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Sample records for international joint study

  1. International reasons for joint learning and studying.

    PubMed

    Tschudin, V

    2000-01-01

    That medical and nursing students should learn at least certain subjects together has long been discussed. The implementation of such learning is becoming more important. The reasons are cultural diversity and differing values. Evidence points to conflicting values among health care personnel. It is by listening to each other that we learn of our own and others' values. The international scene is so accessible now that international joint learning is becoming imperative, otherwise the person of the patient gets excluded. Because people--and patients--matter, we cannot ignore the need to hear and respond to their values.

  2. 77 FR 39560 - International Joint Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... International Joint Commission International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report The International Joint Commission (IJC) announced today that it is inviting public comment on the final report of its International Upper Great Lakes Study Board, Lake Superior Regulation:...

  3. Rigid internal fixation and the effects on the temporomandibular joint and masticatory system: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Smith, V; Williams, B; Stapleford, R

    1992-12-01

    A prospective study of 22 patients who underwent a bilateral sagittal osteotomy to advance the mandible and subsequent rigid internal fixation, were examined for signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and masticatory dysfunction. A modified Helkimo index was used to analyze the anamnestic, clinical, and occlusal data. In addition, 12 of the cases chosen at random were mounted on a semiadjustable (SAM2) articulator and analyzed with the mandibular position indicator (MPI) to determine the amount and the direction of condylar displacement postoperatively. Anamnestic dysfunction decreased because of a reported decrease in muscular pain, joint noise, headache frequency, and parafunctional habits postoperatively. Clinical dysfunction remained unchanged, with a decrease in muscular soreness but with an increased incidence of joint clicking of 7%. The increased incidence of temporomandibular joint pain postoperatively was 4%. Increase in clinical dysfunction was most often seen in women and older patients. Occlusal dysfunction decreased, with the majority of interferences remaining after surgery as a result of insufficient lingual crown torque of the maxillary buccal segments. Occlusion is thought to have played only a minor role in temporomandibular joint and masticatory dysfunction. Reduction in range of motion was 10%, indicating the added benefit of early mobilization with rigid internal fixation procedures. The MPI study found the condyles inferiorly or inferoposteriorly displaced less than 1 mm from their preoperative position. These findings suggest that rigid internal fixation had no adverse effects on the temporomandibular and masticatory system. The variable responses and results can be attributed, at least in part, to the heterogenous population of patients studied and the variations in surgical techniques employed.

  4. ADAM10 localization in temporomandibular joint disk with internal derangement: an ex vivo immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Carla; Chiarenza, Giovanni Paolo Salvatore; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Imbesi, Rosa; Ruggeri, Alessandra; Almeida, Luis Edoardo; Leonardi, Rosalia

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of ADAM10 in temporomandibular joint disk with internal derangement. Twenty-five paraffin blocks of displaced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disk specimens from earlier investigations were retrieved from the archives of the University of Catania. Of these 16 had been removed from females and 9 from males; 11 with anterior disk displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and 14 with anterior disk displacement without reduction (ADDwoR). The sections were dehydrated, embedded in paraffin and cut. Then they were incubated in 0.3% H2O2/methanol and half of sections from each sample were incubated in diluted rabbit polyclonal anti-ADAM10 antibody. Then biotinylated anti-mouse/anti-rabbit IgG was applied to the sections, followed by avidin-biotin-perioxidase complex. The results were analyzed and the results were that ADAM10 was overexpressed in the posterior band of sections from patients with ADDwR compared to the other bands of both ADDwR and ADDwoR sections. Overexpression correlated with severe histopathological degeneration. We believe these results have the potential to provide insights into the pathogenesis of TMJ disk degeneration and to help design new therapeutic approaches targeting the proteolytic events that lead to tissue degeneration. Early therapeutic block of ADAM10 activity could succeed in limiting aggrecan-rich matrix breakdown without affecting normal physiology.

  5. Reactive arthritis in relation to internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Bodil; Holmlund, Anders; Wretlind, Bengt; Jalal, Shah; Rosén, Annika

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if reactive arthritis was involved in the aetiology of chronic closed lock of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by looking for bacterial antigens in the synovial membrane of the TMJ, and by studying the antibody serology and carriage of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B27 in patients with chronic closed lock. Patients with reciprocal clicking and healthy subjects acted as controls. We studied a total of 43 consecutive patients, 15 with chronic closed lock, 13 with reciprocal clicking, and 15 healthy controls with no internal derangements of the TMJ. Venous blood samples were collected from all subjects for measurement of concentrations of HLA tissue antigen and serology against Chlamydia trachomatis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Samples of synovial tissue from patients with closed lock and reciprocal clicking were obtained during discectomy and divided into two pieces, the first of which was tested by strand displacement amplification for the presence of C trachomatis, and the second of which was analysed for the presence of species-specific bacterial DNA using 16s rRNA pan-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of antibodies against M pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. or Y enterocolitica. No patient had antibodies towards C trachomatis or C jejuni. We found no bacterial DNA in the synovial fluid from any patient. The HLA B27 antigen was present in 2/15 subjects in both the closed lock and control groups, and none in the reciprocal clicking group. In conclusion, reactive arthritis does not seem to be the mechanism of internal derangement of the TMJ.

  6. 77 FR 41877 - International Joint Commission; International Joint Commission To Hold Public Hearings on Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... International Joint Commission; International Joint Commission To Hold Public Hearings on Lake Osoyoos The International Joint Commission (IJC) is inviting the public to comment on recommendations for the renewal of its... of the International Joint Commission's Osoyoos Lake Order now posted on the IJC Web site at...

  7. Hospital for joint diseases participates in international spine registry Spine Tango after successful pilot study.

    PubMed

    Röder, Christoph; Errico, Thomas J; Spivak, Jeffrey M; Murray, M; Protopsaltis, T; Lis, A; Nordin, Margareta; Bendo, John

    2012-01-01

    Spine Tango is currently the only international spine registry in existence. It was developed under the auspices of Eurospine, the Spine Society of Europe, and is hosted at the University of Bern, Switzerland. The HJD Spine Center successfully tested Spine Tango during a 3-month pilot study and has since expanded documentation activities to more surgeons. Workflow integration and dedicated research staff are key factors for such an endeavor. Participation enables benchmarking against national and international peers and outcome research and quality assurance of surgical and non-surgical treatments.

  8. In vivo kinematics of the talocrural and subtalar joints with functional ankle instability during weight-bearing ankle internal rotation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takumi; No, Yumi; Yoneta, Kei; Sadakiyo, Masashi; Gamada, Kazuyoshi

    2013-06-01

    Functional ankle instability (FAI) may involve abnormal kinematics. However, reliable quantitative data for kinematics of FAI have not been reported. The objective of this study was to determine if the abnormal kinematics exist in the talocrural and subtalar joints in patients with FAI. Five male subjects with unilateral FAI (a mean age of 33.4 ± 13.2 years) were enrolled. All subjects were examined with stress radiography and found to have no mechanical ankle instability (MAI). Lateral radiography at weight-bearing ankle internal rotation of 0° and 20° was taken with the ankle at 30° dorsiflexion and 30° plantar flexion. Patients underwent computed tomography scan at 1.0 mm slice pitch spanning distal one third of the lower leg and the distal end of the calcaneus. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the talocrural and subtalar joints as well as the ankle joint complex (AJC) were determined using a 3D-to-2D registration technique using a 3D-to-2D registration technique with 3D bone models and plain radiography. FAI joints in ankle dorsiflexion demonstrated significantly greater subtalar internal rotation from 0° to 20° internal rotation. No statistical differences in plantar flexion were detected in talocrural, subtalar or ankle joint complex kinematics between the FAI and contralateral healthy joints. During ankle internal rotation in dorsiflexion, FAI joints demonstrated greater subtalar internal rotation. The FAI joints without mechanical instability presented abnormal kinematics. This suggests that abnormal kinematics of the FAI joints may contribute to chronic instability. FAI joints may involve unrecognized abnormal subtalar kinematics during internal rotation in ankle dorsiflexion which may contribute to chronic instability and frequent feelings of instability.

  9. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum sexual hormone levels and internal derangement of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Madani, A S; Shamsian, A A; Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Fathi-Moghadam, F; Sabooni, M R; Mirmortazavi, A; Golmohamadi, M

    2013-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are defined as clinical conditions that involve the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in menstruating women affected by internal derangement of the TMJ. A total of 142 women (mean age 30·2 ± 6·7) who referred to medical diagnostic laboratory of Iranian Academic Centre for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, were enrolled during 2007 and 2008. Forty-seven individuals had disc displacement with reduction (Group IIa) according to Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD Axis I diagnosis. Radioimmunoassay was used for the detection of serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in all 142 subjects. The mean progesterone level was significantly higher in control group (11·6 ± 10·4 ng mL(-1) ) compared to women with TMD (8·4 ± 6·8 ng mL(-1) , P = 0·03). No significant difference was found in two groups regarding 17β-oestradiol level. Lower progesterone level in women with TMD can suggest the more important role of this hormone in the development of the disorder.

  10. Designing an International Joint Venture Negotiation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenkel, Phil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a simulation game that models management problems encountered in negotiating and managing international joint ventures. Designed to instruct executives of state-owned agribusinesses in Indonesia in abstract concepts such as partner rapport, transfer price conflicts, and marketing disagreements, its success suggests that simulation games…

  11. An Ex Vivo Study on Immunohistochemical Localization of MMP-7 and MMP-9 in Temporomandibular Joint Discs with Internal Derangement

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, C.; Leonardi, R.; Musumeci, G.; Pannone, G.; Castorina, S.

    2013-01-01

    Internal derangement (ID) is among the most common disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Previous research by our group highlighted a correlation between apoptosis and TMJ ID. Metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and -9 have been shown to play an important role in extracellular matrix ECM) homeostasis and, through it, in joint disc remodelling. The immunohistochemical expression of MMP-7 and -9 was investigated in discs from patients with TMJ ID and from healthy donors and compared with the degree of histological tissue degeneration. The collagen fibre arrangement in pathological discs exhibited varying degrees of disruption. New vessels were consistently detected; endothelial cells from these vessels were immunolabelled with both MMP-7 and MMP-9. More or less intense MMP-7 and MMP-9 immunolabelling was detected in the cytoplasm of disc cells from all patients. MMP-7 and MMP-9 immunostaining was significantly different between pathological and normal discs and correlated with the extent of histopathological degeneration. MMP-7 and MMP-9 upregulation in discs from patients with TMJ ID demonstrates their involvement in disc damage in this disorder. A greater understanding of these processes could help identify ways to curb MMP overproduction without affecting their tissue remodelling action. The design of specific inhibitors for these MMPs would not only help to gain insights into the biological roles of MMPs, but would also aid in developing therapeutic interventions for diseases associated with abnormal ECM degradation. PMID:23807291

  12. Selection of Partners for International Joint Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates the selection of partner institutions for international joint degree programs at the graduate level utilizing Knight's (2008) challenges to the development of such partnerships which are: Academic Alignment, Mobility and Language concerns, and Recognition and Legitimacy concerns. This study focuses on the criteria used…

  13. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... joint through rates. Rail carriers are exempt from the provisions of § 1312.37 that require the filing of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  14. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... joint through rates. Rail carriers are exempt from the provisions of § 1312.37 that require the filing of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  15. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... joint through rates. Rail carriers are exempt from the provisions of § 1312.37 that require the filing of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  16. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... joint through rates. Rail carriers are exempt from the provisions of § 1312.37 that require the filing of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  17. 49 CFR 1039.21 - International joint through rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International joint through rates. 1039.21 Section... joint through rates. Rail carriers are exempt from the provisions of § 1312.37 that require the filing of tariffs containing international joint through rates. Rail carriers must continue to comply...

  18. Making an International Impact: A Joint International Astronomy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert; Shen, Xinrong; Mulley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Early in 2010, a group of year 11 students (age 15-16) studying GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) Astronomy at The Radclyffe School, Oldham, in the UK, teamed up with a similar age group from Tianyi High School, Wuxi City, in China, to undertake a joint astronomy investigation. This article outlines the outcome of the first stage…

  19. Mandibular coronoid process locking: a prospective study of frequency and association with internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Isberg, A; Isacsson, G; Nah, K S

    1987-03-01

    Coronoid process locking has been regarded a rare condition. The literature reveals 59 reports each of one or two cases and an additional two papers reporting on four and six patients, respectively, the latter including hereditary cases. Coronoid process elongation tends to be overlooked when limitation of mouth-opening ability is investigated, since most interest is focused on the joint. To study the frequency of coronoid process hyperplasia and its possible association with TMJ disk displacement, 163 patients with limited mouth-opening ability were examined. All patients were referred for radiographic examination of the TMJs. In eight patients (5%), the limitation of mouth-opening ability was caused by elongation of the coronoid process. Four cases were of congenital origin, and four were secondary to long-standing disk displacement without reduction. The results of this study indicate that elongation of the coronoid process is more common than previously thought. In cases of limited mouth opening, attention should be paid to the possibility of coronoid process locking.

  20. The Cultural Context of Learning in International Joint Ventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ

    1999-01-01

    A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)

  1. Dorsal fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a comparative study of percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation versus open reduction and internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Aladin, A; Davis, T R C

    2005-05-01

    Nineteen patients with a dorsal fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of a finger were treated with either closed reduction and transarticular Kirschner wire fixation (eight cases) or open reduction and internal fixation, using either one or two lag screws (six cases) or a cerclage wire (five cases). At a mean follow-up of 7 (range 6-9) years, most patients reported satisfactory finger function, even though some of the injuries healed with proximal interphalangeal joint incongruency (seven cases) or subluxation (four cases). Those treated by open reduction complained of more "loss of feeling" in the affected finger and those specifically treated by cerclage wire fixation reported more cold intolerance and had a significantly larger fixed flexion deformity (median, 30 degrees : range 18-38 degrees ) and a smaller arc of motion (median, 48 degrees : range 45-60 degrees ) at the proximal interphalangeal joint, despite having the best radiological outcomes. Closed reduction and transarticular Kirschner wire fixation produced satisfactory results, with none of the eight patients experiencing significant persistent symptoms despite a reduced arc of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion (median=75 degrees ; range 60-108 degrees ). The results of this relatively simple treatment appear at least as satisfactory as those obtained by the two techniques of open reduction and internal fixation, both of which were technically demanding.

  2. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, Michael James; Brake, Matthew Robert; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Ewins, David J.

    2013-08-01

    The Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures was held from August 16th to 17th, 2012, in Chicago Illinois, following the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. Thirty two researchers from both the United States and international locations convened to discuss the recent progress of mechanical joints related research and associated efforts in addition to developing a roadmap for the challenges to be addressed over the next five to ten years. These proceedings from the workshop include the minutes of the discussions and follow up from the 2009 workshop [1], presentations, and outcomes of the workshop. Specifically, twelve challenges were formulated from the discussions at the workshop, which focus on developing a better understanding of uncertainty and variability in jointed structures, incorporating high fidelity models of joints in simulations that are tractable/efficient, motivating a new generation of researchers and funding agents as to the importance of joint mechanics research, and developing new insights into the physical phenomena that give rise to energy dissipation in jointed structures. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is to develop a predictive model of joint mechanics.

  3. [Constraints on the knee caused by meniscal and ligament derangement. Study of the internal condylotibial joint. Experimental cinematic method].

    PubMed

    Frain, P; Fontaine, C; D'Hondt, D

    1984-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors have demonstrated that the polycentric curve of the surface of the medial condyle of the femur is a logarithmic spiral arch whose centre is the point of attachment of the medial ligament. In the present study, the totality of the menisco-ligamentous system was considered and studied on cadavers following a geometric model. It is shown that the ligament system controls combined or successive movements of gliding or rotation of the condyle on the tibial plateau in such a way as to avoid any cam effect or additional strain. Division of ligaments or excision of a meniscus leads to an increase in strain which varies in relation to the type of lesion. The increase is moderate after division of the anterior cruciate ligament, greater after division of the posterior cruciate ligament and severe after meniscectomy especially when associated with ligamentous division.

  4. Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs...Navy Contract Management Processes Rene Rendon, Associate Professor, NPS Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development ...mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 374 - Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs Andrew Philip

  5. Investigation Leads to Improved Understanding of Space Shuttle RSRM Internal Insulation Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWhorter, Bruce B.; Bolton, Doug E.; Hicken, Steve V.; Allred, Larry D.; Cook, Dave J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) uses an internal insulation J-joint design for the mated insulation interface between two assembled RSRM segments. In this assembled (mated) segment configuration, this J-joint design serves as a thermal barrier to prevent hot gases from affecting the case field joint metal surfaces and O-rings. A pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) provides some adhesion between the two mated insulation surfaces. In 1995, after extensive testing, a new ODC-free PSA (free of ozone depleting chemicals) was selected for flight on RSRM-55 (STS-78). Post-flight inspection revealed that the J-joint, equipped with the new ODC-free PSA, did not perform well. Hot gas seeped inside the J-joint interface. Although not a flight safety threat, the J-joint hot gas intrusion on RSRM-55 was a mystery to the investigators since the PSA had previously worked well on a full-scale static test. A team was assembled to study the J-joint and PSA further. All J-joint design parameters, measured data, and historical performance data were re-reviewed and evaluated by subscale testing and analysis. Although both the ODC-free and old PSA were weakened by humidity, the ODC-free PSA strength was lower to start with. Another RSRM full-scale static test was conducted in 1998 and intentionally duplicated the gas intrusion. This test, along with many concurring tests, showed that if a J-joint was 1) mated with the new ODC-free PSA, 2) exposed to a history of high humidity (Kennedy Space Center levels), and 3) also a joint which experienced significant but normal joint motion (J-joint deformation resulting from motor pressurization dynamics) then that J-joint would open (allow gas intrusion) during motor operation. When all of the data from the analyses, subscale tests, and full-scale tests were considered together, a theory emerged. Most of the joint motion on the RSRM occurs early in motor operation at which point the J-joints are pulled into tension. If the new

  6. The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, Elliot P.; McFatter, Justin; Sweeney, Daniel J.; Enriquez, Carlos F.; Taylor, Deneen M.; McCann, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high drive motor current draw. Increased structural vibrations near the joint were also observed. Subsequent inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the nitrided case-hardened steel bearing race on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A farreaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken. The investigation included metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The results of the investigation showed that the anomaly had most probably been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors. To mitigate the impact of the damage, astronauts cleaned and lubricated the race ring surface with grease. This corrective action led to significantly improved performance of the mechanism both in terms of drive motor current and induced structural vibration.

  7. The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, Elliot P.; McFatter, Justin; Sweeney, Daniel J.; Enriquez, Carlos F.; Taylor, Deneen M.; McCann, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high drive motor current draw. Increased structural vibrations near the joint were also observed. Subsequent inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the nitrided case hardened steel bearing race on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken. The investigation included metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The results of the investigation showed that anomaly had most probably been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors. To mitigate the impact of the damage astronauts cleaned and lubricated the race ring surface with grease. This corrective action led to significantly improved performance of the mechanism both in terms of drive motor current and induced structural vibration.

  8. Comparative study in patients with symptomatic internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: analgesic outcomes of arthrocentesis with or without intra-articular morphine and tramadol.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, A; Satilmis, T; Basa, S

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to find out whether pain was better controlled if morphine or tramadol was injected intra-articularly after arthrocentesis with Ringer's lactate in patients with painful temporomandibular joints (TMJ). This placebo-controlled, double-blind study involved 30 patients who had not responded to conservative treatment and who were divided randomly into 3 groups of 10 patients each. All patients had arthrocentesis, and the drugs were given as intra-articular injections immediately after the procedure. One group was give 5% Ringer's lactate 1ml, the second morphine 1mg, and the third tramadol 50mg. Visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain were recorded at maximum mouth opening and at rest before intra-articular injection and after 15 and 30min; at 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48h; and at 1, 3, and 6 monthly follow-up. The mean (SD) VAS decreased from 6.90 (1.45) to 2.6 (2.5) in the control group, from 7.30 (1.64) to 1.20 (0.79) in the morphine group (p=0.005), and from 7.10 (1.73) to 1.50 (1.78) in the tramadol group (p=0.005). We conclude that morphine given by intra-articular injection after arthrocentesis gives a significant, sustained (6 months) improvement in pain relief compared with simple arthrocentesis alone. The effect was similar with tramadol except that it was shorter lived.

  9. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  10. Development of Common International Specifications to Support Future Joint Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John; Conley, Catharine

    Scientific exploration of the solar system is becoming more complex and costly, while featuring both astrobiologically compelling targets and the need for increasingly capable scientific instru-mentation and spacecraft. Recently, an increasing number of countries are joining the club of spacefaring nations, providing a greater base of capabilities in space exploration from which to work. Both trends are positive and may be expected to lead to both an increased number of cooperative missions. A focus on "better" future cooperative missions to Mars and the Outer Planets satellites—with a concentration on the potential of these bodies to support life—will necessarily require con-tinued attention to the planetary protection policies that govern their exploration. Agencies conducting joint missions to these worlds have long recognized the utility of COSPAR's plane-tary protection policy as the international consensus standard applied to support their scientific exploration. As such, a formal role for COSPAR's policy in joining agency efforts is expected to continue, while in an informal sense COSPAR will also continue to work to harmonize the technical side of requirements among space agencies and to provide an international forum to develop future thinking on planetary protection issues. In this way, COSPAR can help to aid agencies to develop bilateral and multilateral cooperative efforts, such as the 2007 agreement reached by NASA and ESA, as well as to expand the level of coordination among space agencies of other spacefaring nations. Such coordination and the successful implementation of COSPAR requirements on joint mis-sions suggests the need for frequent exchanges of information among the planetary protection authorities of the respective spacefaring nation and the COSPAR planetary protection panel. To be effective, such exchanges should ideally start already before mission categorization and continue until the end-of-mission report. This is considered of

  11. Role conflict and ambiguity of CEOs in international joint ventures: a transaction cost perspective.

    PubMed

    Gong, Y; Shenkar, O; Luo, Y; Nyaw, M K

    2001-08-01

    Insights from transaction cost economics were used to study the boundary conditions underlying the role conflict and ambiguity of 265 CEOs in Chinese-based international joint ventures. Role conflict and ambiguity were lower when the contract between parents was more complete. Contract completeness fully mediated the effects of parent objective gap and parent formalization on role ambiguity but only partially so in the case of role conflict. Role conflict was lower when the foreign parent was dominant in the venture but higher when the local parent was dominant. Role conflict and ambiguity were inversely related to cultural distance. Neither construct had a detrimental effect on international joint venture performance. Implications for role theory are discussed.

  12. Clinical evaluation of physical therapy in the management of internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Kirk, W S; Calabrese, D K

    1989-02-01

    This clinical cross-sectional study examines the favorable functional improvement in patients undergoing physical therapy for mild to moderate internal disc derangements of the temporomandibular joint. Sixty-eight patients with internal derangements were treated with physical therapeutic modalities as described by Rocabado. A success rate of 86% was achieved in patients with early- to mid-opening and late- to mid-closing clicks of the temporomandibular joint. Approximately one third of these patients required short-term occlusal bite appliances to assist in their management. A success rate of 7% was achieved in patients with late-opening and late-closing clicks. No patient with clicking on mediolateral movement was successfully managed with physical therapy. Likewise, patients with nonreducing anteriorly displaced discs of the temporomandibular joint did not respond well to physical therapy. Pain management was evaluated separately and showed subjective improvement in 82% of patients with mild to moderate disc dysfunction and pain. Only 29% of patients with late-opening clicking or locked joints experienced pain relief. When patients were classified according to occurrence of the clicking phenomenon, interesting trends relating to duration of symptoms were found. Twenty-two patients who did not respond favorably to physical therapy underwent surgical procedures. Findings in these patients offer suggestions about why nonsurgical therapy is not successful in certain cases.

  13. PREFACE: Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas was once more a great meeting. The programme covers a wide variety of topics, namely turbulence, MHD, edge physics and RF wave heating. The broad spectrum of skills involved in this meeting, from fundamental to applied physics, is striking. The works published in this special issue combine mathematics, numerics and physics at various levels - confirming the increasing integration of expertise in our community. As an incentive to read this cluster, let us mention a few outstanding results. Several papers address fundamental issues in turbulent transport, in particular the dynamics of structures. It is quite remarkable that this subject is now mature enough to propose signatures that can be tested by measurements. Linear and non linear MHD was also at the forefront. Several works illustrate the increasing level of realistic description of a fusion device, in particular by implementing complicated wall geometries. Moreover some noticeable progress has been made in the understanding of reconnection processes in collisionless regimes. The activity on radio-frequency heating and current drive is well represented, driven by the future operation of W7-X, ITER, and DEMO on a longer time scale. Finally the development of innovative numerical techniques, an old tradition of the conference, has driven several nice articles. The programme committee is traditionally keen in promoting young scientists. A number of senior scientists also attend the meeting on a regular basis, so that the attendance was nicely balanced. We believe that these efforts have been particularly fruitful this year. The number of young (and less young) faces was particularly impressive and this special issue illustrates this feature. The success of the 2014 edition brings evidence that the joint Varenna-Lausanne is the right place for presenting th The quality and size of the scientific production is illustrated by the

  14. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  15. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  16. Microbiological investigation of retrodiscal tissues from patients with advanced internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, M; Dimitroulis, G

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of bacteria in samples of retrodiscal tissues taken from patients suffering from advanced internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). 12 fresh retrodiscal tissue samples were taken from 12 consecutive patients who underwent unilateral TMJ discectomy for advanced TMJ internal derangement (Wilkes stage IV). The retrodiscal tissue samples were stained and cultured for the presence of micro-organisms in microbiology laboratories. No evidence of bacteria or other micro-organisms was found in any of the tissue specimens procured from the TMJ. This study failed to identify the presence of bacteria or other micro-organisms in fresh retrodiscal tissue specimens of the TMJ in patients with advanced TMJ internal derangement.

  17. Lubricin in synovial fluid of mild and severe temporomandibular joint internal derangements

    PubMed Central

    Perrotta, Rosario E.; Almeida, Luis-Eduardo; Loreto, Carla; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background To understand the molecular basis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathologies, we aimed to investigate the lubricin levels in the TMJ synovial fluid (SF) of patients with mild to severe internal derangements (IDs). Material and Methods A total, 34 joints were the study group. Only patients, with a Wilkes stage of III, IV and V were included, in this sample. Control group consisted of SF from eight joints, from patients undergoing to orthognatic surgery. Concentrations of lubricin in the SF from both samples were measured using ELISA system. Results The mean lubricin concentration was 7.029 ± 0.21 µg/mL in stage III patients; 5.64 ± 0.10 µg/mL in stage IV patients, and 4.78 ± 0.11 µg/mL in stage V patients. The lubricin levels from stage IV and stage V patients differed significantly (P ≤ 0.001) from those of control subjects. Lubricin levels were inversely correlated with age and to VAS score. Conclusions The results of this cross-sectional study highlight the relationship between disease severity and the levels of lubricin in TMJ SF. Our findings suggest that novel biotherapeutic approaches, including the administration of recombinant lubricin in the joint cavity, for the treatment of TMJ diseases can be developed. Key words:Lubricin, TMJ, derangements, synovial fluid. PMID:27694778

  18. A cadaveric study on sacroiliac joint injection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu-Cong; Li, Yi-Kai; Yu, Cheng-Fu; Yang, Xian-Wen; Chen, Run-Qi

    2015-02-01

    The scope of this study was to explore the possibility as well as the feasibility of sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location. For the cadaveric study, 10 fixed sacroiliac joint (SIJ) sectional specimens, 4 dried cadaveric pelvises and 21 embalmed adult cadaveric pelvises were dissected, followed by an injection of contrast agent into the joint. The irrigation of the agent was observed through CT scanning. For the radiologic study, 188 CT scans of ankylosing spondylitis patients (143 male, 45 female) were collected from 2010 to 2012, in Nanfang Hospital. What was measured was (1) Distance between the posterior midline and sagittal synovium; (2) Length of the sagittal synovium; (3) Distance between the midpoint of the sagittal synovium and posterior superior iliac spine; and (4) Distance between the superficial skin vertical to the sagittal synovium point were measured. For the practice-based study: 20 patients (17 males and 3 females) with early ankylosing spondylitis, from Nanfang Hospital affiliated with Southern Medical University were recruited, and sacroiliac joint unguided injections were done on the basis of the cadaveric and radiologic study. Only the inferior 1/3(rd) portion parallel to the posterior midline could be injected into since the superior 2/3(rd) portion were filled with interosseous ligaments. Thirteen of the 20 patients received successful injections as identified by CT scan using the contrast agent. Sacroiliac joint injection following simple X-ray clip location is possible and feasible if the operation is performed by trained physicians familiar with the sacroiliac joint and its surrounding anatomic structures.

  19. Biomechanical study of tarsometatarsal joint fusion using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Zengyong; Zhang, Ming

    2014-11-01

    Complications of surgeries in foot and ankle bring patients with severe sufferings. Sufficient understanding of the internal biomechanical information such as stress distribution, contact pressure, and deformation is critical to estimate the effectiveness of surgical treatments and avoid complications. Foot and ankle is an intricate and synergetic system, and localized intervention may alter the functions to the adjacent components. The aim of this study was to estimate biomechanical effects of the TMT joint fusion using comprehensive finite element (FE) analysis. A foot and ankle model consists of 28 bones, 72 ligaments, and plantar fascia with soft tissues embracing all the segments. Kinematic information and ground reaction force during gait were obtained from motion analysis. Three gait instants namely the first peak, second peak and mid-stance were simulated in a normal foot and a foot with TMT joint fusion. It was found that contact pressure on plantar foot increased by 0.42%, 19% and 37%, respectively after TMT fusion compared with normal foot walking. Navico-cuneiform and fifth meta-cuboid joints sustained 27% and 40% increase in contact pressure at second peak, implying potential risk of joint problems such as arthritis. Von Mises stress in the second metatarsal bone increased by 22% at midstance, making it susceptible to stress fracture. This study provides biomechanical information for understanding the possible consequences of TMT joint fusion.

  20. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty - A Joint CEC/USNRC Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Julie J.; Harper, Frederick T.

    1999-07-28

    The joint USNRC/CEC consequence uncertainty study was chartered after the development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS in the U.S. and COSYMA in Europe. Both the USNRC and CEC had a vested interest in expanding the knowledge base of the uncertainty associated with consequence modeling, and teamed up to co-sponsor a consequence uncertainty study. The information acquired from the study was expected to provide understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of current models as well as a basis for direction of future research. This paper looks at the elicitation process implemented in the joint study and discusses some of the uncertainty distributions provided by eight panels of experts from the U.S. and Europe that were convened to provide responses to the elicitation. The phenomenological areas addressed by the expert panels include atmospheric dispersion and deposition, deposited material and external doses, food chain, early health effects, late health effects and internal dosimetry.

  1. The peroneocuboid joint: morphogenesis and anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Guimerá, V; Lafuente, A; Zambrana, L; Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M; Sañudo, J R; Vazquez, T

    2015-01-01

    The peroneocuboid joint, between the peroneus longus tendon and the cuboid bone, has not been anatomically well-defined and no embryological study has been published. Furthermore, the ossification of the os peroneum (a sesamoid inside the peroneus longus tendon) and its associated pathology has been considered to be generated by orthostatic and/or mechanical loads. A light microscopy analysis of serially sectioned human embryonic and fetal feet, the analysis of human adult feet by means of standard macroscopic dissection, X-ray and histological techniques have been carried out. The peroneus longus tendon was fully visible until its insertion in the 1st metatarsal bone already at embryonic stage 23 (56-57 days). The peroneocuboid joint cavity appeared at the transition of the embryonic to the fetal period (8-9th week of gestation) and was independent of the proximal synovial sheath. The joint cavity extended from the level of the calcaneocuboid joint all the way to the insertion of the peroneus longus tendon in the 1st metatarsal bone. The frenular ligaments, fixing the peroneus longus tendon to the 5th metatarsal bone or the long calcaneocuboid ligament, developed in the embryonic period. The peroneus longus tendon presented a thickening in the area surrounding the cuboid bone as early as the fetal period. This thickening may be considered the precursor of the os peroneum and was similar in shape and in size relation to the tendon, to the os peroneum observed in adults. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the os peroneum, articular facets of the peroneus longus tendon and cuboid bone, the peroneocuboid joint and the frenular ligaments appear during the embryonic/fetal development period and therefore they can not be generated exclusively by orthostatic and mechanical forces or pathological processes.

  2. The peroneocuboid joint: morphogenesis and anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    Guimerá, V; Lafuente, A; Zambrana, L; Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M; Sañudo, J R; Vazquez, T

    2015-01-01

    The peroneocuboid joint, between the peroneus longus tendon and the cuboid bone, has not been anatomically well-defined and no embryological study has been published. Furthermore, the ossification of the os peroneum (a sesamoid inside the peroneus longus tendon) and its associated pathology has been considered to be generated by orthostatic and/or mechanical loads. A light microscopy analysis of serially sectioned human embryonic and fetal feet, the analysis of human adult feet by means of standard macroscopic dissection, X-ray and histological techniques have been carried out. The peroneus longus tendon was fully visible until its insertion in the 1st metatarsal bone already at embryonic stage 23 (56–57 days). The peroneocuboid joint cavity appeared at the transition of the embryonic to the fetal period (8–9th week of gestation) and was independent of the proximal synovial sheath. The joint cavity extended from the level of the calcaneocuboid joint all the way to the insertion of the peroneus longus tendon in the 1st metatarsal bone. The frenular ligaments, fixing the peroneus longus tendon to the 5th metatarsal bone or the long calcaneocuboid ligament, developed in the embryonic period. The peroneus longus tendon presented a thickening in the area surrounding the cuboid bone as early as the fetal period. This thickening may be considered the precursor of the os peroneum and was similar in shape and in size relation to the tendon, to the os peroneum observed in adults. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the os peroneum, articular facets of the peroneus longus tendon and cuboid bone, the peroneocuboid joint and the frenular ligaments appear during the embryonic/fetal development period and therefore they can not be generated exclusively by orthostatic and mechanical forces or pathological processes. PMID:25384452

  3. The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Wilson, J.; Fujita, T. T.

    1983-01-01

    A block diagram of the joint airport weather studies program is presented. Background leading to the development of the program is reviewed. Basic studies, aircraft performance, and detection and warning techniques used to develop fine scale structure of thunderstorm dynamics and kinematics in the vicinity of a major airport; effect of thunderstorm low level wind shear on aircraft performance; and development of real time testing of flow level wind shear detection and warning techniques and displays are described.

  4. Adaptive Shape Functions and Internal Mesh Adaptation for Modelling Progressive Failure in Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott; Gries, Thomas; Waas, Anthony M.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced finite elements are elements with an embedded analytical solution that can capture detailed local fields, enabling more efficient, mesh independent finite element analysis. The shape functions are determined based on the analytical model rather than prescribed. This method was applied to adhesively bonded joints to model joint behavior with one element through the thickness. This study demonstrates two methods of maintaining the fidelity of such elements during adhesive non-linearity and cracking without increasing the mesh needed for an accurate solution. The first method uses adaptive shape functions, where the shape functions are recalculated at each load step based on the softening of the adhesive. The second method is internal mesh adaption, where cracking of the adhesive within an element is captured by further discretizing the element internally to represent the partially cracked geometry. By keeping mesh adaptations within an element, a finer mesh can be used during the analysis without affecting the global finite element model mesh. Examples are shown which highlight when each method is most effective in reducing the number of elements needed to capture adhesive nonlinearity and cracking. These methods are validated against analogous finite element models utilizing cohesive zone elements.

  5. Internally supported flexible duct joint. [device for conducting fluids in high pressure systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, R. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An internally supported, flexible duct joint for use in conducting fluids under relatively high pressures in systems where relatively large deflection angles must be accommodated is presented. The joint includes a flexible tubular bellows and an elongated base disposed within the bellows. The base is connected through radiating struts to the bellows near mid-portion and to each of the opposite end portions of the bellows through a pivotal connecting body. A motion-controlling linkage is provided for linking the connecting bodies, whereby angular displacement of the joint is controlled and uniformity in the instantaneous bend radius of the duct is achieved as deflection is imposed.

  6. Viscoelastic study of an adhesively bonded joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The plane strain problem of two dissimilar orthotropic plates bonded with an isotropic, linearly viscoelastic adhesive is considered. Both the shear and the normal stresses in the adhesive are calculated for various geometries and loading conditions. Transverse shear deformations of the adherends are taken into account, and their effect on the solution is shown in the results. All three inplane strains of the adhesive are included. Attention is given to the effect of temperature, both in the adhesive joint problem and to the heat generation in a viscoelastic material under cyclic loading. This separate study is included because heat generation and or spatially varying temperature are at present too difficult to account for in the analytical solution of the bonded joint, but whose effect can not be ignored in design.

  7. Subluxation of the hip joint after internal fixation of a trochanteric fracture.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kazuo; Murotani, Rentaroh; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Okahara, Hitoshi; Ohbayashi, Osamu; Iwase, Hideaki; Fujita, Hidemine; Kurosawa, Hisashi

    2004-02-01

    The authors report an unusual case of hip subluxation after internal fixation without associated sepsis. We report one recently treated case in which a 75-year-old female experienced subluxation of her hip joint after open reduction and internal fixation for a trochanteric fracture. In this paper, we describe a case of progressive, spontaneous subluxation of the hip joint over several weeks. Most previously reported cases are associated with cerebral palsy. This entity has not been reported previously. Our patient was treated by hemi-arthroplasty and repair of the disrupted capsule, and achieved a good long-term functional result. The cause of this particular condition is discussed.

  8. World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) 2016 standards for recording and scoring leg movements in polysomnograms developed by a joint task force from the International and the European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Groups (IRLSSG and EURLSSG).

    PubMed

    Ferri, R; Fulda, S; Allen, R P; Zucconi, M; Bruni, O; Chokroverty, S; Ferini-Strambi, L; Frauscher, B; Garcia-Borreguero, D; Hirshkowitz, M; Högl, B; Inoue, Y; Jahangir, A; Manconi, M; Marcus, C L; Picchietti, D L; Plazzi, G; Winkelman, J W; Zak, R S

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the results of the work by a joint task force of the International and European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Groups and World Association of Sleep Medicine that revised and updated the current standards for recording and scoring leg movements (LM) in polysomnographic recordings (PSG). First, the background of the decisions made and the explanations of the new rules are reported and then specific standard rules are presented for recording, detecting, scoring and reporting LM activity in PSG. Each standard rule has been classified with a level of evidence. At the end of the paper, Appendix 1 provides algorithms to aid implementation of these new standards in software tools. There are two main changes introduced by these new rules: 1) Candidate LM (CLM), are any monolateral LM 0.5-10 s long or bilateral LM 0.5-15 s long; 2) periodic LM (PLM) are now defined by runs of at least four consecutive CLM with an intermovement interval ≥10 and ≤ 90 s without any CLM preceded by an interval <10 s interrupting the PLM series. There are also new options defining CLM associated with respiratory events. The PLM rate may now first be determined for all CLM not excluding any related to respiration (providing a consistent number across studies regardless of the rules used to define association with respiration) and, subsequently, the PLM rate should also be calculated without considering the respiratory related events. Finally, special considerations for pediatric studies are provided. The expert visual scoringof LM has only been altered by the new standards to require accepting all LM > 0.5 s regardless of duration, otherwise the technician scores the LM as for the old standards. There is a new criterion for the morphology of LM that applies only to computerized LM detection to better match expert visual detection. Available automatic scoring programs will incorporate all the new rules so that the new standards should reduce technician burden for

  9. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  10. International Research and Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  11. [Surgery of ipsilateral Hawkins Ⅲ talus neck and ankle joint fractures via internal and lateral approaches with Herbert screws].

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Dong, Q R; Wang, Z Y; Chen, B; Wan, J H; Wang, L

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To explore the manual operation skills of operative treatment of ipsilateral Hawkins Ⅲ talus neck and ankle joint fractures via internal and lateral approaches with Herbert screws, and to study the clinical results. Method: From Jan 2009 to Dec 2014, the clinical data of 13 patients with ipsilateral Hawkins Ⅲ talus neck and ankle joint fractres via internal and lateral approaches with Herbert screws were retrospectively analyzed in our department.There were 10 males and 3 female, ranging in age from 20 to 60 years with an average age of 31.5 years.The fractures occurred on the right side in 9 patients and on the left side in 4 patients.Three cases had the complication of medial malleolar fracture.Ten cases had the complication of medial and lateral malleolar fracture. Totally 11 cases were made calcaneal skeletal traction, and all the were made CT with three-dimensional image reconstruction.Two cases were treated with emergency operation.Eleven cases were treated with selective operation.The operation time was 5 hours-10 days after injury. The functional results were evaluated by American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). Result: The average duration of follow-up was 22.6 months (range, 14-65 months). There was skin necrosis in one cases, no incision infection, malunion and nonunion of the fractures and loss of reduction. At final follow-up, AOFAS ankle score was 75.2 (range, 42 to 93), higher than preoperative 39.2 (range, 23 to 60), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.023). The result was excellent in 4 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 3 cases and 1 cases in poor, and the overall excellent or good rate was 69.2%. Avascular necrosis occurred in 3 cases (23.1%, 3/13). Traumatic arthritis was found in 5 cases (38.5%, 5/13), involved tibial astragaloid joint in 2 cases, involved subtalar joint in 1 case, involved tibial astragaloid joint and subtalar joint in 2 cases. Conclusion: The effect of surgical treatment for ipsilateral

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viña, Luis; Tejedor, Carlos; Calleja, José M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Joint AIRAPT-22 & HPCJ-50 Conference was held in Odaiba, Tokyo, on 26-31 July 2009. About 480 scientists from 24 countries attended the conference and 464 papers, including 3 plenary lectures, 39 invited talks, and 156 oral presentations, were presented. It is my great pleasure to present this proceedings volume, which is based on the high quality scientific works presented at the conference. The International AIRAPT conference has been held every two years in various countries around the world since 1965, while High Pressure Conference of Japan (HPCJ) has been held annually since 1959 in various Japanese cities. Pressure is a fundamental parameter to control the property of matter. As a result, both AIRAPT and HPCJ have become highly multidisciplinary, and cover Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Biosciences, Food Science, and Technology. Although each discipline has a unique target, they all have high-pressure research in common. This proceedings volume includes about 200 papers of state-of-the-art studies from numerous fields. I hope this proceedings volume provides excellent pieces of information in various fields to further advance high-pressure research. Conference logo Takehiko Yagi Conference Chairman Institute for Solid State Physics The University of Tokyo 7 December 2009 Conference photograph Participants at the conference venue, Tokyo International Exchange Center, Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan. Editor in Chief TAKEMURA Kenichi National Institute for Materials Science, Japan Editorial board Tadashi KONDO Osaka University, Japan Hitoshi MATSUKI The University of Tokushima, Japan Nobuyuki MATUBAYASI Kyoto University, Japan Yoshihisa MORI Okayama University of Science, Japan Osamu OHTAKA Osaka University, Japan Chihiro SEKINE Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan

  13. Paired organs--Should they be treated jointly or separately in internal dosimetry?

    SciTech Connect

    Parach, Ali-Asghar; Rajabi, Hossein; Askari, Mohammad-Ali

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Size, shape, and the position of paired organs are different in abdomen. However, the counterpart organs are conventionally treated jointly together in internal dosimetry. This study was performed to quantify the difference of specific absorbed fraction of organs in considering paired organs jointly like single organs or as two separate organs. Methods: Zubal phantom and GATE Monte Carlo package were used to calculate the SAF for the self-absorption and cross-irradiation of the lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands (paired organs), liver, spleen, stomach, and pancreas (single organs). The activity was assumed uniformly distributed in the organs, and simulation was performed for monoenergetic photons of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 keV and mono-energetic electrons of 350, 500, 690, 935, 1200 keV. Results: The results demonstrated that self-absorption of left and right counterpart organs may be different depending upon the differences in their masses. The cross-irradiations between left-to-right and right-to-left counterpart organs are always equal irrespective of difference in their masses. Cross-irradiation from the left and right counterpart organs to other organs are different (4-24 times in Zubal phantom) depending on the photon energy and organs. The irradiation from a single source organ to the left and right counterpart paired organs is always different irrespective of activity concentration. Conclusions: Left and right counterpart organs always receive different absorbed doses from target organs and deliver different absorbed doses to target organs. Therefore, in application of radiopharmaceuticals in which the dose to the organs plays a role, counterpart organs should be treated separately as two separate organs.

  14. Effect of Joint Commission International Accreditation on the Nursing Work Environment in a Tertiary Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ilya; Farkash-Fink, Naomi; Fish, Miri

    2016-01-01

    How might a tertiary hospital's nursing staff respond to the huge improvement effort required for external accreditation if they are encouraged to lead the change process themselves? This article reports the results of a concurrent evaluation of the nursing work climate at ward level, before and after accreditation by the Joint Commission International. Physician-nurse relations improved; the involvement of social workers, dieticians, and physiotherapists increased; support services responded more quickly to requests; and management-line staff relations became closer.

