of research ethics committees throughout the country, the establishment of academic research centers focusing on medical ethics (MEHR) and the compilation of the first set of national ethical guidelines on biomedical research-one of the first and most important projects conducted by and in the MEHR. Although not yet arrived, 'period 3' is on its way. It is predictable from the obvious trends toward performance of high-quality clinical research and the appearance of a highly educated new generation, especially among women.

  15. A BRIEF HISTORY OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH ETHICS IN IRAN: CONFLICT OF PARADIGMS

    PubMed Central

    ARAMESH, KIARASH

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades, Iran has experienced a noteworthy growth in its biomedical research sector. At the same time, ethical concerns and debates resulting from this burgeoning enterprise has led to increasing attention paid to biomedical ethics. In Iran, Biomedical research ethics and research oversight passed through major periods during the past decades, separated by a paradigm shift. Period 1, starting from the early 1970s, is characterized by research paternalism and complete reliance on researchers as virtuous and caring physicians. This approach was in concordance with the paternalistic clinical practice of physicians outside of research settings during the same period. Period 2, starting from the late 1990s, was partly due to revealing of ethical flaws that occurred in biomedical research in Iran. The regulatory and funding bodies concluded that it was not sufficient to rely solely on the personal and professional virtues of researchers to safeguard human subjects’ rights and welfare. The necessity for independent oversight, emphasized by international declarations, became obvious and undeniable. This paradigm shift led to the establishment of research ethics committees throughout the country, the establishment of academic research centers focusing on medical ethics (MEHR) and the compilation of the first set of national ethical guidelines on biomedical research–one of the first and most important projects conducted by and in the MEHR. Although not yet arrived, ‘period 3’ is on its way. It is predictable from the obvious trends toward performance of high-quality clinical research and the appearance of a highly educated new generation, especially among women. PMID:24720443

  16. Morphometric comparison by the ISAS(®) CASA-DNAf system of two techniques for the evaluation of DNA fragmentation in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Sara; García-Molina, Almudena; Celma, Ferran; Valverde, Anthony; Fereidounfar, Sogol; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    DNA fragmentation has been shown to be one of the causes of male infertility, particularly related to repeated abortions, and different methods have been developed to analyze it. In the present study, two commercial kits based on the SCD technique (Halosperm ® and SDFA) were evaluated by the use of the DNA fragmentation module of the ISAS ® v1 CASA system. Seven semen samples from volunteers were analyzed. To compare the results between techniques, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Data were used for calculation of Principal Components (two PCs were obtained), and subsequent subpopulations were identified using the Halo, Halo/Core Ratio, and PC data. Results from both kits were significantly different (P < 0.001). In each case, four subpopulations were obtained, independently of the classification method used. The distribution of subpopulations differed depending on the kit used. From the PC data, a discriminant analysis matrix was obtained and a good a posteriori classification was obtained (97.1% for Halosperm and 96.6% for SDFA). The present results are the first approach on morphometric evaluation of DNA fragmentation from the SCD technique. This approach could be used for the future definition of a classification matrix surpassing the current subjective evaluation of this important sperm factor.

  17. Utilisation of ISA Reverse Genetics and Large-Scale Random Codon Re-Encoding to Produce Attenuated Strains of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus within Days

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Fabien; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale codon re-encoding is a new method of attenuating RNA viruses. However, the use of infectious clones to generate attenuated viruses has inherent technical problems. We previously developed a bacterium-free reverse genetics protocol, designated ISA, and now combined it with large-scale random codon-re-encoding method to produce attenuated tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a pathogenic flavivirus which causes febrile illness and encephalitis in humans. We produced wild-type (WT) and two re-encoded TBEVs, containing 273 or 273+284 synonymous mutations in the NS5 and NS5+NS3 coding regions respectively. Both re-encoded viruses were attenuated when compared with WT virus using a laboratory mouse model and the relative level of attenuation increased with the degree of re-encoding. Moreover, all infected animals produced neutralizing antibodies. This novel, rapid and efficient approach to engineering attenuated viruses could potentially expedite the development of safe and effective new-generation live attenuated vaccines. PMID:27548676

  18. Bio-Medical Factors and External Hazards in Space Station Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olling, E. H.

    1966-01-01

    The design of space-station configurations is influenced by many factors. Probably the most demanding and critical are the biomedical and external hazards requirements imposed to provide the proper environment and supporting facilities for the crew and the adequate protective measures necessary to provide a configuration'in which the crew can live and work efficiently in relative comfort and safety. The major biomedical factors, such as physiology, psychology, nutrition, personal hygiene, waste management, and recreation, all impose their own peculiar requirements. The commonality and integration of these requirements demand the utmost ingenuity and inventiveness be exercised in order to achieve effective configuration compliance. The relationship of biomedical factors for the internal space-station environment will be explored with respect to internal atmospheric constituency, atmospheric pressure levels, oxygen positive pressure, temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, and atmospheric contamination. The range of these various parameters and the recommended levels for design use will be analyzed. Requirements and criteria for specific problem areas such as zero and artificial gravity and crew private quarters will be reviewed and the impact on the design of representative solutions will be presented. In the areas of external hazards, the impact of factors such as meteoroids, radiation, vacuum, temperature extremes, and cycling on station design will be evaluated. Considerations with respect to operational effectiveness and crew safety will be discussed. The impact of such factors on spacecraft design to achieve acceptable launch and reentry g levels, crew rotation intervals, etc., will be reviewed.

  19. Library Bulletin, International Planned Parenthood Federation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    The current issue of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Library Bulletin combines an acquisitions list with that of special bibliographies. The broad classes follow the IPPF general organization by topics: (1) general reference, (2) IPPF, (3) family planning and maternal and child health and care, (4) bio-medical study and…

  20. Measuring revolutionary biomedical science 1992-2006 using Nobel prizes, Lasker (clinical medicine) awards and Gairdner awards (NLG metric).

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The Nobel prize for medicine or physiology, the Lasker award for clinical medicine, and the Gairdner international award are given to individuals for their role in developing theories, technologies and discoveries which have changed the direction of biomedical science. These distinctions have been used to develop an NLG metric to measure research performance and trends in 'revolutionary' biomedical science with the aim of identifying the premier revolutionary science research institutions and nations from 1992-2006. I have previously argued that the number of Nobel laureates in the biomedical field should be expanded to about nine per year and the NLG metric attempts to predict the possible results of such an expansion. One hundred and nineteen NLG prizes and awards were made during the past fifteen years (about eight per year) when overlapping awards had been removed. Eighty-five were won by the USA, revealing a massive domination in revolutionary biomedical science by this nation; the UK was second with sixteen awards; Canada had five, Australia four and Germany three. The USA had twelve elite centres of revolutionary biomedical science, with University of Washington at Seattle and MIT in first position with six awards and prizes each; Rockefeller University and Caltech were jointly second placed with five. Surprisingly, Harvard University--which many people rank as the premier world research centre--failed to reach the threshold of three prizes and awards, and was not included in the elite list. The University of Oxford, UK, was the only institution outside of the USA which featured as a significant centre of revolutionary biomedical science. Long-term success at the highest level of revolutionary biomedical science (and probably other sciences) probably requires a sufficiently large number of individually-successful large institutions in open competition with one another--as in the USA. If this model cannot be replicated within smaller nations, then it implies