  15. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction: a case study.

    PubMed

    Murray, William

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a widespread issue in the United States. Nine of 10 Americans regularly suffer from pain, and nearly every person will experience low back pain at one point in their lives. Undertreated or unrelieved pain costs more than $60 billion a year from decreased productivity, lost income, and medical expenses. The ability to diagnose and provide appropriate medical treatment is imperative. This case study examines a 23-year-old Active Duty woman who is preparing to be involuntarily released from military duty for an easily correctable medical condition. She has complained of chronic low back pain that radiates into her hip and down her leg since experiencing a work-related injury. She has been seen by numerous providers for the previous 11 months before being referred to the chronic pain clinic. Upon the first appointment to the chronic pain clinic, she has been diagnosed with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This case study will demonstrate the importance of a quality lower back pain assessment.

  16. 76 FR 45311 - International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and Rainy River... International Lake of the Woods and Rainy River Watershed Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force report to the... water quality, water quantity, and related issues in the international Lake of the Woods and Rainy...

  17. [Relationship between the mandibular hypoplasia and temporomandibular joint internal derangement in adolescents with skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Fang, B

    2017-03-09

    Mandibular hypoplasia is very common clinically. Studies have reported that temporomandibular joint internal derangement (TMJID) might manifest as mandibular retrusion, and whether there is a direct correlation between them remains controversial in academia. On the other hand, for adolescent patients with skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion, the growth of mandible could be motivated by orthopedic force, and then the mandibular retrusion corrected. However, if TMJID is the direct cause of mandibular retrusion, orthopedic treatment will not have a significant effect on it. Base on literature review and analysis as well as our own research, this article will review the distribution of structural abnormalities of the temporomandibular joint in adolescents with mandibular hypoplasia and its association with skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion, as well as the effect of TMJID on the treatment of skeletal class Ⅱ malocclusion in adolescents.

  18. Students' perspectives on the outcomes of the joint international programme for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hae Soo; Choi, Eun Jin; Kang, Se Won; An, Minjeong; Choi, Jungmin; Kim, Eun Jung

    2011-07-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) play a vital role in the primary healthcare systems in several countries. However, the NP system has either only recently been established or has yet to be set up in many Asian countries. The Joint International Programme for Nurse Practitioners (JIPNP), developed by a university in South Korea and one in the United States, has been running since 1998. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this programme by assessing student satisfaction through an e-mail-based questionnaire survey. The results of the survey indicated that the students found that this programme helped refine their professional skills. The students were most satisfied with the practicum. Their responses to the open-ended question regarding their individual experiences during the course indicated that they were most satisfied with their improvement in the following areas: understanding of the role of the NP, the responsibility and limitations of NPs with regard to diagnosing and prescribing, familiarity with culture and language, and understanding of healthcare systems. They were also pleased with the teaching methods deployed. It is anticipated that the graduates who completed this programme will help develop the NP system in Korea by assuming leading positions in many NP fields in South Korea.

  19. Joint Design Method Based on Internal Structure of 2DOF Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubai, Kazuhiro

    In many cases, control system design is formulated as minimization of some prescribed closed loop performance reflecting a control requirement. Since the closed loop performance is a function of a controlled plant and a controller, the model identification and controller design must interact with each other. This motivates us to consider the model identification and controller design simultaneously. However, most of the previous joint design methods are not applicable to unstable plants because the identified plant model is usually used as the design parameter, i.e. a weighting function in the controller design. On the other hand, we have analyzed the internal structure of 2DOF control system using coprime factorization on RH∞ and shown that two free parameters, K and Q ∈ RH∞, specify tracking performance and feedback performance, respectively. Also, Tay et al. have proposed a parameterization of the plant dynamics by switching the role of the controlled plant and controller, and introduced a free parameter R ∈ RH∞. In this paper, we propose a new joint design strategy based on the identification of R and the design of Q. Since the identified plant parameter R is always stable, the proposed joint design strategy can be applied to wider class than the conventional joint design methods. Moreover, it is known that R is well approximated as a less order model than the plant itself. This leads to the advantage in designing Q with less order. Finally, the usefulness of the proposed method is verified by some simulations and experiments.

  20. Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array: Joint Contributions to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; et al.

    2013-10-02

    Joint contributions of the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Collaborations to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 2013: cross-calibration of the fluorescence telescopes, large scale anisotropies and mass composition.

  1. Arthroscopic Resection of Osteochondroma of Hip Joint Associated with Internal Snapping: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heung-Tae; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Jeon, Yoo-Sun

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year old male patient visited the hospital complaining of inguinal pain and internal snapping of right hip joint. In physical examination, the patient was presumed to be diagnosed femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and acetabular labral tear. In radiologic evaluation, FAI and acetabular labral tear were identified and bony tumor associated with internal snapping was found on the posteromedial portion of the femoral neck. Despite of conservative treatment, there was no symptomatic improvement. So arthroscopic labral repair, osteoplasty and resection of bony tumor were performed. The tumor was pathologically diagnosed as osteochondroma through biopsy and all symptoms improved after surgery. There was no recurrence, complication or abnormal finding during 1 year follow up. Osteochondroma located at posteromedial portion of femoral neck can be a cause of internal snapping hip and although technical demands are challenging, arthroscopic resection can be a good treatment option. PMID:27536601

  2. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  3. International Studies Program Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelston, Theodore

    This eleven-part procedures manual provides information on the operations of the International Studies Program (ISP) at St. Louis Community College. After introductory material on the program, which provides off-campus credit courses involving travel and field study of life and the cultures in foreign countries, Section I presents the philosophy…

  4. Root Cause Investigation of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Deneen; Enriquez, Carlos; McCann, David; McFatter, Justin

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high current draw. Later inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the case hardened steel race ring on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken, comprising metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The investigation found that the race ring damage had been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors.

  5. Physiological coxa varus-genu valgus influences internal knee and ankle joint moments in females during crossover cutting.

    PubMed

    Nyland, J A; Caborn, D N M

    2004-07-01

    This study evaluated the ankle and knee electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic differences of 20 nonimpaired females with either neutral (group 1) or coxa varus-genu valgus (group 2) alignment during crossover cutting stance phase. Two-way mixed model ANOVA (group, session) assessed mean differences ( p<0.05) and correlation analysis further delineated relationships. During impact absorption, group 2 displayed earlier peak horizontal braking (anterior-posterior) ground reaction force timing, decreased and earlier peak internal knee extension moments (eccentric function), and earlier peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment timing (eccentric function). During the pivot phase, group 2 displayed later and eccentrically-biased peak ankle plantar flexion moments, increased peak internal knee flexion moments (eccentric function), and later peak knee internal rotation timing. Correlation analysis revealed that during impact absorption, subjects with coxa varus-genu valgus alignment (group 2) displayed a stronger relationship between knee internal rotation velocity and peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment onset timing ( r= -0.64 vs r = -0.26) and between peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces and peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment onset timing ( r= 0.61 vs r= 0.24). During the pivot phase these subjects displayed a stronger relationship between peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces and peak internal ankle plantar flexion moment onset timing ( r= -0.63 vs r= -0.09) and between peak horizontal braking forces and peak internal ankle plantar flexion moments ( r= -0.72 vs r= -0.26). Group differences suggest that subjects with coxa varus-genu valgus frontal-plane alignment have an increased dependence on both ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscle group function during crossover cutting. Greater dependence on ankle muscle group function during the performance of a task that requires considerable 3D dynamic knee joint control suggests a greater

  6. Geographic Considerations in International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kott, Richard F.

    Based on students' generally shallow knowledge of geographic concepts on the one hand and a new and almost universal awareness of man in his milieu on the other, the author seeks to draw attention to the discipline of geography, and more specifically, political geography as an essential, fundamental component of international studies. The…

  7. Inherited thrombophilia: memorandum from a joint WHO/International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    Inherited thrombophilias are common disorders with a worldwide distribution, including antithrombin, protein C, and protein S deficiencies as well as resistance to activated protein C. Increased understanding of these disorders suggests that thrombophilia can arise from interaction between defective genes and environmental factors. WHO and the international Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) discussed the problems of inherited thrombophilia at a joint meeting held in Geneva on 6-8 November 1995. The present article reports on the various possibilities for controlling the disorder and makes a series of recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and research into the condition. PMID:9277004

  8. Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) Studies Joint Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Analysts, Inc. (ISA) Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 2 ● Identify / Quantify Explosives Hazards ● Minimize Risks ● Resolve long...Siting Recommendations ● Produce DDESB Compliant Explosives Safety Site plans EHR Goals & Objectives Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 3...of Barricades ● Automated Wash Rack ● Use ISO Trailers in MSA Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 6 Proposed Facilities Joint Operations

  9. Normal sacroiliac joint: a CT study of asymptomatic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vogler, J.B. III; Brown, W.H.; Helms, C.A.; Genant, H.K.

    1984-05-01

    The sacroiliac (SI) joints of 45 asymptomatic subjects were prospectively studied to define better the normal appearance of SI joints on CT scans and therby attach appropriate significance to CT signs of sacroiliitis. Joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, erosions, ankylosis, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and symmetry were evaluted. The results indicate that the SI joints demonstrate symmetry in patients under the age of 30 (100% of subjects in this age group). Those CT findings of sacroiliitis that occurred infrequently in the asymptomatic population, and hence may represent good indicators of sacroiliac disease, include increased sacral subchondral sclerosis in subjects under the age of 40 (11%), bilateral or unilateral uniform joint space of less than 2 mm (2% or 0%, respectively), erosions (2%), and intraarticular ankylosis (0%).

  10. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: findings in the pediatric age group

    SciTech Connect

    Katzberg, R.W.; Tallents, R.H.; Hayakawa, K.; Miller, T.L.; Goske, M.J.; Wood, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Findings in 31 pediatric patients with pain and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are reported. The average age was 14 years and the average duration of symptoms was 21.4 months. Internal derangements were found in 29 patients (94%) and degenerative arthritis in 13 (42%). In 12 patients (39%), the problem could be traced to an injury to the jaw. Secondary condylar hypoplasia was associated with the meniscal abnormality in 3 patients (10%). Further awareness of internal derangements of the TMJ in the pediatric population should permit greater recognition of their etiology. It is important that threatment be initiated as soon as possible, not only to minimize the development of osseous disease in young adults but also to prevent facial growth deformities.

  11. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: A review of the anatomy, diagnosis, and management

    PubMed Central

    Young, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint are conditions in which the articular disc has become displaced from its original position the condylar head. Relevant anatomic structures and their functional relationships are briefly discussed. The displacement of the disc can result in numerous presentations, with the most common being disc displacement with reduction (with or without intermittent locking), and disc displacement without reduction (with or without limited opening). These are described in this article according to the standardized Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, as well as the less common posterior disc displacement. Appropriate management usually ranges from patient education and monitoring to splints, physical therapy, and medications. In rare and select cases, surgery may be necessary. However, in for the majority of internal derangements, the prognosis is good, particularly with conservative care. PMID:26929478

  12. First Chinese public hospital wins Joint Commission International accreditation: the Health Information Department played a key role in the process.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Audrey; Jun, Cheng Li

    2008-07-01

    Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in Hangzhou, China spent five years preparing for a Joint Commission International accreditation survey. In March 2007 it became the first public hospital on the Chinese mainland to attain international accreditation. The Health Information Department, managed according to Western standards, played an integral role in preparing the hospital for the survey.

  13. The Zeitgeist of Challenging the Evidence. A Perspective on the International Consensus Meeting on Periprosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fayaz, Hangama C.; Jupiter, Jesse B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The economic burden of the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is high and the treatment of PJI has a high degree of international controversy. Several papers have declared the International Consensus Meeting on Periprosthetic Joint Infection (ICMPJI) to be the “flawless pledge of international academics” to overcome the challenges of musculoskeletal infections. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for the first time some essential insights into the key dilemmas that are associated with this international consensus process. Methods: The proceedings of the ICMPJI was reviewed, and the critical consensus agreements that were reached were communicated via e-mail to 48 leading orthopaedic surgeons, microbiologists and statisticians around the world. Of these, 30 responded, 8 did not, and 10 of respondents were not aware of the ICMPJI. Results: A thorough review of the ICMPJI proceedings identified a clear need to resolve some of the dilemmas that we highlight in this paper. The Delphi procedure has been described as a survey technique that enables a group dynamic-based practice. Although there have been several published reports on this procedure, its scientific merit is still being debated. Several challenges and questions have been raised regarding the application of the Delphi technique, but there is no doubt that it is a vital approach for achieving consensus on subjects where none currently exists. Conclusion: Performing prospective clinical studies in this area is currently the best and only option to overcome this challenge. In the long term, this approach will not only incorporate the standard of clinical evidence but also adopt regional mores for treating infection, which include patient values, cultural differences and local financial resources. PMID:28271085

  14. Range Corrections for Airborne Radar - A Joint STARS Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    ESD-TR-84-169 MTR-9055 RANGE CORRECTIONS FOR AIRBORNE RADAR - A JOINT STARS STUDY By • _,.G. A. ROBERTSHAW MAY 1984 - Prepared for DEPUTY COMMANDER...NO NO Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 6460 11. TITLE •Include securi,•,cleaficatton) Range Corrections Tor Airborne Radar - A Joint STARS Study 12. PERSONAL...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17 COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reuera if necemary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB GR. Airborne Radar

  15. Experimental studies of mechanical joints by automated grating (moire) interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymny, G.; Kujawinska, M.; Salbut, L.; Boronski, D.

    2005-06-01

    Current design, analysis and control engineering applications require effective experimental methodologies and tools for determination of displacement and strain fields as well as material characterization. One of the most important problem in engineering objects is proper design and quality of joints between elements in the form of welds, glued and riveted joints and many others. Specificly the fatigue and fracture mechanics problems in joints are difficult to analyze numerically, therefore they need experimental support. In the paper we present the results of static, dynamic and fatigue experiments performed by grating (moire) interferometry systems. These full-field optical extensometers provide information about in-plane displacement field (u,v) and strain fields (ɛx, ɛy, γxy) in the region of a joint subjected to various modes of loads. It is shown that proper design of full-field extensometer (insensitivity to vibration, good quality of interferogram, automatic analysis of long series of interferograms) allows to use it efficiently directly at conventional loading machine in workshop environment and for long term fatigue tests. In the paper we present results of studies of: conventional laser welds (static, fatigue tests), friction stir weld (static tests), riveted joint (static, fatigue tests). The methodology of determination of local material constants in different zones of a joint (inc. Poisson ratio, Young"s modulus) is given. The future trends in hybrid experimental-numerical analysis of joints in conventional and novel material are discussed.

  16. Joint attention studies in normal and autistic children using NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Hall, Michael; Gutierrez, Anibal; Messinger, Daniel; Rey, Gustavo; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic. In this study Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is being applied for the first time to study the difference in activation and connectivity in the frontal cortex of typically developing (TD) and autistic children between 4-8 years of age in response to joint attention task. The optical measurements are acquired in real time from frontal cortex using Imagent (ISS Inc.) - a frequency domain based NIRS system in response to video clips which engenders a feeling of joint attention experience in the subjects. A block design consisting of 5 blocks of following sequence 30 sec joint attention clip (J), 30 sec non-joint attention clip (NJ) and 30 sec rest condition is used. Preliminary results from TD child shows difference in brain activation (in terms of oxy-hemoglobin, HbO) during joint attention interaction compared to the nonjoint interaction and rest. Similar activation study did not reveal significant differences in HbO across the stimuli in, unlike in an autistic child. Extensive studies are carried out to validate the initial observations from both brain activation as well as connectivity analysis. The result has significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using NIRS.

  17. Comparing International Curriculum Systems: The International Instructional Systems Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Brian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the main findings of the International Instructional Systems Study (IISS), conducted by the UCL Institute of Education and funded by the Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB). The study examined the instructional systems and intended curricula of six "high performing" countries and two US states. The…

  18. Multilateral Biomedical Data Sharing in the One-year Joint US-Russian Mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Haven, C.; Johnson-Throop, K.; Van Baalen, M.; McFather, J.

    2014-01-01

    The One Year Mission (1YM) by two astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), starting in March 2015, offers a unique opportunity to expand multilateral collaboration by sharing data and resources among the partner agencies in preparation for planned space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Agreements and protocols will be established for the collection, distribution, analysis and reporting of both research and clinical data. Data will be shared between the agencies sponsoring the investigators, and between the research and clinical medicine communities where common interests are identified. The assignment of only two astronauts, one Russian and the other American, to the 1YM necessitated creativity in bilateral efforts to maximize the biomedical return from the opportunity. Addition of Canadian, European and Japanese investigations make the effort even more integrative. There will be three types of investigations: joint, cross-participation and data-exchange. The joint investigations have US and Russian coprincipal investigators, and the data acquired will be their common responsibility. The other two types must develop data sharing agreements and processes specific to their needs. A multilateral panel of ISS partner space agencies will develop policies for international exchange of scientific information to meet their science objectives and priorities. They will promote archiving of space flight data and will inform each other and the scientific community at large about the results obtained from space life sciences studies. Integration tasks for the 1YM are based on current experience from the ISS and previous efforts on the Russian space station Mir. Closer coordination between international partners requires more common approaches to remove barriers to multilateral resource utilization on the ISS. Greater integration in implementation should increase utilization efficiency to benefit all participants in spaceflight human research. This

  19. Histologic appearance of the bilaminar zone in internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Hall, M B; Brown, R W; Baughman, R A

    1984-10-01

    Light microscopy was used to examine twenty-six specimens of bilaminar zone tissue excised during surgery for correction of internal derangement of the temporamandibular joint. Each of the specimens was examined for the presence of inflammation, amount of vascularity, arterial wall thickness, presence of fat, appearance of collagen, and amount of elastin present. Wide variation in the histologic appearance was noted among the specimens, although no significant inflammation was observed in any of them. Some indications that this tissue is undergoing adaptive changes include the presence of thickened arterial walls suggesting a decreased blood flow and the tendency for decreased amounts of elastin to be associated with denser-appearing collagen. There is also a tendency for patients with complete dislocation to exhibit less elastin than those with partial dislocation of the meniscus.

  20. Evaluating the international humanitarian system: rationale, process and management of the joint evaluation of the international response to the Rwanda genocide.

    PubMed

    Dabelstein, N

    1996-12-01

    The Rwanda evaluation has been termed a landmark in evaluation, not only because of its quality and the insights it has produced. It was also an unprecedented international collaboration to learn the lessons from the immense tragedy that was the genocide in Rwanda and its aftermath. This paper reports on the rationale, process and management of the joint evaluation of the international response to the Great Lakes crisis of 1994-5.

  1. Educational Destruction and Reconstruction in Disrupted Societies. Final Report and Case Studies of the Workshop Held on 15-16 May 1997, Geneva, Switzerland, Organized Jointly by the International Bureau of Education and the University of Geneva.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawil, Sobhi, Ed.

    This volume addresses the dual problems of providing rapid educational responses in global conflict and crisis situations and assessing the role of education in the root causes of these conflicts. Education and training are key components of international relief responses to emergencies resulting from conflicts. Even more important, rehabilitation…

  2. Neurology of the temporomandibular joints: an experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments on anaesthetized cats are described in which the reflex effects of stimulation of the mechanoreceptors in the temporomandibular joints on the ipsilateral and contralateral mandibular muscles were studied. The effects on this reflex activity and on dynamic manidublar muscle activity of the production of temporary and permanent dysfunction of the mechanoreceptors in different regions of the joint capsule were also studied. The significance of the findings in relation to the maintenance of normal jaw posture and the disturbance of mandibular muscular function by trauma, disease, and malocclusion is discussed. PMID:1259326

  3. 78 FR 40260 - International Joint Commission: Public Comment on a Proposal for Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... degrading coastal wetlands on Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River. This degradation impacts the... International Joint Commission: Public Comment on a Proposal for Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River Regulation... the water levels and flows in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River that will continue to...

  4. Epilepsy and driving: an international perspective. Joint Commission on Drivers' Licensing of the International Bureau for Epilepsy and the International League Against Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R S; Parsonage, M; Beaussart, M; Bladin, P; Masland, R; Sonnen, A E; Rémillard, G

    1994-01-01

    Individuals with a history of seizures may be granted driving privileges if the risks of future seizure while driving are relatively low. Different nations have defined these risks in a wide variety of ways. Some countries, e.g., Japan, Greece, Brazil, India, and Russia, preclude driving after a single seizure. Other countries, such as Canada and the United States, allow driving < or = 3 months after certain types of seizures. A Joint Commission of the International Bureau for Epilepsy/International League Against Epilepsy has summarized regulations in several countries. From a consideration of medical literature and existing practices, a series of proposed guidelines for driving and epilepsy is recommended. In general, these guidelines suggest use of a seizure-free interval, generally 1-2 years but less in particular instances, to determine fitness to drive. Required physician reporting is discouraged, but physicians should report patients whom they believe pose a danger to themselves and to public safety. Individualized consideration should be given to special circumstances that may modify a general driving prohibition. Education and information programs are necessary for medical and regulatory authorities to develop a rational approach to driving and epilepsy worldwide.

  5. Indigenous Studies as an International Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Robles, Rodolfo

    This paper proposes the development of Indigenous Studies as an international field, both in the sense of advancing the discipline internationally, wherever there are Indigenous peoples, and in the sense of incorporating international perspectives into curricula. In Canada, Indigenous Studies has been and is still treated as something to be done…

  6. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    SciTech Connect

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  7. ULS Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Arnold; And Others

    Developed in response to issues raised about the circulation of bound periodicals, the cost of photocopies, and the condition of the photocopiers, this report of the Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services at the Virginia Commonwealth University libraries recommends goals for periodicals services for both campuses of the university.…

  8. Effect of Resistance Training Maintaining the Joint Angle-torque Profile Using a Haptic-based Machine on Shoulder Internal and External Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonghun; Lee, Kunwoo; Moon, Jeheon; Koo, Dohoon; Park, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyengnam; Hong, Daehie; Shin, Inshik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to present an individualized resistance training method to enable exercise while maintaining an exercise load that is set according to an individual’s joint angle-torque using a haptic-based resistance training machine. [Methods] Five participants (machine group) performed individualized shoulder internal and external rotation training with a haptic resistance training machine, while another five participants performed general dumbbell-based shoulder internal and external rotation training for eight weeks. Internal and external rotation powers of subjects were measured using an isokinetic machine before and after training. [Results] The average powers of both shoulder internal and external rotation has been improved after training (25.72%, 13.62%). The improvement in power of external rotation in the machine group was significantly higher than that in the control group. [Conclusion] This study proposes a haptic-based individualized rotator cuff muscle training method. The training protocol maintaining the joint angle-torque profile showed better improvement of shoulder internal/external rotation than dumbbell training. PMID:24764626

  9. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1989-02-01

    A 3-year long study was conducted in central Oregon to determine the possible effects of a +-500-kV d-c transmission line on cattle and crops. Two herds totaling 100 beef cows and 6 bulls were confined in pens beneath the d-c line. The cows were paired and the other members of the pairs were maintained in two herds in control pens 2000 ft west of the line. The management facilities under the power line were duplicated in the control area. There were no significant differences in consumption of feed, minerals or water between the line and control herds. Also, no effects were found on breeding, conception, calving, calf birth date, calving interval, average daily gain, adjusted weaning weight, cow weight, condition, carcass weight, and mortality. Differences were found between years for calf birth date, average daily gain, adjusted weaning weight, and cow weight. These differences were attributed to condition and age of the cows entering the study and their adjustment to pen confinement. 67 refs., 50 figs., 106 tabs.

  10. Overview of Carbon Dioxide Control Issues During International Space Station/Space Shuttle Joint Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Crewed space vehicles have a common requirement to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2) created by the metabolic processes of the crew. The space shuttle [Space Transportation System (STS)] and International Space Station (ISS) each have systems in place that allow control and removal of CO2 from the habitable cabin environment. During periods in which the space shuttle is docked to the ISS, known as "joint docked operations," the space shuttle and ISS share a common atmosphere environment. During this period, an elevated amount of CO2 is produced through the combined metabolic activity of the STS and ISS crews. This elevated CO2 production, together with the large effective atmosphere created by collective volumes of the docked vehicles, creates a unique set of requirements for CO2 removal. This paper will describe individual CO2 control plans implemented by STS and ISS engineering teams, as well as the integrated plans used when both vehicles are docked. The paper will also discuss some of the issues and anomalies experienced by both engineering teams.

  11. Overview of Carbon Dioxide Control Issues During International Space Station/Space Shuttle Joint Docked Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Christopher M.; Hayley, Elizabeth P.

    2009-01-01

    Manned space vehicles have a common requirement to remove the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) created by the metabolic processes of the crew. The Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) each have systems in place to allow control and removal of CO2 from the habitable cabin environment. During periods where the Space Shuttle is docked to ISS, known as joint docked operations, the Space Shuttle and ISS share a common atmosphere environment. During this period there is an elevated production of CO2 caused by the combined metabolic activity of the Space Shuttle and ISS crew. This elevated CO2 production, combined with the large effective atmosphere created by the collective volumes of the docked vehicles, creates a unique set of requirements for CO2 removal. This paper will describe the individual CO2 control plans implemented by the Space Shuttle and ISS engineering teams, as well as the integrated plans used when both vehicles are docked. In addition, the paper will discuss some of the issues and anomalies experienced by both engineering teams.

  12. [Results of endocrinologic studies of the 3d international crew of the scientific orbital station complex: Soyuz 29--Salyut 6--Soyuz 31 (joint space flight enterprise of the USSR--GDR). 1. Condition of the sympathico-adrenal system].

    PubMed

    Tigranjan, R A; Davydova, N A; Haase, H; Jarsumbeck, B; Chmel'kov, V P

    1982-07-01

    The present paper deals with the activity of the sympatho-adrenal system (SAS) in the third international crew of the scientific orbital station "Salyut-6" on the basis of catecholamines (CA) as well as of some of their primary stages and metabolites. Plasma adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA) were determined on the 30th day before the flight and on the first day after landing. The parameters of A, NA, DA, DOPA, metanephrine (MN), and normetanephrine (NMN) as well as their conjugates were analysed in urine on day 30 and from days 5 to 1 before launching the spaceship and from days 0 to 5 after landing. Moreover, at the same occasions the urinary excretion of vanillilmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) was measured. For a qualitative evaluation of the responses of SAS indices were computed providing information on the activity of the single links of CA metabolism. During the last five days before launching a gradual increase of A, NA, DA, and DOPA excretion with the urine was found in both the cosmonauts. The A/NA quotient rose to 360% in the commander and to 200% in the spacecraft engineer. The inactivation processes of A (MN/A) and NA (NMN/NA) were clearly reduced in both crew members before launching. The highest excretion of A, NA, DA and their conjugates as well as of DOPA was observed on the day of landing. The total results ascertained in the post-flight period indicate psychonerval strains experienced by the cosmonauts. However, marked stress reactions were not found. This conclusion is drawn on the basis of general criteria of the indices of CA metabolism during stress (increased secretory activity of SAS and excretion of free CA, synthesis activation, relative hypometabolism of conjugation). The rapid normalisation of the investigated parameters after the flight gave evidence of the cosmonauts' quick readaptation, which again is an expression of a high state of preparatory training.

  13. Joint Antarctic School Expedition - An International Collaboration for High School Students and Teachers on Antarctic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botella, J.; Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.; Reed, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Joint Antarctic School Expedition (JASE) is an international collaboration program between high school students and teachers from the United States and Chile aimed at providing the skills required for establishing the scientific international collaborations that our globalized world demands, and to develop a new approach for science education. The National Antarctic Programs of Chile and the United States worked together on a pilot program that brought high school students and teachers from both countries to Punta Arenas, Chile, in February 2014. The goals of this project included strengthening the partnership between the two countries, and building relationships between future generations of scientists, while developing the students' awareness of global scientific issues and expanding their knowledge and interest in Antarctica and polar science. A big component of the project involved the sharing by students of the acquired knowledge and experiences with the general public. JASE is based on the successful Chilean Antarctic Science Fair developed by Chile´s Antarctic Research Institute. For 10 years, small groups of Chilean students, each mentored by a teacher, perform experimental or bibliographical Antarctic research. Winning teams are awarded an expedition to the Chilean research station on King George Island. In 2014, the Chileans invited US participation in this program in order to strengthen science ties for upcoming generations. On King George Island, students have hands-on experiences conducting experiments and learning about field research. While the total number of students directly involved in the program is relatively small, the sharing of the experience by students with the general public is a novel approach to science education. Research experiences for students, like JASE, are important as they influence new direction for students in science learning, science interest, and help increase science knowledge. We will share experiences with the

  14. International Study of Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liander, Bertil, Ed.

    The International Marketing Federation (IMF), supported by the Marketing Science Institute, has surveyed IMF member countries and a representative scattering of others to determine the current state and future trends in marketing education. This volume presents the findings of the survey of 21 countries--Argentina, Australia, Canada, Denmark,…

  15. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  16. Development and application of a photogrammetric endoscopic system for measurement of misalignment and internal profile of welded joints in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.; Hofmann, Allan C.; Fantin, Analucia V.; Santos, João M. C.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a new optical system to measure internal cylindrical surfaces combining photogrammetry and fringe projection. The device uses two identical cameras, equipped with spherical and conical lenses, facing each other and aligned with the optical axis. A 360° helical fringe projector is used to project a sequence of phase shifted helical fringe pattern in the inner surface to be measured. The phase patterns are used to identify corresponding points and to reconstruct the surface in a regular cylindrical mesh using an alternative approach. A prototype was built, calibrated and tested. The paper presents the results of an application where two welded joints were measured in a 150 mm (6") diameter pipe. The goal was to inspect for defects in the internal part of the welding seams and to measure the transversal misalignment between the jointed parts.

  17. International Joint Project of Engineering Design Education among Three Institutions in Japan, U.S. and Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuishi, Masakatsu; Takemata, Kazuya; Furukawa, Tetsuro; Sanders, Wayne; Loo, Chin Non

    An international joint program of Engineering Design has started in 2004 between Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Singapore Polytechnic in Singapore, and Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in the United States. Students from the three institutions worked on the same engineering design project, the main theme of which was, “Bus Transportation/Urban Transportation System in the 21st Century”. Student teams chose their own project themes from specific design areas, which were related to the main theme. Their achievements were unique in their solutions due to the differences in society and culture in Japan, the United States and Singapore, although all the design teams followed the same engineering design procedures. In this paper, the international joint project is discussed in details.

  18. PREFACE: Theory of Fusion Plasmas, 13th Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, Xavier; Sauter, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    The 2012 joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas has been very fruitful. A broad variety of topics were addressed, as usual covering turbulence, MHD, edge physic, RF wave heating and a taste of astrophysics. Moreover the scope of the meeting was extended this year to include the physics of materials and diagnostics for burning plasmas. This evolution reflects the complexity of problems at hand in fusion, in particular in the context of ITER construction. Long-standing problems without immediate consequences have sometimes become an urgent matter in that context. One may quote for instance the choice of plasma facing components or the design of control systems. Another characteristic of the meeting is the interplay between various domains of plasma physics. For instance MHD modes are now currently investigated with gyrokinetic codes, kinetic effects are more and more included in MHD stability analysis, and turbulence is now accounted for in wave propagation problems. This is the proof of cross-fertilization and it is certainly a healthy sign in our community. Finally introducing some novelty in the programme does not prevent us from respecting the traditions of the meeting. As usual a good deal of the presentations were dedicated to numerical simulations. Combining advanced numerical techniques with elaborated analytical theory is certainly a trademark of the Varenna-Lausanne conference, which was respected again this year. The quality and size of the scientific production is illustrated by the 26 papers which appear in the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, all refereed. We would also like to mention another set of 20 papers to be published in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. We hope the readers will enjoy this special issue of JPCS and the one to come in PPCF. Xavier Garbet and Olivier Sauter October 26, 2012

  19. Introduction to the special issue on the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric; Gill, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    The 8 invited and 17 contributed papers in this special issue focus on the following topical areas covered at the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum, held in San Francisco, California: 1) Materials and Resonators; 2) Oscillators, Synthesizers, and Noise; 3) Microwave Frequency Standards; 4) Sensors and Transducers; 5) Timekeeping and Time and Frequency Transfer; and 6) Optical Frequency Standards.

  20. [Results of endocrinologic studies of the 3d international crew of the scientific orbital station complex: Soyuz 29 - Salyut 6 - Soyuz 31 (joint space flight enterprise of the USSR - GDR). 3. Corticosteroid excretion in urine].

    PubMed

    Tigranjan, R A; Haase, H; Voronin, L I; Kalita, N F; Jarsumbeck, B

    1982-07-01

    In the present study the attempt was made to evaluate the functional state of the adrenal cortex after space flight by means of the urinary corticosteroid content. The urine collected over 24 hours was analysed. The following parameters were determined: Total 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), their free forms, glucuronides and sulphates; cortisol (F), cortisone (E), corticosterone (B), 11-desoxycortisol (S), 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A), tetrahydrocortisol (THF), tetrahydrocortisone (THE), tetrahydrocorticosterone (THB), tetrahydro-11-desoxycortisol (THS), and aldosterone. In order to characterize the activity of the 11-hydroxylase the quotient of THS + S/THF + F + THE + E was formed. The activity of the 17-hydroxylase was determined indirectly by the quotient of THF + THE + THS + F + E + S/THB + B + A = 17-OHCS/17-DOHCS. The expected distinct increase of the 17-OHCS after the space flight failed to appear. This finding may be due to an adrenocortical dysfunction. In the space ship commander the quotients indicate a reduced 11- and 17-hydroxylation during the process of synthesis of the glucocorticoids. In the flight engineer they give evidence of an unchanged biosynthesis except on the day of landing. A hitherto not fully intensified substance ("white spot") was found in the chromatogram of the space ship commander on the first and second day after the flight. Moreover, the investigations show that the reaction of the adrenal cortex after space flights exhibits a number of individual characteristics.

  1. Alloplastic total temporomandibular joint replacements: do they perform like natural joints? Prospective cohort study with a historical control.

    PubMed

    Wojczyńska, A; Leiggener, C S; Bredell, M; Ettlin, D A; Erni, S; Gallo, L M; Colombo, V

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the biomechanics of existing total alloplastic reconstructions of temporomandibular joints (TMJ). Fifteen patients with unilateral or bilateral TMJ total joint replacements and 15 healthy controls were evaluated via dynamic stereometry technology. This non-invasive method combines three-dimensional imaging of the subject's anatomy with jaw tracking. It provides an insight into the patient's jaw joint movements in real time and provides a quantitative evaluation. The patients were also evaluated clinically for jaw opening, protrusive and laterotrusive movements, pain, interference with eating, and satisfaction with the joint replacements. The qualitative assessment revealed that condyles of bilateral total joint replacements displayed similar basic motion patterns to those of unilateral prostheses. Quantitatively, mandibular movements of artificial joints during opening, protrusion, and laterotrusion were all significantly shorter than those of controls. A significantly restricted mandibular range of motion in replaced joints was also observed clinically. Fifty-three percent of patients suffered from chronic pain at rest and 67% reported reduced chewing function. Nonetheless, patients declared a high level of satisfaction with the replacement. This study shows that in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of complex therapeutic measures, a multidisciplinary approach is needed.

  2. Experimental Study on Peak Shear Strength Criterion for Rock Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Rong, Guan; Hou, Di; Peng, Jun; Zhou, Chuangbing

    2016-03-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of a rock joint has a great impact on its shear behavior. To study the relationship between the 3D morphological characteristics and the peak shear strength, several tilt tests were conducted on four groups of tensile fractures and direct shear tests were carried out under different constant normal loads (CNL). The normal load ranges from 0.325 to 8.0 MPa. In this study, fresh tensile fractures which were splitted from granite and sandstone samples were used. The morphology of each tensile fracture was measured before direct shear tests. A new peak shear strength criterion for rock joints is proposed using two 3D morphological parameters which are termed as the maximum apparent dip angle θ_{max}^{*} and the roughness parameter C. The calculated peak strengths using the proposed criterion match well with the observed values. In addition, a comparison of the proposed model with the Grasselli's model (2003) and Xia's model (2014) shows that the proposed model is easier in the form and gives a rational improvement. At last, direct shear test data of tensile fractures which are collected from Grasselli (2003) are used to verify the proposed model. It is seen that the proposed model has a reliable estimate of the peak shear strength of tensile fractures and presumably for rock joints.

  3. Official Positions for FRAX® clinical regarding international differences from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®.

    PubMed

    Cauley, Jane A; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada; Arabi, Asma; Fujiwara, Saeko; Ragi-Eis, Sergio; Calderon, Andrew; Chionh, Siok Bee; Chen, Zhao; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Danielson, Michelle E; Hanley, David A; Kroger, Heikki; Kung, Annie W C; Lesnyak, Olga; Nieves, Jeri; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech; El Rassi, Rola; Silverman, Stuart; Schott, Anne-Marie; Rizzoli, Rene; Luckey, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious worldwide epidemic. Increased risk of fractures is the hallmark of the disease and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and economic burden. FRAX® is a web-based tool developed by the Sheffield WHO Collaborating Center team, that integrates clinical risk factors, femoral neck BMD, country specific mortality and fracture data and calculates the 10 year fracture probability in order to help health care professionals identify patients who need treatment. However, only 31 countries have a FRAX® calculator at the time paper was accepted for publication. In the absence of a FRAX® model for a particular country, it has been suggested to use a surrogate country for which the epidemiology of osteoporosis most closely approximates the index country. More specific recommendations for clinicians in these countries are not available. In North America, concerns have also been raised regarding the assumptions used to construct the US ethnic specific FRAX® calculators with respect to the correction factors applied to derive fracture probabilities in Blacks, Asians and Hispanics in comparison to Whites. In addition, questions were raised about calculating fracture risk in other ethnic groups e.g., Native Americans and First Canadians. In order to provide additional guidance to clinicians, a FRAX® International Task Force was formed to address specific questions raised by physicians in countries without FRAX® calculators and seeking to integrate FRAX® into their clinical practice. The main questions that the task force tried to answer were the following: The Task Force members conducted appropriate literature reviews and developed preliminary statements that were discussed and graded by a panel of experts at the ISCD-IOF joint conference. The statements approved by the panel of experts are discussed in the current paper.

  4. Mechanical behavior study of laser welded joints for DP steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qi

    2008-03-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are gaining considerable market shares in the automotive industry. The development and application of Dual Phase (DP) steel is just a consistent step towards high-strength steel grades with improved mechanical behavior. Tailor welded blanks with DP steel are promoted in the application of Body-In-White (BIW) structure by the automotive industry. A tailor welded blank consists of several flat sheets that are laser welded together before stamping. Applied cases of tailor welded blanks of high strength steels on the automotive structural parts are investigated in this paper. The mechanical behavior of laser welded joints for DP steel is studied. Microstructure of laser welded joints for DP steel was observed by SEM. Martensite in the weld seam explains the higher strength of welded joints than the base metal. Results show that the strain safety tolerance of laser welded seam for high strength steel can meet the requirement of automobile parts for stamping if the location of laser welded seam is designed reasonably.

  5. PREFACE: 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Across Physical and Behavioural Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Rossi, Giovanni; Crenna, Francesco; Belotti, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-C7-TC13 was organised by the University of Genova - DIME/MEC, Measurement Laboratory, Italy, on 4-6 September 2013. The work of this symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the symposium includes the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees: TC1 Education and Training in Measurement and Instrumentation TC7 Measurement Science TC13 Measurements in Biology and Medicine This is in keeping with the tradition set by the previous events of this well established series. There has been a special focus on measurement across physical and behavioural sciences, with the aim of highlighting the interdisciplinary character of measurement science and of promoting constructive interactions with scientists in other disciplines. The discussion was introduced by keynote lectures on measurement challenges in psychophysics, psychometrics and quantum physics. The symposium was attended by experts working in these areas from 18 countries, including USA, Australia and Japan, and provided a useful forum for them to share and exchange their work and ideas. In total over sixty papers are included in the volume, organised according to the presentation sessions. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The Symposium was held in Genova, which was the European Capital of Culture in 2004, and took place in Palazzo Ducale, an important historical building whose construction started in the 13th century, and that has been the house of the Duke of Genova from the 14th century. Genova, whose name comes from the Latin word 'Janua' (meaning 'door', as January is the door month of the year), has been regarded over the centuries as a door connecting Europe with the different countries and cultures of the Mediterranean basin and thus was an appropriate site for an international symposium involving different and new scientific visions and approaches to

  6. Registration of knee joint surfaces for the in vivo study of joint injuries based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rita W. T.; Habib, Ayman F.; Frayne, Richard; Ronsky, Janet L.

    2006-03-01

    In-vivo quantitative assessments of joint conditions and health status can help to increase understanding of the pathology of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that affects a large population each year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a non-invasive and accurate means to assess and monitor joint properties, and has become widely used for diagnosis and biomechanics studies. Quantitative analyses and comparisons of MR datasets require accurate alignment of anatomical structures, thus image registration becomes a necessary procedure for these applications. This research focuses on developing a registration technique for MR knee joint surfaces to allow quantitative study of joint injuries and health status. It introduces a novel idea of translating techniques originally developed for geographic data in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing to register 3D MR data. The proposed algorithm works with surfaces that are represented by randomly distributed points with no requirement of known correspondences. The algorithm performs matching locally by identifying corresponding surface elements, and solves for the transformation parameters relating the surfaces by minimizing normal distances between them. This technique was used in three applications to: 1) register temporal MR data to verify the feasibility of the algorithm to help monitor diseases, 2) quantify patellar movement with respect to the femur based on the transformation parameters, and 3) quantify changes in contact area locations between the patellar and femoral cartilage at different knee flexion angles. The results indicate accurate registration and the proposed algorithm can be applied for in-vivo study of joint injuries with MRI.

  7. NREL Case Study Leads to International Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, NREL analysts produced a case study, "Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience," which drew upon dozens of interviews with international experts involved in crafting effective policies and markets. The report proposed a cross-cutting initiative to transform the world's power systems by implementing two complementary strategies: the large‐scale deployment of renewable energy, and a combination of comprehensive energy efficiency and smarter grids. This recommendation led to the launch of the 21st Century Power Partnership in April 2012, and its membership has since grown to include Denmark, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. NREL, together with its affiliated Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, are the operating agents.

  8. A study of the temporomandibular joint during bruxism.

    PubMed

    Commisso, María S; Martínez-Reina, Javier; Mayo, Juana

    2014-06-01

    A finite element model of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the human mandible was fabricated to study the effect of abnormal loading, such as awake and asleep bruxism, on the articular disc. A quasilinear viscoelastic model was used to simulate the behaviour of the disc. The viscoelastic nature of this tissue is shown to be an important factor when sustained (awake bruxism) or cyclic loading (sleep bruxism) is simulated. From the comparison of the two types of bruxism, it was seen that sustained clenching is the most detrimental activity for the TMJ disc, producing an overload that could lead to severe damage of this tissue.

  9. Joint USAF/NASA hypersonic research aircraft study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, F. S.; Jones, R. A.; Buck, M. L.; Zima, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    A joint USAF/NASA study has developed a conceptual design for a new high-speed research airplane (X-24C) and identified candidate flight research experiments in the Mach 3 to 6 speed range. Four major categories of high priority research experiments are described as well as the X-24C design concept. The vehicle, a rocket-boosted, delta planform aircraft, is air launched from a B-52 and is capable of forty seconds of rocket cruise at Mach 6 with a research scramjet. Research provisions include a dedicated 10-foot long research experiments section, removable fins and strakes, and provisions for testing integrated airbreathing propulsion systems.

  10. The Effects of Either a Mirror, Internal or External Focus Instructions on Single and Multi-Joint Tasks.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Israel; Hughes, Steven; Panchuk, Derek; Abbiss, Chris; Chapman, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Training in front of mirrors is common, yet little is known about how the use of mirrors effects muscle force production. Accordingly, we investigated how performing in front of a mirror influences performance in single and multi-joint tasks, and compared the mirror condition to the established performance effects of internal focus (IF) and external focus (EF) instructions in a two part experiment. In the single-joint experiment 28 resistance-trained participants (14 males and 14 females) completed two elbow flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions under four conditions: mirror, IF, EF and neutral instructions. During these trials, surface EMG activity of the biceps and triceps were recorded. In the multi-joint experiment the same participants performed counter-movement jumps on a force plate under the same four conditions. Single-joint experiment: EF led to greater normalized force production compared to all conditions (P≤0.02, effect-size range [ES] = 0.46-1.31). No differences were observed between neutral and mirror conditions (P = 0.15, ES = 0.15), but both were greater than IF (P<0.01, ES = 0.79-1.84). Surface EMG activity was comparable across conditions (P≥0.1, ES = 0.10-0.21). Multi-joint experiment: Despite no statistical difference (P = 0.10), a moderate effect size was observed for jump height whereby EF was greater than IF (ES = 0.51). No differences were observed between neutral and mirror conditions (ES = 0.01), but both were greater than IF (ES = 0.20-22). The mirror condition led to superior performance compared to IF, inferior performance compared to EF, and was equal to a neutral condition in both tasks. These results provide novel and practical evidence concerning mirror training during resistance type training.

  11. The Effects of Either a Mirror, Internal or External Focus Instructions on Single and Multi-Joint Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Israel; Hughes, Steven; Panchuk, Derek; Abbiss, Chris; Chapman, Dale W.

    2016-01-01

    Training in front of mirrors is common, yet little is known about how the use of mirrors effects muscle force production. Accordingly, we investigated how performing in front of a mirror influences performance in single and multi-joint tasks, and compared the mirror condition to the established performance effects of internal focus (IF) and external focus (EF) instructions in a two part experiment. In the single-joint experiment 28 resistance-trained participants (14 males and 14 females) completed two elbow flexion maximal voluntary isometric contractions under four conditions: mirror, IF, EF and neutral instructions. During these trials, surface EMG activity of the biceps and triceps were recorded. In the multi-joint experiment the same participants performed counter-movement jumps on a force plate under the same four conditions. Single-joint experiment: EF led to greater normalized force production compared to all conditions (P≤0.02, effect-size range [ES] = 0.46–1.31). No differences were observed between neutral and mirror conditions (P = 0.15, ES = 0.15), but both were greater than IF (P<0.01, ES = 0.79–1.84). Surface EMG activity was comparable across conditions (P≥0.1, ES = 0.10–0.21). Multi-joint experiment: Despite no statistical difference (P = 0.10), a moderate effect size was observed for jump height whereby EF was greater than IF (ES = 0.51). No differences were observed between neutral and mirror conditions (ES = 0.01), but both were greater than IF (ES = 0.20–22). The mirror condition led to superior performance compared to IF, inferior performance compared to EF, and was equal to a neutral condition in both tasks. These results provide novel and practical evidence concerning mirror training during resistance type training. PMID:27898743

  12. NASA plan for international crustal dynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The international activities being planned as part of the NASA geodynamics program are described. Methods of studying the Earth's crustal movements and deformation characteristics are discussed. The significance of the eventual formalations of earthquake predictions methods is also discussed.

  13. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croccolo, D.; de Agostinis, M.; Vincenzi, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE) method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces) versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces). The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  14. The Internal Medicine Subinternship--Now More Important than Ever: A Joint CDIM-APDIM Position Paper.

    PubMed

    Vu, T Robert; Angus, S V; Aronowitz, P B; Harrell, H E; Levine, M A; Carbo, A; Whelton, S; Ferris, A; Appelbaum, J S; McNeill, D B; Ismail, N J; Elnicki, D M

    2015-09-01

    For decades, the internal medicine (IM) subinternship has served as a critical interface between undergraduate and graduate medical education. As such, the vast majority of U.S. medical schools offer this rotation to help students prepare for post-graduate training. Historically an experiential rotation, a formal curriculum with specific learning objectives was eventually developed for this course in 2002. Since then, graduate medical education (GME) has changed significantly with the regulation of duty hours, adoption of competency-based education, and development of training milestones and entrustable professional activities. In response to these and many other changes to residency training and medical practice, in 2010, the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) surveyed its members-with input from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM) Subinternship Task Force-to determine which core skills program directors expected from new medical school graduates. The results of that survey helped to inform a joint CDIM-APDIM committee's decision to re-evaluate the goals of the IM subinternship in an effort to enhance the transition from medical school to residency. This joint committee defined the minimum expectations of what constitutes an IM subinternship rotation, proposed recommended skills for IM subinterns, and discussed challenges and future directions for this crucial course.

  15. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Results: Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. Conclusion: AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality. PMID:25250364

  16. Building the Global Community: Joint Statement on the Role of Community Colleges in International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This joint statement by the American Association of Community Colleges and the Association of Community College Trustees describes the economic, cultural, and social value of global education in community colleges. Through bullet points, the statement describes how community colleges, including their Boards and CEOs, can promote global competency.…

  17. Failure Analysis in Space: International Space Station (ISS) Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, V. S.; Wright, M. C.; McDanels, S. J.; Lubas, D.; Tucker, B.; Marciniak, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the debris analysis of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), a mechanism that is designed to keep the solar arrays facing the sun. The goal of this was to identify the failure mechanism based on surface morphology and to determine the source of debris through elemental and particle analysis.

  18. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Nozzle Joint 2 Gas Path Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, R. C.; Hyer, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Each Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle contains five joints. By design, each nozzle joint utilizes room-temperature vulcanized (RTV) rubber as a thermal barrier to protect the nozzle metal parts and O-rings from heat degradation due to motor combustion gas. Typically, combustion gas does not penetrate through the RTV in nozzle Joints. However, Joint currently experiences gas penetration through the RTV over 90 percent of the time. The occurrence of Joint gas paths is a very complex phenomenon with several known contributors such as the unique geometry of the joint, motor pressure, nozzle vectoring, manufacturing induced RTV voids. RTV material capability, and joint skip (relative radial displacement of joint components). The occurrence of Joint gas paths appears to be a combination of these causes. To better understand the causes of gas paths in Joint, the circumferential locations of gas paths in the RTV were identified and correlated with nozzle vectoring, RTV closeour locations (where the RTV backfill is completed), and X-ray low-density. anomaly (LDA) indications. Results that no specific cause was determined.

  19. Joint Urban 2003: Study Overview And Instrument Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-08-16

    Quality-assured meteorological and tracer data sets are vital for establishing confidence that indoor and outdoor dispersion models used to simulate dispersal of potential toxic agents in urban atmospheres are giving trustworthy results. The U.S. Department of Defense-Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security joined together to conduct the Joint Urban 2003 atmospheric dispersion study to provide this critically-needed high-resolution dispersion data. This major urban study was conducted from June 28 through July 31, 2003, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, with the participation of over 150 scientists and engineers from over 20 U.S. and foreign institutions. The Joint Urban 2003 lead scientist was Jerry Allwine (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) who oversaw study design, logistical arrangements and field operations with the help of Joe Shinn (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Marty Leach (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), Ray Hosker (Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division), Leo Stockham (Northrop Grumman Information Technology) and Jim Bowers (Dugway Proving Grounds). This report gives a brief overview of the field campaign, describing the scientific objectives, the dates of the intensive observation periods, and the instruments deployed. The data from this field study is available to the scientific community through an on-line database that is managed by Dugway Proving Ground. This report will be included in the database to provide its users with some general information about the field study, and specific information about the instrument coordinates. Appendix A of this document provides the definitive record of the instrument locations during this field campaign, and Appendix B lists all the study principal investigators and participants.

  20. The Joint European Torus (JET) pumped divertor results and their significance for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, M. L.; JET Team

    1996-05-01

    The effectiveness of the pumped divertor during the 1994/95 experimental campaign of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.-H. Rebut, R. J. Bickerton, and B. E. Keen, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)] has allowed the pursuit of a broad-based research program that is highly relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [K. Tomabechi and the ITER Team, Nucl. Fusion 31, 1135 (1991)]. High-performance hot-ion discharges with high confinement (H-modes) free of edge localized modes (ELMs) have set a JET record neutron rate in deuterium, but are limited by various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) phenomena to βN<1.8, where βN=β/(I/aB), β is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the toroidal field pressure, I is the plasma current, B is the toroidal field, and a is the horizontal minor radius of the plasma. Quasi-steady-state ELMy H-modes have also been studied at high power, high current, and high β. The underlying energy transport exhibits a gyro-Bohm dependence that is lost close to the H-mode threshold and at high β. ELMy H-modes with detached divertor plasmas and radiative power exhaust (the operating regime foreseen for ITER) reduce the power loading to the targets, but at the expense of main plasma confinement and purity. Beryllium has been compared with carbon fiber composite as a divertor target material and melting has been induced at ITER reference off-normal heat loads, but only a moderate degree of self-protection of the beryllium target was found.

  1. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    PubMed

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  2. A candidate gene study of canine joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dylan N; Short, Andrea D; Barnes, Annette; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ferguson, John F; Butterworth, Steven J; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Pead, Matthew; Bennett, David; Innes, John F; Carter, Stuart D; Ollier, William E R

    2010-01-01

    Canine osteoarthritis (OA) commonly occurs in association with articular diseases, such as hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED), or cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). We hypothesized that a common genomic risk for the development of canine joint disease and canine OA would be identified by evaluating the allele frequencies of candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dogs with OA associated with different articular diseases when compared with a general population of breed-matched dogs. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers surgically treated for ED, HD, and CCLR and confirmed to have radiographic evidence of OA. One hundred and thirteen SNPs in 20 candidate genes were genotyped. No significant associations were identified for SNPs or haplotypes in the candidate genes for the diseases evaluated. The candidate gene approach for the study of genetic association is unlikely to be successful for complex canine diseases such as OA without prior trait mapping evaluation.

  3. Determining in vivo sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joint centre locations from skin markers, CT-scans and intracortical pins: A comparison study.

    PubMed

    Michaud, B; Jackson, M; Arndt, A; Lundberg, A; Begon, M

    2016-03-01

    To describe shoulder motion the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joint centres must be accurately located. Within the literature various methods to estimate joint centres of rotation location are proposed, with no agreement of the method best suited to the shoulder. The objective of this study was to determine the most reliable non-invasive method for locating joint centre locations of the shoulder complex. Functional methods using pin mounted markers were compared to anatomical methods, functional methods using skin mounted markers, imaging-based methods using CT-scan data, and regression equations. Three participants took part in the study, that involved insertion of intracortical pins into the clavicle, scapula and humerus, a CT-scan of the shoulder, and finally data collection using a motion analysis system. The various methods to estimate joint centre location did not all agree, however suggestions about the most reliable non-invasive methods could be made. For the sternoclavicular joint, the authors suggest the anatomical method using the most ventral landmark on the sternoclavicular joint, as recommended by the International Society of Biomechanics. For the acromioclavicular joint, the authors suggest the anatomical method using the landmark defined as the most dorsal point on the acromioclavicular joint, as proposed by van der Helm. For the glenohumeral joint, the simple regression equation of Rab is recommended.

  4. Effect of Retrograde Reaming for Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis on Subtalar Joint Destruction: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jason A; Routh, Lucas K; Leary, Jeffrey T; Buzhardt, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Recent published data have suggested successful union of subtalar and tibiotalar joints without formal debridement during tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion procedures. Although previous studies have reported on the importance of the proper guidewire starting point and trajectory to obtain appropriate hindfoot alignment for successful fusion, to our knowledge, no studies have quantified the amount of articular damage to the subtalar joint with retrograde reaming. We hypothesized that reaming would destroy >50% of the posterior facet of the subtalar joint. The bilateral lower extremities of 5 cadavers were obtained and the subtalar joints exposed. Retrograde TTC nail guidewires were inserted, and a 12-mm reamer was passed through the subtalar and ankle joints. Pre- and postreaming images of the subtalar joint were obtained to compare the amount of joint destruction after reaming. We found an average of 5.89% articular destruction of the talar posterior facet and an average of 4.01% articular destruction of the posterior facet of the calcaneus. No damage to the middle facets of the subtalar joint was observed. TTC nailing is a successful procedure for ankle and subtalar joint fusion. Published studies have reported successful subtalar union using TTC nailing without formal open debridement of the subtalar joint, preserving the soft tissue envelope. TTC nail insertion using a 12-mm reamer will destroy 5.89% and 4.01% of the respective talar and calcaneal posterior facets of the subtalar joint.

  5. Study of simple CFRP-metal joint failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jingquan; Rodriguez, Antonio; Emerson, Nicolas; Symmes, Arthur

    2008-07-01

    In millimeter wavelength telescope design and construction, there have been a number of mysterious failures of simple CFRF-metal joints. Telescope designers have not had satisfactory interpretations of these failures. In this paper, factors which may influence the failure of joints are discussed. These include stress concentration, material creep, joint fatigue, reasons related to chemical process and manufacture process. Extrapolation formulas for material creep, joint fatigue, and differential thermal stresses are derived in this paper. Detailed chemical and manufacturing factors are also discussed. All these issues are the causes of a number of early failures under a loading which is significantly lower than the strength of adhesives used. For ensuring reliability of a precision instrument structure joint, the designer should have a thorough understanding of all these factors.

  6. Joint Commission on International Accreditation workshop: Planning, development and provision of laboratory services.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Inci

    2009-03-01

    Throughout the world, the oversight of health care quality is accomplished through professionally based accrediting bodies and state regulatory agencies. These organizations set standards or define regulations that address important organizational functions. The Joint Commission, a private sector United States-based non-profit organization, is the forerunner and best known among healthcare accreditation groups. One of the functions assessed by the standards of the JCI Clinical Laboratory Accreditation Program is the planning, development and provision of laboratory services. The standards related to this issue address the necessary processes that should be in place prior to performing patient testing.

  7. Joint NASA-ESA Outer Planet Mission study overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.-P.; Niebur, C.; Cutts, J.; Falkner, P.; Greeley, R.; Lunine, J.; Blanc, M.; Coustenis, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Matson, D.; Clark, K.; Reh, K.; Stankov, A.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, ESA and NASA performed joint studies of two highly capable scientific missions to the outer planets: the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) and the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM). Joint Science Definition Teams (JSDTs) were formed with U.S. and European membership to guide study activities that were conducted collaboratively by engineering teams working on both sides of the Atlantic. EJSM comprises the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) that would be provided by NASA and the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) that would be provided by ESA. Both spacecraft would be launched independently in 2020, and arrive 6 years later for a 3-4 year mission within the Jupiter System. Both orbiters would explore Jupiter's system on trajectories that include flybys of Io (JEO only), Europa (JEO only), Ganymede and Callisto. The operation of JEO would culminate in orbit around Europa while that of JGO would culminate in orbit around Ganymede. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) comprises a Titan Orbiter provided by NASA that would carry two Titan in situ elements provided by ESA: the montgolfière and the lake lander. The mission would launch in 2020 and arrive 9 years later for a 4-year duration in the Saturn system. Following delivery of the ESA in situ elements to Titan, the Titan Orbiter would explore the Saturn system via a 2-year tour that includes Enceladus and Titan flybys. The montgolfière would last at least 6-12 months at Titan and the lake lander 8-10 hours. Following the Saturn system tour, the Titan Orbiter would culminate in a ~2-year orbit around Titan. Synergistic and coordinated observations would be planned between the orbiter and in situ elements. The ESA contribution to this joint endeavor will be implemented as the first Cosmic Vision Large-class (L1) mission; the NASA contribution will be implemented as the Outer Planet Flagship Mission. The contribution to each mission is being reviewed and

  8. Using joint interviews in a narrative-based study on illness experiences.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, Dikaios; Boniface, Gail; Brown, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Researchers are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of using joint interviews in research on illness experiences. However, there is limited discussion of joint interviews as a data collection method and of the factors that influence the choice to conduct individual or joint interviews. Although there are several advantages and disadvantages of both methods, the reasons that underpin the choice to use joint interviews are often not discussed in detail in the literature. Drawing from a narrative-based study on the experiences of living with motor neuron disease, we present joint interviews as a method sensitive both to the shared experience of illness and to the multiple perspectives around illness. Using interview excerpts, we discuss how through the use of joint interviews researchers can explore the intersubjective and heteroglossic nature of illness experiences. We argue that using joint interviews can offer valuable information about how couples coconstruct meaning and share experiences.

  9. International Relations, Social Studies: 6448.20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Rose Marie

    The forces affecting relations among nations as well as the effectiveness of decision making processes in international politics are examined and analyzed by 10th through 12th grade students in the elective quinmester course clustering around political studies. Goals emphasize helping students to understand state interaction and the variables…

  10. Abduction dislocation of the knee joint--a case study.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Krzysztof; Bielecki, Tomasz; Polak, Damian; Skowron, Lukasz

    2013-10-31

    The paper presents a case of untypical, not included in existing classifications, knee joint dislocation in a young man. An MRI scan confirmed a rupture of both cruciate ligaments and damage to the ligamento-capsular complex on the medial side of the knee joint. Two weeks after injury, an arthroscopy was performed with joint lavage followed by repair of the damaged ligamento-capsular complex. A very good functional result was obtained three years after the injury, in spite of the patient not having consented to an elective cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  11. [Studies of the neuromuscular system of the knee joint].

    PubMed

    Börnert, K; Dippold, A

    1990-02-01

    The paper analysis the therapeutic effects of isometric training and electromechanic therapy (EMT) of the quadriceps muscles on subjects. The effects of the training practised with the knee joint bent was to be compared with previous results of training with the knee joint stretched. 36 subjects were trained and the increase in strength was measured with the help of a strain gauge dynamometer. Again a marked superiority of the EMT over sole isometric training could be demonstrated. More over, the results showed that the increase of the isometric maximal strength following an EMT is not influenced by the position of the angle of the joint.

  12. The Use of Europiumstearate to Trace Polyethylene Wear Debris in Joint Fluid after Prosthetic Joint Replacement – A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, J.; Ngai, V.; Koelling, S.; Jacobs, J.J.; Wimmer, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the most common counterface material against metals or ceramics in artificial hip or knee joints. Wear and the resulting particulate debris, however, limit the life span of the implant. In this study, the general feasibility of using Europium (Eu) as tracer material to quantify UHMWPE wear in joint fluid is investigated. Using Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), recovery experiments of Eu in artificial joint fluid were performed. In order to dope polyethylene with 50 ppm Eu, nascent UHMWPE powder was mixed with a solution of Eu-stearate. The heterogeneity of the mixture was assessed by determining the coefficient of variation (CV) of the Eu content in various weighted samples. After molding of the UHMWPE powder mixture, cylindrical pins of 10 mm diameter were machined and worn against cobalt-chromium metal disks submersed in artificial joint fluid. The Eu-content of fluid samples taken at certain time intervals was measured and compared with UHMWPE weight loss of the pins. A satisfactory homogenization of Eu in the UHMWPE powder was achieved. Tracer-based and weight-loss determined wear rates were highly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficients > 0.991). Also the detection bias was within acceptable limits. Thus both methods demonstrated good agreement. PMID:24920867

  13. Role of markets, governments and international bodies in joint implementation with the south

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, J.K.

    1995-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) opens up `markets` for carbon emission reduction projects of all cost categories spread throughout the World. Projects commissioned in the developing countries by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) suggest that the cost of CO{sub 2} emissions reductions ranged from US 20 cents per tonne to $42 per tonne on the basis of incremental costs. These costs are much lower than those indicated in the literature referring to the costs in the industrial countries (IC). Even if the costs are similar, the markets for cheaper credits will be widened by the inclusion of more countries. Thus, JI requires a thorough analysis as it could serve as a potential vehicle to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a cost effective manner.

  14. International Students at Chinese Joint Venture Universities: Factors Influencing Decisions to Enrol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onsman, Andrys

    2013-01-01

    The People's Republic of China has determined to assume a respected place amongst the world's foremost higher education providers. Its short term strategy is multi-pronged: attracting world-class scholars; attracting international students and encouraging Chinese universities to run branches overseas. As well, a small number of select foreign…

  15. Progress and interim results of the INPRO joint study on assessment of INS based on closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Usanov, Vladimir; Raj, Baldev; Vasile, Alfredo

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to review interim results of the Joint Study on assessment of an Innovative Nuclear System based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors (INS CNFC-FR). This study is a part of the IAEA international project for innovative reactors and fuel cycle technologies (INPRO). Now it is being implemented by Canada, China, France, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russia, and Ukraine. A report on results of implementation of the first phase of the Joint Study was presented to the INPRO Steering Committee meeting in December 2006. It was also agreed by the Joint Study participants to reveal these results to broader discussion at scientific conferences and meetings. The authors' interpretation of the Joint Study findings and issues is presented in the paper. (authors)

  16. Joint venture versus outreach: a financial analysis of case studies.

    PubMed

    Forsman, R W

    2001-01-01

    Medical centers across the country are facing cost challenges, and national commercial laboratories are experiencing financial declines that necessitate their capturing market share in any way possible. Many laboratories are turning to joint ventures or partnerships for financial relief. However, it often is in the best interest of the patient and the medical center to integrate laboratory services across the continuum of care. This article analyzes two hypothetical joint ventures involving a laboratory management agreement and full laboratory outsourcing.

  17. Study of Contractor Internal Reward Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-15

    Incentive Systems Negotiations 20) 149TRACT (Continue an reverse side It necessary and identify by block number) ~ a: -mhe overall objective of this study...Inc. to begin work on August 14, 1981 to collect data on contractor internal motivation systems in specified defense corporations. Study Focus The...awards. While we have already gathered somes data on your firm’s incentive program as reported In SEC filings, informtion on the award criteria was not

  18. Glenohumeral Joint Range of Motion in Elite Male Golfers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meria, Erik; Nee, Bob; Davidson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Background Shoulder injuries account for up to 17% of all golf related musculoskeletal injuries. One cause may be the repetitive stresses applied to the lead shoulder during the backswing and follow-through phases, which may contribute to the frequency of these injuries. The “elite” golfer may be pre-disposed to developing a shoulder injury based upon the reported adaptations to the glenohumeral joint. Objective To examine and compare bilateral glenohumeral joint rotational range of motion in elite golfers using standard goniometric procedures. Methods Twenty-four “elite” male golfers were recruited for this study. Glenohumeral internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) passive range of motion was measured bilaterally at 90° of abduction using a standard universal goniometer. Paired t-tests were utilized to statistically compare the rotational range of motion patterns between the lead and the trailing shoulder. Results No statistical differences existed between each shoulder for mean IR or mean ER measures. This finding was consistent throughout different age groups. External rotation measurements were greater than IR measurements in both extremities. Discussion and Conclusion Unlike other sports requiring repetitive shoulder function, the “elite” golfers sampled in this pilot investigation did not demonstrate a unique passive range of motion pattern between the lead and trailing shoulders. Factors, including subjects' age, may have confounded the findings. Further studies are warranted utilizing cohorts of golfers with matching age and skill levels. Additional shoulder range of motion measures should be evaluated. PMID:21509130

  19. Double-blind study of erbium 169 injection (synoviorthesis) in rheumatoid digital joints.

    PubMed Central

    Menkes, C J; Gô, A L; Verrier, P; Aignan, M; Delbarre, F

    1977-01-01

    A double-blind study of erbium 169 injection into rheumatoid digital joints was carried out with saline as control. 201 joints in 36 patients were studied (137 metacarpophalalangeal, 64 proximal interphalangeal). Erbium 169 was injected into 121 joints and saline water into 80 joints. Local injection of corticosteroids was given to both groups. A definite improvement was observed in 55% to 58% of cases with erbium 169 (+prednisolone acetate) and in 26% to 28% of cases with saline (+prednisolone acetate). The difference was highly significant. PMID:327948

  20. Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies - Neptune System Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Omair; Amini, Rashied; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared; Landau, Damon; Oleson, Steven; Spilker, Thomas; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Neptune System Explorer (NSE) mission concept study assessed opportunities to conduct Cassini-like science at Neptune with a radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) based spacecraft. REP is based on powering an electric propulsion (EP) engine with a radioisotope power source (RPS). The NSE study was commissioned under the Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies (JREPS) project, which sought to determine the technical feasibility of flagship class REP applications. Within JREPS, special emphasis was given toward identifying tall technology tent poles, as well as recommending any new RPS technology developments that would be required for complicated REP missions. Based on the goals of JREPS, multiple RPS (e.g. thermoelectric and Stirling based RPS) and EP (e.g. Hall and ion engines) technology combinations were traded during the NSE study to determine the most favorable REP design architecture. Among the findings from the study was the need for >400We RPS systems, which was driven by EP operating powers and the requirement for a long-lived mission in the deep solar system. Additionally multiple development and implementation risks were identified for the NSE concept, as well as REP missions in general. Among the strengths of the NSE mission would be the benefits associated with RPS and EP use, such as long-term power (approx. 2-3kW) at Neptune and flexible trajectory options for achieving orbit or tours of the Neptune system. Although there are still multiple issues to mitigate, the NSE concept demonstrated distinct advantages associated with using REP for deep space flagship-class missions.

  1. Prevalence of signs of temporomandibular joint dysfunction in asymptomatic edentulous subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Rajesh

    2010-06-01

    Patients having complete dentures with reduced vertical dimension generally do not manifest Temporomandibular Joint problems. It is not understood as to why the closure of jaws in dentulous individuals can predispose to Temporomandibular Joint problems, while the same etiology in edentulous subjects does not cause any concern. This study was planned to find out the prevalence of various Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction signs in subjects who were edentulous for a period of 6 months to 2 year. The various signs were obtained from a population of 100 healthy asymptomatic edentulous subjects by a questionnaire and then were clinically examined for the presence or absence of signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction. 59% of the subjects exhibited one or more signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction, 41% of the subjects did not show any signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction. 56.6% of males reported signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction when compared with females which was 62.5%. 43.3% of males did not show any signs of Temporomandibular Joint dysfunction when compared with those of the females which was 37.5%. The number of subjects who showed two signs was 29%, subjects who had only one sign was 25%. It was found that dysfunction was prevalent among both men and women in more than half of the asymptomatic subjects examined. 59% had one or as many as three signs of Temporomandibular dysfunction. The most commonly seen Joint dysfunction was the joint sounds which was 47%

  2. Experimental Studies on the Mechanical Behaviour of Rock Joints with Various Openings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Oh, J.; Mitra, R.; Hebblewhite, B.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical behaviour of rough joints is markedly affected by the degree of joint opening. A systematic experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of the initial opening on both normal and shear deformations of rock joints. Two types of joints with triangular asperities were produced in the laboratory and subjected to compression tests and direct shear tests with different initial opening values. The results showed that opened rock joints allow much greater normal closure and result in much lower normal stiffness. A semi-logarithmic law incorporating the degree of interlocking is proposed to describe the normal deformation of opened rock joints. The proposed equation agrees well with the experimental results. Additionally, the results of direct shear tests demonstrated that shear strength and dilation are reduced because of reduced involvement of and increased damage to asperities in the process of shearing. The results indicate that constitutive models of rock joints that consider the true asperity contact area can be used to predict shear resistance along opened rock joints. Because rock masses are loosened and rock joints become open after excavation, the model suggested in this study can be incorporated into numerical procedures such as finite-element or discrete-element methods. Use of the model could then increase the accuracy and reliability of stability predictions for rock masses under excavation.

  3. Study on the constitutive model for jointed rock mass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Jianyun; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunfeng; Yuan, Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    A new elasto-plastic constitutive model for jointed rock mass, which can consider the persistence ratio in different visual angle and anisotropic increase of plastic strain, is proposed. The proposed the yield strength criterion, which is anisotropic, is not only related to friction angle and cohesion of jointed rock masses at the visual angle but also related to the intersection angle between the visual angle and the directions of the principal stresses. Some numerical examples are given to analyze and verify the proposed constitutive model. The results show the proposed constitutive model has high precision to calculate displacement, stress and plastic strain and can be applied in engineering analysis.

  4. Report on the SNL/AWE/NSF international workshop on joint mechanics, Dartington, United Kingdom, 2729 April 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewins, David J.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The SNL/AWE joint mechanics workshop, held in Dartington Hall, Totnes, Devon, UK 26-29 April 2009 was a follow up to another international joints workshop held in Arlington, Virginia, in October 2006. The preceding workshop focused on identifying what length scales and interactions would be necessary to provide a scientific basis for analyzing and understanding joint mechanics from the atomistic scale on upward. In contrast, the workshop discussed in this report, focused much more on identification and development of methods at longer length scales that can have a nearer term impact on engineering analysis, design, and prediction of the dynamics of jointed structures. Also, the 2009 meeting employed less technical presentation and more break out sessions for developing focused strategies than was the case with the early workshop. Several 'challenges' were identified and assignments were made to teams to develop approaches to address those challenges.

  5. Effects of glucosamine-chondroitin combination on synovial fluid IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 levels in internal derangements of temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Esen, Emin; Tatli, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of glucosamine-chondroitin sulphate combination on internal derangements of temporomandibular joint in clinical and biochemical manners. Material and Methods This randomized clinical study included 31 cases reporting joint tenderness, in which disc displacement was detected on MR imaging. In all patients, synovial fluid sampling was performed under local anesthesia. In the study group, the patients were prescribed a combination of 1500 mg glucosamine and 1200 mg chondroitin sulphate, while patients in the control group were only prescribed 50 mg tramadol HCl (twice daily) for pain control. After 8 weeks, synovial fluid sampling was repeated in the same manner. The levels of pain, maximum mouth opening (MMO), synovial fluid IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 measured before and after pharmacological intervention were compared. Results The reduction in pain levels was significant in both groups. There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of pain reduction. The improvement in MMO was significant in the study group but it was not in the control group. The MMO improvement was significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group. In the study group, significant decrease was observed in PGE2 level, while the decreases in IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were not significant. In the control group, no significant decrease was observed in any of the inflammatory cytokines after 8 weeks, moreover IL-1ß and IL-6 levels were increased. Alterations of IL-1ß and IL-6 levels were significant in study group while TNF-α and PGE2 levels were not, compared to control group. Conclusions In conclusion, these results might suggest that glucosamine-chondroitin combination significantly increases the MMO and decreases the synovial fluid IL1β and IL6 levels in internal derangements of TMJ compared to tramadol. The modifications of synovial fluid TNF-α and PGE2 levels do not reach

  6. Symposium introduction: the first joint American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) and the ACS International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand (ICSCT) worked together to stage the “1st Joint ACS AGFD - ACS ICSCT Symposium on Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” which was held in Bangkok, Thailand ...

  7. An Outline for a Course of Study; Joint Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.; Reno, Jack

    Joint training of rehabilitation counselors and social caseworkers has the potential for developing and improving professional techniques to increase the number of handicapped welfare recipients who can be rehabilitated. A regional curriculum for Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia, this joint…

  8. Dietary studies in the joint US-Russian space program.

    PubMed

    Rice, B L; Lane, H W

    1997-10-01

    Metabolic experiments in the joint US-Russian space program involve analysis of food records, which include weighed foods, stable-isotope turnover, and biochemical samples collected before, during, and after the flights. This article describes the methods of monitoring dietary intake for this program.

  9. CFD SIMULATIONS OF JOINT URBAN ATMOSPHERE DISPERSION FIELD STUDY 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R L; Humphreys, T D; Chan, S T

    2004-03-31

    In the Spring of 2003, a series of dispersion field experiments (Joint Urban 2003) were conducted at Oklahoma City. These experiments were complimentary to the URBAN 2000 field studies at Salt Lake City (Allwine, et. al, 2002) in that they will provide a second set of comprehensive field data for evaluation of CFD as well as for other dispersion models. In contrast to the URBAN 2000 experiments that were conducted entirely at night, these new field studies took place during both daytime and nighttime thus including the possibility of convective as well as stable atmospheric conditions. Initially several CFD modeling studies were performed to provide guidance for the experimental team in the selection of release sites and in the deployment of wind and concentration sensors. Also, while meteorological and concentration measurements were taken over the greater Oklahoma City urban area, our CFD calculations were focused on the near field of the release point. The proximity of the source to a large commercial building and to the neighboring buildings several of which have multi-stories, present a significant challenge even for CFD calculations involving grid resolutions as fine as 1 meter. A total of 10 Intensive Observations Periods (IOP's) were conducted within the 2003 field experiments. SF{sub 6} releases in the form of puffs or continuous sources were disseminated over 6 daytime and 4 nighttime episodes. Many wind and concentration sensors were used to provide wind and SF{sub 6} data over both long and short time-averaging periods. In addition to the usual near surface measurements, data depicting vertical profiles of wind and concentrations adjacent to the outside walls several building were also taken. Also of interest were observations of the trajectory of balloons that were released closed to the tracer release area. Many of the balloons released exhibit extremely quick ascents up from ground level to the top of buildings, thus implying highly convective

  10. High hand joint mobility is associated with radiological CMC1 osteoarthritis: the AGES-Reykjavik study

    PubMed Central

    Jónsson, H.; Elíasson, G. J.; Jónsson, Á.; Eiríksdóttir, G.; Sigurđsson, S.; Aspelund, T.; Harris, T. B.; Guđnason, V.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective Previous studies have indicated that joint hypermobility may affect the development of clinical and radiological hand osteoarthritis (OA), but this question has not been addressed in epidemiological studies. Our objective was to investigate this relationship in a population-based study. Patients and methods The study group consisted of 384 unselected older participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study (161 males, median age 76, range 69–90, and 223 females median age 75, range 69–92). The criterion used for joint mobility was the single maximal degree of hyperextension of digits 2 and 5 on both hands (HYP°). Results HYP° was more prevalent in females and on the left hand in both men and women. Both genders had a positive association between the degree of mobility measured by HYP° and radiological scores for the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1) OA. Thus, those with HYP° ≥70 had an odds ratio of 3.05 (1.69–5.5, P < 0.001) of having a Kellgren–Lawrence score of ≥3 in a CMC1 joint. There was also a trend towards a negative association between HYP° and proximal interphalangeal joint scores. Conclusion Hand joint mobility, defined as hyperextension in the metacarpophalangeal joints (HYP°) is more prevalent in females and on the left side. It was associated with more severe radiographic OA in the CMC1 joints in this population. The reasons for this relationship are not known, but likely explanations involve ligament laxity and CMC1 joint stability. These findings may relate to the left-sided predominance of radiographic OA in the CMC1 joints observed in many prevalence studies. PMID:19010064

  11. A Further Study on Wave Propagation Across a Single Joint with Different Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Li, Jian Chun; Cai, M. F.; Zou, Y.; Zhao, J.

    2016-07-01

    As a key dynamic feature of the rock mass, joint results in wave attenuation when a stress wave propagates across it. An experimental study has obtained the relation between the transmission coefficient and the contact area ratio of joints with different thicknesses (Chen et al. (doi: 10.1007/s00603-015-0716-z)). However, the spatial geometry of the contact surface also determines the dynamic behavior of the discontinuous masses. Thus, the present study is focused on the effects of distribution and dimension of the sawn notches on the contact surface of the joint, which lead to the different spatial geometry. The joint matching coefficient (JMC) was used in this study to define the contact condition. Using a modified SHPB apparatus, all the bars and specimens were aluminum, and the artificial joint formed a rough surface of the specimen contacted to the output bar. Based on the wave separation method, the incident, reflected and transmitted waves across the joint were acquired from the records of the strain gauges on pressure bars. Then the transmission coefficient and specific stiffness of the joint were obtained. Comparisons of them were made on different JMCs, spatial geometries and thicknesses of the joint.

  12. International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Failure Analysis: The Materials and Processes Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Figert, John; Jerman, Greg; Wright, Clara; Basta, Erin A.; Golden, Johnny L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit structural dynamic data and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the ISS configurations spanning ISS Stage 12A. The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate analytical models used to verify the ISS critical interface dynamic loads and improve its fatigue life prediction. On-Orbit dynamic responses were measured during the ISS configurations throughout ISS Stage 12A by the two main ISS instrumentation systems; Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS) and the Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). These nominal on-orbit events include Russian vehicle docking and undockings. Also, the ISS photogrammetric system recorded the movements of the 2A and 4A solar arrays during a modified ISS maneuver. Modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping and mode shapes. Correlation and comparisons between the test and analytical frequencies and mode shapes were performed to assess the accuracy of the analytical models for the ISS configurations under consideration.

  13. Clinical comparative study of microcurrent electrical stimulation to mid-laser and placebo treatment in degenerative joint disease of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, L E; Grey, T

    1995-04-01

    Mid-laser and microcurrent stimulation (MENS) have been found to be effective in the reduction of painful temporomandibular joints (TMJ) with internal derangement. There was significant improvement in mobility with the reduction of pain. Mid-laser was superior to MENS in its application and effect, and both were significantly better than the placebo treatment.

  14. Studies on dynamic characteristics of the joint in the aero-engine rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuguo, Liu; Yanhong, Ma; Dayi, Zhang; Jie, Hong

    2012-05-01

    The joint as a major part of the aero-engine rotating shafts directly influences its rotordynamics and state stability. This paper studies the dynamic effects of structure parameters and the external load on the stiffness and contact state of the rotor joints with nonlinear finite-element method and experiments. And a sensitivity analysis of critical speeds and vibration modes with respect to typical parameters (stiffness of the spline joints) is performed with finite difference methods, through two approaches, i.e. relative sensitivity analysis and absolute sensitivity analysis. The study results show that the stiffness and contact state of joints vary with external loads and geometry structures, and affect the rotor system operating. It is advisable to consider the influence of the position, structural parameter and external load of the rotor joints on aero-engine structure dynamics design.

  15. In vivo kinematic study of the tarsal joints complex based on fluoroscopic 3D-2D registration technique.

    PubMed

    Chen Wang, M D; Geng, Xiang; Wang, Shaobai; Xin Ma, M D; Xu Wang, M D; Jiazhang Huang, M D; Chao Zhang, M D; Li Chen, M S; Yang, Junsheng; Wang, Kan

    2016-09-01

    The tarsal bones articulate with each other and demonstrate complicated kinematic characteristics. The in vivo motions of these tarsal joints during normal gait are still unclear. Seven healthy subjects were recruited and fourteen feet in total were tested in the current study. Three dimensional models of the tarsal bones were first created using CT scanning. Corresponding local 3D coordinate systems of each tarsal bone was subsequently established for 6DOF motion decompositions. The fluoroscopy system captured the lateral fluoroscopic images of the targeted tarsal region whilst the subject was walking. Seven key pose images during the stance phase were selected and 3D to 2D bone model registrations were performed on each image to determine joint positions. The 6DOF motions of each tarsal joint during gait were then obtained by connecting these positions together. The TNJ (talo-navicular joint) exhibited the largest ROMs (range of motion) on all rotational directions with 7.39±2.75°of dorsi/plantarflexion, 21.12±4.68°of inversion/eversion, and 16.11±4.44°of internal/external rotation. From heel strike to midstance, the TNJ, STJ (subtalar joint), and CCJ (calcaneao-cuboid joint) were associated with 5.97°, 5.04°, and 3.93°of dorsiflexion; 15.46°, 8.21°, and 5.82°of eversion; and 9.75°, 7.6°, and 4.99°of external rotation, respectively. Likewise, from midstance to heel off, the TNJ, STJ, and CCJ were associated with 6.39, 6.19°, and 4.47°of plantarflexion; 18.57°, 11.86°, and 6.32°of inversion and 13.95°, 9.66°, and 7.58°of internal rotation, respectively. In conclusion, among the tarsal joints, the TNJ exhibited the greatest rotational mobility. Synchronous and homodromous rotational motions were detected for TNJ, STJ, and CCJ during the stance phase.

  16. 77 FR 58204 - International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report via...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... works and power dams on the St. Marys River at Sault Ste. Marie might be improved to take into... River that have been recommended by the Study. The Study report also examines the potential future... levels, the feasibility and implications of restoring water levels in lakes Michigan-Huron and...

  17. Study of the dynamic behavior of a bolted joint under heavy loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daouk, Sami; Louf, François; Cluzel, Christophe; Dorival, Olivier; Champaney, Laurent; Audebert, Sylvie

    2017-03-01

    In structural dynamics, the quantification of the quality and reliability of numerical models remains a relevant issue. While the behavior of structures such as beams and plates is generally understood, a large number of industrial structures are bolted assemblies of many components with connections that are not well understood. The main reason for this lack of understanding is that the dynamical behavior of the whole assembly depends critically upon joint conditions, especially under heavy loadings. For the purpose of improving our understanding and the development of pertinent models, a dynamic test bed, based on a bolted structure, is designed and modal testing is performed. The configuration of the bolted joint and the level of the loading are the relevant parameters, related to joint conditions, that are considered in this study. The results of the experimental campaign show the variation of the dissipation in a bolted joint and its apparent stiffness as a function of joint conditions.

  18. Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-11-01

    We present for the first time in vivo full three-dimensional (3-D) photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of the distal interphalangeal joint in a human subject. Both absorbed energy density and absorption coefficient images of the joint are quantitatively obtained using our finite-element-based photoacoustic image reconstruction algorithm coupled with the photon diffusion equation. The results show that major anatomical features in the joint along with the side arteries can be imaged with a 1-MHz transducer in a spherical scanning geometry. In addition, the cartilages associated with the joint can be quantitatively differentiated from the phalanx. This in vivo study suggests that the 3-D PAT method described has the potential to be used for early diagnosis of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Top Joint Study on Temperature Stress for Super-Long Slab-Column Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Minghai; Song, Li; Shao, Ying

    In this paper, top joint method is proposed to solve a practical engineering problem of temperature stress and temperature crack of super-long slab-column structure bearing temperature difference. From the study, it is shown that as for super-long slab-column structure undergoing temperature difference of inside and outside, joint located in bottom stories nearly has no influence on temperature stress and deformation while joint in top stories can significantly reduce temperature stress and deformation of super-long slab-column structures. In addition, comparison of joints located in top one story, top several stories and from bottom to top stories indicates that influences of them on temperature stress and deformation are similar. As for top joint method, among which cantilever plate method, double column method and corbel method are discussed and results indicate that influence effects of these methods on structures are similar.

  20. Concepts in mature T-cell lymphomas - highlights from an international joint symposium on T-cell immunology and oncology().

    PubMed

    Herling, Marco; Rengstl, Benjamin; Scholtysik, René; Hartmann, Sylvia; Küppers, Ralf; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Diebner, Hans H; Roeder, Ingo; Abken, Hinrich; Newrzela, Sebastian; Kirberg, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Growing attention in mature T-cell lymphomas/leukemias (MTCL) is committed to more accurate and meaningful classifications, improved pathogenetic concepts and expanded therapeutic options. This requires considerations of the immunologic concepts of T-cell homeostasis and the specifics of T-cell receptor (TCR) affinities and signaling. Scientists from various disciplines established the CONTROL-T research unit and in an international conference on MTCL they brought together experts from T-cell immunity, oncology, immunotherapy and systems biology. We report here meeting highlights on the covered topics of diagnostic pitfalls, implications by the new WHO classification, insights from discovered genomic lesions as well as TCR-centric concepts of cellular dynamics in host defense, auto-immunity and tumorigenic clonal escape, including predictions to be derived from in vivo imaging and mathematical modeling. Presentations on novel treatment approaches were supplemented by strategies of optimizing T-cell immunotherapies. Work packages, that in joint efforts would advance the field of MTCL more efficiently, are identified.

  1. CFD Simulations of Joint Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R; Humphreys III, T; Chan, S

    2004-06-17

    The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the understanding of urban wind flow and dispersion processes has gained increasing attention over recent years. While many of the simpler dispersion models are based on a set of prescribed meteorology to calculate dispersion, the CFD approach has the ability of coupling the wind field to dispersion processes. This has distinct advantages when very detailed results are required, such as for the case where the releases occur around buildings and within urban areas. CFD also has great flexibility as a testbed for turbulence models, which has important implications for atmospheric dispersion problems. In the spring of 2003, a series of dispersion field experiments (Joint Urban 2003) were conducted at Oklahoma City (Allwine, et. al, 2004). These experiments were complimentary to the URBAN 2000 field studies at Salt Lake City (Shinn, et. al, 2000) in that they will provide a second set of comprehensive field data for evaluation of CFD as well as for other dispersion models. In contrast to the URBAN 2000 experiments that were conducted entirely at night, these new field studies took place during both daytime and nighttime thus including the possibility of convective as well as stable atmospheric conditions. Initially several CFD modeling studies were performed to provide guidance for the experimental team in the selection of release sites and in the deployment of wind and concentration sensors. Also, while meteorological and concentration measurements were taken over the greater Oklahoma City urban area, our CFD calculations were focused on the near field of the release point. The proximity of the source to a large commercial building and to the neighboring buildings several of which have multistories, present a significant challenge even for CFD calculations involving grid resolutions as fine as 1 meter. A total of 10 Intensive Observations Periods (IOP's) were conducted within the 2003 field experiments. SF6

  2. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (PWR-Vol. 34). Volume 2: Power

    SciTech Connect

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Hayes, R.H.; McMullen, R.

    1999-07-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Benefits of software application in plant optimization; Combined cycle power plants; Recent improvements in power generation operations; Efficiency and capacity improvements for steam turbines; Condenser and heat exchange performance and fouling; Performance testing, monitoring and evaluation; Steam turbine/generator system--maintance, life assesments and upgrades; System design evaluations; Steam generators; Turbines for combined cycle and cogeneration; Case studies on steam turbine/generator problems and solutions; Condenser and feedwater heater operation and maintenance; Risked based and reliability programs for plant applications; Improving operating flexibility of steam turbine/generators (minimizing startup time, load changing, etc.); New techniques and innovations in heat transfer systems; Case studies in reliability based maintenance; and Risk analysis applied to steam turbine/generator systems. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  3. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duhon, Bradley S.; Cher, Daniel J.; Wine, Kathryn D.; Kovalsky, Don A.; Lockstadt, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective multicenter single-arm interventional clinical trial. Objective To determine the degree of improvement in sacroiliac (SI) joint pain, disability related to SI joint pain, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction who undergo minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular-shaped titanium implants. Methods Subjects (n = 172) underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion between August 2012 and January 2014 and completed structured assessments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, including a 100-mm SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQOL-5D. Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 and 12 months. Results Mean SI joint pain improved from 79.8 at baseline to 30.0 and 30.4 at 6 and 12 months, respectively (mean improvements of 49.9 and 49.1 points, p < 0.0001 each). Mean ODI improved from 55.2 at baseline to 32.5 and 31.4 at 6 and 12 months (improvements of 22.7 and 23.9 points, p < 0.0001 each). SF-36 physical component summary improved from 31.7 at baseline to 40.2 and 40.3 at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). At 6 and 12 months, 93 and 87% of subjects, respectively, were somewhat or very satisfied and 92 and 91%, respectively, would have the procedure again. Conclusions Minimally invasive SI joint fusion resulted in improvement of pain, disability, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis and SI joint disruption. PMID:27099817

  4. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Duhon, Bradley S; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Kovalsky, Don A; Lockstadt, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Prospective multicenter single-arm interventional clinical trial. Objective To determine the degree of improvement in sacroiliac (SI) joint pain, disability related to SI joint pain, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction who undergo minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular-shaped titanium implants. Methods Subjects (n = 172) underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion between August 2012 and January 2014 and completed structured assessments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, including a 100-mm SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQOL-5D. Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 and 12 months. Results Mean SI joint pain improved from 79.8 at baseline to 30.0 and 30.4 at 6 and 12 months, respectively (mean improvements of 49.9 and 49.1 points, p < 0.0001 each). Mean ODI improved from 55.2 at baseline to 32.5 and 31.4 at 6 and 12 months (improvements of 22.7 and 23.9 points, p < 0.0001 each). SF-36 physical component summary improved from 31.7 at baseline to 40.2 and 40.3 at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). At 6 and 12 months, 93 and 87% of subjects, respectively, were somewhat or very satisfied and 92 and 91%, respectively, would have the procedure again. Conclusions Minimally invasive SI joint fusion resulted in improvement of pain, disability, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis and SI joint disruption.

  5. Joint document concerning geological studies from 1971 - 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    In 1971, a joint Soviet-Americam Working Group on Remote Sensing of the Natural Environment was established. It was organized into a number of discipline panels, one of which was on geology. Membership on this panel came from the Geological Survey of the United States and from the Institute of Geology of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and Ministry Geology of the U.S.S.R.. During the period 1971-1975, this panel conducted coordinated research in the use of space remote sensing data in the field of geology. A summary of that coordinated research effort is presented.

  6. Experimental study of structure-borne sound transmission loss of mechanical joints.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Liu, M; Nilsson, A

    2001-09-01

    A mechanical joint is one of the most effective ways to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. In order to increase the transmission loss, heavily damped joints are often used, which, in many cases, will reduce the structure integrity and hence can only be used in limited cases. In this study attention is focused on a type of resonant joint, i.e., a joint which will increase the transmission loss but will not reduce the structure integrity. The study is based on experiments in a one-dimensional structure. It is found that by adjusting the overlap of the joint, the transmission loss of 30 dB can be obtained at a certain frequency range without adding any dissipative materials. The mechanism of this high transmission loss is the cantilever-type resonance. The resonant frequency can be predicted precisely. The influence of extra dissipative material is investigated. The performance of the same joint in a finite structure is also examined by using the concept of vibrational insertion loss. When there is a certain damping in a finite system, a rather high insertion loss can still be achieved by using the above-mentioned joint, but the resonant frequency is shifted to higher end. It seems that the effective length of the cantilever is shortened by the finiteness.

  7. Heritage Oak School: From Obscurity to International Recognition--A Historical Case Study in Participatory School Facility Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kelvin K.

    The Heritage Oak Elementary School in Dry Creek Joint Elementary School received the 1994 James D. Mac Connell Award from the Council of Educational Facilities Planners International. This case study describes the planning and design process. It discusses the rapid residential growth that initiated the school planning process to reconfigure the…

  8. An International Study of Research Misconduct Policies

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Rasmussen, Lisa M.; Kissling, Grace E.

    2015-01-01

    Research misconduct is an international concern. Misconduct policies can play a crucial role in preventing and policing research misconduct, and many institutions have developed their own policies. While institutional policies play a key role in preventing and policing misconduct, national policies are also important to ensure consistent promulgation and enforcement of ethical standards. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information about research misconduct policies across the globe. We found that twenty-two of the top forty research and development funding countries (55%) had a national misconduct policy. Four countries (18.2%) are in the process of developing a policy, and four (18.2%) have a national research ethics code but no misconduct policy. All twenty-two countries (100%) with national policies included fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism in the definition of misconduct, but beyond that there was considerable diversity. Unethical authorship was mentioned in 54.6% of the misconduct definitions, followed by unethical publication practices (36.4%), conflict of interest mismanagement (36.4%), unethical peer review (31.8%), misconduct related to misconduct investigations (27.3%), poor record keeping (27.3%), other deception (27.3%), serious deviations (22.7%), violating confidentiality (22.7%), and human or animal research violations (22.7%). Having a national policy was positively associated with research and development funding ranking and intensiveness. To promote integrity in international research collaborations, countries should seek to harmonize and clarify misconduct definitions and develop procedures for adjudicating conflicts when harmonization does not occur. PMID:25928177

  9. An international study of research misconduct policies.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Rasmussen, Lisa M; Kissling, Grace E

    2015-01-01

    Research misconduct is an international concern. Misconduct policies can play a crucial role in preventing and policing research misconduct, and many institutions have developed their own policies. While institutional policies play a key role in preventing and policing misconduct, national policies are also important to ensure consistent promulgation and enforcement of ethical standards. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information about research misconduct policies across the globe. We found that twenty-two of the top forty research and development funding countries (55%) had a national misconduct policy. Four countries (18.2%) are in the process of developing a policy, and four (18.2%) have a national research ethics code but no misconduct policy. All twenty-two countries (100%) with national policies included fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism in the definition of misconduct, but beyond that there was considerable diversity. Unethical authorship was mentioned in 54.6% of the misconduct definitions, followed by unethical publication practices (36.4%), conflict of interest mismanagement (36.4%), unethical peer review (31.8%), misconduct related to misconduct investigations (27.3%), poor record keeping (27.3%), other deception (27.3%), serious deviations (22.7%), violating confidentiality (22.7%), and human or animal research violations (22.7%). Having a national policy was positively associated with research and development funding ranking and intensiveness. To promote integrity in international research collaborations, countries should seek to harmonize and clarify misconduct definitions and develop procedures for adjudicating conflicts when harmonization does not occur.

  10. Using Post-Study-Abroad Experiences to Enhance International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kevin W.; Jendzurski, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Many study abroad experiences offer opportunities for a broadened global perspective gleaned from interpersonal engagement with cultural others in an international setting. Unfortunately, and far too often, the campus majority who do not have this firsthand travel experience remain disengaged and might feel excluded. This article contends that…

  11. 2012 Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas (Varenna, Italy, 27-31 August 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabet, Xavier; Sauter, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    The 2012 Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas was very fruitful. A broad variety of topics was addressed, covering turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), edge physics, and radio frequency (RF) wave heating. Moreover, the scope of the meeting was extended this year to include the physics of materials and diagnostics for burning plasmas. This evolution reflects the complexity of problems at hand in fusion, some of them triggered by the construction of ITER and JT-60SA. Long-standing problems without immediate consequences have sometimes become an urgent matter in that context. One may refer to, for instance, the choice of plasma facing components or the design of control systems. Another characteristic of these workshops is the interplay between various domains of plasma physics. For instance, MHD modes are currently investigated with gyrokinetic codes, kinetic effects are included in MHD stability analysis more and more, and turbulence is now accounted for in wave propagation problems. This is proof of cross-fertilization and is certainly a healthy sign for our community. Finally, introducing some novelty in the programme does not prevent from us respecting old traditions. As usual, many presentations were dedicated to numerical simulations. Combining advanced numerical techniques with elaborated analytical theory is certainly a trademark of the Varenna-Lausanne Workshop, which was respected again this year. The quality and size of the scientific output from this workshop is shown in this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion; a further 26 papers have already appeared in Journal of Physics: Conference Series in December 2012. We hope the readers will enjoy this special issue, and find therein knowledge and inspiration.

  12. A Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Thick Welded Joints of a Cr - Mo Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I. Kon; Chien, Yi Cheng

    2015-07-01

    The effect of stress-relieving tempering on the mechanical properties of a welded joint of a high-strength low-alloy steel SAE 4130 (0.3% C - 1% Cr - 0.25% Mo) obtained by multipass arc welding with nonconsumable electrode is studied. The steel is quenched and tempered before the welding. An optimum tempering mode providing a good combination of the characteristics of strength, ductility and toughness of the welded joint is suggested.

  13. Computer Simulation in the Teaching of Translation and International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, Richard D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the National Simulation in International Studies and Translation Program which links international studies and foreign languages programs at a number of universities. This program provides a natural context for the exercise of translation for the language student and an authenticity of experience for students of international politics.…

  14. A comparative evaluation of the Adaptive knee and Catech knee joints: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jepson, F; Datta, D; Harris, I; Heller, B; Howitt, J; McLean, J

    2008-03-01

    The Adaptive knee joint is a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee that incorporates both pneumatic and hydraulic control in one electronic unit. Pneumatic control is said to provide control during swing phase and the hydraulic control during the stance phase of the gait. This hybrid controller is triggered by a computer contained within the knee that responds to input from force, time and angle sensors. The microprocessor then selects an appropriate speed and stability setting. The Catech knee joint is a conventional hydraulic knee joint. The aim of this study was to compare the Adaptive and Catech knee joints in established trans-femoral amputees. The patients meeting the inclusion criteria were all established trans-femoral amputees using the Catech knee joint. The study was carried out by performing gait analysis, assessing energy requirements using the Physiological Cost Index (PCI) and using questionnaires. There was no significant benefit gained from the use of the Adaptive knee over the Catech knee joint in our small study group.

  15. Geometric focusing of internal waves: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmakova, Natalia; Ermanyuk, Evgeny; Voisin, Bruno; Flór, Jan-Bert

    2015-11-01

    Mixing of the abyssal ocean plays a decisive role in large-scale ocean circulation and is believed to be caused by the nonlinear breaking of internal tides. Previous studies of two- and three-dimensional cases considered the generation of diverging waves by simple oscillating bodies such as a cylinder (e.g. Mowbray and Rarity 1967) or a sphere (e.g. King et al. 2009, Ermanyuk et al. 2011). We here consider converging waves as generated by a horizontally oscillating torus. The energy focuses and therefore the waves are more susceptible to overturning and breaking. LIF and PIV techniques are used to measure respectively the isopycnal displacement and the velocity. We have considered linear and nonlinear wave generation as a function of the Keulegan-Carpenter number, here adapted to the focusing waves. For small oscillation amplitude strong velocity amplification is observed in the focal zone, consistent with linear theory. Increasing the oscillation amplitude causes nonlinear effects and in particular the generation of higher harmonics and overturning in the focal zone. In addition, the focal zone acts as a wave source. Increase of the Stokes and Reynolds numbers leads to wave turbulence in the focal zone. Supported by LabEx Osug@2020 (Investissements d'avenir - ANR10LABX56).

  16. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  17. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: ICILS 2013 User Guide for the International Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Michael, Ed.; Carstens, Ralph, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) 2013, conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), studied how students in different countries develop the knowledge, understanding, attitudes, dispositions, and skills that comprise computer and information literacy (CIL). The aim…

  18. Experimental Study of the Compression Response of Fluted-Core Composite Panels with Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Marc R.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Guzman, J. Carlos; McCarville, Douglas; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Fluted-core sandwich composites consist of integral angled web members spaced between laminate face sheets, and may have the potential to provide benefits over traditional sandwich composites for certain aerospace applications. However, fabrication of large autoclave-cured fluted-core cylindrical shells with existing autoclaves will require that the shells be fabricated in segments, and joined longitudinally to form a complete barrel. Two different longitudinal fluted-core joint designs were considered experimentally in this study. In particular, jointed fluted-core-composite panels were tested in longitudinal compression because longitudinal compression is the primary loading condition in dry launch-vehicle barrel sections. One of the joint designs performed well in comparison with unjointed test articles, and the other joint design failed at loads approximately 14% lower than unjointed test articles. The compression-after-impact (CAI) performance of jointed fluted-core composites was also investigated by testing test articles that had been subjected to 6 ft-lb impacts. It was found that such impacts reduced the load-carrying capability by 9% to 40%. This reduction is dependent on the joint concept, component flute size, and facesheet thickness.

  19. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  20. Pilot study of the short-term effects of range-of-motion exercise for the temporomandibular joint in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Shigemitsu; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Taguchi, Nozomu; Ogi, Nobumi; Kurita, Kenichi; Ito, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effectiveness of a short-term exercise program combining range-of-motion exercise for the temporomandibular joint and self-traction therapy in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants comprised 36 females with jaw trismus and moderate to severe functional pain. The range-of-motion exercise for the temporomandibular joint was performed at the first visit by the therapist, and the patients were instructed to perform self-traction therapy in the morning and during daily bathing until the next visit 2 weeks later. Maximum mouth opening distance and the visual analogue scale score were used to compare pain on motion and mastication as well as the impact of the program on daily activities at the first consultation and 2 weeks later. [Results] All symptoms were significantly improved after 2 weeks of treatment. [Conclusion] A program that combines exercise for the temporomandibular joint and self-traction therapy can improve range of motion at the joint in the short term and reduce pain and difficulty associated with daily activity in patients with temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction. The results of this study suggest that such a program can serve as an effective conservative treatment. PMID:28265156

  1. Assessment of ankle and hindfoot stability and joint pressures using a human cadaveric model of a large lateral talar process excision: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Sands, Andrew; White, Charles; Blankstein, Michael; Zderic, Ivan; Wahl, Dieter; Ernst, Manuela; Windolf, Markus; Hagen, Jennifer E; Richards, R Geoff; Stoffel, Karl; Gueorguiev, Boyko

    2015-03-01

    Lateral talar process fragment excision may be followed by hindfoot instability and altered biomechanics. There is controversy regarding the ideal fragment size for internal fixation versus excision and a concern that excision of a large fragment may lead to significant instability. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a simulated large lateral talar process excision on ankle and subtalar joint stability.A custom-made seesaw rig was designed to apply inversion/eversion stress loading on 7 fresh-frozen human cadaveric lower legs and investigate them in pre-excision, 5 cm and 10 cm lateral talar process fragment excision states. Anteroposterior radiographs were taken to assess ankle and subtalar joint tilt and calculate angular change from neutral hindfoot alignment to 10-kg forced inversion/eversion. Ankle joint pressures and contact areas were measured under 30-kg axial load in neutral hindfoot alignment.In comparison to the pre-excision state, no significantly different mediolateral angular change was observed in the subtalar joint after 5 and 10 cm lateral talar process fragment excision in inversion and eversion. With respect to the ankle joint, 10-cm fragment excision produced significantly bigger inversion tibiotalar tilt compared with the pre-excision state, P = .04. No significant change of the ankle joint pressure and contact area was detected after 5 and 10-cm excision in comparison with the pre-excison state.An excision of up to 10 cm of the lateral talar process does not cause a significant instability at the level of the subtalar joint but might be a destabilizing factor at the ankle joint under inversion stress. The latter could be related to extensive soft tissue dissection required for resection.

  2. A Guide. Planning and Funding International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Maurice

    How can colleges and universities best plan for international programs? Where are applications made for funding? This brochure is an attempt to provide an initial response to these questions and to offer some general guidelines. The list of sources of funding are suggestive, not exhaustive. It is geared to the institution that has not been…

  3. Study Abroad Ghana: An International Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Alice; Thompson, Abigail Mercy

    2013-01-01

    The global nature of social problems indicates how important it is for social workers to be involved in international issues. For example, overseas experience in social work programs is in consonance with the Council on Social Work Education's emphasis on global context of social work practice. In view of this, some schools of social work are…

  4. Static and dynamic deflection studies of the SRM aft case-nozzle joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, David C.; Kos, Lawrence D.; Torres, Isaias

    1989-01-01

    The redesign of the joints on the solid rocket motor (SRM) has prompted the need for analyzing the behavior of the joints using several different types of analyses. The types of analyses performed include modal analysis, static analysis, transient response analysis, and base driving response analysis. The forces used in these analyses to drive the mathematical model include SRM internal chamber pressure, nozzle blowout and side forces, shuttle vehicle lift-off dynamics, SRM pressure transient rise curve, gimbal forces and moments, actuator gimbal loads, and vertical and radial bolt preloads. The math model represented the SRM from the aft base tangent point (1,823.95 in) all the way back to the nozzle, where a simplified, tuned nozzle model was attached. The new design used the radial bolts as an additional feature to reduce the gap opening at the aft dome/nozzle fixed housing interface.

  5. Immediate Effect of Grade IV Inferior Hip Joint Mobilization on Hip Abductor Torque: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Makofsky, Howard; Panicker, Siji; Abbruzzese, Jeanine; Aridas, Cynthia; Camp, Michael; Drakes, Jonelle; Franco, Caroline; Sileo, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Joint mobilization and manipulation stimulate mechanoreceptors, which may influence the joint and surrounding muscles. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effect of grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization on hip abductor torque. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (grade I inferior hip joint mobilization) or an experimental group (grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization). Subjects performed a pre- and post-intervention test of five isometric repetitions on the Cybex Normö dynamometer; the average torque was determined for both pre- and post-intervention measurements. These data were analyzed using the independent samples t-test with the significance level set at P<0.05. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups for an increase in hip abductor torque in the experimental group (P=0.03). The experimental group demonstrated a 17.35% increase in average torque whereas the control group demonstrated a 3.68% decrease in average torque. These findings are consistent with other studies demonstrating that the use of grade IV non-thrust mobilization improves strength immediately post-intervention in healthy individuals. The results of this pilot study provide physical therapists with further support for the utilization of manual therapy in conjunction with therapeutic exercise to enhance muscle strength. PMID:19066650

  6. Joint shear strength of FRP reinforced concrete beam-column joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, Jagadeesan; Kumaran, Ganapathy

    2011-03-01

    An assessment of the joint shear strength of exterior concrete beam-column joints reinforced internally with Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) reinforcements under monotonically increasing load on beams keeping constant load on columns is carried out in this study. Totally eighteen numbers of specimens are cast and tested for different parametric conditions like beam longitudinal reinforcement ratio, concrete strength, column reinforcement ratio, joint aspect ratio and influence of the joint stirrups at the joint. Also finite element analysis is performed to simulate the behaviour of the beam-column joints under various parametric conditions. Based on this study, a modified design equation is proposed for assessing the joint shear strength of the GFRP reinforced beam-column specimens based on the experimental results and the review of the prevailing design equations.

  7. Highlights From the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists/ International Transporter Consortium Joint Workshop on Drug Transporters in Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion: From the Bench to the Bedside - Clinical Pharmacology Considerations.

    PubMed

    Ronaldson, P T; Bauer, B; El-Kattan, A F; Shen, H; Salphati, L; Louie, S W

    2016-11-01

    The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists/International Transporter Consortium Joint Workshop on Drug Transporters in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion was held with the objective of discussing innovative advances in transporter pharmacology. Specific topics included (i) transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB); (ii) emerging transport proteins; (iii) recent advances in achieving hepatoselectivity and optimizing clearance for organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrates; (iv) utility of animal models for transporter studies; and (v) clinical correlation of transporter polymorphisms. Here, we present state-of-the-art highlights from this workshop in these key areas of focus.

  8. Case study for international remote machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Grier C. I.; Kao, Yung-Chou

    1995-08-01

    Owing to the more enhanced networking, the designed data for manufacturing can be transmitted internationally. Therefore, the production of the potential product at one side of the world according to the design requirement at the other side of the world is possible and quicker than ever before. The shipment can be eliminated by producing the product at the potential market place. This paper demonstrates the development of a machining system showing the manufacture of a product based on this idea. Unix, Microsoft Windows, and NFS under the LAN and Internet environment are adopted for data communication and message passing in the devised international remote machining system. The personal computer is the server of the machining center. A C program is developed for the direct control of the machining center through DNC2 interface. The command of machining process is issued from Sun Sparc station to the personal computer through Internet. The devised system structure can also be extended to link with an automatic workpiece loading system, e.g., robot an AGV, to form an automatic machining cell for CIM. The requirements of achieving such an international remote machining cell that links machining center and robot are also discussed.

  9. Biomechanical effect of increasing or decreasing degrees of freedom for surgery of trapeziometacarpal joint arthritis: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Domalain, Mathieu F; Seitz, William H; Evans, Peter J; Li, Zong-Ming

    2011-11-01

    Osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint can be treated by arthrodesis and arthroplasty, which potentially decreases or increases the degrees of freedom (DoF) of the joint, respectively. The aim of our study was to bring novel biomechanical insights into these joint surgery procedures by investigating the influence of DoF at the TMC joint on muscle and joint forces in the thumb. A musculoskeletal model of the thumb was developed to equilibrate a 1 N external force in various directions while the thumb assumed key and pulp pinch postures. Muscle and joint forces were computed with an optimization method. In comparison to that of the 2-DoF (intact joint) condition, muscle forces slightly decreased in the 0-DoF (arthrodesis) condition, but drastically increased in the 3-DoF (arthroplasty) condition. TMC joint forces in the 3-DoF condition were 12 times larger than the 2-DoF joint. This study contributes to a further understanding of the biomechanics of the intact and surgically repaired TMC joint and addresses the biomechanical consequences of changing a joint's DoF by surgery. 

  10. Studies on the Performance of RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened Using Different Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheela, S.; Anu Geetha, B.

    2012-02-01

    Many reinforced concrete structures in our country are in a deteriorated or distressed state. Hence strengthening such structures or reducing the load limit on them is becoming necessary to extend their service life. Beam-column joint is the crucial zone in a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame since it is subjected to large forces during severe ground shaking. In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the cost-effective composite material and optimum number of layers of composite material for strengthening beam-column joints. Specimens were strengthened using ferrocement, glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) and studied their behaviour under static as well as cyclic loading. It was found that the rotation at ultimate moment of all the strengthened beam-column joints were greater than that of the control specimens. The specimens strengthened with more number of layers of strengthening material showed better moment-rotation characteristics. The joints strengthened using GFRP showed better performance in terms of ultimate load, moment rotation characteristics, ductility, energy absorption capacity and strength-to-cost ratio, when compared to that of the specimens strengthened with other composite materials. However, CFRP strengthened specimens showed good ductility and better cracking characteristics and prevented the failure at the joint.

  11. Grading Osteoarthritic Changes of the Zygapophyseal Joints from Radiographs: A Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Little, Joshua W.; Grieve, Thomas J.; Cramer, Gregory D.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Laptook, Evelyn E.; Stiefel, Joseph P.D.; Linaker, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested the reliability of a 5-point ordinal scale used to grade the severity of degenerative changes of zygapophyseal (Z) joints on standard radiographs. Methods Modifications were made to Kellgren’s grading system to improve agreement for grading the severity of osteoarthritic changes in lumbar Z joints. These included adding 1 grade of no degeneration, multiple radiographic views, and structured examiner training. Thirty packets of radiographic files were obtained, which included representation of all 5 grades including no degeneration (0) and Kellgren’s 4-point (1 to 4) joint degeneration classification criteria. Radiographs were digitized to create a radiographic atlas that was given to examiners for individual study and blinded evaluation sessions. Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement was determined by weighted kappa (κw) from the examination of 79 Z joints (25 packets). Results Using the modified scale and following training, examiners demonstrated a moderate to substantial level of inter-rater agreement (κw = 0.57, 0.60, and 0.68). Intra-rater agreement was moderate (κw = 0.42 and 0.54). Conclusions The modified Kellgren 5-point grading system provides acceptable intra- and inter-rater reliability when examiners are adequately trained. This grading system may be a useful method for future investigations assessing radiographic osteoarthritis of the Z joints. v PMID:26118786

  12. Developing and piloting a multifactorial intervention to address participation and quality of life in nursing home residents with joint contractures (JointConImprove): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Bartoszek, Gabriele; Beutner, Katrin; Klingshirn, Hanna; Saal, Susanne; Stephan, Anna-Janina; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint contractures are common problems in frail older people in nursing homes. Irrespective of the exact extent of older individuals in geriatric care settings living with joint contractures, they appear to be a relevant problem. Also, the new emphasis on the syndrome of joint contractures, e. g. by the German statutory long term care insurance, led to an increase in assessment and documentation efforts and preventive interventions in clinical care. However, more attention should be paid to the actual situation of older individuals in nursing homes with prevalent joint contractures, particularly their experience of related activity limitations and participation restrictions. Thus, the aim of this study is 1) to develop a tailored intervention to improve functioning, and especially participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes and 2) to test the feasibility of the intervention accompanied by a rigorous process evaluation. Methods: The complex intervention, which will be developed in this project follows the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework and integrates the perspectives of all potentially relevant user groups, from the affected individuals to clinicians and researchers. The development process will comprise a systematic literature review, reanalysis of existing data and the integration of the knowledge of the affected individuals and experts. The developed intervention including a comprehensive process evaluation will be pilot tested with residents with joint contractures in three nursing homes. Discussion: The projected study will provide a tailored intervention to improve functioning, participation and quality of life in older residents with joint contractures in nursing homes. With this focus, the intervention will support patient relevant outcomes. The pilot study including process evaluation will offer a first opportunity to indicate the size of the intervention’s effect and prepare

  13. Acquisition Risks in a World of Joint Capabilities: A Study of Interdependency Complexity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    bäÉîÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = Acquisition Risks in a World of Joint Capabilities: A Study of...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition Risks in a World of Joint Capabilities: A Study of Interdependency Complexity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...systems???that are capable of enabling joint operations in the battlefield. This research examines DoD acquisition from the context of a network of

  14. STUDY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT JOINT AGAINST SEISMIC DISPLACEMENT IN UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Hisanori; Aibe, Takeaki; Soejima, Sumireko

    In the current seismic design of underground structure, only earthquake shaking is considered and the influence of fault displacement is not considered. However, since linear underground structure such as tunnels have a possibility to be constructed across faults, they have a probability to get severe damage due to the fault displacement. In this study, Soil-underground structure-seismic fault model is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis considering slip and exfoliation between structure and the effect of fault displacement on the underground structure are evaluated. Further more the applicability of the earthquake resistant joints used for underground structure as countermeasure of ground excitations to fault displacements are studied by the numerical analysis, and it is clarified that the more increasing the number of joints and the decreasing of the space of joints introduce the more reducing of cross sectional forces.

  15. Psychological Distress in International University Students: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, Nigar Gohar; Dempsey, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Australia is a much sought-after destination of study for many thousands of international university students. However, tertiary study brings with it many challenges that may potentially precipitate psychological distress in international students. Psychological distress may be experienced in various ways. The aim of this study was to investigate…

  16. International Space Station Electrodynamic Tether Reboost Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will require periodic reboost due to atmospheric aerodynamic drag. This is nominally achieved through the use of thruster firings by the attached Progress M spacecraft. Many Progress flights to the ISS are required annually. Electrodynamic tethers provide an attractive alternative in that they can provide periodic reboost or continuous drag cancellation using no consumables, propellant, nor conventional propulsion elements. The system could also serve as an emergency backup reboost system used only in the event resupply and reboost are delayed for some reason.

  17. Acromioclavicular joint pain in patients with adhesive capsulitis: a prospective outcome study.

    PubMed

    Anakwenze, Oke A; Hsu, Jason E; Kim, Jae S; Abboud, Joseph A

    2011-09-09

    Diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis is a clinical diagnosis based on history and physical examination. Afflicted patients exhibit active and passive loss of motion in all planes and a positive capsular stretch sign. The effect of adhesive capsulitis on acromioclavicular biomechanics leading to tenderness has not been documented in the literature. This study reports on the incidence of acromioclavicular tenderness in the presence of adhesive capsulitis. Furthermore, we note the natural history of such acromioclavicular joint pain in relation to that of adhesive capsulitis. Over a 2-year period (2005-2007), 84 patients undergoing initial evaluation for adhesive capsulitis were prospectively examined with the use of validated outcome measures and physical examination. Acromioclavicular joint tenderness results were compared and analyzed on initial evaluation and final follow-up of at least 1 year. Forty-eight patients (57%) with adhesive capsulitis had acromioclavicular joint pain on examination. At final follow-up, as range of motion improved, a significant increase in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons/Penn shoulder score and decrease in number of patients with acromioclavicular pain was noted with only 6 patients with residual pain (P<.05). In the presence of adhesive capsulitis, there is not only compensatory scapulothoracic motion but also acromioclavicular motion. This often results in transient symptoms at the acromioclavicular joint, which abate as the frozen shoulder resolves and glenohumeral motion improves. This is important to recognize to avoid unnecessary invasive treatment of the acromioclavicular joint when the patient presents with adhesive capsulitis.

  18. Collaboration in Technology. An Exploratory Study of United States Involvement in International Cooperative Technology Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN N 3 OHAN UNCLSSIFIED NAY 66 F/ O 5/𔃽 "L 7.0 j 1600 Wn. 22 I~1i L 12 1&0I M2. 1.25 1LAi ff . MICROcOPy RESOLUTiON TEST CHART...NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANOAROS-1963-A _•S S. o I I- S m " 0 COLLABORATION IN TECHNOLOGY: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF UNITED STATES INVOLVEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL...nature of success in the interna - tional joint technology program environment and associations wittl success of possible independent or controllable

  19. The distinct effects of internalizing weight bias: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2016-06-01

    Both experiencing and internalizing weight bias are associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes, but internalization may be a more potent predictor of these outcomes. The current study aimed to differentiate between causal effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias on emotional responses and psychological well-being. Adults with overweight/obesity (N=260) completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to focus on either the experience or internalization of weight bias, and completed measures of affect, self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Results indicated that the Internalization condition led to more negative affect, less positive affect, and lower self-esteem than the Experience condition. The Internalization condition also led to heightened body dissatisfaction among men, but not women. These findings suggest that weight bias internalization may be a stronger predictor of poor mental and physical health than experiences alone, and carry implications for developing weight bias interventions.

  20. The origin of islands in the Kandalaksha Gulf of the White Sea: joint work of internal and external geodynamic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosevich, Natalia; Romanovskaya, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The modern White Sea basin is a part of the encounter zone between the East European Platform and of the Fennoscandian Shield. The Kandalaksha Gulf in its northwest lies on the Mesoarchean-Paleoproterozoic structure known as the White Sea Shift Belt. In the Oligocene, it entered its neotectonic stage. Geologically, there are two structural storeys beneath the seafloor of the Kandalaksha Gulf: 1) crystalline bedrock of the Archean White Sea complex; 2) a cover of sediment consisting of three layers: Riphean sandstones, terrigenous Vendian deposits; a cloak of Pleistocene and Holocene deposits and sediments - glacial drifts, transitional glaciomarine sediments and purely marine sediments. The modern White Sea is a young basin formed just 10 to 12 ka. The geological and geomorphic history of the White Sea region was very complicated, with various and often conflicting tectonic movements. Besides the postglacial isostatic rise of Scandinavia amounted to some 100 meters in the White Sea area. The White Sea has numerous islands that are very different in the geological-geomorphological and genetic senses because their origin is the result of interactions between various endogenous and exogenous processes. Large and detailed scale geological and morphological researches of the islands at the southern and northern coast of the Kandalaksha Gulf have been carried out. Landforms of the islands were produced by the joint effects of such processes as (1) glacial-tectonic effects and marine wave action, (2) tidal and surge effects; (3) glacial-tectonic, marine, and gravity effects, and (4) glacial-tectonic, marine, lake, and biogenic effects (Kosevich, 2015). The relief structure of the islands has the following regularities: 1) structures of the northern coast islands are more often landforms that are composed of loose deposits with small sites of structural denudation residual outcrops; 2) the structures of the southern coast islands are typically combinations of loose

  1. Programs of Study: Year 2 Joint Technical Report. Research Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Research Center for Career and Technical Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In January 2010, the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) issued a progress report on three studies being conducted by the Center that examine the implementation and outcomes of Programs of Study (POS), which were required in the 2006 reauthorization of the federal legislation for career and technical education…

  2. International photonics training: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, Dan; Massa, Nicholas; Donnelly, Judith F.; Hanes, Fenna

    2007-06-01

    From 2004, the Center for Science Education and Training (CSET) participated to the European Union-funded educational network "Hands-on Science". The aim of the Romanian team was to transform teachers and students from end-users of educational aids to active designers and developers of instructional materials. Several science fields were identified, including photonics. The team at CSET is now focusing on: lasers and their applications, optical fiber communications, solar energy as a sustainable source, and the use of optical spectroscopy in physics and chemistry. CSET initiated an international collaboration with the New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) in Boston, Mass., when the Center enrolled an experienced Romanian high school science teacher in a twelve-week "Introduction to Photonics" laboratory-based professional development course. The course was developed by NEBHE through an Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program grant from National Science Foundation and is designed for high school and community college educators from both science and technology instructional areas. The paper reports the experience of this international participation which was made possible since the course is delivered via the Internet by Three Rivers Community College, Norwich, Conn. Its impact on photonics education in Romania and the USA is analyzed, as the participant teacher shares her experiences with teachers and faculty in the "Introduction to Photonics" course and with those enrolled into the Romanian "Hands-on-Science" program.

  3. Segmentation and measurement of collagen fibers for shoulder and joint therapy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mascio, L.

    1994-11-15

    Various shoulder instabilities are debilitating, especially in individuals who perform overhead activities. Thermal modification of soft tissues in joints may allow precise alteration of these tissues` mechanical and/or structural properties to enhance joint function without inducing cell death or an inflammatory response. Several studies have evaluated laser energy for tissue welding. The collective findings are promising, and the next step is to identify the mechanisms responsible for laser-induced capsular tissue alternation, and the short- and long-term effects of non-ablative laser energy on joint capsular tissue. One step toward this goal is to compare the effect of three laser energy densities on the histologic properties of the tissue evaluating the architecture of the collagen (including density, fibril diameter distribution, and interfibrillar space) in sheep at various time intervals after surgery. The specific computer algorithms that are being used to make these measurements will be described.

  4. Joint modeling of clinical efficacy and safety with an application to diabetes studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Haoda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of drug development is to evaluate a drug's efficacy and safety profile. For a personalized medicine, it is important for patients and health care providers to understand the efficacy and safety trade-off when selecting a dose for a patient. In this article, we propose three different methods for jointly modeling the clinical safety and efficacy endpoints. These three methods model the correlation relationship in three different ways: modeling the joint distribution by a copula method, modeling conditional distributions, and modeling their correlations through individual means by a hierarchical model. We compare these three methods through simulations and apply these methods to a data set from a diabetes study.

  5. Joint Global War on Terror (GWOT) Vascular Injury Study 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    underway and we have developed the surveillance program design and identified Service Members who incurred vascular injury. To date, four research nurse ...Current study staff consists of a program manager and four research nurses . The GWOT 2 Wartime Vascular Injury Study is an ongoing effort; therefore, the... Nurse , 2-4 April 2014, poster presentation o Vascular discharge education and follow-up care subsequent to wartime vascular trauma; Presented in San

  6. Independent Senior Women Who Travel Internationally: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Nine independent women over age 55 who traveled internationally were investigated through a qualitative case study. The purpose of the study was to explore the women's attitudes, actions, and motivations during and after their international travel experiences. The adult, aging, experiential, and transformational theories of researchers such as…

  7. International Civic and Citizenship Education Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Fraillon, Julian; Ainley, John; Losito, Bruno; Kerr, David

    2008-01-01

    This document outlines the framework and assessment design for the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). Over the past 50 years, IEA has conducted comparative research studies focusing on educational policies, practices, and…

  8. Recreational sport activity after total replacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Daniilidis, Kiriakos; Marinozzi, Andrea; Denaro, Vincenzo; Gosheger, Georg; Pejman, Ziai; Buchhorn, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    First metatarsophalangeal joint replacement is an alternative surgical procedure to arthrodesis in the treatment of moderate-to-severe hallux rigidus. However, few studies have been published about functional outcome after joint reconstructive procedures for hallux rigidus. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical, radiological and functional outcome, with special regard to recreational and sports activity, after first metatarsophalangeal joint replacement in patients affected by hallux rigidus grade III. Twenty-three patients who had undergone total joint replacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint were examined preoperatively and three, six, 12 and 18 months postoperatively. All patients (mean age of 57.0 ± 3.7 years) received a non-cemented TOEFIT-PLUS™ implant by one surgeon. Clinical scores (AOFAS score and VAS), radiological examination, patient satisfaction and sport participation were used to evaluate treatment outcome and radiolucent lines. The mean AOFAS score showed a significant improvement from 44.6 ± 7.2 points preoperatively to an average of 82.5 ± 14.4 points at last follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean total ROM of the first MTP joint increased from 28.1 ± 4.9 degrees preoperatively to 52.7 ± 15.7 degrees postoperatively (p < 0.001). After surgery, 91.3% of the patients were able to resume at least one recreational activity. Total arthroplasty for the treatment of hallux rigidus in an active patient population revealed good clinical and functional results. However, postoperative recreational sport activity showed a decrease in comparison to the pre-arthritic state. Further follow-up is necessary to quantify loosening risk in active patients after total hallux arthroplasty. PMID:20069300

  9. Recreational sport activity after total replacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Daniilidis, Kiriakos; Martinelli, Nicolò; Marinozzi, Andrea; Denaro, Vincenzo; Gosheger, Georg; Pejman, Ziai; Buchhorn, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    First metatarsophalangeal joint replacement is an alternative surgical procedure to arthrodesis in the treatment of moderate-to-severe hallux rigidus. However, few studies have been published about functional outcome after joint reconstructive procedures for hallux rigidus. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical, radiological and functional outcome, with special regard to recreational and sports activity, after first metatarsophalangeal joint replacement in patients affected by hallux rigidus grade III. Twenty-three patients who had undergone total joint replacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint were examined preoperatively and three, six, 12 and 18 months postoperatively. All patients (mean age of 57.0 ± 3.7 years) received a non-cemented TOEFIT-PLUS™ implant by one surgeon. Clinical scores (AOFAS score and VAS), radiological examination, patient satisfaction and sport participation were used to evaluate treatment outcome and radiolucent lines. The mean AOFAS score showed a significant improvement from 44.6 ± 7.2 points preoperatively to an average of 82.5 ± 14.4 points at last follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean total ROM of the first MTP joint increased from 28.1 ± 4.9 degrees preoperatively to 52.7 ± 15.7 degrees postoperatively (p < 0.001). After surgery, 91.3% of the patients were able to resume at least one recreational activity. Total arthroplasty for the treatment of hallux rigidus in an active patient population revealed good clinical and functional results. However, postoperative recreational sport activity showed a decrease in comparison to the pre-arthritic state. Further follow-up is necessary to quantify loosening risk in active patients after total hallux arthroplasty.

  10. SuperJet International case study: a business network start-up in the aeronautics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corallo, Angelo; de Maggio, Marco; Storelli, Davide

    This chapter presents the SuperJet International case study, a start-up in the aeronautics industry characterized by a process-oriented approach and a complex and as yet evolving network of partnerships and collaborations. The chapter aims to describe the key points of the start-up process, highlighting common factors and differences compared to the TEKNE Methodology of Change, with particular reference to the second and third phase, namely, the design and deployment of new techno-organizational systems. The SuperJet International startup is presented as a case study where strategic and organizational aspects have been jointly conceived from a network-driven perspective. The chapter compares some of the guidelines of the TEKNE Methodology of Change with experiences and actual practices deriving from interviews with key players in SJI's start-up process.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  12. Affiliation, joint venture or PSO? Case studies show why provider strategies differ.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    Joint venture, affiliation or PSO? Here are three case studies of providers who chose different paths under Medicare risk, plus some key questions you'll want to ask of your own provider organization. Learn from these examples so you'll make the best contracting decisions.

  13. Characterizing Teaching Effectiveness in the Joint Action Theory in Didactics: An Exploratory Study in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensevy, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of two consecutive reading sessions conducted in primary school by two different teachers. Our purpose is twofold. From a theoretical viewpoint, we propose a tentative set of conditions of teaching effectiveness by relying on the Joint Action Theory in Didactics. From a methodological viewpoint, drawing on…

  14. Report of the Joint Study Committee on Student Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    Student governance at El Camino College was studied by means of a review of data related to student characteristics, open hearing with students, a student survey, meetings with members of Student Councils and club representatives, and meetings with the administration and members of the Board of Trustees. These activities showed that there was an…

  15. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  16. Prospective evaluation of 2 acute graft-versus-host (GVHD) grading systems: a joint Société Française de Greffe de Moëlle et Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC), Dana Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI), and International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Jean-Yves; Klein, John P; Lee, Stephanie J; Milpied, Noël; Blaise, Didier; Antin, Joseph H; Leblond, Véronique; Ifrah, Norbert; Jouet, Jean-Pierre; Loberiza, Fausto; Ringden, Olle; Barrett, A John; Horowitz, Mary M; Socié, Gérard

    2005-08-15

    The most commonly used grading system for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was introduced 30 years ago by Glucksberg; a revised system was developed by the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) in 1997. To prospectively compare the 2 classifications and to evaluate the effect of duration and severity of aGVHD on survival, we conducted a multicenter study of 607 patients receiving T-cell-replete allografts, scored weekly for aGVHD in 18 transplantation centers. Sixty-nine percent of donors were HLA-identical siblings and 28% were unrelated donors. The conditioning regimen included total body irradiation in 442 (73%) patients. The 2 classifications performed similarly in explaining variability in survival by aGVHD grade, although the Glucksberg classification predicted early survival better. There was less physician bias or error in assigning grades with the IBMTR scoring system. With either system, only the maximum observed grade had prognostic significance for survival; neither time of onset nor progression from an initially lower grade of aGVHD was associated with survival once maximum grade was considered. Regardless of scoring system, aGVHD severity accounted for only a small percentage of observed variation in survival. Validity of these results in populations receiving peripheral blood transplants or nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens remains to be tested.

  17. Joint Modeling of Anatomical and Functional Connectivity for Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Yogesh; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Golland, Polina

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel probabilistic framework to merge information from diffusion weighted imaging tractography and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging correlations to identify connectivity patterns in the brain. In particular, we model the interaction between latent anatomical and functional connectivity and present an intuitive extension to population studies. We employ the EM algorithm to estimate the model parameters by maximizing the data likelihood. The method simultaneously infers the templates of latent connectivity for each population and the differences in connectivity between the groups. We demonstrate our method on a schizophrenia study. Our model identifies significant increases in functional connectivity between the parietal/posterior cingulate region and the frontal lobe and reduced functional connectivity between the parietal/posterior cingulate region and the temporal lobe in schizophrenia. We further establish that our model learns predictive differences between the control and clinical populations, and that combining the two modalities yields better results than considering each one in isolation. PMID:21878411

  18. Phase II study of glucosamine with chondroitin on aromatase inhibitor-associated joint symptoms in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Heather; Crew, Katherine D.; Shao, Theresa; Kranwinkel, Grace; Kalinsky, Kevin; Maurer, Matthew; Brafman, Lois; Insel, Beverly; Tsai, Wei Yann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Many women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer discontinue effective aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment due to joint symptoms. Methods We conducted a single-arm, open-label, phase II study evaluating glucosamine-sulfate (1,500 mg/day)+ chondroitin-sulfate (1,200 mg/day) for 24 weeks to treat joint pain/stiffness in postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer who developed moderate-to-severe joint pain after initiating AIs. The primary endpoint was improvement in pain/stiffness at week 24 assessed by the Outcome Measure in Rheumatology Clinical Trials and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) criteria. Secondary endpoints assessed changes in pain, stiffness, and function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) Index for hips/knees and the Modified Score for the Assessment and Quantification of Chronic Rheumatoid Affections of the Hands (M-SACRAH) for hands/wrists. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) assessed pain interference, severity, and worst pain. Results Of 53 patients enrolled, 39 were evaluable at week 24. From baseline to week 24, 46 % of patients improved according to OMERACT-OARSI criteria. At week 24, there were improvements (all P<0.05) in pain and function as assessed by WOMAC and M-SACRAH, and in pain interference, severity, and worst pain as assessed by BPI. Estradiol levels did not change from baseline. The most commonly reported side effects were headache (28 %), dyspepsia (15 %), and nausea (17 %). Conclusions In this single-arm study, 24 weeks of glucosamine/chondroitin resulted in moderate improvements in AI-induced arthralgias, with minimal side effects, and no changes in estradiol levels. These results suggest a need to evaluate efficacy in a placebo-controlled trial. PMID:23111941

  19. The Mast Cell Stabilizer Ketotifen Fumarate Lessens Contracture Severity and Myofibroblast Hyperplasia: A Study of a Rabbit Model of Posttraumatic Joint Contractures

    PubMed Central

    Monument, Michael J.; Hart, David A.; Befus, A. Dean; Salo, Paul T.; Zhang, Mei; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The propensity of the elbow to become stiff after trauma is widely appreciated and in this setting, the joint capsule is commonly recognized as the major motion-limiting anatomical structure. Affected joint capsules become fibrotic, characterized by myofibroblast hyperplasia and excessive collagen deposition. Mast cell hyperplasia is common within fibrotic tissue and mast cells are known to synthesize many profibrotic mediators. We have hypothesized that mast cell inhibition after skeletal injury will lessen the degree of contracture severity and will reduce myofibroblast hyperplasia within the joint capsule. Methods Posttraumatic contractures of the knee were created using a combination of intra-articular injury coupled to internal immobilization in skeletally mature, New Zealand white rabbits. Four groups of animals were studied: a non-operative control group (CON), an operative contracture group (ORC) and two-operative groups treated with a mast cell stabilizer, Ketotifen fumarate at doses of 0.5mg/kg (KF0.5) and 1.0mg/kg (KF1.0) twice daily, respectively. After 8 weeks of immobilization, flexion contractures were measured biomechanically and the posterior joint capsule was harvested for quantification of myofibroblast and mast cell numbers. Results Flexion contractures developed in the ORC group (58 ± 14°) and the severity of contracture was significantly reduced in both groups treated with Ketotifen (KF0.5: 42 ± 17° and KF1.0: 45 ± 10°, p<0.02). Joint capsule myofibroblast and mast cell numbers were significantly increased within the operative contracture group (p<0.001). In both surgical groups treated with Ketotifen, myofibroblast and mast cell numbers were significantly reduced (p<0.001). Conclusions The use of a mast cell stabilizer, Ketotifen was effective in reducing the biomechanical and cellular manifestations of joint capsule fibrosis in a rabbit model of posttraumatic joint contracture. This is suggestive that an inflammatory pathway

  20. Joint EPA/NASA/USAF Interagency Depainting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental regulations such as National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) are drivers for the implementation of environmentally compliant methodologies in the manufacture of aerospace hardware. In 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the NESHAP for the Aerospace Manufacture and Rework (Aerospace NESHAP) industry. Affected facilities were to be in compliance by September 1998. Several aerospace manufacturing operations are regulated within the Aerospace NESHAP including Depainting operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), EPA, and United States Air Force (USAF) combined resources to evaluate the performance of nine alternative depainting processes. The seven alternative depainting processes were: (1) Chemical stripping (non-methylene chloride); (2) Carbon Dioxide Blasting; (3) Xenon Flashlamp; (4) Carbon Dioxide Laser Stripping; (5) Plastic Media Blasting; (6) Sodium Bicarbonate Wet Stripping; and (7) Waterjet Blasting and Wheat Starch Blasting. All epoxy primer and polyurethane top coat system was applied to 2024-T3 clad and non-clad aluminum test specimens. Approximately 200 test specimens were evaluated in this study. Each coupon was subjected to three, four, or five complete depainting cycles. This paper discusses the conclusions from the study including the test protocol, test parameters, and achievable strip rates for the alternative depainting processes. Test data includes immersion corrosion testing, sandwich corrosion testing and hydrogen embrittlement testing for the non-methylene chloride chemical strippers. Additionally, the cumulative effect of the alternative depainting processes on the metallurgical integrity of the test substrate is addressed with the results from tensile and fatigue evaluations.

  1. Assessing uncertainties in the Noah-MP ensemble simulations of a cropland site during the Tibet Joint International Cooperation program field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo; Chen, Fei; Gan, Yanjun

    2016-08-01

    Despite the widespread use of the latest community Noah with multiparameterization (Noah-MP) land surface model, it has not been rigorously evaluated over the complex Tibetan Plateau. This study assessed uncertainties in Noah-MP simulations of a cropland site using observations from the 2008 Joint International Cooperation program field campaign. Such an assessment was conducted in the context of performing a total number of 4608 Noah-MP physics ensemble simulations using two analysis methods: the natural selection approach and Tukey's test, where the impacts of uncertainties in atmospheric forcing conditions, vegetation parameters, and subprocesses on model simulations were identified. Uncertainty in precipitation data exerts greater influence on the general behavior of Noah-MP ensemble simulations than that in the leaf area index (LAI). However, using a more realistic seasonal LAI improves the seasonal variations of surface heat fluxes. Combining a better precipitation forcing data set and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer monthly LAI significantly reduces the uncertainty range of the ensemble mean of surface heat fluxes. The uncertainty analysis results using the natural selection method are largely similar to that from Tukey's test but show some subtle differences. Both methods reveal greater uncertainties in the following subprocess schemes: canopy resistance, soil moisture threshold for evaporation, runoff and groundwater, and surface-layer parameterization for this cropland site. The uncertainty analysis identifies the parameterization schemes that demonstrably degrade model performance. The uncertainties in ensemble simulations were significantly reduced when those schemes were excluded, and it was possible to configure an optimal combination of parameterization schemes to obtain similar performance to the ensemble mean of the "best" ensemble experiment.

  2. Comparative study on submillimeter flaws in stitched T-joint carbon fiber reinforced polymer by infrared thermography, microcomputed tomography, ultrasonic c-scan and microscopic inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai; Hassler, Ulf; Genest, Marc; Fernandes, Henrique; Robitaille, Francois; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Joncas, Simon; Maldague, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Stitching is used to reduce dry-core (incomplete infusion of T-joint core) and reinforce T-joint structure. However, it may cause new types of flaws, especially submillimeter flaws. Microscopic inspection, ultrasonic c-scan, pulsed thermography, vibrothermography, and laser spot thermography are used to investigate the internal flaws in a stitched T-joint carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix composites. Then, a new microlaser line thermography is proposed. Microcomputed tomography (microCT) is used to validate the infrared results. A comparison between microlaser line thermography and microCT is performed. It was concluded that microlaser line thermography can detect the internal submillimeter defects. However, the depth and size of the defects can affect the detection results. The microporosities with a diameter of less than 54 μm are not detected in the microlaser line thermography results. Microlaser line thermography can detect the microporosity (a diameter of 0.162 mm) from a depth of 90 μm. However, it cannot detect the internal microporosity (a diameter of 0.216 mm) from a depth of 0.18 mm. The potential causes are given. Finally, a comparative study is conducted.

  3. Report on the SNL/NSF International Workshop on Joint Mechanics, Arlington, Virginia, 16-18 October 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewins, David J.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2007-11-01

    The NSF/SNL joint mechanics workshop, held in Arlington, Virginia, 16-18 October, 2006, attempted to assess the current state of the art for modeling joint mechanics for the purpose of structural dynamics calculation, to identify the underlying physics issues that must be addressed to advance the field, and to propose a path forward. Distinguished participants from several countries representing research communities that focus on very different length and time scales identified multiple challenges in bridging those scales. Additionally, two complementary points of view were developed for addressing those challenges. The first approach - the 'bottom-up' perspective - attempts to bridge scales by starting from the smallest length scale and working up. The other approach starts at the length scale of application and attempts to deduce mechanics at smaller length scales through reconciliation with laboratory observation. Because interface physics is a limiting element of predictive simulation in defense and transportation, this issue will be of continuing importance for the foreseeable future.

  4. The effect of the variation in ACL constitutive model on joint kinematics and biomechanics under different loads: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chao; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2013-04-01

    The biomechanics and function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) have been widely studied using both experimental and simulation methods. It is known that a constitutive model of joint tissue is a critical factor in the numerical simulation. Some different ligament constitutive models have been presented to describe the ACL material behavior. However, the effect of the variation in the ligament constitutive model on joint kinematics and biomechanics has still not been studied. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of an intact tibiofemoral joint was reconstructed. Three ACL constitutive models were compared under different joint loads (such as anterior tibial force, varus tibial torque, and valgus tibial torque) to investigate the effect of the change of the ACL constitutive model. The three constitutive models corresponded to an isotropic hyperelasticity model, a transversely isotropic hyperelasticity model with neo-Hookean ground substance description, and a transversely isotropic hyperelastic model with nonlinear ground substance description. Although the material properties of these constitutive equations were fitted on the same uniaxial tension stress-strain curve, the change of the ACL material constitutive model was found to induce altered joint kinematics and biomechanics. The effect of different ACL constitutive equations on joint kinematics depended on both deformation direction and load type. The variation in the ACL constitutive models would influence the joint kinematic results greatly in both the anterior and internal directions under anterior tibial force as well as some other deformations such as the anterior and medial tibial translations under valgus tibial torque, and the medial tibial translation and internal rotation under varus torque. It was revealed that the transversely isotropic hyperelastic model with nonlinear ground substance description (FE model III) was the best representation of the realistic ACL property by a

  5. Changes in temporomandibular joint spaces after arthroscopic disc repositioning: a self-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kai Hu, Ying; Abdelrehem, Ahmed; Yang, Chi; Cai, Xie Yi; Xie, Qian Yang; Sah, Manoj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Disc repositioning is a common procedure for patients with anterior disc displacement (ADD). The purpose of this retrospective record-based study was to evaluate changes in the widths of joint spaces and condylar position changes in patients with unilateral ADD following arthroscopic disc repositioning, with the healthy sides as self-control, using magnetic resonance images (MRI).Widths of anterior, superior, and posterior joint spaces (AS, SS, and PS) were measured. The condylar position was described as anterior, centric or posterior, expressed as . Paired-t test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Fifty-four records conformed to the inclusion criteria (mean age of 21.02 years). Widths of SS and PS increased significantly after surgery (P < 0.001) on the operative sides, while joint spaces of healthy sides and AS of operative sides had no significant changes. Dominant location of condyles of operative sides changed from a posterior position to an anterior position, while healthy sides were mostly centric condylar position no matter preoperatively or postoperatively. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that unilateral arthroscopic disc repositioning significantly increases the posterior and superior spaces of the affected joints, without affecting spaces of the healthy sides. PMID:28361905

  6. Experimental study of bolted connections using light gauge channel sections and packing plates at the joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Ravindra B.; Vaghe, Vishal M.

    2014-12-01

    Cold-formed structural members are being used more widely in routine structural design as the world steel industry moves from the production of hot-rolled section and plate to coil and strip, often with galvanized and/or painted coatings. Steel in this form is more easily delivered from the steel mill to the manufacturing plant where it is usually cold-rolled into open and closed section members. In the present experimental study, the use of packing plate at the joints in cold-formed channel sections may increase the load carrying capacity and also reduce the buckling of unconnected cold form channel steel plate at joints. The present study focuses on examining the experimental investigation to use mild steel as a packing plate with cold-formed channel sections by bolted connection at the joints and the connection subjected to axial tension. Series of tests are carried out with increase in the thickness of packing plate and results are observed and analyzed. Total Twelve experimental tests have been carried out on cold-formed channel tension members fastened with single as well as three numbers of bolts at the connection and from the observations the strength of the joint is increased by increasing the various thicknesses of packing plates and also the buckling of unconnected leg of channel specimen is reduced. It is analyzed by plotting the entire load versus elongation path, so that the behavior of the connection is examined.

  7. International Learning Adventures: A Phenomenological Exploration of International Backpacker Style Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Chad Alan

    2010-01-01

    Self-awareness, cultural competency, environmental consciousness, and economic empathy are often achieved through study abroad travel experiences. This phenomenological study was intended to shed light on the international backpacking study abroad experiences for college students, describing the phenomenon from the perspective of the participants…

  8. Effectively Integrating an International Field Study into the EMBA Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotner, John; Jones, Raymond; Kashlak, Roger

    2003-01-01

    An international field study (IFS) is an integral part of the EMBA program because of the various critical roles it plays. This international travel experience is a value-added activity not only as "stand alone" vehicle for understanding macro-level environments and firm-level strategic initiatives, but also as a tool that integrates other pieces…

  9. International Standards. U.S. Metric Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntoon, Robert D.; And Others

    In this first interim report on the feasibility of a United States changeover to a metric system stems from the U.S. Metric Study, a series of conclusions and recommendations, based upon a national survey of the role of SI (System's International) units in international trade and other areas of foreign relations, includes the following…

  10. A Program for High School Social Studies: International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomington Public Schools, MN.

    GRADES OR AGES: High school. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies, International relations. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material covers the school district philosophy, a description of the program, major concepts for international relations, and techniques for evaluating objectives. Material is provided for six units…

  11. Motivating the Study of International Trade: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a classroom activity for use in introductory economics courses to motivate the study of international trade. The learning activity highlights the importance of international trade in students' everyday lives by having students inventory their on-hand belongings and identify where the items were manufactured.…

  12. Integrating Material on the Internment into Anthropology and Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Karen B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes plans to use material from a seminar on integrating material about the Japanese-American internment in World War II into the curriculum of the University of California Los Angeles. Describes efforts to develop a unit on the gender and racial dimensions of internment for a women's studies course. (SLD)

  13. Subject-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics: application to the study of osteoarthritis and surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Henak, Corinne R; Anderson, Andrew E; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2013-02-01

    Advances in computational mechanics, constitutive modeling, and techniques for subject-specific modeling have opened the door to patient-specific simulation of the relationships between joint mechanics and osteoarthritis (OA), as well as patient-specific preoperative planning. This article reviews the application of computational biomechanics to the simulation of joint contact mechanics as relevant to the study of OA. This review begins with background regarding OA and the mechanical causes of OA in the context of simulations of joint mechanics. The broad range of technical considerations in creating validated subject-specific whole joint models is discussed. The types of computational models available for the study of joint mechanics are reviewed. The types of constitutive models that are available for articular cartilage are reviewed, with special attention to choosing an appropriate constitutive model for the application at hand. Issues related to model generation are discussed, including acquisition of model geometry from volumetric image data and specific considerations for acquisition of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. Approaches to model validation are reviewed. The areas of parametric analysis, factorial design, and probabilistic analysis are reviewed in the context of simulations of joint contact mechanics. Following the review of technical considerations, the article details insights that have been obtained from computational models of joint mechanics for normal joints; patient populations; the study of specific aspects of joint mechanics relevant to OA, such as congruency and instability; and preoperative planning. Finally, future directions for research and application are summarized.

  14. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.; Goossens, L.; Abbott, M.

    1996-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

  15. Smart toe® implant versus buried Kirschner wire for proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Alex; McCarty, James; Scholl, Desiree; Mar, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The surgical correction of hammer digits offers a variety of surgical treatments ranging from arthroplasty to arthrodesis, with many options for fixation. In the present study, we compared 2 buried implants for arthrodesis of lesser digit deformities: a Smart Toe® implant and a buried Kirschner wire. Both implants were placed in a prepared interphalangeal joint, did not violate other digital or metatarsal joints, and were not exposed percutaneously. A retrospective comparative study was performed of 117 digits with either a Smart Toe® implant or a buried Kirschner wire, performed from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010. Of the 117 digits, 31 were excluded because of a lack of 90-day radiographic follow-up. The average follow-up was 94 to 1130 days. The average patient age was 61.47 (range 43 to 84) years. Of the 86 included digits, 48 were left digits and 38 were right. Of the digits corrected, 54 were second digits, 24 were third digits and 8 were fourth digits. Fifty-eight Smart Toe® implants were found (15 with 19-mm straight; 2 with 19-mm angulated; 34 with 16-mm straight; and 7 with 16-mm angulated). Twenty-eight buried Kirschner wires were evaluated. No statistically significant difference was found between the Smart Toe® implants and the buried Kirschner wires, including the rate of malunion, nonunion, fracture of internal fixation, and the need for revision surgery. Of the 86 implants, 87.9% of the Smart Toe® implants and 85.7% of the buried Kirschner wires were in good position (0° to 10° of transverse angulation on radiographs). Osseous union was achieved in 68.9% of Smart Toe® implants and 82.1% of buried Kirschner wires. Fracture of internal fixation occurred in 12 of the Smart Toe® implants (20.7%) and 2 of the buried Kirschner wires (7.1%). Most of the fractured internal fixation and malunions or nonunions were asymptomatic, leading to revision surgery in only 8.6% of the Smart Toe® implants and 10.7% of the buried Kirschner wires. Both

  16. Building International Sustainable Partnerships in Occupational Therapy: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Debra Ann; Kern, Stephen B; Salvant, Sabrina; Talero, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners frequently identify opportunities for international practice. The World Health Organization and the World Federation of Occupational Therapists have encouraged occupational therapists to address transnational issues, social inclusion, and equal access to opportunities grounded in meaningful occupation (WFOT, 2012). This case study describes a partnership between two U.S. schools of occupational therapy and a Cuban community based pediatric clinic. It examines the dynamics that have sustained the partnership despite political, economic, and logistical barriers. The literature is scrutinized to show how this case study fits into other accounts of collaborative international partnerships. Particularly, it investigates structural and institutional conditions that shape international sustainable partnerships. In doing so, we answer the following questions: (1) Under which circumstances do international partnerships emerge and flourish? (2) What structural and institutional conditions shape international sustainable partnerships? And (3) How do partners perceive and experience the bilateral international partnership? It also discusses and illustrates the foundations and development of international partnerships that succeed. Through the use of a case study we illustrate the development of this partnership. Finally, we consider the next steps of this particular sustainable and collaborative international partnership.

  17. Cosmos, an international center for advanced studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, Iurii; Alifanov, Oleg; Sadin, Stanley; Coleman, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The concept of Cosmos, a Soviet operating center for aerospace activities, is presented. The main Cosmos participants are the Institute for Aerospace Education, the Institute for Research and Commercial Development, and the Department of Space Policy and Socio-Economic Studies. Cosmos sponsors a number of educational programs, basic research, and studies of the social impact of space-related technologies.

  18. Collaboration in Distance Education. International Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Louise, Ed.; Mugridge, Ian, Ed.

    This book contains nine case studies of collaboration in distance education. The case studies focus on such aspects of collaboration in distance education as the following: roles of individual institutional partners; importance of personal relationships; benefits of collaboration to individual partners; conflicts between collaboration and…

  19. Joint Modeling Compliance and Outcome for Causal Analysis in Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xin; Brown, Gregory K.; Elliott, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses joint modeling of compliance and outcome for longitudinal studies when noncompliance is present. We focus on two-arm randomized longitudinal studies in which subjects are randomized at baseline, treatment is applied repeatedly over time, and compliance behaviors and clinical outcomes are measured and recorded repeatedly over time. In the proposed Markov compliance and outcome model, we use the potential outcome framework to define pre-randomization principal strata from the joint distribution of compliance under treatment and control arms, and estimate the effect of treatment within each principal strata. Besides the causal effect of the treatment, our proposed model can estimate the impact of the causal effect of the treatment at a given time on the future compliance. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the parameters. The results are illustrated using a study assessing the effect of cognitive behavior therapy on depression. A simulation study is used to assess the repeated sampling properties of the proposed model. PMID:23576159

  20. Joint modeling compliance and outcome for causal analysis in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Brown, Gregory K; Elliott, Michael R

    2014-09-10

    This article discusses joint modeling of compliance and outcome for longitudinal studies when noncompliance is present. We focus on two-arm randomized longitudinal studies in which subjects are randomized at baseline, treatment is applied repeatedly over time, and compliance behaviors and clinical outcomes are measured and recorded repeatedly over time. In the proposed Markov compliance and outcome model, we use the potential outcome framework to define pre-randomization principal strata from the joint distribution of compliance under treatment and control arms, and estimate the effect of treatment within each principal strata. Besides the causal effect of the treatment, our proposed model can estimate the impact of the causal effect of the treatment at a given time on future compliance. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the parameters. The results are illustrated using a study assessing the effect of cognitive behavior therapy on depression. A simulation study is used to assess the repeated sampling properties of the proposed model.

  1. Effect studies of Uyghur sand therapy on the hemodynamics of the knee-joint arteries.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rongchang; Mahemut, Dilinaer; Tiyipujiang, Rexiati; Aihemaiti, Kuwahan; Ainiwaierjiang, Nuerya

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of Uyghur sand therapy on dynamics of arterial flow of knee joints via experiments and numerical simulations. Experiments have been carried out on 30 volunteers, with their diameter and flow rate of arteries of knee joints measured before and after Uyghur sand therapy. It has been found that Uyghur sand therapy will increase the inner diameter of knee arteries and speed up the blood flow. Experimental results show that Uyghur sand therapy can help relieve obstacles in local blood flow. By choosing one volunteer for CT scanning, three-dimensional reconstruction of knee-joint arteries via MIMICS software is achieved. Calculation model is the established with numerical calculations performed by ANSYS software. According to the calculations, the blood flow of the knee arteries speeds up and the uniform distribution of velocity enlarges after Uyghur sand therapy, which further confirms the experimental results. Besides, the research also suggests that Uyghur sand therapy has stronger effect on blood flow of knee-joint arteries than the inner diameter.

  2. Comprehensive Joint Feedback Control for Standing by Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation – a Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L.; Kirsch, Robert F.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations of feedback control of standing after spinal cord injury (SCI) using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have primarily targeted individual joints. This study assesses the potential efficacy of comprehensive (trunk, hips, knees, and ankles) joint-feedback control against postural disturbances using a bipedal, three-dimensional computer model of SCI stance. Proportional-derivative feedback drove an artificial neural network trained to produce muscle excitation patterns consistent with maximal joint stiffness values achievable about neutral stance given typical SCI muscle properties. Feedback gains were optimized to minimize upper extremity (UE) loading required to stabilize against disturbances. Compared to the baseline case of maximum constant muscle excitations used clinically, the controller reduced UE loading by 55% in resisting external force perturbations and by 84% during simulated one-arm functional tasks. Performance was most sensitive to inaccurate measurements of ankle plantar/dorsiflexion position and hip ab/adduction velocity feedback. In conclusion, comprehensive joint-feedback demonstrates potential to markedly improve FNS standing function. However, alternative control structures capable of effective performance with fewer sensor-based feedback parameters may better facilitate clinical usage. PMID:20923741

  3. Understanding the joint behavior of temperature and precipitation for climate change impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid; Qin, Yueyue

    2016-04-01

    The multiple downscaled scenario products allow us to assess the uncertainty of the variations of precipitation and temperature in the current and future periods. Probabilistic assessments of both climatic variables help better understand the interdependence of the two and thus, in turn, help in assessing the future with confidence. In the present study, we use ensemble of statistically downscaled precipitation and temperature from various models. The dataset used is multi-model ensemble of 10 global climate models (GCMs) downscaled product from CMIP5 daily dataset using the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique, generated at Portland State University. The multi-model ensemble of both precipitation and temperature is evaluated for dry and wet periods for 10 sub-basins across Columbia River Basin (CRB). Thereafter, copula is applied to establish the joint distribution of two variables on multi-model ensemble data. The joint distribution is then used to estimate the change in trends of said variables in future, along with estimation of the probabilities of the given change. The joint distribution trends vary, but certainly positive, for dry and wet periods in sub-basins of CRB. Dry season, generally, is indicating a higher positive change in precipitation than temperature (as compared to historical) across sub-basins with wet season inferring otherwise. Probabilities of changes in future, as estimated from the joint distribution, indicate varied degrees and forms during dry season whereas the wet season is rather constant across all the sub-basins.

  4. Estrogen receptors in the temporomandibular joint of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus): an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Aufdemorte, T.B.; Van Sickels, J.E.; Dolwick, M.F.; Sheridan, P.J.; Holt, G.R.; Aragon, S.B.; Gates, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    Using an autoradiographic method, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) complex of five aged female baboons was studied for the presence of receptors for estradiol-17 beta. The study was performed in an effort to learn more of the pathophysiology of this joint and in an attempt to provide a scientific basis to explain the reported preponderance of women who seek and undergo treatment for signs and symptoms referable to the TMJ. This experiment revealed that the TMJ complex contains numerous cells with receptors for estrogen, particularly the articular surface of the condyle, articular disk, and capsule. Muscles of mastication contained relatively fewer receptors. As a result, one may postulate a role for the sex steroid hormones in the maintenance, repair, and/or pathogenesis of the TMJ. Additional studies are necessary to fully determine the significance of hormone receptors in this site and any correlation between diseases of the TMJ and the endocrine status of affected patients.

  5. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  6. Research studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The IUE research studies comprises 118 separate research programs involving observations, data analysis, and research conducted of the IUE satellite and the NASA Astrophysics Data Program. Herein are presented 92 programs. For each program there is a title, program ID, name of the investigator, statement of work, summary of results, and list of publications.

  7. Correlation study of knee joint proprioception test results using common test methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Ji, Zhong-Qiu; Li, Yan-Xia; Liu, Wei-Tong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To study the correlation of the results obtained from different proprioception test methods, namely, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method, and the force sense reproduction method, performed on the same subjects' knees. [Subjects and Methods] Different proprioception test methods, the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduction method were used to test the knees of 30 healthy young men. [Results] Correlations were found in the following descending order from strong to weak: the correlation between the joint angle reset method and the force sense reproduction method (correlation coefficient of 0.41), the correlation between the joint angle reset method and the motion minimum threshold measurement method (correlation coefficient of 0.29), the correlation between the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduce method (correlation coefficient of 0.15). [Conclusion] No correlation was found among the results obtained using the joint angle reset method, the motion minimum threshold measurement method and the force sense reproduction method. Therefore, no correlation was found among the position sense, the motion sense and the force sense represented by these methods. Using the results of only one of the test methods to represent proprioception is one-sided. Force sensation depends more on the sensory input of information from the Golgi tendon organs, motion sense depends more on the input information of the muscle spindles, and position sense relies on the double input information of the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs.

  8. A feasibility study for experimentally determining dynamic force distribution in a lap joint.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Randall Lee

    2013-11-01

    Developing constitutive models of the physics in mechanical joints is currently stymied by inability to measure forces and displacements within the joint. The current state of the art estimates whole joint stiffness and energy loss per cycle from external measured force input and one or two acceleration responses. To validate constitutive models beyond this state requires a measurement of the distributed forces and displacements at the joint interface. Unfortunately, introducing measurement devices at the interface completely disrupts the desired physics. A feasibility study is presented for a non-intrusive method of solving for the interface dynamic forces from an inverse problem using full field measured responses. The responses come from the viewable surface of a beam. The noise levels associated with digital image correlation and continuous scanning laser Doppler velocimetry are evaluated from typical beam experiments. Two inverse problems are simulated. One utilizes the extended Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). The second is a new approach dubbed the method of truncated orthogonal forces. These methods are much more robust if the contact patch geometry is well identified. Various approaches to identifying the contact patch are investigated, including ion marker tracking, Prussian blue and ultrasonic measurements. A typical experiment is conceived for a beam which has a lap joint at one end with a single bolt connecting it to another identical beam. In a virtual test using the beam finite element analysis, it appears that the SWAT inverse method requires evaluation of too many coefficients to adequately identify the force distribution to be viable. However, the method of truncated orthogonal forces appears viable with current digital image correlation (and probably other) imaging techniques.

  9. TEM Study of Internal Crystals in Supernova Graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croat, T. K.; Bernatowicz, T.; Stadermann, F. J.; Messenger, S.; Amari, S.

    2003-03-01

    A coordinated TEM and isotopic study of ten supernova (SN) graphites from the Murchison meteorite has revealed many internal grains, mostly titanium carbides (TiCs) and TiC-kamacite composite grains, which were accreted during the graphite growth.

  10. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for the conservative and nonpharmacological management of female pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bo, Kari; Frawley, Helena C; Haylen, Bernard T; Abramov, Yoram; Almeida, Fernando G; Berghmans, Bary; Bortolini, Maria; Dumoulin, Chantale; Gomes, Mario; McClurg, Doreen; Meijlink, Jane; Shelly, Elizabeth; Trabuco, Emanuel; Walker, Carolina; Wells, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    Introduction and hypothesis There has been an increasing need for the terminology on the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction to be collated in a clinically based consensus report. Methods This Report combines the input of members and elected nominees of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted at intervals by many external referees. An extensive process of nine rounds of internal and external review was developed to exhaustively examine each definition, with decision-making by collective opinion (consensus). Before opening up for comments on the webpages of ICS and IUGA, five experts from physiotherapy, neurology, urology, urogynecology, and nursing were invited to comment on the paper. Results A Terminology Report on the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction, encompassing over 200 separate definitions, has been developed. It is clinically based, with the most common symptoms, signs, assessments, diagnoses, and treatments defined. Clarity and ease of use have been key aims to make it interpretable by practitioners and trainees in all the different specialty groups involved in female pelvic floor dysfunction. Ongoing review is not only anticipated, but will be required to keep the document updated and as widely acceptable as possible. Conclusion A consensus-based terminology report for the conservative management of female pelvic floor dysfunction has been produced, aimed at being a significant aid to clinical practice and a stimulus for research.

  11. Effects of Neoprene Wrist/Hand Splints on Handwriting for Students with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome: A Single System Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Lauren; Wesley, Alison; Wallen, Margaret; Bundy, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Pain associated with hypermobility of wrist and hand joints can contribute to decreased handwriting output. This study examined the effectiveness of a neoprene wrist/hand splint in reducing pain and increasing handwriting speed and endurance for students with joint hypermobility syndrome. Methods: Multiple baseline, single system design…

  12. Effects of Joint Attention Mediated Learning for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Initial Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Odom, Samuel L.; Baggett, Kathleen M.; Sideris, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effects of the Joint Attention Mediated Learning (JAML) intervention on acquisition of joint attention and other early social communication competencies for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-three parents and their toddlers were randomly assigned to JAML or a control condition.…

  13. Does metaphyseal cement augmentation in fracture management influence the adjacent subchondral bone and joint cartilage?: an in vivo study in sheep stifle joints.

    PubMed

    Goetzen, Michael; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Arens, Daniel; Zeiter, Stephan; Stadelmann, Vincent; Nehrbass, Dirk; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Augmentation of implants with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement in osteoporotic fractures is a promising approach to increase implant purchase. Side effects of PMMA for the metaphyseal bone, particularly for the adjacent subchondral bone plate and joint cartilage, have not yet been studied. The following experimental study investigates whether subchondral PMMA injection compromises the homeostasis of the subchondral bone and/or the joint cartilage.Ten mature sheep were used to simulate subchondral PMMA injection. Follow-ups of 2 (4 animals) and 4 (6 animals) months were chosen to investigate possible cartilage damage and subchondral plate alterations in the knee. Evaluation was completed by means of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) imaging, histopathological osteoarthritis scoring, and determination of glycosaminoglycan content in the joint cartilage. Results were compared with the untreated contralateral knee and statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests.Evaluation of the histological osteoarthritis score revealed no obvious cartilage damage for the treated knee; median histological score after 2 months 0 (range 4), after 4 months 1 (range 5). There was no significant difference when compared with the untreated control site after 2 and 4 months (P = 0.23 and 0.76, respectively). HRpQCT imaging showed no damage to the metaphyseal trabeculae. Glycosaminoglycan measurements of the treated joint cartilage after 4 months revealed no significant difference compared with the untreated cartilage (P = 0.24).The findings of this study support initial clinical observation that PMMA implant augmentation of metaphyseal fractures appears to be a safe procedure for fixation without harming the subchondral bone plate and adjacent joint cartilage.

  14. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  15. Development and Dematerialization: An International Study

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger, Julia K.; Krausmann, Fridolin; Getzner, Michael; Schandl, Heinz; West, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Economic development and growth depend on growing levels of resource use, and result in environmental impacts from large scale resource extraction and emissions of waste. In this study, we examine the resource dependency of economic activities over the past several decades for a set of countries comprising developing, emerging and mature industrialized economies. Rather than a single universal industrial development pathway, we find a diversity of economic dependencies on material use, made evident through cluster analysis. We conduct tests for relative and absolute decoupling of the economy from material use, and compare these with similar tests for decoupling from carbon emissions, both for single countries and country groupings using panel analysis. We show that, over the longer term, emerging and developing countries tend to have significantly larger material-economic coupling than mature industrialized economies (although this effect may be enhanced by trade patterns), but that the contrary is true for short-term coupling. Moreover, we demonstrate that absolute dematerialization limits economic growth rates, while the successful industrialization of developing countries inevitably requires a strong material component. Alternative development priorities are thus urgently needed both for mature and emerging economies: reducing absolute consumption levels for the former, and avoiding the trap of resource-intensive economic and human development for the latter. PMID:24204555

  16. Preservation of condyle and disc in the surgical treatment of type III temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a long-term follow-up clinical study of 111 joints.

    PubMed

    Jakhar, S K; Agarwal, M; Gupta, D K; Tiwari, A D

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the role of retaining the condyle and disc in the treatment of type III ankylosis, by clinical and computed tomography (CT) evaluation. A total of 90 patients with type III ankylosis met the inclusion criteria; 42 patients had left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis, 27 patients had right TMJ ankylosis, and 21 had bilateral TMJ ankylosis, thus a total 111 joints were treated. Considerable improvements in mandibular movement and maximum mouth opening were noted in all patients. At the end of a minimum follow-up of 2 years, the mean inter-incisal mouth opening was 30.7 mm. Postoperative occlusion was normal in all patients, and open bite did not occur in any case because the ramus height was maintained through preservation of the pseudo-joint. Only three patients had recurrence of ankylosis, which was due to a lack of postoperative physiotherapy. The advantages of condyle and disc preservation in type III ankylosis are: (1) surgery is relatively safe; (2) the disc helps to prevent recurrence of ankylosis; (3) the existing ramus height is maintained; (4) the growth site is preserved; and (5) there is no need to reconstruct the joint with autogenous or alloplastic material. It is recommended that the disc and condyle are preserved in type III TMJ ankylosis.

  17. The EVEREST study: an international collaboration*

    PubMed Central

    Caskey, Fergus J.; Stel, Vianda S.; Elliott, Robert F.; Jager, Kitty J.; Covic, Adrian; Cusumano, Ana; Geue, Claudia; Kramer, Anneke; Stengel, Benedicte; MacLeod, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT), use of home modalities of treatment and patient outcomes vary considerably between countries. This paper reports the methods and baseline characteristics of countries participating in the EVEREST study (n = 46), a global collaboration examining the association between medical and non-medical factors and RRT incidence, modality mix and survival. Numbers of incident and prevalent patients were collected for current (2003–05) and historic (1983–85, 1988–90, 1993–95 and 1998–2000) periods stratified, where available, by age, gender, treatment modality and cause of end stage renal disease (diabetic versus non-diabetic). General population age and health indicators and national-level macroeconomic data were collected from secondary data sources. National experts provided primary data on renal service funding, resources and organization. The median (inter quartile range) RRT incidence per million of the population (pmp) was 130 pmp (102–167 pmp). The general population life expectancy at 60 was 22.1 years (19.7–23.1 years) and 6.9% had diabetes mellitus (5.4–9.0%). Healthcare spending as a percentage of gross domestic product was 8.1% (5.6–9.3%). Countries averaged nine dialysis facilities pmp (4–12 pmp), with 69.0% (43.9–99.0%) owned by the public or private not-for-profit sector. The number of nephrologists ranged from 0.5 to 48 pmp (median 12 pmp). The heterogeneity of EVEREST countries will enable modelling to examine the independent association between medical and non-medical factors on RRT epidemiology. PMID:25949402

  18. Safety profile of sural nerve in posterolateral approach to the ankle joint: MRI study.

    PubMed

    Ellapparadja, Pregash; Husami, Yaya; McLeod, Ian

    2014-05-01

    The posterolateral approach to ankle joint is well suited for ORIF of posterior malleolar fractures. There are no major neurovascular structures endangering this approach other than the sural nerve. The sural nerve is often used as an autologous peripheral nerve graft and provides sensation to the lateral aspect of the foot. The aim of this paper is to measure the precise distance of the sural nerve from surrounding soft tissue structures so as to enable safe placement of skin incision in posterolateral approach. This is a retrospective image review study involving 64 MRI scans. All measurements were made from Axial T1 slices. The key findings of the paper is the safety window for the sural nerve from the lateral border of tendoachilles (TA) is 7 mm, 1.3 cm and 2 cm at 3 cm above ankle joint, at the ankle joint and at the distal tip of fibula respectively. Our study demonstrates the close relationship of the nerve in relation to TA and fibula in terms of exact measurements. The safety margins established in this study should enable the surgeon in preventing endangerment of the sural nerve encountered in this approach.

  19. Intra-articular injection of tenoxicam following temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aktas, I; Yalcin, S; Sencer, S

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the clinical and radiological effects of intra-articular tenoxicam injection following arthrocentesis and compared them with arthrocentesis alone in patients with disc displacement without reduction (DDwoR). 24 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in 21 patients with DDwoR were studied. Patients were divided randomly into Group A in which only arthrocentesis was performed (14 TMJs in 14 patients) and Group AT which received arthrocentesis plus intra-articular injection of tenoxicam (10 TMJs in 7 patients). Patients were evaluated before the procedure, on postoperative day 7, then 2, 3, 4 weeks, and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 months postoperatively. Intensity of joint pain was assessed using a visual analog scale. Maximum mouth opening was recorded at each follow-up. TMJ sounds and palpation scores were noted as positive or negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed before and 6 months after treatment in both groups. Disc form, disc location during neutral position, reduction with movement, joint effusion, structures of the articular surfaces, and bone marrow anomalies were evaluated all in MRIs. Both treatments succesfully increased maximum mouth opening and reduced TMJ pain; there were no complications. Difference between the groups was not statistically significant and a larger controlled study is necessary to clarify this use of tenoxicam.

  20. A study of strength evaluations of EDNi/EDCu/NARloy-Z bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    Dissimilar material interfaces can be found in many materials and structural bonds such as composite materials, welded parts, inclusion in matrix, bond between metallic and ceramic materials, and so forth. One of such structural bonds can be seen in the main combustion chamber (MCC) of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). In this study, from a practical sense, the primary concern is to understand the systems response of EDNi/EDCu/NARloy-Z bonded joints using stress values approximated by the finite element method to determine an influence of the variation of structural bond parameters on the bonded joints, and consequently main combustion chamber of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The results presented in this study could be an appropriate indicator for a good bond of EDNi/DECu/NARloy-Z layers with the desired thickness of copper deposition in the SSME MCC manufacturing process. Furthermore, the results from this study appear to be applicable to any bonded joints that can be characterized by the parameters and assumptions used in this analysis.

  1. Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions Due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in Joint European Torus Shear Optimized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov; A. Gondhalekar; A.A. Korotkov; S.E. Sharapov; D. Testa; and Contributors to the EFDA-JET Workprogramme

    2002-01-18

    Internal radial redistribution of MeV energy ICRF-driven hydrogen minority ions was inferred from neutral particle analyzer measurements during large amplitude MHD activity leading to internal reconnection in Shear Optimized plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET). A theory is developed for energetic ion redistribution during a reconnection driven by an m=2/n=1 internal kink mode. Plasma motion during reconnection generates an electric field which can change the energy and radial position of the energetic ions. The magnitude of ion energy change depends on the value of the safety factor at the plasma core from which the energetic ions are redistributed. A relation is found for corresponding change in canonical momentum. P(subscript phi), which leads to radial displacement of the ions. The model yields distinctive new features of energetic ion redistribution under such conditions. Predicted characteristics of ion redistribution are compared with the NPA measurements, and good correlation is found. Sometimes fast ions were transported to the plasma edge due to interaction with a long-lived magnetic island which developed after the reconnection and had chirping frequency in the laboratory frame. Convection of resonant ions trapped in a radially moving phase-space island is modeled to understand the physics of such events.

  2. Knee joint position sense of roller hockey players: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Venâncio, João; Lopes, Diogo; Lourenço, Joaquim; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare knee joint position sense of roller hockey players with an age-matched group of non-athletes. Forty-three male participants voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study: 21 roller hockey players (mean age: 23.2 ± 4.2 years old, mean weight: 81.8 ± 9.8 kg, mean height: 180.5 ± 4.1 cm) and 22 age-matched non-athletes (mean age: 23.7 ± 3.9 years old, mean weight: 85.0 ± 6.2 kg, mean height: 181.5 ± 5.0 cm). Knee joint position sense of the dominant limb was evaluated using a technique of open-kinetic chain and active knee positioning. Joint position sense was reported using absolute, relative and variable angular errors. The main results indicated that the group of roller hockey players showed significantly lower absolute (2.4 ± 1.2º vs. 6.5 ± 3.2º, p ≤ 0.001) and relative (1.7 ± 2.1º vs. 5.8 ± 4.4º, p ≤ 0.001) angular errors in comparison with the non-athletes group. In conclusion, the results from this present study suggest that proprioceptive acuity, assessed by measuring joint position sense, is increased in roller hockey players. The enhanced proprioception of the roller hockey players could contribute to injury prevention and improved performance during sporting activities.

  3. 76 FR 44507 - Joint Public Roundtable on International Issues Relating to the Implementation of Title VII of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... International Issues Relating to the Implementation of Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and... issues related to the implementation of Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer... Centre, 1155 21st Street, NW., Washington, DC. The discussion will be open to the public with...

  4. Diagnosing painful sacroiliac joints: A validity study of a McKenzie evaluation and sacroiliac provocation tests.

    PubMed

    Laslett, Mark; Young, Sharon B; Aprill, Charles N; McDonald, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Research suggests that clinical examination of the lumbar spine and pelvis is unable to predict the results of diagnostic injections used as reference standards. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a clinical examination in identifying symptomatic and asymptomatic sacroiliac joints using double diagnostic injections as the reference standard. In a blinded concurrent criterion-related validity design study, 48 patients with chronic lumbopelvic pain referred for diagnostic spinal injection procedures were examined using a specific clinical examination and received diagnostic intraarticular sacroiliac joint injections. The centralisation and peripheralisation phenomena were used to identify possible discogenic pain and the results from provocation sacroiliac joint tests were used as part of the clinical reasoning process. Eleven patients had sacroiliac joint pain confirmed by double diagnostic injection. Ten of the 11 sacroiliac joint patients met clinical examination criteria for having sacroiliac joint pain. In the primary subset analysis of 34 patients, sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio (95% confidence intervals) of the clinical evaluation were 91% (62 to 98), 83% (68 to 96) and 6.97(2.70 to 20.27) respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the clinical examination and clinical reasoning process was superior to the sacroiliac joint pain provocation tests alone. A specific clinical examination and reasoning process can differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic sacroiliac joints

  5. Safety and 6-month effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Duhon, Bradley S; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Lockstadt, Harry; Kovalsky, Don; Soo, Cheng-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is an often overlooked cause of low back pain. SI joint arthrodesis has been reported to relieve pain and improve quality of life in patients suffering from degeneration or disruption of the SI joint who have failed non-surgical care. We report herein early results of a multicenter prospective single-arm cohort of patients with SI joint degeneration or disruption who underwent minimally invasive fusion using the iFuse Implant System®. Methods The safety cohort includes 94 subjects at 23 sites with chronic SI joint pain who met study eligibility criteria and underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion with the iFuse Implant System® between August 2012 and September 2013. Subjects underwent structured assessments preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, including SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D). Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 months. The effectiveness cohort includes the 32 subjects who have had 6-month follow-up to date. Results Mean subject age was 51 years (n=94, safety cohort) and 66% of patients were women. Subjects were highly debilitated at baseline (mean VAS pain score 78, mean ODI score 54). Three implants were used in 80% of patients; two patients underwent staged bilateral implants. Twenty-three adverse events occurred within 1 month of surgery and 29 additional events occurred between 30 days and latest follow-up. Six adverse events were severe but none were device-related. Complete 6-month postoperative follow-up was available in 26 subjects. In the effectiveness cohort, mean (± standard deviation) SI joint pain improved from a baseline score of 76 (±16.2) to a 6-month score of 29.3 (±23.3, an improvement of 49 points, P<0.0001), mean ODI improved from 55.3 (±10.7) to 38.9 (±18.5, an improvement of 15.8 points, P<0.0001) and SF-36 PCS improved

  6. Microstructural Characterization of Internal Welding Defects and Their Effect on the Tensile Behavior of FSW Joints of AA2198 Al-Cu-Li Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Jolu, Thomas; Morgeneyer, Thilo F.; Denquin, Anne; Sennour, Mohamed; Laurent, Anne; Besson, Jacques; Gourgues-Lorenzon, Anne-Françoise

    2014-11-01

    Internal features and defects such as joint line remnant, kissing bond, and those induced by an initial gap between the two parent sheets were investigated in AA2198-T851 friction stir welded joints. They were compared with the parent material and to defect-free welds obtained using a seamless sheet. The cross-weld tensile strength was reduced by the defects by less than 6 pct. The fracture elongation was not significantly affected in view of experimental scatter. Fracture location, however, changed from the thermomechanically affected zone (retreating side) to the defect in the weld nugget for the welds bearing a kissing bond and for some of the gap welds. The kissing bond was shown by EBSD to be an intergranular feature; it fractured under a normal engineering stress close to 260 MPa during an in situ SEM tensile test. Synchrotron tomography after interrupted tensile testing confirmed opening of the kissing bond. For an initial gap of 23 pct of the sheet thickness, intergranular fracture of copper-enriched or oxide-bearing grain boundaries close to the nugget root was evidenced. The stress and strain state of cross-weld specimens loaded under uniaxial tension was assessed using a 3D finite element, multi-material model, determined on the basis of experimental data obtained on the same specimens using digital image correlation.

  7. The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ): Materials & Processes (M&P) Lessons Learned for a Large, Rotating Spacecraft Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) utilizes two large rotating mechanisms, the solar alpha rotary joints (SARJs), as part of the solar arrays' alignment system for more efficient power generation. Each SARJ is a 10.3m circumference, nitrided 15-5PH steel race ring of triangular cross-section, with 12 sets of trundle bearing assemblies transferring load across the rolling joint. The SARJ mechanism rotates continuously and slowly - once every orbit, or every 90 minutes. In 2007, the starboard SARJ suffered a lubrication failure, resulting in severe damage (spalling) to one of the race ring surfaces. Extensive effort was conducted to prevent the port SARJ from suffering the same failure, and fortunately that effort was ultimately successful in also recovering the functionality of the starboard SARJ. The M&P engineering function was key in determining the cause of failure and the means for mechanism recovery. From a M&P lessons-learned perspective, observations are made concerning the original SARJ design parameters (boundary conditions), the perceived need for nitriding the race ring, the test conditions employed during qualification, the environmental controls used for the hardware preflight, and the lubrication robustness necessary for complex kinematic mechanisms expecting high-reliability and long-life.

  8. Modified internal mandibular distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of micrognathia secondary to temporomandibular joint ankylosis: 4-year follow-up of a case.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hongtao; Xue, Yang; Liu, Yanpu; Zhao, Jinlong; He, Lisheng

    2012-06-01

    Micrognathia and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) are problems subsequent to temporomandibular joint ankylosis (TMJa) in growing patients. For patients with micrognathia and OSAS secondary to TMJa, it is important to restore proper mandibular form and dimension, achieve occlusal stability and recover satisfactory joint movement. We report a 4-year follow-up of a patient with micrognathia and OSAS secondary to bilateral TMJa. The treatment of this patient involved (1) a modified internal mandibular distraction osteogenesis without altering the pre-existing occlusion; (2) TMJ arthroplasty in which the dislocated disc was found and repositioned and the shape of the glenoid fossa and articular head was formed without removing bone in vertical dimension; (3) passive mouth-opening exercise with an individualized occlusal pad postoperatively for one month; and (4) orthodontic treatment for the occlusal disturbance and active mouth-opening exercise for one year. After the treatment the micrognathia was corrected; the oropharyngeal airway was increased significantly; mouth-opening increased to 40mm intraoperatively was maintained at 36.66mm 4 years after surgery. Satisfactory occlusion was achieved after orthodontic treatment. Through the 4-year follow-up, no signs of reankylosis were found. In conclusion, this new clinical protocol is a safe, effective and quick way to treat micrognathia and OSAS secondary to TMJa.

  9. Study on technology of double parallel-joints coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Guisuo; Liao, Cheng; Yu, Runqiao; Fu, Yanjun

    2013-10-01

    The research of the high accuracy coordinate measuring machine is now playing a more and more considerable role in heightening the technical level of equipment manufacturing industry. With reference to the characteristics of foreign ScanMax coordinate measuring machine, this paper introduces the development of a double parallel-joint coordinate measuring machine with our own dependent intellectual property. This paper details the structural design, the calibration method and the evaluation for the uncertainty measurement of a prototype. The prototype has several advantages when compared with foreign instruments: first, decrease of Abbe error; second, enlargement of the measuring range; third, improvement of the rigidity of the instrument. The measurement test indicates that the measurement uncertainty (when K=2) of special random distance is 10.2 μm. The double parallel-joint coordinate measuring machine studied by this paper is of great academic value and the developed prototype is highly practical and worthy of being popularized.

  10. Numerical study of electron beam welded butt joints with the GTN model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Haoyun; Schmauder, Siegfried; Weber, Ulrich

    2012-08-01

    The fracture behavior of S355NL electron beam welded steel joints is investigated experimentally and numerically. The simulation of crack propagation in an electron beam welded steel joint was performed with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model. A parameter study of the GTN model was adopted which reveals the influence of parameters on the material behavior of notched round and compact tension specimens. Based on the combined method of metallographic investigations and numerical calibration, the GTN parameters were fixed. The same parameters were used to predict the ductile fracture of compact tension specimens with the initial crack located at different locations. Good match can be found between the numerical and experimental results in the form of force versus Crack Opening Displacement as well as fracture resistance curves.

  11. Elbow joint stability in relation to forced external rotation: An experimental study of the osseous constraint.

    PubMed

    Deutch, Søren R; Jensen, Steen L; Olsen, Bo S; Sneppen, Otto

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the osseous constraint related to forced forearm external rotation as the initial stage in a posterior elbow dislocation. Six joint specimens without soft tissues were examined in a joint analysis system developed for simulation of dislocation. The osseous stability, expressed as the maximal torque needed for pathologic external forearm rotation, increased from varus to valgus stress (P =.0001) and from 10 degrees to 90 degrees of elbow flexion (P =.012) and also tended to increase from forearm supination to pronation. The work of pathologic external forearm rotation until the point of maximal torque decreased from a maximum in full extension to a minimum at 30 degrees of elbow flexion (P =.03). The elbow in a slightly flexed position, varus stress, and forearm external rotation trauma might be the important biomechanical factors in the posterior elbow dislocation, and they might serve as guidelines during clinical investigation for posterolateral instability.

  12. [Genomic study of susceptibility genes for common bone and joint diseases].

    PubMed

    Ikegawa, Shiro

    2009-06-01

    Common bone and joint diseases like osteoarthritis and lumbar disc disease are polygenic diseases caused by genetic and environment factors. We are challenging susceptibility genes for common bone and joint diseases using association study as a tool. By a combination of candidate-gene approach and whole-genome screen, we have succeeded in identification of five genes for osteoarthritis and for lumbar disc diseases, respectively. In the present paper, I mention the main genes among them, ASPN, GDF5 and DVWA for osteoarthritis, and TBSP2 and MMP9 for lumbar disc disease. Identification of the new genes will open a new window for the clarification of pathomechanism of the diseases and their treatment.

  13. Modeling the stance leg in two-dimensional analyses of sprinting: inclusion of the MTP joint affects joint kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bezodis, Neil E; Salo A, I T; Trewartha, Grant

    2012-05-01

    Two-dimensional analyses of sprint kinetics are commonly undertaken but often ignore the metatarsalphalangeal (MTP) joint and model the foot as a single segment. Due to the linked-segment nature of inverse dynamics analyses, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ignoring the MTP joint on the calculated joint kinetics at the other stance leg joints during sprinting. High-speed video and force platform data were collected from four to five trials for each of three international athletes. Resultant joint moments, powers, and net work at the stance leg joints during the first stance phase after block clearance were calculated using three different foot models. By ignoring the MTP joint, peak extensor moments at the ankle, knee, and hip were on average 35% higher (p < .05 for each athlete), 40% lower (p < .05), and 9% higher (p > .05), respectively, than those calculated with the MTP joint included. Peak ankle and knee joint powers and net work at all joints were also significantly (p < .05) different. By ignoring a genuine MTP joint plantar flexor moment, artificially high peak ankle joint moments are calculated, and these also affect the calculated joint kinetics at the knee.

  14. Sodium iodoacetate induced osteoarthrosis model in rabbit temporomandibular joint: CT and histological study (part I).

    PubMed

    Güler, N; Kürkçü, M; Duygu, G; Cam, B

    2011-11-01

    Studies to elucidate the pathophysiology of osteoarthrosis have been hampered by the lack of a rapid, reproducible animal model that mimics the histopathology and symptoms associated with the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiological, histological and histomorphometrical findings of four different concentrations of sodium iodoacetate (MIA) to create osteoarthrosis by using an arthrocentesis technique on rabbit temporomandibular joint (TMJ). 12 New Zealand white male rabbits received an injection of MIA (50 μl dose of 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3mg/ml concentrations) to a single joint of each group by arthrocentesis. Computed tomography (CT) images were obtained pre- and post-injections at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Early osteoarthritic changes in the rabbit TMJ were found histologically at 4 weeks and with a 3mg/ml concentration of MIA. The mean subchondral bone volume depended on the concentration of MIA and was 62±2.6%, 63±4.1%, 42±3.6% and 38±3.8%, respectively. A minor abnormality was found on CT in six joints at the 4-week follow up. MIA injection and arthrocentesis offer a rapid and minimally invasive method of reproducing histologically osteoarthrotic lesions in the rabbit TMJ.

  15. [Proposal for a dynamic study of the temporo-mandibular joint, using a computerized image analyzer].

    PubMed

    Tedde, G; Mazzanti, V; Devilla, L; Chessa, G

    1990-04-01

    With the aim to go deep into the knowledge of the morpho-functional anatomical characteristics of the temporo-mandibular joint in humans, a dynamic method of study by means of a computerized analyzer of images is suggested. The acquired advantages are the following: a) the accuracy of evaluation of the chosen morphometric parameters; b) the working speed, from which results: c) the possibility to increase adequately the number of cases and d) the possibility to easily investigate many parameters with a very high accuracy of the quantitative results. Both right and left temporo-mandibular joints of adult individuals aged from 18 to 53 have been studied utilizing lateral tomographies focused at 3.3 mm to the lateral surface of the condylar head. The evaluations were done both in the position of completely closed mouth and in extreme opening. From the barycentre of the condyle several straight lines were drawn according to the figure 2. The length of the segment a-b (distance of profiles of the condyle and mandibular fossa) were evaluated in all the lines counter-clockwise and the results submitted to a statistical analysis. The results furnish very good information on the normal or pathological anatomical characteristics, of the joint.

  16. Evaluation of the marsh deer stifle joint by imaging studies and gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shigue, D A; Rahal, S C; Schimming, B C; Santos, R R; Vulcano, L C; Linardi, J L; Teixeira, C R

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the stifle joint of marsh deer using imaging studies and in comparison with gross anatomy. Ten hindlimbs from 5 marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) were used. Radiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in each stifle joint. Two hindlimbs were dissected to describe stifle gross anatomy. The other limbs were sectioned in sagittal, dorsal or transverse planes. In the craniocaudal radiographic view, the lateral femoral condyle was broader than the medial femoral condyle. The femoral trochlea was asymmetrical. Subsequent multiplanar reconstruction revealed in the cranial view that the external surface of the patella was roughened, the medial trochlea ridge was larger than the lateral one, and the extensor fossa at the lateral condyle was next to the lateral ridge. The popliteal fossa was better visualized via the lateral view. Sagittal MRI images identified lateral and medial menisci, caudolateral and craniomedial bundles of cranial cruciate ligament, caudal cruciate ligament, patellar ligament and common extensor tendon. In conclusion, the marsh deer stifle presents some anatomical characteristics of the ovine stifle joint.

  17. Radiographic study of the hip joint to determine anthropometric parameters for Indian population.

    PubMed

    Bagaria, Vaibhav; Deshpande, Shirish; Kuthe, Abhay; Rasalkar, Darshana D; Paunipagar, Bhawan K; Madhugiri, Tanushree Subhash

    2012-02-01

    Hip replacement surgeries are on the rise in India. However, for these surgeries, most of the implants used are imported and manufactured entirely to suit the geometrical considerations of the western population. Studies in the past have shown that there are anatomical variations in the hip joint for different ethnic backgrounds and geographical locations. There is paucity of anthropometric hip joint data related to Indian population and anthropometric variations in skeletal geometry between Asian and Western counterparts have not yet been thoroughly reviewed and considered for implant manufacturing. The purpose of this anthropometric study is to determine any anatomical variations in the normal hip joint among the Indian population and to statistically compare the mean values with the existing data on western population. 422 Hip radiographs of 211 individuals (141 males and 70 females) with normal and healthy hip joints were evaluated to obtain the horizontal offset, vertical offset and neck shaft angle. For males, mean neck shaft angle was 127.68° (SD = 3.94), horizontal offset was 34.60mm (SD=6.55) and vertical offset was 39.17 mm (SD = 5.86). For females, mean neck shaft angle was 125.92° (SD = 4.75), horizontal offset was 32.96 mm (SD = 7.04) and vertical offset was 36.38 mm (SD = 6.28). When these parameters were compared to the data available from western world, there were significant anatomical variations and it was evident that there is a need to evaluate existing implants in relation to this data and possibly design the implants suited and relevant to Indian population.

  18. Analyzing International Students' Study Anxiety in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoshlessan, Rezvan; Das, Kumer Pial

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore international students' study anxiety in a mid-sized public four-year university in Southeast Texas by comparing their existing study anxiety along lines of nationality, gender, age, major, degree, and stage of education. The subjects were selected using a convenience sample during the Spring of 2013. The…

  19. Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vincent; Lamberto, Giuliano; Lu, Tung-Wu; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO) to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviour of which is described by a single stiffness matrix. The deformation energy, computed from the stiffness matrix and joint angles and displacements, is minimised within the MBO. Implemented as a “soft” constraint using a penalty-based method, this elastic joint description challenges the strictness of “hard” constraints. In this study, estimates of knee kinematics obtained using MBO embedding four different knee joint models (i.e., no constraints, spherical joint, parallel mechanism, and elastic joint) were compared against reference kinematics measured using bi-planar fluoroscopy on two healthy subjects ascending stairs. Bland-Altman analysis and sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of variations in the stiffness matrix terms on the estimated kinematics substantiate the conclusions. The difference between the reference knee joint angles and displacements and the corresponding estimates obtained using MBO embedding the stiffness matrix showed an average bias and standard deviation for kinematics of 0.9±3.2° and 1.6±2.3 mm. These values were lower than when no joint constraints (1.1±3.8°, 2.4±4.1 mm) or a parallel mechanism (7.7±3.6°, 1.6±1.7 mm) were used and were comparable to the values obtained with a spherical joint (1.0±3.2°, 1.3±1.9 mm). The study demonstrated the feasibility of substituting an elastic joint for more classic joint constraints in MBO. PMID:27314586

  20. Use of two-dimensional transmission photoelastic models to study stresses in double-lap bolted joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Liu, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The stress distribution in two hole connectors in a double lap joint configuration was studied. The following steps are described: (1) fabrication of photoelastic models of double lap double hole joints designed to determine the stresses in the inner lap; (2) assessment of the effects of joint geometry on the stresses in the inner lap; and (3) quantification of differences in the stresses near the two holes. The two holes were on the centerline of the joint and the joints were loaded in tension, parallel to the centerline. Acrylic slip fit pins through the holes served as fasteners. Two dimensional transmission photoelastic models were fabricated by using transparent acrylic outer laps and a photoelastic model material for the inner laps. It is concluded that the photoelastic fringe patterns which are visible when the models are loaded are due almost entirely to stresses in the inner lap.

  1. Lower limb joint kinetics during the first stance phase in athletics sprinting: three elite athlete case studies.

    PubMed

    Bezodis, Neil Edward; Salo, Aki Ilkka Tapio; Trewartha, Grant

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed the first stance phase joint kinetics of three elite sprinters to improve the understanding of technique and investigate how individual differences in technique could influence the resulting levels of performance. Force (1000 Hz) and video (200 Hz) data were collected and resultant moments, power and work at the stance leg metatarsal-phalangeal (MTP), ankle, knee and hip joints were calculated. The MTP and ankle joints both exhibited resultant plantarflexor moments throughout stance. Whilst the ankle joint generated up to four times more energy than it absorbed, the MTP joint was primarily an energy absorber. Knee extensor resultant moments and power were produced throughout the majority of stance, and the best-performing sprinter generated double and four times the amount of knee joint energy compared to the other two sprinters. The hip joint extended throughout stance. Positive hip extensor energy was generated during early stance before energy was absorbed at the hip as the resultant moment became flexor-dominant towards toe-off. The generation of energy at the ankle appears to be of greater importance than in later phases of a sprint, whilst knee joint energy generation may be vital for early acceleration and is potentially facilitated by favourable kinematics at touchdown.

  2. Case study: a case of debilitating gout in the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Natalie; Diaper, Ross; King, Mathew; Metcalfe, Stuart A

    2015-03-01

    Gout is a painful arthritic condition that affects many people worldwide. The disease has been associated with hyperuricaemia and life style risk factors such as obesity, alcohol intake, meat and seafood consumption. We present a case of a 67-year-old male with a history of gout, who attended the clinic with a painful 1st metatarsophalangeal joint, which had progressively worsened in pain, mobility and deformity in the last 20 years. Although lifestyle changes had been advised by the GP some years earlier such as a low purine based diet, management had only consisted of NSAID's, which had not significantly improved symptoms. Surgical excision of chalky white material from around the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint rendered the patient symptom free with increased mobility after 6 weeks. Histopathology confirmed the excised tissue as gouty tophus. Following this, the patient was placed on allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor to prevent recurrent attacks. This case study highlights the importance of early recognition and prophylactic management in gout sufferers. In joints where the disease process is well-established surgical excision of the gouty tophus may help mitigate further disease progression, and restore quality of life to individuals.

  3. Study on fatigue crack propagation characteristics around welded joint interface in complexed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Akihiko; Suzuki, Naoyuki; Maeda, Yoshio; Mawari, Toshio; Matsuoka, Saburo; Nishijima, Satoshi

    1993-01-01

    Marine structures are often constructed by welding, and they are subject to repeated loading such as waves and mechanical vibrations which can create fatigue cracks and consequently break the structures. Fatigue crack propagation properties of welded joints are studied under random loading in the air, synthetic sea water, and compressive cycling. It was found that the most crucial factor that controls fatigue crack propagation was high tensile residual stress fields of welded joints. This stress constantly kept the cracks open, simplifying fatigue crack propagation, and therefore, the rate of crack propagation could be assessed with high accuracy. In the transverse matching welded joints with cracks in the center, crack closure did not occur due to the tensile residual stress constantly induced at the crack ends in the center of the test samples. Fatigue crack propagation was accelerated both in artificial sea water and in compressive cycling compared to that in the air, and the fatigue lowest values were about half. Serious crack closures occurred in compressive cycling in which dry hours exceeded 45 minutes, and the fatigue crack propagation rate deteriorated remarkably. Mean fatigue crack propagation rate under the random loading is estimated precisely using equivalent stress intensity factor limit.

  4. Innervation of the elbow joint: Is total denervation possible? A cadaveric anatomic study.

    PubMed

    De Kesel, Renata; Van Glabbeek, Francis; Mugenzi, Dominique; De Vos, Joris; Vermeulen, Katrien; Van Renterghem, Debbie; Bortier, Hilde; Schuind, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this anatomical study was to find out if total denervation of the elbow joint is technically feasible. The endbranches of the brachial plexus of eight fresh-frozen upper arm cadavers were dissected with optical loupe magnification. All major nerves of the upper limb (except the axillary and the medial brachial cutaneous nerve) give some terminal articular endbranches to the elbow. The articular endbranches arise from muscular endbranches, cutaneous endbranches, or arise straight from the main nerves of the brachial plexus. A topographic diagram was made of the different nerves innervating the elbow joint. The ulno-posterior part of the elbow is innervated by the ulnar nerve and some branches of medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. The radial-posterior part of the elbow is innervated exclusively by the radial nerve. The ulno-anterior part of the elbow is innervated by the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve. The radio-anterior part of the elbow is innervated by the radial nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve. These elbow innervation findings are relevant to both anatomical and clinical field as they provide evidence that the total denervation of the elbow joint is impossible. Nevertheless, partial denervation, like denervation of the lateral epicondyle or the ulnar part of elbow, is technically possible.

  5. Can joint sound assess soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test?: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Koji; Ogawa, Munehiro; Tanaka, Kazunori; Matsuya, Ayako; Uematsu, Kota; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-05-12

    The Lachman test is considered to be a reliable physical examination for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Patients with a damaged ACL demonstrate a soft endpoint feeling. However, examiners judge the soft and hard endpoints subjectively. The purpose of our study was to confirm objective performance of the Lachman test using joint auscultation. Human and porcine knee joints were examined. Knee joint sound during the Lachman test (Lachman sound) was analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. As quantitative indices of Lachman sound, the peak sound as the maximum relative amplitude (acoustic pressure) and its frequency were used. The mean Lachman peak sound for healthy volunteer knees was 86.9 ± 12.9 Hz in frequency and -40 ± 2.5 dB in acoustic pressure. The mean Lachman peak sound for intact porcine knees was 84.1 ± 9.4 Hz and -40.5 ± 1.7 dB. Porcine knees with ACL deficiency had a soft endpoint feeling during the Lachman test. The Lachman peak sounds of porcine knees with ACL deficiency were dispersed into four distinct groups, with center frequencies of around 40, 160, 450, and 1600. The Lachman peak sound was capable of assessing soft and hard endpoints of the Lachman test objectively.

  6. Feasibility study of a discrete bearing/roller drive rotary joint for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Schuller, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    The most critical mechanism on board the proposed space station is the continously rotating joint which must accurately align the solar power units with the sun during earth orbit. The feasibility of a multiple, discrete bearing supported joint driven by a self-loading, pinch drive actuator was investigated for this application. This concept appears to offer greater protection against catastrophic jamming, less sensitivity to adverse thermal gradients, greater accessibility to inorbit servicing or replacement and greater adaptability to very large (5 m) truss members than to more conventional continuous support bearing/gear reducer joints. Analytical trade studies performed herein establish that a discrete cam roller bearing support system having eight hangers around a continuous ring would provide sufficient radial and bending stiffness to prevent any degradation in the fundamental frequencies of the solar wing structure. Furthermore, it appears that the pinch roller drive mechanism can be readily sized to meet or exceed system performance and service life requirements. Wear life estimates based on experimental data for a steel roller coated with an advanced polyimide film show a continuous service life more than two orders of magnitude greater than required for this application.

  7. Study of mechanical joint strength of aluminum alloy 7075-T6 and dual phase steel 980 welded by friction bit joining and weld-bonding under corrosion medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Yong Chae; Squires, Lile; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Miles, Michael; Song, Guang-Ling; Wang, Yanli; Feng, Zhili

    2014-12-30

    We have employed a unique solid-sate joining process, called friction bit joining (FBJ), to spot weld aluminum alloy (AA) 7075-T6 and dual phase (DP) 980 steel. Static joint strength was studied in the lap shear tension configuration. In addition, weld-bonding (adhesive + FBJ) joints were studied in order to evaluate the ability of adhesive to mitigate the impact of corrosion on joint properties. Accelerated laboratory cyclic corrosion tests were carried out for both FBJ only and weld-bonding joints. Furthermore, the FBJ only joints that emerged from corrosion testing had lap shear failure loads that were significantly lower than freshly prepared joints. However, weld-bonding specimens retained more than 80% of the lap shear failure load of the freshly prepared weld-bonding specimens. Moreover, examination of joint cross sections confirmed that the presence of adhesive in the weld-bonding joints mitigated the effect of the corrosion environment, compared to FBJ only joints.

  8. Differences Regarding Branded HA in Italy, Part 2: Data from Clinical Studies on Knee, Hip, Shoulder, Ankle, Temporomandibular Joint, Vertebral Facets, and Carpometacarpal Joint

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, A.; Bizzi, E.; De Lucia, O.; Delle Sedie, A.; Tropea, S.; Bentivegna, M.; Mahmoud, A.; Foti, C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of the current study is to collect scientific data on all branded hyaluronic acid (HA) products in Italy that are in use for intra-articular (IA) injection in osteoarthritis (OA) compared with that reported in the leaflet. METHODS An extensive literature research was performed for all articles reporting data on the IA use of HA in OA. Selected studies were taken into consideration only if they are related to products based on HAs that are currently marketed in Italy with the specific joint indication for IA use in patients affected by OA. RESULTS Sixty-two HA products are marketed in Italy: 30 products are indicated for the knee but only 8 were proved with some efficacy; 9 products were effective for the hip but only 6 had hip indication; 7 products proved to be effective for the shoulder but only 3 had the indication; 5 products proved effective for the ankle but only one had the indication; 6 products were effective for the temporomandibular joint but only 2 had the indication; only 2 proved effective for vertebral facet joints but only 1 had the indication; and 5 products proved effective for the carpometacarpal joint but only 2 had the indication. CONCLUSIONS There are only a few products with some evidences, while the majority of products remain without proof. Clinicians and regulators should request postmarketing studies from pharmaceuticals to corroborate with that reported in the leaflet and to gather more data, allowing the clinicians to choose the adequate product for the patient. PMID:27279754

  9. President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies: Background Papers and Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, Washington, DC.

    The following reports by various authors concerning foreign languages and international studies are included: (1) a personal statement on international education by Betty Bullard; (2) "Foreign Languages in the American School"; (3) "High Schools for Foreign Language and International Studies: An Interagency Paper"; (4)…

  10. International Recognition of Studies and Degrees: Challenges and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education in Europe, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A collection of nine papers related to international recognition of studies and degrees is presented. The papers are as follows: "Problems of Equivalence of Studies and Diplomas in Higher Education Systems" (Hanna Jablonska-Skinder); "Unveiling the Hidden Information in Credentials: A Proposal to Introduce a 'Supplement to Higher…

  11. International Field Studies 1973 Report to the Bahamian Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Field Studies, Inc., Columbus, OH.

    This document describes the International Field Studies program on Andros Island, Bahamas. Several sections detail the facilities and financing of the projects. Other sections discuss the general characteristics of Andros concerning the local culture and government. An outline of the environmental studies course used in this program is presented…

  12. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013 (ICILS 2013) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are developing "computer and information literacy" (CIL) to support their capacity to participate in the digital age. To achieve this aim, the study will assess student…

  13. Analytical study of spacecraft deposition contamination by internal reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, T.

    1972-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of ten individual contaminant materials and four binary mixtures of these have been studied using the internal reflection spectroscopy technique. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on these contaminants has also been studied. It has been observed that all siloxanes, silanes, and esters are drastically affected by ultraviolet irradiation. In most cases polymerization and tar formation results.

  14. Journaling and Self-Study in an International Research Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makaiau, Amber Strong; Leng, Lu; Fukui, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the theoretical foundations of reflective teaching, culturally responsive education, social constructivism, and self-study, this collaborative self-study investigates the role of an interactive online journal in an international research collective. Each from a different country, the authors came together through a common interest in…

  15. Giving an International Perspective to Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Paul R.

    Described is a media exercise which involved social studies curriculum specialists department chairmen, and classroom teachers in the Baltimore County Public Schools. The exercise was designed and utilized as a model of the content and processes that should be involved in developing an international perspective in social studies programs. The…

  16. Infusing International Studies into the Community College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mathilda E.

    Mount Hood Community College (MHCC), with financial support from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW), implemented a three-year project in 1979 designed to infuse international studies into the college's liberal arts and vocational curricula. Planning for the project began after the successful implementation of a study abroad…

  17. Crafting an International Study of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Bretones, P. S.; McKinnon, D.; Schleigh, S.; Slater, T. F.; Astronomy, Center; Education Research, Physics

    2013-01-01

    Large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, have been enlightening with regard to effective instructional practices. Data from these studies revealed weaknesses and promising practices within nations' educational systems, with evidence to suggest that these studies have led to international reforms in science education. However, these reforms have focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. While extraordinarily useful, these studies have provided limited insight for any given content domain. To date, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. This paper describes our motivations for a coordinated, multinational study of astronomy understanding. First, reformed education is based upon knowing the preexisting knowledge state of our students. The data from this study will be used to assist international astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) professionals in their efforts to improve practices across global settings. Second, while the US astronomy EPO community has a long history of activity, research has established that many practices are ineffective in the face of robust misconceptions (e.g.: seasons). Within an international sample we hope to find subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, leading us to cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, effective means of instruction. Finally, it is our hope that this first venture into large-scale disciplinary collaboration will help us to craft a set of common languages and practices, building capacity and leading toward long-term cooperation across the international EPO community. This project is sponsored and managed by the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER), in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46. We are actively

  18. Effect of nonablative laser energy on joint capsular properties: an in-vitro study using a rabbit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kei; Markel, Mark D.; Thabit, George, III; Bogdanske, John J.; Thielke, Robert J.; Cooley, A. J.; Vailas, Arthur C.; Mascio, Laura N.; Vanderby, Ray, Jr.

    1996-05-01

    Recent scientific studies evaluating laser energy for tissue welding and thermokeratoplasty have demonstrated that the application of laser energy at non-ablative levels can alter collagen's structural and biochemical properties. A recent pilot study has demonstrated that the non-ablative application of holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser energy to the joint capsule of patients with glenohumeral instability shrank the joint capsule, stabilizing the shoulder in the majority of the patients treated. Based on the collective findings of these studies, we hypothesized that thermal modification of dense collagenous tissues such as joint capsule, ligament, and tendon can be achieved by applying non-ablative laser energy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser energy at non-ablative levels on joint capsular mechanical, biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural properties in an in vitro rabbit model.

  19. Understanding international postgraduate studies. Drivers from the supply and the demand side.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Serrano, M M; Gomez-Bruque, J L; Ambrosio-Albala, M J; Llamas-Moreno, B

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the global political and socioeconomic scenario are fostering the internationalization of master and doctoral programme as one of the current priorities for Universities. Changes in European higher education such as those stimulated by the Bologna process and the introduction of double, multiple or joint Master degree programmes together with the Erasmus Mundus programme are enhancing the competition of European universities in the global education market place. Universities compete to attract the best students, both national and international, to their postgraduate programmes. However, the design and launch of international masters or doctorates imply working with a different logic to the one used in national programmes. Complexity, diversity and differentiation are drivers of international education and as happens in complex systems the properties and features of the final products are different from the existing in the individual components. The aim of this paper is to understand international studies as complex systems and to analyze and identify factors affecting to the different components involved in the implementation of these programmes. The new approaches and the interrelations in aspects such as academic, administrative or economic management, quality assurance and marketing issues are examined and drivers, challenges and good practices where possible are identified. The analysis has been carried out considering the point of view of both Universities (supply-led approach) and students and employers (demand-led approach). From the analysis have emerged important questions that show the interrelation pattern and that can be useful when designing and implementing international postgraduate studies. Universities and students tend to agree about many issues however, some divergences have also been identified which make the results of the research more valuable.

  20. Joint trajectories for social and physical aggression as predictors of adolescent maladjustment: internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Marion K; Beron, Kurt J; Rosen, Lisa H

    2011-05-01

    This investigation examined the relation between developmental trajectories jointly estimated for social and physical aggression and adjustment problems at age 14. Teachers provided ratings of children's social and physical aggression in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for a sample of 255 children (131 girls, 21% African American, 52% European American, 21% Mexican American). Participants, parents, and teachers completed measures of the adolescent's adjustment to assess internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. Results showed that membership in a high and rising trajectory group predicted rule-breaking behaviors and borderline personality features. Membership in a high desister group predicted internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. The findings suggest that although low levels of social and physical aggression may not bode poorly for adjustment, individuals engaging in high levels of social and physical aggression in middle childhood may be at greatest risk for adolescent psychopathology, whether they increase or desist in their aggression through early adolescence.

  1. Joint trajectories for social and physical aggression as predictors of adolescent maladjustment: Internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features

    PubMed Central

    UNDERWOOD, MARION K.; BERON, KURT J.; ROSEN, LISA H.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the relation between developmental trajectories jointly estimated for social and physical aggression and adjustment problems at age 14. Teachers provided ratings of children's social and physical aggression in Grades 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 for a sample of 255 children (131 girls, 21% African American, 52% European American, 21% Mexican American). Participants, parents, and teachers completed measures of the adolescent's adjustment to assess internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. Results showed that membership in a high and rising trajectory group predicted rule-breaking behaviors and borderline personality features. Membership in a high desister group predicted internalizing symptoms, rule-breaking behaviors, and borderline and narcissistic personality features. The findings suggest that although low levels of social and physical aggression may not bode poorly for adjustment, individuals engaging in high levels of social and physical aggression in middle childhood may be at greatest risk for adolescent psychopathology, whether they increase or desist in their aggression through early adolescence. PMID:21532919

  2. A play and joint attention intervention for teachers of young children with autism: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Connie S

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot test a classroom-based intervention focused on facilitating play and joint attention for young children with autism in self-contained special education classrooms. Thirty-three children with autism between the ages of 3 and 6 years participated in the study with their classroom teachers (n = 14). The 14 preschool special education teachers were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) symbolic play then joint attention intervention, (2) joint attention then symbolic intervention, and (3) wait-list control period then further randomized to either group 1 or group 2. In the intervention, teachers participated in eight weekly individualized 1-h sessions with a researcher that emphasized embedding strategies targeting symbolic play and joint attention into their everyday classroom routines and activities. The main child outcome variables of interest were collected through direct classroom observations. Findings indicate that teachers can implement an intervention to significantly improve joint engagement of young children with autism in their classrooms. Furthermore, multilevel analyses showed significant increases in joint attention and symbolic play skills. Thus, these pilot data emphasize the need for further research and implementation of classroom-based interventions targeting play and joint attention skills for young children with autism.

  3. Comparative Study of 3-Dimensional Woven Joint Architectures for Composite Spacecraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Justin S.; Polis, Daniel L.; Rowles, Russell R.; Segal, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate initiated an Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) Project through the Exploration Technology Development Program in order to support the polymer composite needs for future heavy lift launch architectures. As an example, the large composite structural applications on Ares V inspired the evaluation of advanced joining technologies, specifically 3D woven composite joints, which could be applied to segmented barrel structures needed for autoclave cured barrel segments due to autoclave size constraints. Implementation of these 3D woven joint technologies may offer enhancements in damage tolerance without sacrificing weight. However, baseline mechanical performance data is needed to properly analyze the joint stresses and subsequently design/down-select a preform architecture. Six different configurations were designed and prepared for this study; each consisting of a different combination of warp/fill fiber volume ratio and preform interlocking method (Z-fiber, fully interlocked, or hybrid). Tensile testing was performed for this study with the enhancement of a dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system which provides the capability to measure full-field strains and three dimensional displacements of objects under load. As expected, the ratio of warp/fill fiber has a direct influence on strength and modulus, with higher values measured in the direction of higher fiber volume bias. When comparing the Z-fiber weave to a fully interlocked weave with comparable fiber bias, the Z-fiber weave demonstrated the best performance in two different comparisons. We report the measured tensile strengths and moduli for test coupons from the 6 different weave configurations under study.

  4. Phase 1 Program Joint Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nield, George C. (Editor); Vorobiev, Pavel Mikhailovich (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This report consists of inputs from each of the Phase I Program Joint Working Groups. The Working Groups were tasked to describe the organizational structure and work processes that they used during the program, joint accomplishments, lessons learned, and applications to the International Space Station Program. This report is a top-level joint reference document that contains information of interest to both countries.

  5. Pressure vessel flex joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

  6. Post-mortem study of the hip joint. III. Correlations between observations.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, P D; Contepomi, C A; Farkas, T A

    1976-01-01

    Correlations between alterations in hip joints, described in a post-mortem study, have established the independence of limited and progressive alterations, and in addition have shown that there is a weak association between limited alterations and osteophytes and a strong one between progressive alterations and osteophytes. Nevertheless limited alterations may rarely undergo progressive damage. Cysts relate strongly to osteophytes but only moderately with progressive alterations. Limited alterations of both head and acetabulum can be subdivided. Some implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:942267

  7. Study of high-strength CFRP bolted joints with failure-monitoring cone washers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Tsukasa; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Todoroki, Akira; Matsuzaki, Ryosuke

    2011-09-01

    To increase the strength of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) bolted joints, a method to increase the friction force between carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic members was proposed. The increase in failure load for the proposed joint was confirmed in finite-element method analyses and joint tests. Additionally, the feasibility of damage monitoring using surface strains of the cone washer was demonstrated.

  8. Proceedings of the frst joint american chemical society agricultural and food chemistry division – american chemical society international chemical sciences chapter in Thailand symposium on agricultural and food chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This Proceedings is a compilation of papers from contributed oral and poster presentations presented at the first joint symposium organized by the American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand ...

  9. Value and impact of international hospital accreditation: a case study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Y A; Zeng, W; Chappy, E; Shepard, D S

    2015-04-02

    We assessed the economic impact of Joint Commission International hospital accreditation on 5 structural and outcome hospital performance measures in Jordan. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study comparing 2 private accredited acute general hospitals with matched non-accredited hospitals, using difference-in-differences and adjusted covariance analyses to test the impact and value of accreditation on hospital performance measures. Of the 5 selected measures, 3 showed statistically significant effects (all improvements) associated with accreditation: reduction in return to intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours of ICU discharge; reduction in staff turnover; and completeness of medical records. The net impact of accreditation was a 1.2 percentage point reduction in patients who returned to the ICU, 12.8% reduction in annual staff turnover and 20.0% improvement in the completeness of medical records. Pooling both hospitals over 3 years, these improvements translated into total savings of US$ 593 000 in Jordan's health-care system.

  10. Women's Joint Decision on Contraceptive Use in Gedeo Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Community Based Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Adissu, Yohannes

    2017-01-01

    A community based comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to assess the mutual consent of women about family planning use in urban and rural villages of Gedeo zone. Two-thirds (67.4%) of women made joint decision on contraceptive use, varying between urban (70.9%) and rural (63.4%) settings. This difference was statistically significant where women in urban setup had a 41% (AOR, 1.41; 95% CI (1.15, 2.01) added chance of making joint decision than the rural counterpart. In both settings, attitude towards contraceptive method was an independent predictor of joint contraceptive decision (AOR = 2.85) in urban and (AOR = 2.81) rural women. Contrarily, different factors were found to be associated with joint contraceptive decision in either setup. In urban, having better knowledge about contraceptive methods (AOR = 2.9) and having lower age difference (AOR = 2.2) were found to be strong predictors of joint decision on contraceptive use, while having too many children (AOR = 2.2) and paternal support (AOR = 7.1) in rural setups. Lower level of joint decision making on contraceptive use was reported in both setups. Factors associated with joint decision varied between the two setups, except for attitude towards contraceptive methods. Future family planning program should address sociocultural, knowledge and attitude factors. PMID:28367329

  11. Time trends in the aetiology of prosthetic joint infections: a multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benito, N; Franco, M; Ribera, A; Soriano, A; Rodriguez-Pardo, D; Sorlí, L; Fresco, G; Fernández-Sampedro, M; Dolores Del Toro, M; Guío, L; Sánchez-Rivas, E; Bahamonde, A; Riera, M; Esteban, J; Baraia-Etxaburu, J M; Martínez-Alvarez, J; Jover-Sáenz, A; Dueñas, C; Ramos, A; Sobrino, B; Euba, G; Morata, L; Pigrau, C; Coll, P; Mur, I; Ariza, J

    2016-08-01

    It is important to know the spectrum of the microbial aetiology of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) to guide empiric treatment and establish antimicrobial prophylaxis in joint replacements. There are no available data based on large contemporary patient cohorts. We sought to characterize the causative pathogens of PJIs and to evaluate trends in the microbial aetiology. We hypothesized that the frequency of antimicrobial-resistant organisms in PJIs has increased in the recent years. We performed a cohort study in 19 hospitals in Spain, from 2003 to 2012. For each 2-year period (2003-2004 to 2011-2012), the incidence of microorganisms causing PJIs and multidrug-resistant bacteria was assessed. Temporal trends over the study period were evaluated. We included 2524 consecutive adult patients with a diagnosis of PJI. A microbiological diagnosis was obtained for 2288 cases (90.6%). Staphylococci were the most common cause of infection (1492, 65.2%). However, a statistically significant rising linear trend was observed for the proportion of infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli, mainly due to the increase in the last 2-year period (25% in 2003-2004, 33.3% in 2011-2012; p 0.024 for trend). No particular species contributed disproportionally to this overall increase. The percentage of multidrug-resistant bacteria PJIs increased from 9.3% in 2003-2004 to 15.8% in 2011-2012 (p 0.008), mainly because of the significant rise in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (from 5.3% in 2003-2004 to 8.2% in 2011-2012; p 0.032). The observed trends have important implications for the management of PJIs and prophylaxis in joint replacements.

  12. Whither Thou Goest: The Intrigue of an International Study Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Ronald J.; Peters, Robert

    This paper describes one business school's response to the challenges of globalization. After faculty members taught seminars in other countries, an interest was expressed in conducting international study seminars for the school's business students. One-week seminars were arranged, which allowed part-time, employed MBA students to enroll. The…

  13. Language Testing and International Intelligibility: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in language testing is the choice of norms, and the need to reconcile notions of "standard" English with local language norms and features. Data from studies of international intelligibility indicate that some features of "standard" language descriptions, based on native-speaker language use, are not essential…

  14. International Comparisons of Teachers' Salaries: An Exploratory Study. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barro, Steven M.; Suter, Larry

    This paper, the final product of a study, "International Comparison of Teachers' Salaries," on an exploratory effort to compare salaries of elementary and secondary school teachers in the United States with those in other economically advanced countries. Data was obtained from Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Japan,…

  15. A Comprehensive Developmental Studies Program for International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogger, Barbara

    A comprehensive developmental studies program was initiated during Fall 1980 at Navarro College to help Micronesian and other international students become acquainted with American culture and to assist them in the areas of basic skills development, English as a second language (ESL), and career planning. The program offered a special course…

  16. Culminating Cultural Studies with an International Christmas Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesow, F. Wm.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the "International Christmas Fair" developed as a part of "Project Explore: Cultural Studies" program in Fairmont, Nebraska, with an ESEA Title IV grant. Shows how a rural school teaches about the Christmas customs of Holland, Sweden, Mexico, Germany, Colonial America, and England. (AH)

  17. Equivalence of Translations in International Reading Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arffman, Inga

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a significant increase in the interest in international assessments of student performance. In such assessments it is mandatory that all the different-language texts be equivalent to each other, that is, equally difficult to understand. The article summarizes a study made on the topic, examining the problems of…

  18. State Initiatives and Activities in Foreign Languages and International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Jamie B.

    A listing of state efforts in foreign language education and international studies compiled from results of a telephone and mail survey of state foreign language supervisors is presented. For those states for which information was not available from supervisors, consultants, or education officials, other sources were consulted, including…

  19. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  20. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  1. 1976-77 Internal Revenue Service Comparison Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Application forms for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program for 1976-1977 were compared to 1975 tax forms filed with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Comparisons were also made to data from a similar 1974-1975 study. Based on a sample of 212,263 applicants, findings include the following: during 1976-1977, 70.7 percent of all…

  2. 1979-80 Internal Revenue Service Comparison Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Application forms for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program for 1979-1980 were compared to 1978 tax forms filed with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Comparisons were also made to data from similar 1974-1975 and 1976-1977 studies. Based on a sample of 407,596 applicants, findings include the following: between 1976-1977 and…

  3. International Students' Likelihood to Seek Counseling While Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onabule, Adebayo I.; Boes, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    International students experience significant stressors while studying in American colleges and universities, yet they use psychological services far less than domestic students (Misra & Castillo, 2004). Factors such as previous experience with counseling, perceived effectiveness of counseling style, and nationality were found to be factors…

  4. Study of Interns' Perception of and Satisfaction with Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore and analyze the factors that influence interns' perceptions of and satisfaction with experiential learning during the internship process. Internship programs have existed for over 100 years and are used extensively in higher education, particularly in business schools; there is very little evidence to…

  5. Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

    2011-01-01

    Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…

  6. Findings of an international study on burnup credit

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.C.; Takano, M.; Okuno, H.; DeHart, M.D.; Nouri, A.; Sartori, E.

    1996-08-01

    Findings from a four year study by an international benchmarking group in the comparison of computational methods for evaluating burnup credit in criticality safety analyses are presented in this paper. Approximately 20 participants from 11 countries have provided results for most problems. Four detailed benchmark problems for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel have been completed and are summarized in this paper. Preliminary results from current work addressing burnup credit for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel will also be discussed as well as planned activities for additional benchmarks including Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuels, subcritical benchmarks, international databases, and other activities.

  7. Boiling-Water Reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of an aging assessment study for boiling water reactor (BWR) internals. Major stressors for BWR internals are related to unsteady hydrodynamic forces generated by the primary coolant flow in the reactor vessel. Welding and cold-working, dissolved oxygen and impurities in the coolant, applied loads and exposures to fast neutron fluxes are other important stressors. Based on results of a component failure information survey, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fatigue are identified as the two major aging-related degradation mechanisms for BWR internals. Significant reported failures include SCC in jet-pump holddown beams, in-core neutron flux monitor dry tubes and core spray spargers. Fatigue failures were detected in feedwater spargers. The implementation of a plant Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) program is considered as a promising method for controlling SCC problems in BWR. More operating data are needed to evaluate its effectiveness for internal components. Long-term fast neutron irradiation effects and high-cycle fatigue in a corrosive environment are uncertainty factors in the aging assessment process. BWR internals are examined by visual inspections and the method is access limited. The presence of a large water gap and an absence of ex-core neutron flux monitors may handicap the use of advanced inspection methods, such as neutron noise vibration measurements, for BWR.

  8. Is joint effusion on MRI specific for haemophilia?

    PubMed

    Foppen, W; van der Schaaf, I C; Witkamp, T D; Fischer, K

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scores for haemophilic arthropathy are useful for evaluation of early and moderate arthropathy. The most recent additive International Prophylaxis Study Group (IPSG) MRI scale for haemophilic arthropathy includes joint effusion. However, it is unknown whether joint effusion is haemophilia specific. Correct interpretation of joint effusion is needed for outcome assessment of prophylactic therapies in haemophilia care. The aim of this study was to compare joint effusion on MRI between young adults with haemophilia and healthy controls. MRI's of both knees and ankles of 26 haemophilic patients (104 joints) and 30 healthy active men (120 joints) were assessed. Scans in both groups were performed in 2009/2010 and 2012 respectively. Joint effusion was measured and scored according to the MRI atlas referred by the IPSG MRI scale for haemophilic arthropathy. Median age of haemophilic patients and healthy controls was 21 and 24 years respectively. In haemophilic patients 23% of knees and 22% of ankles showed joint effusion. Healthy controls had significantly more positive scores for knee effusion (67%, P < 0.01) and a comparable scores for effusion in the ankle (17%). Joint effusion according to criteria of the IPSG MRI scale was observed significantly more often in knees of healthy controls, while findings in ankles were similar. These data suggest that joint effusion in knees and ankles is not haemophilia specific. Inclusion of joint effusion in the MRI scale is expected to reduce its specificity for haemophilic arthropathy.

  9. Feasibility study of semi-automated measurements of finger joint space widths.

    PubMed

    Pfeil, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Julia; Fröber, Rosemarie; Lehmann, Gabriele; Malich, Ansgar; Hansch, Andreas; Wolf, Gunter; Böttcher, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate technical feasibility based on image capturing conditions (film-focus distance (FFD), film sensitivity, film brand, exposure level and tube voltage) that potentially alter radiographs and consequently may influence the semi-automated measurement of joint space distance (JSD) by computer-aided joint space analysis (CAJSA) in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The radiographs of a left hand (deceased man) were acquired under systematically changing image capturing conditions (exposure level: 4-8 mAs; FFD: 90-130 cm; film sensitivity: 200/400 and tube voltage: 40-52 kV with different image modalities: conventional radiographs, original digital radiographs, digital print-outs). All JSD-measurements were performed with the CAJSA-technology (Radiogrammetry Kit, Version 1.3.6; Sectra; Sweden) at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation. JSD-analysis was not influenced by changes of FFD, exposure level, film sensitivity or film brand. JSD showed significant variation caused by tube voltage (conventional: CV = 1.913% for Agfa and CV = 2.448% for Kodak; digital: CV = 0.741% for Philips print-outs and CV = 0.620% with original digital images versus CV = 2.185% for Siemens print-outs and 0.951% with original digital images). Computer-aided joint space analysis for JSD-measurements is unaffected by the following image capturing parameters: film-focus distance, film sensitivity, film brand and exposure level. An influence of tube voltage was detected in a lesser extent for original digital images compared to the printed digital as well as conventional versions. Consequently, a standardized tube voltage is essential for accurate reproductions of CAJSA-measurements in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

  10. 1988 Volvo award in clinical sciences. Facet joint injection in low-back pain. A prospective statistical study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R P; Jacobs, R R; Montesano, P X

    1988-09-01

    From January 1980 through December 1984, 454 patients were evaluated with facet joint injections. All had the chief complaint of low-back pain, normal neurologic examinations and no root tension signs. Three hundred and ninety completed the protocol, which included a lumbar motion pain assessment before and after facet injection. A total of 127 variables were studied. There were 229 males and 161 females with a median age of 38. Facet joint arthrograms were performed prior to intra-articular injection of local anesthetic and cortisone. Initial mean pain relief was only 29%. Variables correlating significantly (P less than 0.05) with more postinjection pain relief were older age, prior history of low-back pain, normal gait, maximum pain on extension following forward flexion in the standing position, and the absence of leg pain, muscle spasm and aggravation of pain on Valsalva. Greatest pain relief immediately after injection was seen with lumbar extension and rotation, motions reported to stress the facet joints or aggravate pain of facet joint origin. Patients with more pain on lumbar extension and rotation as a group, however, did not get more pain relief. From this study we were not able to identify clinical facet joint syndromes or predict patients responding better to this procedure. The facet joints were not commonly the single or primary source for low-back pain in the great majority (greater than 90%) of patients studied.

  11. Cross-Border Partnerships in Higher Education: Strategies and Issues. International Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Robin, Ed.; Chapman, David, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Cross-border Partnerships in Higher Education" looks beyond student and faculty exchanges to examine the myriad ways international colleges and universities work together as institutions. These partnerships have involved the creation of branch campuses, joint research and technology initiatives, collaboration in strengthening…

  12. European Colleges Lead U.S. in International Dual-Degree Programs, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    To demonstrate their credentials as global institutions, universities on both sides of the Atlantic are creating an increasing number of international joint-degree and dual-degree programs. But American institutions trail their European counterparts in offering such degrees, and American students are less likely than European students to…

  13. Critical Friendship as a Contribution to Master's-Level Work in an International Programme of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swet, Jacqueline; Smit, Ben H. J.; Corvers, Louise; van Dijk, Ineke

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project in which the value of critical friendship for students doing research and writing their dissertations within an international master's course has been explored. This course is run jointly by Roehampton University (London, UK), Charles University (Prague, Czech Republic) together with Fontys OSO…

  14. Analytical and experiment study of clearance and bearing-bypass load effects in composite bolted joints

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, R.V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A combined analytical and experimental study is conducted to determine the effects of clearance and bearing-bypass loading for mechanically fastened joints in composites. A simple method of analysis is developed to account for the nonlinear effects of bolt-hole clearance. The nonlinear load-contact variations for clearance-fit fasteners are also measured using specially instrumented fastener. For a quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminate, results show that the contact arc as well as the peak stresses around the hole and their locations are strongly influenced by the clearance. After a slight initial nonlinearity, the peak stresses vary linearly with applied load. The typical clearance levels are shown to have only a minor influence on the overall joint stiffness. Quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates (T300/5208) were tested under combined bearing and bypass loading to study failure modes and strengths. Radiographs were made after damage onset and after ultimate load to examine the failure criteria to analyze the test data. The near the bolt-hole are calculated for each test condition, and then used with appropriate failure criteria to analyze the test data. The tension data show a linear interaction for combined bearing and bypass loading with damage developing the net-tension mode and growing to failure in the same mode. Failure modes are more complex in compression.

  15. In-situ study of electromigration-induced grain rotation in Pb-free solder joint by synchrotron microdiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-10-31

    The rotation of Sn grains in Pb-free flip chip solder joints hasn't been reported in literature so far although it has been observed in Sn strips. In this letter, we report the detailed study of the grain orientation evolution induced by electromigration by synchrotron based white beam X-ray microdiffraction. It is found that the grains in solder joint rotate more slowly than in Sn strip even under higher current density. On the other hand, based on our estimation, the reorientation of the grains in solder joints also results in the reduction of electric resistivity, similar to the case of Sn strip. We will also discuss the reason why the electric resistance decreases much more in strips than in the Sn-based solders, and the different driving force for the grain growth in solder joint and in thin film interconnect lines.

  16. APEX-CAMBIUM: A Case Study in Advantages and Challenges of International Cooperation for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David; Buckley, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    It is generally agreed that space science benefits from an international collaboration. There are different mechanisms to make this happen but to recognize opportunities requires a keen awareness of the activities, people and respective strengths. Apex- Cambium is a joint Canadian Space Agency (CSA)-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiative. It was made possible in large part through the good relations and shared willingness to meet a common objective, that of doing exciting science in space. The actual mechanics of bringing an international project together can be divided into two perspectives: programmatic and implementation. The programmatic component includes recognizing complementarities, bringing science together, and the need to have Agencies approve and accept joint responsibility for the mission. The implementation component involves working to define science requirements, available resources and assigning individual responsibilities while keeping the overall success criteria as a collective objective. The APEX-CAMB11.JM mission will be described from the point of view of both CSA and NASA. Suggestions on how to facilitate these types of initiatives will be provided and highlights of the APEX-Cambium collaboration will be provided.

  17. Hydrodynamic study of an internal airlift reactor for microalgae culture.

    PubMed

    Rengel, Ana; Zoughaib, Assaad; Dron, Dominique; Clodic, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Internal airlift reactors are closed systems considered today for microalgae cultivation. Several works have studied their hydrodynamics but based on important solid concentrations, not with biomass concentrations usually found in microalgae cultures. In this study, an internal airlift reactor has been built and tested in order to clarify the hydrodynamics of this system, based on microalgae typical concentrations. A model is proposed taking into account the variation of air bubble velocity according to volumetric air flow rate injected into the system. A relationship between riser and downcomer gas holdups is established, which varied slightly with solids concentrations. The repartition of solids along the reactor resulted to be homogenous for the range of concentrations and volumetric air flow rate studied here. Liquid velocities increase with volumetric air flow rate, and they vary slightly when solids are added to the system. Finally, liquid circulation time found in each section of the reactor is in concordance with those employed in microalgae culture.

  18. Official Positions for FRAX® clinical regarding biochemical markers from Joint Official Positions Development Conference of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry and International Osteoporosis Foundation on FRAX®.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Eugene V; Vasikaran, Samuel; Cooper, Cyrus

    2011-01-01

    The best indirect evidence that increased bone turnover contributes to fracture risk is the fact that most of the proven therapies for osteoporosis are inhibitors of bone turnover. The evidence base that we can use biochemical markers of bone turnover in the assessment of fracture risk is somewhat less convincing. This relates to natural variability in the markers, problems with the assays, disparity in the statistical analyses of relevant studies and the independence of their contribution to fracture risk. More research is clearly required to address these deficiencies before biochemical markers might contribute a useful independent risk factor for inclusion in FRAX(®).

  19. Arthrocentesis and temporomandibular joint disorders: clinical and radiological results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Riu, Giacomo; Stimolo, Mirella; Meloni, Silvio Mario; Soma, Damiano; Pisano, Milena; Sembronio, Salvatore; Tullio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the efficacy of arthrocentesis in the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Material and Methods. In this prospective clinical case series, 30 consecutive patients with TMJ disorders underwent arthrocentesis using saline and sodium hyaluronate injections. Outcome measures were TMJ pain, maximum mouth opening (MMO), joint noises, and anatomical changes in the TMJ architecture. Patients were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning of treatment and 60 days after the last arthrocentesis. Pretreatment and posttreatment clinical parameters were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests, and McNemar's test was used to evaluate CBCT and MRI changes (P < 0.05). Results. At 1-year follow-up examinations, visual analogue scale scores indicated that pain was reduced significantly and mean postoperative MMO was increased significantly. CBCT findings showed no significant change, and MRI showed only slight reductions in inflammatory signs. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that arthrocentesis is a simple, minimally invasive procedure with a relatively low risk of complications and significant clinical benefits in patients with TMJ disorders. This trial is registered with NCT01903512.

  20. Osteoarthrosis of Temporomandibular Joint Related to the Defects of Posterior Dentition: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Levorová, Jitka; Machoň, Vladimír; Guha, Anasuya; Foltán, René

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthrosis (OA) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a progressive degenerative disease, gradually affecting cartilage, synovial membrane and bone structures. OA of TMJ clinically manifests with joint noises, pain and restricted mouth opening. In late stages, it results in severe damage of TMJ structures and development of ankylosis. Osteoarthrosis is a multifactorial disease; the occurrence is associated with TMJ overloading. The cohort included 619 patients [538 women (87%) and 81 men (13%), with average age 40.6 years (age range 8-89 years)] with TMJ disorder, who were examined in the year 2014 in Department of Dental Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse, if the lack of posterior teeth (supporting teeth zones) is the main etiologic factor of osteoarthrosis of TMJ. Diagnosis of OA was established on the clinical signs and the panoramic X-ray signs. Simultaneously other etiologic factors of OA were assessed. The presence of OA changes on X-ray had 171 patients (i.e. 27.6% of the total number of 619). 17.5% from these patients with OA had defect in posterior dentition. Other aetiological factors (stress, skeletal or vertebrogenous disorders) showed higher incidence of OA changes on X-ray. Defect of posterior dentition is not negligible, but it is not the main aetiological factor for osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  1. Increased Risk of Temporomandibular Joint Closed Lock: A Case-Control Study of ANKH Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Boyen; Takahashi, Katsu; Sakata, Tomoko; Kiso, Honoka; Sugai, Manabu; Fujimura, Kazuma; Shimizu, Akira; Kosugi, Shinji; Sato, Tosiya; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to carry out a histological examination of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in ank mutant mice and to identify polymorphisms of the human ANKH gene in order to establish the relationship between the type of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and ANKH polymorphisms. Materials and Methods Specimens from the TMJ of ank mutant and wild-type mice were inspected with a haematoxylin and eosin staining method. A sample of 55 TMD patients were selected. Each was examined with standard clinical procedures and genotyping techniques. Results The major histological finding in ank mutant mice was joint space narrowing. Within TMD patients, closed lock was more prevalent among ANKH-OR homozygotes (p = 0.011, OR = 7.7, 95% CI 1.6–36.5) and the elder (p = 0.005, OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.3–4.3). Conclusions Fibrous ankylosis was identified in the TMJ of ank mutant mice. In the human sample, ANKH-OR polymorphism was found to be a genetic marker associated with TMJ closed lock. Future investigations correlating genetic polymorphism to TMD are indicated. PMID:22003394

  2. An ITPA joint experiment to study runaway electron generation and suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Granetz, R. S.; Esposito, B.; Kim, J. H.; Koslowski, R.; Lehnen, M.; Martin-Solis, J. R.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Rhee, T.; Wesley, J. C.; Zeng, L.

    2014-07-15

    Recent results from an ITPA joint experiment to study the onset, growth, and decay of relativistic electrons (REs) indicate that loss mechanisms other than collisional damping may play a dominant role in the dynamics of the RE population, even during the quiescent I{sub p} flattop. Understanding the physics of RE growth and mitigation is motivated by the theoretical prediction that disruptions of full-current (15 MA) ITER discharges could generate up to 10 MA of REs with 10–20 MeV energies. The ITPA MHD group is conducting a joint experiment to measure the RE detection threshold conditions on a number of tokamaks under quasi-steady-state conditions in which V{sub loop}, n{sub e}, and REs can be well-diagnosed and compared to collisional theory. Data from DIII-D, C-Mod, FTU, KSTAR, and TEXTOR have been obtained so far, and the consensus to date is that the threshold E-field is significantly higher than predicted by relativistic collisional theory, or conversely, the density required to damp REs is significantly less than predicted, which could have significant implications for RE mitigation on ITER.

  3. Arthrocentesis and Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: Clinical and Radiological Results of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    De Riu, Giacomo; Soma, Damiano; Pisano, Milena; Sembronio, Salvatore; Tullio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the efficacy of arthrocentesis in the treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Material and Methods. In this prospective clinical case series, 30 consecutive patients with TMJ disorders underwent arthrocentesis using saline and sodium hyaluronate injections. Outcome measures were TMJ pain, maximum mouth opening (MMO), joint noises, and anatomical changes in the TMJ architecture. Patients were evaluated using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning of treatment and 60 days after the last arthrocentesis. Pretreatment and posttreatment clinical parameters were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests, and McNemar's test was used to evaluate CBCT and MRI changes (P < 0.05). Results. At 1-year follow-up examinations, visual analogue scale scores indicated that pain was reduced significantly and mean postoperative MMO was increased significantly. CBCT findings showed no significant change, and MRI showed only slight reductions in inflammatory signs. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that arthrocentesis is a simple, minimally invasive procedure with a relatively low risk of complications and significant clinical benefits in patients with TMJ disorders. This trial is registered with NCT01903512. PMID:24319462

  4. A Study of the Association Between Sleep Bruxism, Low Quality of Sleep, and Degenerative Changes of the Temporomandibular Joint.

    PubMed

    Dias, Glaucia Marques; Bonato, Letícia Ladeira; Guimarães, Josemar Parreira; Silva, Jesca Neftali Nogueira; Ferreira, Luciano Ambrosio; Grossmann, Eduardo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of degenerative bone changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in individuals suffering from sleep bruxism (SB), associating these characteristics with the quality of sleep. For this, we followed the International Classification of Sleep Disorders for the diagnosis of SB, in addition to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) for the classification of TMD and cone beam computed tomography. It was found that 97.7% of the individuals with bruxism had at least 1 RDC/TMD group III diagnosis, 75.6% of the subjects considered their sleep quality as poor, and the largest group (23%) had centric bruxism. There was no significant association between the pattern of sleep quality (P = 0.36), the type of SB (P = 0.277), and the presence of degenerative changes of the TMJ. Regardless of the quality of sleep and the type of bruxism presented, the prevalence of degenerative bone disorders was high (67%) among women with a mean age of 46 years and a clinical diagnosis of SB.

  5. A Study of Three Intrinsic Problems of the Classic Discrete Element Method Using Flat-Joint Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shunchuan; Xu, Xueliang

    2016-05-01

    Discrete element methods have been proven to offer a new avenue for obtaining the mechanics of geo-materials. The standard bonded-particle model (BPM), a classic discrete element method, has been applied to a wide range of problems related to rock and soil. However, three intrinsic problems are associated with using the standard BPM: (1) an unrealistically low unconfined compressive strength to tensile strength (UCS/TS) ratio, (2) an excessively low internal friction angle, and (3) a linear strength envelope, i.e., a low Hoek-Brown (HB) strength parameter m i . After summarizing the underlying reasons of these problems through analyzing previous researchers' work, flat-joint model (FJM) is used to calibrate Jinping marble and is found to closely match its macro-properties. A parametric study is carried out to systematically evaluate the micro-parameters' effect on these three macro-properties. The results indicate that (1) the UCS/TS ratio increases with the increasing average coordination number (CN) and bond cohesion to tensile strength ratio, but it first decreases and then increases with the increasing crack density (CD); (2) the HB strength parameter m i has positive relationships to the crack density (CD), bond cohesion to tensile strength ratio, and local friction angle, but a negative relationship to the average coordination number (CN); (3) the internal friction angle increases as the crack density (CD), bond cohesion to tensile strength ratio, and local friction angle increase; (4) the residual friction angle has little effect on these three macro-properties and mainly influences post-peak behavior. Finally, a new calibration procedure is developed, which not only addresses these three problems, but also considers the post-peak behavior.

  6. Pressurized-water reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I study on the effects of aging degradations on pr internals. Primary stressers for internals an generated by the primary coolant flow in the they include unsteady hydrodynamic forces and pump-generated pressure pulsations. Other stressors are applied loads, manufacturing processes, impurities in the coolant and exposures to fast neutron fluxes. A survey of reported aging-related failure information indicates that fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and mechanical wear are the three major aging-related degradation mechanisms for PWR internals. Significant reported failures include thermal shield flow-induced vibration problems, SCC in guide tube support pins and core support structure bolts, fatigue-induced core baffle water-jet impingement problems and excess wear in flux thimbles. Many of the reported problems have been resolved by accepted engineering practices. Uncertainties remain in the assessment of long-term neutron irradiation effects and environmental factors in high-cycle fatigue failures. Reactor internals are examined by visual inspections and the technique is access limited. Improved inspection methods, especially one with an early failure detection capability, can enhance the safety and efficiency of reactor operations.

  7. Study on the Internship Programs for International Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Izumi; Iwatsu, Fumio

    Recently, the number of international students who have an experience of internship as employment experience has been increasing. In general, internship is a system through which students gain a work experience relating to his/her major field and future career, while at university. Many Japanese leading industries are situated in this Chubu area. Therefore, we have tried to facilitate an internship as a part of the curriculum from 2005. Here we report the progress of our internship programs and try to study the possibility of its future. Through this study, we can say that an internship would be a good opportunity for both international students and Japanese companies to understand each other. On the other hand, it is hard to bring the system to match students and companies, form both side of financial base and human resource. Therefore, to bring up good talent becomes to good connection with the industrial world.

  8. Evaluation of distance maps from fast GRE MRI as a tool to study the knee joint space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamez-Pena, Jose G.; Lerner, Amy L.; Yao, Jiang; Salo, Arthur D.; Totterman, Saara

    2003-05-01

    A new three-dimensional (3D) method of evaluating the joint space from fast GRE MRI has been developed that allows the reconstruction of the two dimensional (2D) distance map between the femur and the tibia bone plates. This method uses the MRI data, an automated 3D segmentation, and an unsupervised joint space extraction algorithm that identify the medial and lateral compartments of the knee joint. The extracted medial and lateral compartments of the tibia-femur joint space were analyzed by 2D distance maps, where visual as well quantitative information was extracted. This method was applied to study the dynamic behavior of the knee joint space under axial load. Three healthy volunteers' knees were imaged using fast GRE sequences in a clinical scanner under unloaded (normal) conditions and with an axial load that mimics the person's standing load. Furthermore, one volunteer's knee was imaged at four regular time intervals while the load was applied and at four regular intervals without load. The results show that changes of 50 microns in the average distance between bones can be measured and that normal axial loads reduce the joint space width significantly and can be detected by this method.

  9. A novel ultrasound technique for detection of osteochondral defects in the ankle joint: a parametric and feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sarkalkan, Nazli; Loeve, Arjo J; van Dongen, Koen W A; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2014-12-24

    (Osteo)chondral defects (OCDs) in the ankle are currently diagnosed with modalities that are not convenient to use in long-term follow-ups. Ultrasound (US) imaging, which is a cost-effective and non-invasive alternative, has limited ability to discriminate OCDs. We aim to develop a new diagnostic technique based on US wave propagation through the ankle joint. The presence of OCDs is identified when a US signal deviates from a reference signal associated with the healthy joint. The feasibility of the proposed technique is studied using experimentally-validated 2D finite-difference time-domain models of the ankle joint. The normalized maximum cross correlation of experiments and simulation was 0.97. Effects of variables relevant to the ankle joint, US transducers and OCDs were evaluated. Variations in joint space width and transducer orientation made noticeable alterations to the reference signal: normalized root mean square error ranged from 6.29% to 65.25% and from 19.59% to 8064.2%, respectively. The results suggest that the new technique could be used for detection of OCDs, if the effects of other parameters (i.e., parameters related to the ankle joint and US transducers) can be reduced.

  10. Experimental Semiotics: A New Approach For Studying Communication As A Form Of Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, researchers have begun to investigate the emergence of novel forms of human communication in the laboratory. I survey this growing line of research, which may be called experimental semiotics, from three distinct angles. First, I situate the new approach in its theoretical and historical context. Second, I review a sample of studies that exemplify experimental semiotics. Third, I present an empirical study that illustrates how the new approach can help us understand the sociocognitive underpinnings of human communication. The main conclusion of the paper will be that, by reproducing micro samples of historical processes in the laboratory, experimental semiotics offers new powerful tools for investigating human communication as a form of joint action. PMID:25164941

  11. How international is bioethics? A quantitative retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background Studying the contribution of individual countries to leading journals in a specific discipline can highlight which countries have the most impact on that discipline and whether a geographic bias exists. This article aims to examine the international distribution of publications in the field of bioethics. Methods Retrospective quantitative study of nine peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics and medical ethics (Bioethics, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Hastings Center Report, Journal of Clinical Ethics, Journal of Medical Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Nursing Ethics, Christian Bioethics, and Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics). Results In total, 4,029 articles published between 1990 and 2003 were retrieved from the nine bioethical journals under study. The United States (59.3%, n = 2390), the United Kingdom (13.5%, n = 544), Canada (4%, n = 160) and Australia (3.8%, n = 154) had the highest number of publications in terms of absolute number of publications. When normalized to population size, smaller affluent countries, such as New Zealand, Finland and Sweden were more productive than the United States. The number of studies originating from the USA was decreasing in the period between 1990 and 2003. Conclusion While a lot of peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics profile themselves as international journals, they certainly do not live up to what one would expect from an "international" journal. The fact that English speaking countries, and to a larger extent American authors, dominate the international journals in the field of bioethics is a clear geographic bias towards the bioethical discussions that are going on in these journals. PMID:16412229

  12. A joint graph inference case study: the C. elegans chemical and electrical connectomes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Lyzinski, Vince; Priebe, Carey E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate joint graph inference for the chemical and electrical connectomes of the Caenorhabditis elegans roundworm. The C. elegans connectomes consist of [Formula: see text] non-isolated neurons with known functional attributes, and there are two types of synaptic connectomes, resulting in a pair of graphs. We formulate our joint graph inference from the perspectives of seeded graph matching and joint vertex classification. Our results suggest that connectomic inference should proceed in the joint space of the two connectomes, which has significant neuroscientific implications.

  13. A joint graph inference case study: the C. elegans chemical and electrical connectomes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Lyzinski, Vince; Priebe, Carey E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigate joint graph inference for the chemical and electrical connectomes of the Caenorhabditis elegans roundworm. The C. elegans connectomes consist of 253 non-isolated neurons with known functional attributes, and there are two types of synaptic connectomes, resulting in a pair of graphs. We formulate our joint graph inference from the perspectives of seeded graph matching and joint vertex classification. Our results suggest that connectomic inference should proceed in the joint space of the two connectomes, which has significant neuroscientific implications. PMID:27386164

  14. Remobilization does not restore immobilization-induced adhesion of capsule and restricted joint motion in rat knee joints.

    PubMed

    Ando, Akira; Suda, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Onoda, Yoshito; Chimoto, Eiichi; Itoi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Joint immobilization, which is used in orthopaedic treatments and observed in bedridden people, usually causes restricted joint motion. Decreased joint motion diminishes activities of daily living and increases burden of nursing-care. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reversibility of immobilization-induced capsular changes and restricted joint motion in rat knee joints. The unilateral knee joints of adult male rats were immobilized with an internal fixator for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks as a model of immobilization after surgery or disuse of the joint. After the fixation devices were removed, the rats were allowed to move freely for 16 weeks. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. Sagittal sections at medial midcondylar regions were made and assessed with histological, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical methods. Joint motion was measured using a custom-made device under x-ray control after removal of the periarticular muscles. In the 1/16-week and 2/16-week immobilization-remobilization (Im-Rm) groups, cord-like structures connecting the superior and inferior portions of the posterior capsule (partial adhesion) were observed without restricted joint motion. In the 4/16-, 8/16-, and 16/16-week Im-Rm groups, global adhesion of the posterior capsule and restricted joint motion were observed. The restricted joint motion was not completely restored after incision of the posterior capsule. These data indicate that immobilization alone causes irreversible capsular changes and arthrogenic restricted joint motion. Besides the joint capsule, other arthrogenic factors such as ligaments might influence the restricted joint motion. Prolonged immobilization over 4 weeks should be avoided to prevent irreversible joint contracture.

  15. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT IN 1018 ASYMPTOMATIC HORSES: A MULTI-INSTITUTION STUDY.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Kneissl, Sibylle; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Zwick, Timo; Zekas, Lisa; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bienert-Zeit, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Published descriptions of nonseptic arthritis of the equine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare and large studies investigating variations in the TMJ for asymptomatic horses are lacking. The objectives of this cross-sectional, retrospective, multi-institutional study were to describe anatomical variations in the TMJ detected using computed tomography (CT) in an equid population asymptomatic for TMJ disease and determine whether these variations were associated with patient signalment, reason for CT examination, or CT slice width. Medical records at eight hospitals were searched for horses that had head/neck CT scans and no clinical signs of TMJ disease. Age, breed, sex, clinical presentation, and CT slice width data were recorded. Alterations in CT contour and density of the mandibular condyles, mandibular fossae, and TMJ intra-articular discs were described for each horse. Generalized logistic regression was used to test associations between anatomical variations and horse age. A total of 1018 horses were sampled. Anatomical variations were found in TMJ CT images for 40% of horses and 29% of joints. These were dichotomous with regard to age. Horses <1 year old commonly had alterations in the shape and density of the mandibular condyle. Older horses commonly had spherical hypodensities within the mandibular condyles consistent with bone cysts; and hyperdense regions of the intra-articular disc consistent with dystrophic mineralization. Findings indicated that TMJ anatomic variations were common in CT images of younger and older horses asymptomatic for TMJ disease. Future studies are needed to more definitively characterize these CT variations using gross pathology and histopathology.

  16. 12 CFR 347.107 - Joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint ventures. 347.107 Section 347.107 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.107 Joint ventures. (a) Joint ventures. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization that is a joint venture, and the bank or...

  17. 12 CFR 347.107 - Joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint ventures. 347.107 Section 347.107 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.107 Joint ventures. (a) Joint ventures. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization that is a joint venture, and the bank or...

  18. 12 CFR 347.107 - Joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint ventures. 347.107 Section 347.107 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.107 Joint ventures. (a) Joint ventures. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization that is a joint venture, and the bank or...

  19. 12 CFR 347.107 - Joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint ventures. 347.107 Section 347.107 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.107 Joint ventures. (a) Joint ventures. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization that is a joint venture, and the bank or...

  20. 12 CFR 347.107 - Joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint ventures. 347.107 Section 347.107 Banks... INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.107 Joint ventures. (a) Joint ventures. If a bank, directly or indirectly, acquires or holds an equity interest in a foreign organization that is a joint venture, and the bank or...

  1. A Statewide Program of Support for Beginning Administrators--The Kentucky Institute for Beginning Principals. A Joint Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    Kentucky's Institute for Beginning Principals was designed and implemented by a study group sponsored jointly by the Kentucky Association of School Administrators (KASA) and the Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL). AEL's study group concept calls for an association to select a topic for study--one of high priority in the state related to…

  2. Student Perceptions of International Education and Study Abroad: A Pilot Study at York University, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai; Rasmi, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    International student mobility has been identified as a key strategy for the internationalization of higher education. Although an institutional priority, Canada has among the lowest levels of international student mobility, with only 2% of full-time university students participating in study-abroad programs. This pilot study, conducted at a large…

  3. Current status of IMS plasma wave research. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a review of the status of magnetospheric plasma wave science as a result of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). The presence of an international effort has supported the development and completion of the numerous magnetospheric science spacecraft launched during the IMS, including GEOS, ISEE, and EXOS B. Ground-based VLF observations are considered along with coordinated ground-based and satellite observations. During the IMS, plasma wave research using satellite data has covered a wide range of subjects. Attention is given to magnetospheric electrostatic emissions, magnetospheric electromagnetic plasma waves, continuum radiation, auroral kilometric radiation, auroral zone plasma waves, plasma waves in the magnetosheath and near the mangetopause, and plasma waves at the bow shock.

  4. A joint computational and experimental study to evaluate Inconel-sheathed thermocouple performance in flames.

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, Aaron L.; Nicolette, Vernon F.; Donaldson, A. Burl; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Gill, Walter

    2005-09-01

    A joint experimental and computational study was performed to evaluate the capability of the Sandia Fire Code VULCAN to predict thermocouple response temperature. Thermocouple temperatures recorded by an Inconel-sheathed thermocouple inserted into a near-adiabatic flat flame were predicted by companion VULCAN simulations. The predicted thermocouple temperatures were within 6% of the measured values, with the error primarily attributable to uncertainty in Inconel 600 emissivity and axial conduction losses along the length of the thermocouple assembly. Hence, it is recommended that future thermocouple models (for Inconel-sheathed designs) include a correction for axial conduction. Given the remarkable agreement between experiment and simulation, it is recommended that the analysis be repeated for thermocouples in flames with pollutants such as soot.

  5. Scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints in acute anterior uveitis. A study of thirty patients.

    PubMed

    Russell, A S; Lentle, B C; Percy, J S; Jackson, F I

    1976-11-01

    HLA-B27 is a transplantation antigen found in a high proportion of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Recently, an association has been shown to exist between HLA-B27 and acute uveitis, even in the absence of ankylosing spondylitis. We have examined the HLA antigen profile of 45 patients with acute nongranulomatous anterior uveitis and have confirmed this relation. In addition, using 90mtechnetium stannous pyrophosphate we have been able to demonstrate abnormal bone scan in 19 of 30 patients studied. Such abnormalities are limited to the sacroiliac joints but are otherwise the same as those seen in overt ankylosing spondylitis. Seven of the 19 patients did not have HLA-B27. These factors suggest that acute anterior uveitis may often represent a manifestation of a spondylitic diathesis even in the complete absence of any suggestive symptomatic or radiologic change and, in some cases, even though the antigenic marker HLA-B27 may be absent.

  6. Pilot study of the impact sacroiliac joint manipulation has on walking kinematics using motion analysis technology

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John S.; Coats, Jesse; Sorrels, Kenneth; Walters, Mathew; Williams, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of engaging in a series of larger studies measuring the effect of sacroiliac joint manipulation on walking kinematics using motion analysis technology. Methods Twelve college students engaged in a baseline 90-second gait analysis at 1.5 mph using infrared VICON cameras. Following this, they underwent a prone heel comparison test for functional leg length inequality. Upon examination, participants were then classified as follows: left short leg, right short leg, or no short leg. Participants in each of the 2 short leg branches of this study were then randomized to receive either chiropractic manipulative therapy to the posterior superior iliac spine on the short limb side or no manipulation. Recruitment was ongoing for this pilot study until 1 participant was recruited in each of the following 5 comparative study groups: left short leg—manipulation, left short leg—no manipulation (control 1), right short leg—manipulation, right short leg—no manipulation (control 2), and no short leg (control 3). All participants then underwent another 90-second gait analysis. Data were then grouped and submitted to a blinded biomechanist to determine if there were any unique biomechanical differences between the groups. Results No statistically significant differences were measured because of this being a pilot study with a small sample size. Conclusions The data from this study indicate that a series of larger studies with this design is feasible. PMID:24396314

  7. Structural studies on an internal loop from a hairpin ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Tinoco, I. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    Ribozymes, RNA enzymes, catalyze site-specific RNA cleavage and ligation reactions. We are studying the three-dimensional structure of a hairpin ribozyme derived from the minus strand of tobacco ring spot virus satellite RNA ((-)sTRSV), which has been engineering to specifically cleave the HIV-1 RNA. The minimum structure for the catalytic reaction involves a 50-nucleotide ribozyme and a 14-nucleotide substrate. The proposed secondary structure of the ribozyme-substrate complex consists of four short helices separated by two internal loops. The relatively large size (64-nucleotide) of the ribozyme-substrate complex presents formidable problems in solving the structure using NMR. Therefore we are studying smaller structural subunits of the complex. We are determining the high resolution structure of the symmetric internal loop involving the cleavage site and the flanking helices. One strand of the internal loop was selectively {sup 13}C-labeled at C8 of each purine and C6 of each pyrimidine. By using {sup 13}C-edited two-dimensional NMR, the proton NOESY spectrum was greatly simplified. This allowed unambiguous sequential proton resonance assignments along each strand. Three-dimensional {sup 1}-{sup 13}C HMQC-NOESY was used to further facilitate resonance assignments. We are also enzymatically synthesizing the entire 50-nucleotide ribozyme and will combine it with the {sup 13}C-labeled substrate. Through comparison of the NOE connectivities of the labeled nucleotides from the internal loop alone with those from the entire complex, the differences between the two structures can be elucidated.

  8. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  9. Redundant Manipulator Self-Motion Topology Under Joint Limits with an 8-DOF Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luck, C. L.; Lee, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates the topology of self-motion manifolds for serial redundant manipulators with revolute joints in the presence of joint limits. It is known that the preimages of singular taskpoints divide the configuration space into regions where self-motion manifolds are homotopic.

  10. Literature Review and Preliminary Studies of Fretting and Fretting Fatigue Including Special Applications to Aircraft Joints.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    interfay sealant appeared to be porous. There was a small fatigue reduction. Hot bonded joints ( hot cured interfay) had no cracking at rivet holes. A...Base, Ohio,1973, 11 pp. 1 05 F. E. Kiddie , Fatigue behavior of bolted joints in RR58 aluminum alloy with and without interfay sealant, Procurement

  11. Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.

  12. Joint perceptual decision-making: a case study in explanatory pluralism

    PubMed Central

    Abney, Drew H.; Dale, Rick; Yoshimi, Jeff; Kello, Chris T.; Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally different approaches to the study of cognition have been viewed as competing explanatory frameworks. An alternative view, explanatory pluralism, regards different approaches to the study of cognition as complementary ways of studying the same phenomenon, at specific temporal and spatial scales, using appropriate methodological tools. Explanatory pluralism has been often described abstractly, but has rarely been applied to concrete cases. We present a case study of explanatory pluralism. We discuss three separate ways of studying the same phenomenon: a perceptual decision-making task (Bahrami et al., 2010), where pairs of subjects share information to jointly individuate an oddball stimulus among a set of distractors. Each approach analyzed the same corpus but targeted different units of analysis at different levels of description: decision-making at the behavioral level, confidence sharing at the linguistic level, and acoustic energy at the physical level. We discuss the utility of explanatory pluralism for describing this complex, multiscale phenomenon, show ways in which this case study sheds new light on the concept of pluralism, and highlight good practices to critically assess and complement approaches. PMID:24795679

  13. Three-dimensional lower extremity joint loading in a carved ski and snowboard turn: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Klous, Miriam; Müller, Erich; Schwameder, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    A large number of injuries to the lower extremity occur in skiing and snowboarding. Due to the difficulty of collecting 3D kinematic and kinetic data with high accuracy, a possible relationship between injury statistic and joint loading has not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare ankle and knee joint loading at the steering leg between carved ski and snowboard turns. Kinetic data were collected using mobile force plates mounted under the toe and heel part of the binding on skies or snowboard (KISTLER). Kinematic data were collected with five synchronized, panning, tilting, and zooming cameras. An extended version of the Yeadon model was applied to calculate inertial properties of the segments. Ankle and knee joint forces and moments were calculated using inverse dynamic analysis. Results showed higher forces along the longitudinal axis in skiing and similar forces for skiing and snowboarding in anterior-posterior and mediolateral direction. Joint moments were consistently greater during a snowboard turn, but more fluctuations were observed in skiing. Hence, when comparing joint loading between carved ski and snowboard turns, one should differentiate between forces and moments, including the direction of forces and moments and the turn phase.

  14. Internal predictors of burnout in psychiatric nurses: An Indian study

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Rudraprosad; Chatterjee, Arunima; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has not adequately focused on the issue of burnout in Psychiatric nurses, despite the fact that they suffer considerable stress in their work. Till date no study has been conducted on burnout among psychiatric nurses in India. Further, there is a particular lack of research in internal variables predicting burnout in them. Aims: To determine whether there are any internal psychological factors relevant to burnout in psychiatric nurses in India. Materials and Methods: We recruited 101 psychiatric nurses scoring less than two in General Health Questionnaire, version 12 (GHQ-12) from two psychiatric hospitals after obtaining informed consent. All subjects filled up a sociodemographic data sheet along with global adjustment scale, emotional maturity scale, PGI general well-being scale, locus of control scale, and Copenhagen burnout inventory (CBI). Correlations between burnout and sociodemographic/clinical variables were done by Pearson's r or Spearman's rho. Signi ficant variables were entered in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with total burnout score as dependent variable. Results: Age, duration of total period of nursing, prior military training, locus of control, sense of general well-being, adjustment capabilities, and emotional maturity had significant relation with burnout. Of them, emotional maturity was the most significant protective factors against burnout along with adjustment capabilities, sense of physical well-being, and military training in decreasing significance. Together they explained 41% variation in total burnout score which is significant at <0.001 level. An internal locus of control was inversely correlated with burnout, but failed to predict it in regression analysis. Conclusion: Emotional maturity, adjustability, sense of general physical well-being as well as prior military training significantly predicted lower burnout. Of them, emotional maturity was the most important predictor. Internal locus of

  15. Association of limited joint mobility and increased plantar hardness in diabetic foot ulceration in north Asian Indian: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Periyasamy, R; Anand, Sneh; Ammini, A C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association of limited joint mobility and foot sole hardness in north Asian Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Limited joint mobility and hardness of the foot sole were measured for 39 subjects attending the AIIMS Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinic. The total subject divided into three groups: 13 control subjects (nondiabetic), 13 diabetic patients without neuropathy and 13 diabetic neuropathy patients. Neuropathy status was assessed using 10 gm Semen's Weinstein monofilament. Joint mobility parameters, such as ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion and metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, are measured using a goniometer. Foot sole hardness was measured using a durometer or shore meter. We found that diabetic patients with a neuropathic foot had significantly reduced joint mobility and increased foot sole hardness, placing them at risk for subsequent ulceration. Metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion of both feet of diabetic patients had significant correlation (at p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 level) over age and body mass index. Also ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion has a significant correlations (at p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 level) with foot sole hardness in both feet of diabetic neuropathy subjects. Also linear regression analysis showed that duration of diabetes was significantly associated with the joint mobility parameters. In this study we conclude that joint mobility had reduced further if neuropathy and increased foot sole hardness coexisted owing to high plantar pressures. Hence, both limited joint mobility and increased foot sole hardness appears to be important determinants of foot sole ulceration in diabetic neuropathic subject.

  16. Relationship between electromyographic activity and clinically assessed rigidity studied at the wrist joint in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Meara, R J; Cody, F W

    1992-08-01

    The electromyographic (EMG) patterns recorded from wrist muscles during manually applied, repetitive flexion and extension movements of the wrist joint, used for simultaneous clinical assessment of rigidity, were studied in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects. Recordings were made whilst patients/subjects attempted voluntarily to relax the muscle of the arm whose wrist joint was manipulated. Individual patients were investigated before and at varying times after their routine daily medication as their clinical rigidity underwent associated modulations. It was often possible to induce additional alterations in clinical rigidity by instructing patients to perform an activation or Jendrassik-like manoeuvre (clenching the contralateral fist). In rigid patients, the approximately sinusoidal wrist displacements (60 deg, 1-1.5 Hz) typically elicited pronounced, cyclic modulations of EMG activities in wrist flexors and extensors; increases in EMG activity were phase-locked to the respective periods of muscle stretch. Stretch-related EMG activity reduced or disappeared as rigidity was abolished by drug therapy. The EMG patterns of patients showing cogwheel rigidity featured discrete, phasic bursts superimposed upon more generalized stretch-related increases in activity. In healthy subjects, showing no clinical rigidity, the pronounced cyclic modulations of EMG activity characteristic of rigid patients were absent during similar manually applied wrist displacements. Quantitative EMG measurements for individual patients, made 'on' and 'off' medication and as their rigidity fluctuated, indicated that mild (grade 1) and moderate (grade 2) rigidity was consistently associated with increased stretch-related activity compared with non-rigid conditions. Pair-wise statistical analysis indicated such increases in EMG to be significant. Similarly, the ratios of EMG activities in the stretched versus released muscles were significantly greater for grades 1 and 2

  17. Ruptured disc after arthroscopic repositioning in the temporomandibular joint: a retrospective magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Cai, Xieyi; Yang, Chi; Wang, Shaoyi; Huang, Linjian

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to explore the incidence of rupture after arthroscopic repositioning of the disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by reviewing magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the TMJ taken before and after operation, and to investigate correlations retrospectively. We studied 247 patients with anterior disc displacement of the TMJ, and categorised them into 3 groups based on the postoperative MRI. The first group comprised those whose disc ruptured after repositioning, the second those who had a possible rupture of the disc after repositioning, and the third had no rupture of the disc after repositioning. Age, sex, duration of symptoms, maximum incisal mouth opening, whether the anterior disc displacement was unilateral or bilateral, and the Wilkes stage, were included in the analysis. The incidence of rupture (5/247) was 2%. Weak points at the intermediate zone of the disc were found in 4 of the 5 joints. The patients whose discs ruptured were significantly younger than the other 2 groups (p=0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative duration of symptoms and mouth opening among the groups. The proportions of unilateral and bilateral disc displacement (p=0.047) and Wilkes stage (p=0.027) differed among the 3 groups. The Wilkes stages was significantly more advanced in the ruptured group than in the other 2 groups (p=0.027) with 4/5 being bilateral. The weak point in the intermediate zone of the disc on MRI could be a sign of rupture. Teenagers and young adults with anterior disc displacement without reduction, particularly those in whom it is bilateral, are at a higher risk of a rupture after repositioning of the disc by arthroscopy.

  18. Management of painful temporomandibular joint clicking with different intraoral devices and counseling: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues; CORRÊA, Ana Silvia da Mota; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; STUGINSKI-BARBOSA, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The benefit of the use of some intraoral devices in arthrogenous temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients is still unknown. This study assessed the effectiveness of the partial use of intraoral devices and counseling in the management of patients with disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) and arthralgia. Materials and Methods A total of 60 DDWR and arthralgia patients were randomly divided into three groups: group I (n=20) wore anterior repositioning occlusal splints (ARS); group II (n=20) wore the Nociceptive Trigeminal Inhibition Clenching Suppression System devices (NTI-tss); and group III (n=20) only received counseling for behavioral changes and self-care (the control group). The first two groups also received counseling. Follow-ups were performed after 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months. In these sessions, patients were evaluated by means of a visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), maximum range of motion and TMJ sounds. Possible adverse effects were also recorded, such as discomfort while using the device and occlusal changes. The results were analyzed with ANOVA, Tukey’s and Fisher Exact Test, with a significance level of 5%. Results Groups I and II showed improvement in pain intensity at the first follow-up. This progress was recorded only after 3 months in Group III. Group II showed an increased in joint sounds frequency. The PPT values, mandibular range of motion and the number of occlusal contacts did not change significantly. Conclusion The simultaneous use of intraoral devices (partial time) plus behavioral modifications seems to produce a more rapid pain improvement in patients with painful DDWR. The use of NTI-tss could increase TMJ sounds. Although intraoral devices with additional counseling should be considered for the management of painful DDWR, dentists should be aware of the possible side effects of the intraoral device’s design. PMID:26200526

  19. A Joint Association Test for Multiple SNPs in Genetic Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Jacob, Howard; Ghosh, Soumitra; Wang, Xujing; Zeng, Zhao-Bang

    2009-01-01

    For a dense set of genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on high linkage disequilibrium within a small candidate region, a haplotype-based approach for testing association between a disease phenotype and the set of markers is attractive in reducing the data complexity and increasing the statistical power. However, due to unknown status of the underlying disease variant, a comprehensive association test may require consideration of various combinations of the SNPs, which often leads to severe multiple testing problems. In this paper, we propose a latent variable approach to test for association of multiple tightly linked SNPs in case-control studies. First, we introduce a latent variable into the penetrance model to characterize a putative disease susceptible locus (DSL) that may consist of a marker allele, a haplotype from a subset of the markers, or an allele at a putative locus between the markers. Next, through using of a retrospective likelihood to adjust for the case-control sampling ascertainment and appropriately handle the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium constraint, we develop an expectation-maximization (EM)-based algorithm to fit the penetrance model and estimate the joint haplotype frequencies of the DSL and markers simultaneously. With the latent variable to describe a flexible role of the DSL, the likelihood ratio statistic can then provide a joint association test for the set of markers without requiring an adjustment for testing of multiple haplotypes. Our simulation results also reveal that the latent variable approach may have improved power under certain scenarios comparing with classical haplotype association methods. PMID:18770519

  20. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  1. A Play and Joint Attention Intervention for Teachers of Young Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Connie S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot test a classroom-based intervention focused on facilitating play and joint attention for young children with autism in self-contained special education classrooms. Thirty-three children with autism between the ages of 3 and 6 years participated in the study with their classroom teachers (n = 14). The 14 preschool…

  2. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel.

  3. Teaching the Japanese American Internment: A Case Study of Social Studies Curriculum Conflict and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camicia, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines a case of curriculum conflict in order to understand how the social studies curriculum is changed by such conflicts. In the case, a small group of activists challenged a local sixth grade history curriculum, which claimed that the WWII internment of Japanese Americans was a mistake. Activists claimed that the internment was…

  4. Study on the variation rules of the joint effects for multicomponent mixtures containing cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes based on the transition state theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiying; Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-02-28

    Although the study of the variation rules of the joint effects for multicomponent mixtures has gained increasing attention, it still remains unclear how the variation occurs and what the relationships between the joint effects of multicomponent mixtures and their corresponding binary mixtures are. To explain how the variation occurs, this study first proposes a hypothesis on the variation rules of the joint effects using the well-known transition state theory. The hypothesis concluded that the joint effect of multicomponent mixtures is among the joint effects of the corresponding binary mixtures. This hypothesis was named the fishing hypothesis because there is a similarity between the action process of the joint effects and the fishing process. Next, the hypothesis was validated by use of the experimental data by evaluating the joint effects of binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures containing cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes on Photobacterium phosphoreum. The application of the fishing hypothesis can explain the rule as to how the joint effects of a multicomponent-mixture vary with its number of components and their ratios. This study provides a good method to predict the joint effects of multicomponent mixtures using the joint effects of their corresponding binary mixtures. An improvement in the fishing hypothesis will be needed in our future studies due to the approximate assumptions used in the deduction of the hypothesis.

  5. Interfacial metallurgy study of brazed joints between tungsten and fusion related materials for divertor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Galloway, Alexander; Wood, James; Robbie, Mikael Brian Olsson; Easton, David; Zhu, Wenzhong

    2014-11-01

    In the developing DEMO divertor, the design of joints between tungsten to other fusion related materials is a significant challenge as a result of the dissimilar physical metallurgy of the materials to be joined. This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of dissimilar brazed joints between tungsten and fusion relevant materials such as EUROFER 97, oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) Cu and SS316L using a gold based brazing foil. The main objectives are to develop acceptable brazing procedures for dissimilar joining of tungsten to other fusion compliant materials and to advance the metallurgical understanding within the interfacial region of the brazed joint. Four different butt-type brazed joints were created and characterised, each of which were joined with the aid of a thin brazing foil (Au80Cu19Fe1, in wt.%). Microstructural characterisation and elemental mapping in the transition region of the joint was undertaken and, thereafter, the results were analysed as was the interfacial diffusion characteristics of each material combination produced. Nano-indentation tests are performed at the joint regions and correlated with element composition information in order to understand the effects of diffused elements on mechanical properties. The experimental procedures of specimen fabrication and material characterisation methods are presented. The results of elemental transitions after brazing are reported. Elastic modulus and nano-hardness of each brazed joints are reported.

  6. A reliability study using computer-based analysis of finger joint space narrowing in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Katsuya; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Sutherland, Kenneth; Kato, Masaru; Nakagawa, Ikuma; Ichikawa, Shota; Kawauchi, Keisuke; Saitou, Shota; Mukai, Masaya

    2017-02-01

    The joint space difference index (JSDI) is a newly developed radiographic index which can quantitatively assess joint space narrowing progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients by using an image subtraction method on a computer. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of this method by non-experts utilizing RA image evaluation. Four non-experts assessed JSDI for radiographic images of 510 metacarpophalangeal joints from 51 RA patients twice with an interval of more than 2 weeks. Two rheumatologists and one radiologist as well as the four non-experts examined the joints by using the Sharp-van der Heijde Scoring (SHS) method. The radiologist and four non-experts repeated the scoring with an interval of more than 2 weeks. We calculated intra-/inter-observer reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for JSDI and SHS scoring, respectively. The intra-/inter-observer reliabilities for the computer-based method were almost perfect (inter-observer ICC, 0.966-0.983; intra-observer ICC, 0.954-0.996). Contrary to this, intra-/inter-observer reliability for SHS by experts was moderate to almost perfect (inter-observer ICC, 0.556-0.849; intra-observer ICC, 0.589-0.839). The results suggest that our computer-based method has high reliability to detect finger joint space narrowing progression in RA patients.

  7. Joint US/USSR study: Comparison of effects of horizontal and head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold; Grigoriev, Anatoli I.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of the results of the first joint U.S./U.S.S.R. bed rest study. The study was accomplished in two parts: A soviet part (May to June 1979) and an American part (July to August 1979). Both studies were conducted under identical conditions and provided a basis for comparison of physiologic reactions and standardizing procedures and methods. Each experiment consisted of three periods: 14 days of pre-bed rest control, 7 days of bed rest, and a 10 to 14 day recovery period. Ten males participated in each study, with five subjects experiencing horizontal bed rest and five subjects a -6 deg head-down body position. Biochemical and hormonal measurements were made of blood and urine, with particular attention to electrolyte metabolism and kidney function; cardio-pulmonary changes at rest and exercise; influence of Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP); and incremental exercise using a bicyle ergometer while supine and sitting. Expected moderate changes were noted to occur for various physiologic parameters. Clinical evidence pointed to the fact that head-down bed rest when compared to horizontal conditions more closely matched the conditions seen after manned spaceflight. For the most part, statistically significant differences between the two body positions were not observed.

  8. An Adaptive Fisher’s Combination Method for Joint Analysis of Multiple Phenotypes in Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenchuan; Sha, Qiuying; Zhang, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the analyses of most genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed on a single phenotype. There is increasing evidence showing that pleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon in complex diseases. Therefore, using only one single phenotype may lose statistical power to identify the underlying genetic mechanism. There is an increasing need to develop and apply powerful statistical tests to detect association between multiple phenotypes and a genetic variant. In this paper, we develop an Adaptive Fisher’s Combination (AFC) method for joint analysis of multiple phenotypes in association studies. The AFC method combines p-values obtained in standard univariate GWAS by using the optimal number of p-values which is determined by the data. We perform extensive simulations to evaluate the performance of the AFC method and compare the power of our method with the powers of TATES, Tippett’s method, Fisher’s combination test, MANOVA, MultiPhen, and SUMSCORE. Our simulation studies show that the proposed method has correct type I error rates and is either the most powerful test or comparable with the most powerful test. Finally, we illustrate our proposed methodology by analyzing whole-genome genotyping data from a lung function study. PMID:27694844

  9. Internal medicine interns' and residents' pressure ulcer prevention and assessment attitudes and abilities: results of an exploratory study .

    PubMed

    Suen, Winnie; Parker, Victoria A; Harney, Lauren; Nevin, Siobhan; Jansen, Jane; Alexander, Linda; Berlowitz, Dan

    2012-04-01

     To evaluate and determine differences between attitudes of internal medicine interns and residents toward pressure ulcer (PU) prevention and to evaluate the interns' abilities to accurately identify wounds and stage PUs, an exploratory, quantitative study was conducted in a 639-bed, safety net academic center. Participants (21 internal medicine interns and 21 internal medicine residents) attending an educational session on PU prevention and care were eligible to participate. The 1-hour conference session was prepared and provided by a physician and wound care nurses. Before the lecture, participants were asked to complete an 11-question paper-and-pencil PU attitude survey. Following the lecture, they were asked to identify 11 wounds and stage PUs using the inpatient admission history and physical template used in the hospital's electronic medical record. An audience response system was used to record correct and incorrect responses. Nineteen (19) interns and 20 residents completed the survey. Twenty-one (21) interns successfully completed the wound assessment quiz. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the survey data and residents' and interns' average attitude scores were compared using independent group t-test. The results suggest that interns and residents have a positive attitude toward and are concerned about PU prevention. The significantly higher overall score among interns compared to residents (average 43.8 versus 38.8 respectively, P = 0.002) suggests interns have a more positive attitude than residents. Statistically significant differences between item scores showed that, compared to residents, interns perceived PU prevention to be more time-consuming (P = 0.01), less of a concern in practice (P = 0.02), and a lower priority than other areas of care (P = 0.003). Compared to residents, interns also were more likely to agree to with statement, "In my opinion, patients tend to not get as many pressure

  10. Relationship between joint gap difference and range of motion in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomised study between different platforms.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Shimizu, Masaki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Takagishi, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the range of motion (ROM) of the knee before and four years after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a mobile or fixed type of platform and to prospectively evaluate whether there was a difference in ligament balance between the platform types. The subjects were 68 patients involving 76 joints. The mobile type was used in 31 joints and fixed type in 45 joints by employing a prospective randomised method. The passive maximum ROM was measured using a goniometer before and four years after surgery. Also, the intraoperative knee ligament balance was measured. The postoperative extension ROM was significantly improved after TKA using a mobile bearing type compared with that employing a fixed bearing type. In TKA using the former, the intraoperative gap difference was not related to the postoperative flexion angle of the knee. However, they were related in TKA using a fixed bearing type, with a positive correlation regarding the flexion gap.

  11. Computational modeling to predict mechanical function of joints: application to the lower leg with simulation of two cadaver studies.

    PubMed

    Liacouras, Peter C; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2007-12-01

    Computational models of musculoskeletal joints and limbs can provide useful information about joint mechanics. Validated models can be used as predictive devices for understanding joint function and serve as clinical tools for predicting the outcome of surgical procedures. A new computational modeling approach was developed for simulating joint kinematics that are dictated by bone/joint anatomy, ligamentous constraints, and applied loading. Three-dimensional computational models of the lower leg were created to illustrate the application of this new approach. Model development began with generating three-dimensional surfaces of each bone from CT images and then importing into the three-dimensional solid modeling software SOLIDWORKS and motion simulation package COSMOSMOTION. Through SOLIDWORKS and COSMOSMOTION, each bone surface file was filled to create a solid object and positioned necessary components added, and simulations executed. Three-dimensional contacts were added to inhibit intersection of the bones during motion. Ligaments were represented as linear springs. Model predictions were then validated by comparison to two different cadaver studies, syndesmotic injury and repair and ankle inversion following ligament transection. The syndesmotic injury model was able to predict tibial rotation, fibular rotation, and anterior/posterior displacement. In the inversion simulation, calcaneofibular ligament extension and angles of inversion compared well. Some experimental data proved harder to simulate accurately, due to certain software limitations and lack of complete experimental data. Other parameters that could not be easily obtained experimentally can be predicted and analyzed by the computational simulations. In the syndesmotic injury study, the force generated in the tibionavicular and calcaneofibular ligaments reduced with the insertion of the staple, indicating how this repair technique changes joint function. After transection of the calcaneofibular

  12. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be done include: CBC or blood differential C-reactive protein Joint x-ray Sedimentation rate ... chap 256. Schaible H-G. Joint pain: basic mechanisms. In: McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, Tracey I, Turk ...

  13. TBCC TSTO Design for the NASA-AFRL Joint System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Robinson, Jeff; Ferlemann, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    NASA and the Air Force Research Laboratory are involved in a Joint System Study (JSS) on Two-Stage-to-Orbit (TSTO) vehicles. The JSS will examine the performance, operability and uncertainty of unmanned, fully reusable, airbreathing-based TSTO launch vehicle concepts. NASA is providing a concept using turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion on the booster stage and an all-rocket orbiter. The Air Force supplied two vehicle concepts, both utilizing an all-rocket booster; one with an all-rocket orbiter, the other using a rocket-based combined cycle orbiter. For NASA, this study is being used for tool assessment and development, and to identify generic technology gaps, not to choose vehicle types or concepts. This presentation starts with an overview of the major JSS ground rules and assumptions. Second, the NASA TSTO concept, Reusable Airbreathing Launch Vehicle - iteration B (RALV-B) is introduced, including its mission profile and, the vehicle (booster and orbiter) layout and packaging. The high speed propulsion concept is then briefly discussed, including the work performed and lessons learned. The low speed TBCC propulsion system is covered next in some detail. An overview for the low speed system is given; then its development is discussed (starting with initial layout and leading to more detailed analyses performed and results). The low speed system portion is wrapped up with lessons learned and summary. Finally, an overall summary and lessons learned so far for the JSS are given as well as work planned to complete the study.

  14. Reinventing US Internal Migration Studies in the Age of International Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Mark

    2014-01-01

    I argue that researchers have sidelined attention to issues raised by US internal migration as they shifted focus to the questions posed by the post-1960s rise in US immigration. In this paper, I offer some reasons about why immigration has garnered more attention and why there needs to be greater consideration of US internal migration and its significant and myriad social, economic, political, and cultural impacts. I offer three ideas for motivating more research into US internal geographic mobility that would foreground its empirical and conceptual connections to international migration. First, there should be more work on linked migration systems investigating the connections between internal and international flows. Second, the questions asked about immigrant social, cultural, and economic impacts and adaptations in host societies should also be asked about internal migrants. Third, and more generally, migration researchers should jettison the assumption that the national scale is the pre-eminent delimiter of migration types and processes. Some groups can move easily across borders; others are constrained in their moves within countries. These subnational scales and constraints will become more visible if migration research decentres the national from its theory and empirics. PMID:24839406

  15. Military Exercises, Knee and Ankle Joint Position Sense, and Injury in Male Conscripts: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Farshid; Azma, Kamran; Naseh, Iman; Emadifard, Reza; Etemadi, Yasaman

    2013-01-01

    Context: The high incidence of lower limb injuries associated with physical exercises in military conscripts suggests that fatigue may be a risk factor for injuries. Researchers have hypothesized that lower limb injuries may be related to altered ankle and knee joint position sense (JPS) due to fatigue. Objective: To evaluate if military exercises could alter JPS and to examine the possible relation of JPS to future lower extremity injuries in military service. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 50 male conscripts (age = 21.4 ± 2.3 years, height = 174.5 ± 6.4 cm, mass = 73.1 ± 6.3 kg) from a unique military base were recruited randomly. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants performed 8 weeks of physical activities at the beginning of a military course. In the first part of the study, we instructed participants to recognize predetermined positions before and after military exercises so we could examine the effects of military exercise on JPS. The averages of the absolute error and the variable error of 3 trials were recorded. We collected data on the frequency of lower extremity injuries over 8 weeks. Next, the participants were divided into 2 groups: injured and uninjured. Separate 2 × 2 × 2 (group-by-time-by-joint) mixed-model analyses of variance were used to determine main effects and interactions of these factors for each JPS measure. In the second part of the study, we examined whether the effects of fatigue on JPS were related to the development of injury during an 8-week training program. We calculated Hedges effect sizes for JPS changes postexercise in each group and compared change scores between groups. Results: We found group-by-time interactions for all JPS variables (F range = 2.86–4.05, P < .01). All participants showed increases in JPS errors postexercise (P < .01), but the injured group had greater changes for all the variables (P < .01). Conclusions: Military conscripts who sustained lower

  16. A study of the interphase in aluminum/epoxy bonded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fuping

    Interphase is known as the interfacial region between two bonded materials, which may have different properties with the adherend and adhesive. It has been accepted that it may have a significant influence on the behavior and performance of the material system. The interphase is usually non-uniform, containing a property gradient and having an ill-defined boundary. The extension and mechanical properties of interphase formed in aluminum/epoxy bonded joints have been studied using a technique, which employed the combination of nano-indenter and atomic force microscope. The interphase formed in aluminum/epoxy bonding joints was directly found in this research through two different methods using the technique of nano-indenter and atomic force microscope combined. The first method was the study of the indent load as a function of indent position and indent depth. For the samples with an artificial phase, expected property variation near substrate was observed directly. The extent of the artificial phase estimated was consistent with its real size. This showed that the method was effective in characterizing the nanoscale property variations near the substrates in an aluminum/epoxy bond. Using this method, a soft interphase with a size of about 400 nm was discovered in the samples without the artificial phase. A softer interphase formed between the artificial phase and the aluminum substrate was also observed. The second method was the study of the indent response variations with the square of indent depth. Because the slope of the curve at different stages represents the stiffness of the materials in which the indenter has touched, the difference of the slopes showed the variations of the material properties. For the aluminum/epoxy bonds, three stages were observed in the load vs. indent depth square curve. One was with smaller slope than its neighbors. This showed material in this region should be softer than its neighbor phases. The size of this soft interphase region

  17. Ten years of Developing International Volcanology Graduate Study Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, W. I.

    2010-12-01

    In 2000 I reported at this symposium about multi-institutional graduate field trips to IAVCEI events, such as the Bali meeting and its importance in building international collegiality and awareness among the volcanology doctoral students. NSF was an enthusiastic supporter of these field sessions and this support has continued through the highly successful Pucon and Reykjavik sessions. International volcanology graduate program development began with several exchange programs. EHaz was a highly successful program (McGill, Simon Fraser, Michigan Tech, Buffalo, UNAM and Universidad de Colima) funded by the Department of Education (FIPSE) that moved students across North America where dozens of graduate students spent semesters of their study abroad and shared annual field trips and online student led graduate seminar classes. Michigan Tech’s volcanology graduate program started a Masters International program that combined Peace Corps service with hazards mitigation graduate study and students were placed by Peace Corps in countries with prominent natural hazards. The new program funded 2 year residences in foreign environments, principally in Pacific Latin America. NSF strongly supported this program from its inception, and eventually it gained NSF PIRE support. Dozens of students have initiated the 3 year program (15 completed) to date. A similar PIRE developed at UAF with a link to volcanology in the Russian Far East. One gain is the development of many socially-conscious research selections. Beginning this year transatlantic dual degree masters programs in volcanology are being offered by a consortium of US and European volcanology programs (Michigan Tech, Buffalo, Clermont Ferrand and University of Milan Bicocca), again aided by FIPSE funding. Students have dual advisors on both sides of the Atlantic and spend about half of their two year programs in Europe and half in US. Faculty also travel in the program and the four campuses are increasingly linked by

  18. Joint Interdiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-09

    Purpose This publication has been prepared under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the...governmental and nongovernmental organizations, multinational forces, and other interorganizational partners. It provides military guidance for the...exercise of authority by combatant commanders and other joint force commanders (JFCs), and prescribes joint doctrine for operations and training. It

  19. Mediators of antiretroviral adherence: a multisite international study.

    PubMed

    Corless, I B; Guarino, A J; Nicholas, P K; Tyer-Viola, L; Kirksey, K; Brion, J; Dawson Rose, C; Eller, L S; Rivero-Mendez, M; Kemppainen, J; Nokes, K; Sefcik, E; Voss, J; Wantland, D; Johnson, M O; Phillips, J C; Webel, A; Iipinge, S; Portillo, C; Chen, W-T; Maryland, M; Hamilton, M J; Reid, P; Hickey, D; Holzemer, W L; Sullivan, K M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stressful life events (SLE) on medication adherence (3 days, 30 days) as mediated by sense of coherence (SOC), self-compassion (SCS), and engagement with the healthcare provider (eHCP) and whether this differed by international site. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional sample of 2082 HIV positive adults between September 2009 and January 2011 from sites in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand, and US. Statistical tests to explore the effects of stressful life events on antiretroviral medication adherence included descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, and path analysis. An examination by international site of the relationships between SLE, SCS, SOC, and eHCP with adherence (3 days and 30 days) indicated these combined variables were related to adherence whether 3 days or 30 days to different degrees at the various sites. SLE, SCS, SOC, and eHCP were significant predictors of adherence past 3 days for the United States (p = < 0.001), Canada (p = 0.006), and Namibia (p = 0.019). The combined independent variables were significant predictors of adherence past 30 days only in the United States and Canada. Engagement with the provider was a significant correlate for antiretroviral adherence in most, but not all, of these countries. Thus, the importance of eHCP cannot be overstated. Nonetheless, our findings need to be accompanied by the caveat that research on variables of interest, while enriched by a sample obtained from international sites, may not have the same relationships in each country.

  20. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  1. Presenting International Literature through Author Studies and Author Pairings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch-Brown, Carol; Tomlinson, Carl M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the value of international books as a source of literature for middle school students. Considers the benefits of international books, and instructional strategies including focusing on an international author and author pairings. Provides an annotated list of works by Robin Klein, John Marsden, Uri Orlev, Anthony Browne, and Jorg Muller.…

  2. Buyer-seller negotiations: a comparison of domestic and international conditions in a pilot study with international business students.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen; Kurt, Gizem; Hacioglu, Gungor

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the differences and similarities between domestic and international negotiations, using Kelley's Negotiation Game to measure the profit achieved. There were 58 participants in the international negotiation sample, 29 Turkish and 29 European students. There were 62 Turkish students in the domestic negotiations. All participants studied business or related topics at a university in Izmir. Student t tests indicated statistically significant differences in scores on misrepresentation of information, interpersonal attraction, peer evaluation of misrepresentation information, and satisfaction between domestic and international negotiations.

  3. Joint inversion of Wenner and dipole-dipole data to study a gasoline-contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Vega, Matías; Osella, Ana; Lascano, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    The goal of this work was to study a contaminated soil due to a gasoline spill produced by fissures in a concrete purge chamber located along a gas transmission line. A monitoring well drilled 16 m down gradient from the purge chamber revealed the presence of a gasoline layer of 0.5 m thick at 1.5 m depth, floating on top of the water table. A second well, drilled 30 m away from the first well, and in the same direction, did not show any evidence of contamination. To investigate this problem, a geoelectrical survey was conducted, combining dipole-dipole and Wenner arrays. First, four dipole-dipole profiles in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis joining the wells were carried out. The electrical tomographies obtained from the 2D inversion of the data showed that the contaminated region was characterized by a resistive plume located at a depth between 1 to 2 m and had lateral extent of about 6-8 m. The longitudinal extension was less than 20 m, since the last profile located 30 m farther from the chamber did not show this kind of anomaly. To better determine the longitudinal extension, we performed a dipole-dipole profile along a line in this direction. The inverse model confirmed that the extension of the contaminated section was about 16 m. To complete the study of the deeper layer, we carried out Wenner soundings. The results of the inversion process indicated that to a depth of 20 m the soil was very conductive, because of the presence of clays as the main constituents, which confine the contaminant within this impermeable surrounding. To improve the inverse model, we performed a joint inversion of dipole-dipole and Wenner data. Analysis of the depth of penetration showed that it increased to 25 m and comparing the resulting model with the ones obtained from each array separately, we concluded that the joint inversion improves the depth obtained by the survey, while maintaining the shallow lateral resolution.

  4. Histological study of effects of colloidal 90 yttrium on knee joint tissues of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, K; Meier-Ruge, W; Müller, W; Fridrich, R

    1975-02-01

    The administration of 0-2-0-4 mCi 90 yttrium (90Y) into a normal rabbit knee joint fails to induce medical synovectomy and results in the proliferation of the synovialis. The synovial mesothelium shows early radiation damage but subsequently follows a restitution of the whole. Later (within 4 to 16 weeks) an extensive fibrosis of the stratum synovialis develops, as well as an occlusion and sclerosis of smaller synovial vessels and capillaries. These changes explain the beneficial therapeutic effect of 90Y in a chronic inflammatory joint effusion. After irradiation that joint cartilage shows an increased cellular proliferation of the superficial tangential cells and in the vicinity of the cruciate ligaments small foci of degenerated cartilage are present. The overall pattern of a joint treated with intra-articular 90Y corresponds to the histological pattern encountered regularly in joints of older people. Changes of the cartilage after the 90Y radiation could represent a factor predisposing the treated joint to a subsequent development of osteoarthrosis.

  5. Statistical mechanics of hydrophobic amino acids in aqueous solution: A joint experimental scattering and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lingshuang; Yang, Lin; Huang, Wei; Meng, Jie; Yang, Sichun

    How hydrophobic amino acids interact with each other is still a fundamental question in understanding protein dynamics and folding. Here, we describe an integrative experimental-computational approach of combining x-ray solution scattering and atomistic molecular simulations to determine the molecular properties of a hydrophobic leucine amino acid in an aqueous solution. First, scattering data were acquired at a series of amino acid and salt concentrations and these scattering profiles were further used to calibrate atomistic molecular simulations via a single parameter for solute-solvent interaction. Second, these accurate data of atomistic leucine simulations were used to quantify the effective interacting potentials via a structural simplification of one-bead-per-residue and two-bead-per-residue representations. Third, comparative energetic analyses between the one-bead and two-bead representations were performed to reach a simple picture of residue-residue interactions with an accurate energy function. Taken together, this joint experimental-computational study provides critical insights into microscopic interactions of hydrophobic amino acids in solution with a profound application for studying molecular dynamics of, e.g., intrinsically disordered proteins and their folding.

  6. Experimental studies of helical solenoid model based on YBCO tape-bridge joints

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; Flangan, G.; Lopes, M.L.; Johnson, R.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    Helical solenoids that provide solenoid, helical dipole and helical gradient field components are designed for a helical cooling channel (HCC) proposed for cooling of muon beams in a muon collider. The high temperature superconductor (HTS), 12 mm wide and 0.1 mm thick YBCO tape, is used as the conductor for the highest-field section of HCC due to certain advantages, such as its electrical and mechanical properties. To study and address the design, and technological and performance issues related to magnets based on YBCO tapes, a short helical solenoid model based on double-pancake coils was designed, fabricated and tested at Fermilab. Splicing joints were made with Sn-Pb solder as the power leads and the connection between coils, which is the most critical element in the magnet that can limit the performance significantly. This paper summarizes the test results of YBCO tape and double-pancake coils in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, and then focuses on the study of YBCO splices, including the soldering temperatures and pressures, and splice bending test.

  7. Effectiveness of combining manual therapy and acupuncture on temporomandibular joint dysfunction: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byung-Cheul; Ha, Chung-Hyo; Song, Yung-Sun; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2007-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated the effects of combining manual therapy and acupuncture on the pain and maximal mouth opening (MMO), which were associated with temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). The 49 TMD patients (15 men, 34 women; mean age = 30.47 years, SD = 13.52 years) were treated with a combination of acupuncture and manual therapy two or three times a week at the hospital. The pain and maximal mouth opening were assessed before and after 1 and 4 weeks of treatment. The combination therapy produced significant changes in pain levels (p < 0.001) and mouth opening (p < 0.001). All pairwise non-parametric comparison showed a significant improvement in pain (p < 0.05 for all pairs) and MMO (p < 0.05 for all pairs). These findings suggest that combining manual therapy and acupuncture decreases the pain level and increases the MMO of TMD patients. However, future studies should further investigate the efficacy of combined treatment on TMD with more rigorous randomized clinical trials.

  8. Smartphone and Universal Goniometer for Measurement of Elbow Joint Motions: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Behnoush, Behnam; Tavakoli, Nasim; Bazmi, Elham; Nateghi Fard, Fariborz; Pourgharib Shahi, Mohammad Hossein; Okazi, Arash; Mokhtari, Tahmineh

    2016-01-01

    Background Universal goniometer (UG) is commonly used as a standard method to evaluate range of motion (ROM) as part of joint motions. It has some restrictions, such as involvement of both hands of the physician, leads to instability of hands and error. Nowadays smartphones usage has been increasing due to its easy application. Objectives The study was designed to compare the smartphone inclinometer-based app and UG in evaluation of ROM of elbow. Materials and Methods The maximum ROM of elbow in position of flexion and pronation and supination of forearm were examined in 60 healthy volunteers with UG and smartphone. Data were analyzed using SPSS (ver. 16) software and appropriate statistical tests were applied, such as paired t-test, ICC and Bland Altman curves. Results The results of this study showed high reliability and validity of smartphone in regarding UG with ICC > 0.95. The highest reliability for both methods was in elbow supination and the lowest was in the elbow flexion (0.84). Conclusions Smartphones due to ease of access and usage for the physician and the patient, may be good alternatives for UG. PMID:27625754

  9. Joint spatial Bayesian modeling for studies combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159

  10. In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Hao; Zhu, Wenxin; Li, Yao; ...

    2016-04-18

    In this paper we report an in situ study of the early stage of microstructure evolution induced by electromigration in a Pb-free β-Sn based solder joint by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction. With this technique, crystal orientation evolution is monitored at intragranular levels with high spatial and angular resolution. During the entire experiment, no crystal growth is detected, and rigid grain rotation is observed only in the two grains within the current crowding region, where high density and divergence of electric current occur. Theoretical calculation indicates that the trend of electrical resistance drop still holds under the present conditions in themore » grain with high electrical resistivity, while the other grain with low resistivity reorients to align its a-axis more parallel with the ones of its neighboring grains. A detailed study of dislocation densities and subgrain boundaries suggests that grain rotation in β-Sn, unlike grain rotation in high melting temperature metals which undergo displacive deformation, is accomplished via diffusional process mainly, due to the high homologous temperature.« less

  11. In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Hao; Zhu, Wenxin; Li, Yao; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai

    2016-04-18

    In this paper we report an in situ study of the early stage of microstructure evolution induced by electromigration in a Pb-free β-Sn based solder joint by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction. With this technique, crystal orientation evolution is monitored at intragranular levels with high spatial and angular resolution. During the entire experiment, no crystal growth is detected, and rigid grain rotation is observed only in the two grains within the current crowding region, where high density and divergence of electric current occur. Theoretical calculation indicates that the trend of electrical resistance drop still holds under the present conditions in the grain with high electrical resistivity, while the other grain with low resistivity reorients to align its a-axis more parallel with the ones of its neighboring grains. A detailed study of dislocation densities and subgrain boundaries suggests that grain rotation in β-Sn, unlike grain rotation in high melting temperature metals which undergo displacive deformation, is accomplished via diffusional process mainly, due to the high homologous temperature.

  12. Is self-massage an effective joint range-of-motion strategy? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Estêvão Rios; Cavanaugh, Mark Tyler; Frost, David Michael; Novaes, Jefferson da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Increases in joint range of motion may be beneficial in both improving performance and reducing the risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term changes in passive hip flexion (HF) and extension (HE) after foam rolling (FR) and roller massage (RM) durations of 60 and 120s. Ten recreationally active men (27.6 ± 2.4 years old; 164.8 ± 6.6 cm; 62.2 ± 8.0 kg; 24.2 ± 2.1 m(2)/kg) were recruited for this study. Subjects performed foam rolling (FR) and roller massage (RM) on the hamstrings for 60 (FR60 and RM60) and 120 (FR120 and RM120) seconds. Significant differences between FR120 and RM60 were observed in both HF (p < 0.001) and HE (p < 0.001) suggesting an intervention (roller style) effect. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.001) between RM60 and RM120 suggest a dosage based response. Thus, the findings indicate that different roller type or rolling volume may affect range-of-motion.

  13. In situ synchrotron study of electromigration induced grain rotations in Sn solder joints

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hao; Zhu, Wenxin; Li, Yao; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Here we report an in situ study of the early stage of microstructure evolution induced by electromigration in a Pb-free β-Sn based solder joint by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction. With this technique, crystal orientation evolution is monitored at intragranular levels with high spatial and angular resolution. During the entire experiment, no crystal growth is detected, and rigid grain rotation is observed only in the two grains within the current crowding region, where high density and divergence of electric current occur. Theoretical calculation indicates that the trend of electrical resistance drop still holds under the present conditions in the grain with high electrical resistivity, while the other grain with low resistivity reorients to align its a-axis more parallel with the ones of its neighboring grains. A detailed study of dislocation densities and subgrain boundaries suggests that grain rotation in β-Sn, unlike grain rotation in high melting temperature metals which undergo displacive deformation, is accomplished via diffusional process mainly, due to the high homologous temperature. PMID:27086863

  14. An international perspective on youth gambling prevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Rachel A; Gupta, Rina; Griffiths, Mark D; Olason, Daniel T; Delfabbro, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of rapid expansion of legal gambling internationally, studies of adolescent gambling involvement and problem gambling prevalence have been carried out in numerous jurisdictions. This paper reviews adolescent gambling prevalence studies that have been carried out in North America, Europe, and Oceania. Based on this review, work is clearly needed to assess the impact of survey methods on identified prevalence rates and to improve the measurement of problem gambling among adolescents. From a substantive perspective, several clear demographic and behavioral characteristics are associated with gambling involvement and problem gambling among youth. However, early assumptions about youth gambling and problem gambling must give way to more nuanced understandings of how these phenomena change in response to changes in the social and cultural environment. We may have traveled some distance down the road toward understanding the determinants as well as the distribution of youth gambling and problem gambling, but we still have a long way to go.

  15. A feasibility study for an International Year of Landcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutota, E.; Arnalds, A.

    2009-04-01

    Human-induced activities place enormous pressures on the land worldwide, creating competition and conflict, and suboptimal use of the land. Climate change, loss of biodiversity and land degradation leads to decreasing productivity, food and water shortages, and reduced economic benefits, among others. In order to address these challenges and achieve sustainability goals, the need to change the way global resources are being utilized is crucial. A holistic and integrated community-based approach such as Landcare could be a viable approach to meet this worldwide challenge. Landcare is about committed people working together on land rehabilitation and restoration projects at the local level, transforming attitudes and stimulating new ideas among land users, generating support and building partnerships between and among local communities, governments and the private sector. Landcare initiatives have grown in a number of countries where success stories of actions on the ground clearly show the wider application of the Landcare approach in resolving many of the world's environmental problems and livelihood challenges. However, the potential of Landcare have not yet been widely exploited on a scale that really matters—as local actions build up towards global progress, there is more scope for unified efforts towards a global Landcare movement. Following the recommendation given at the International Forum on Soils, Society and Global Change in 2007 in Iceland (http://www.iisd.ca/YMB/SDFSS/), an International Year of Landcare should be established. Such a year would bring into focus efforts to build local capacity and share knowledge and experiences between provinces, countries and continents on Landcare. Additionally, holding a year concerned with Landcare would greatly contribute to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, the UN environmental conventions and many other sustainability goals. Our study supports the notion that Landcare offers a robust platform

  16. International Pediatric MS Study Group Clinical Trials Summit

    PubMed Central

    Tardieu, Marc; Amato, Maria Pia; Banwell, Brenda; Bar-Or, Amit; Ghezzi, Angelo; Kornberg, Andrew; Krupp, Lauren B.; Pohl, Daniela; Rostasy, Kevin; Tenembaum, Silvia; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Wassmer, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pediatric studies for new biological agents are mandated by recent legislation, necessitating careful thought to evaluation of emerging multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies in children with MS. Challenges include a small patient population, the lack of prior randomized clinical trials, and ethical concerns. The goal of this meeting was to assess areas of consensus regarding clinical trial design and outcome measures among academic experts involved in pediatric MS care and research. Methods: The Steering Committee of the International Pediatric MS Study Group identified key focus areas for discussion. A total of 69 meeting attendees were assembled, including 35 academic experts. Regulatory and pharmaceutical representatives also attended, and provided input, which informed academic expert consensus decisions. Results: The academic experts agreed that clinical trials were necessary in pediatric MS to obtain pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy data, and regulatory approval allowing for greater medication access. The academic experts agreed that relapse was an appropriate primary outcome measure for phase III pediatric trials. An international standardized cognitive battery was identified. The pros and cons of various trial designs were discussed. Guidelines surrounding MRI studies, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and registries were developed. The academic experts agreed that given the limited subject pool, a stepwise approach to the launch of clinical trials for the most promising medications is necessary in order to ensure study completion. Alternative approaches could result in unethical exposure of patients to trial conditions without gaining knowledge. Conclusion: Consensus points for conduct of clinical trials in the rare disease pediatric MS were identified amongst a panel of academic experts, informed by regulatory and industry stakeholders. PMID:23509048

  17. Faith based aviation: An ethnographic study of missionary flights international

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Joseph H.

    The development of faith-based missionary aviation is a post-World War II phenomenon. The war effort demonstrated the value, utility, and global reach of aviation to remote, underdeveloped areas of the world. With the beginnings of a worldwide infrastructure for aviation, Christian aviators realized aviation could increase the range and effectiveness of their efforts to reach the world for Christ (Mellis, 2006). Although individual organizations provide statistical information and data about flight operations there is a lack of external evidence and relevant research literature confirming the scope and value of these faith based aviation organizations and operations. A qualitative, ethnographic study was conducted to document the activities of one faith-based aviation organization to gain an understanding of this little known aspect of civilian aviation. The study was conducted with Missionary Flights International (MFI) of Fort Pierce, FL which has been involved in faith-based, missionary aviation since its inception in 1964. As an aviation organization "MFI strives to offer affiliated missions the kind of efficient service and professionalism expected of an airline operation" (Missionary Flights International, 2013, p.1). MFI is a lifeline for missionaries to Haiti and the Dominican Republic, fulfilling their motto of "Standing in the Gap". MFI provides twice a week service to the island of Hispaniola and the Republic of Haiti. In this in-depth study insight and understanding was gained into the purpose of MFI, their daily routines and operations, and the challenges they face in maintaining their flight services to Haiti. This study provided documentation of the value and utility of such aviation efforts and of the individuals involved in this endeavor.

  18. Electromigration and thermomigration studies in composite high lead and eutectic tin-lead flip chip solder joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Annie Tzuyu

    The effect of thermomigration and the combination effect of thermomigration and electromigration have been studied in composite SnPb flip chip solder joints. Because Al line on the silicon chip side is the major heat source exerted on flip chip solder joint, temperature gradient across the joint is induced when a long Al line is stressed with high current density. Under a estimated temperature gradient of 1000°C/cm, Sn-rich and Pb-rich phase separation is found to occur. Experimental results have shown that Sn-rich phase accumulates at the hot side and Pb-rich phase accumulates at the cold side after thermomigration. When solder bumps are current high current density, thermomigration was found to accompany electromigration. Not only Pb-rich phase migrated toward the anode side and Sn-rich phase migrated toward the cathode side due to electromigration, Sn-rich phase was found to migrate along the top of solder joint due to thermomigration. It was found that as void propagates along the top of the solder joint, current crowding region shifts with the tip of the void. This created a local hot spot and thus a lateral temperature gradient was induced for thermomigration to occur. To isolate the thermal effect from the current effect, ac stressing at 60 Hz was also utilized. Interestingly, ac seems to have an effect other than thermal effect due to the difference in microstructure evolution between pure thermomigration and ac case after stressing. Further investigation at different frequency is needed to fully understand the effect of ac. Furthermore, analysis was performed to explain the phenomena of phase separation and phase reversal in the solder joint considering a constraint volume within underfill. Both Kirkendall effect and back stress were considered. Finally, detail morphological change after thermomigration and electromigration were investigated. Grain refinement was found to occur at a certain stressing condition. Production of entropy and morphological

  19. Joint inversion of seismic traveltime and gravity data: A synthetic study using geologically realistic models from the Voisey's Bay deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter-McAuslan, A.; Lelièvre, P. G.; Farquharson, C.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic methods provide high resolving potential for use in mineral exploration. Unfortunately, complicated hard-rock geology can make seismic data processing and interpretation difficult. It may help to overcome these difficulties by jointly inverting seismic tomography data with gravity data. We investigated the viability of deterministic minimum-structure style joint inversion of seismic traveltime and gravity data for the delineation of geological targets from the Voisey's Bay sulfide deposit in Labrador, Canada. These tests also assessed the potential of employing borehole gravity. A number of synthetic Earth models were created based on the geology of the Eastern Deeps zone of the Voisey's Bay deposit. These models were built on triangular (2D) and tetrahedral (3D) unstructured meshes, allowing for efficient generation of complicated, realistic geological structures. 2D models were based on conceptualized models of the Eastern Deeps. A detailed 3D model was built using information from extensive drilling. Single property and joint inversions were performed with seismic traveltimes and both ground-based and borehole gravity. There is a known relationship between seismic velocity and density for both silicate rocks and sulphide minerals for our study area; this lithological relationship was used to design an appropriate coupling strategy in the joint inversions. Joint inversions were able to successfully locate a buried high contrast target with a variety of survey designs. Experimentation with noise levels, mesh design, and various inversion parameters has lead to a better understanding of how to practically apply joint inversion of traveltimes and gravity data to this and similar exploration problems.

  20. Flaw Tolerance in Lap Shear Brazed Joints. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Wang, Li-Qin

    2003-01-01

    Furnace brazing is a joining process used in the aerospace and other industries to produce strong permanent and hermetic structural joints. As in any joining process, brazed joints have various imperfections and defects. At the present time, our understanding of the influence of the internal defects on the strength of the brazed joints is not adequate. The goal of this 3-part investigation is to better understand the properties and failure mechanisms of the brazed joints containing defects. This study focuses on the behavior of the brazed lap shear joints because of their importance in manufacturing aerospace structures. In Part 1, an average shear strength capability and failure modes of the single lap joints are explored. Stainless steel specimens brazed with pure silver are tested in accordance with the AWS C3.2 standard. Comparison of the failure loads and the ultimate shear strength with the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the same specimens as a function of the overlap widths shows excellent correlation between the experimental and calculated values for the defect-free lap joints. A damage zone criterion is shown to work quite well in understanding the failure of the braze joints. In Part 2, the findings of the Part 1 will be verified on the larger test specimens. Also, various flaws will be introduced in the test specimens to simulate lack of braze coverage in the lap joints. Mechanical testing and FEA will be performed on these joints to verify that behavior of the flawed ductile lap joints is similar to joints with a reduced braze area. Finally, in Part 3, the results obtained in Parts 1 and 2 will be applied to the actual brazed structure to evaluate the load-carrying capability of a structural lap joint containing discontinuities. In addition, a simplified engineering procedure will be offered for the laboratory testing of the lap shear specimens.

  1. iSTAR: The International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the first steps taken in the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning (iSTAR). The iSTAR Project is an attempt to look beyond traditional wisdom and practices in astronomy education, to discover the ways in which cognitive abilities and human culture interact to impact individuals’ understanding of and relationship to astronomy content knowledge. In contrast to many international studies that seek to rank nations by student performance on standardized tests, the iSTAR Project seeks to find ways that culture may unexpectedly enhance performance in astronomy. Using the Test of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) as a reasonable, initial proxy for the content knowledge a well educated person might know in astronomy, the iSTAR team then defined culture as a construct with five components: practices, traditional knowledge, historical and genealogical relationships, place-based knowledge, and language. Given the complexity of this construct, Stage 1 of the project focuses on the cultural component of language, and assumed that prior to the collection of data from students, the process of translating the TOAST could provide valuable expert-based information on the impact of language on astronomy knowledge. As such, the work began with a study of the translation process. For each of the languages used in the testing phase of the iSTAR protocol, a succession of translators and analysts were engaged, including two educated, non-astronomer native speakers, a native speaking astronomer, and a native speaking linguistics expert. Multiple translations were analyzed in order to make relevant meaning of differences in the translations, and provide commentary on the ways in which metaphor, idiom, cultural history are embedded in the language, providing potential advantages in the learning of astronomy. The first test languages were German, Hawaiian, and American Sign Language, and initial findings suggest that each of these languages provide specific advantages

  2. International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Murakoshi, C.

    1997-10-01

    Recently, US energy service companies (ESCOs) have begun to actively explore markets outside the US. Despite the needs of many countries for ESCO involvement, ESCOs face many challenges (i.e., marketing, financial, institutional, political and cultural barriers). Consequently, most of these firms pursue international project opportunities very selectively due to the costs and risks associated with project development. Despite these barriers, some ESCOs view international work as a strategic expansion of their business, assuming that there will be adequate business in the future to repay them for their initial investment. In this paper, the authors present the findings from a recently completed study on the proposed development of an ESCO industry in Japan. The study was based on four sources of information: (1) a review of the published and unpublished literature on ESCOs; (2) interviews with 26 ESCOs in the US, the US Department of Energy, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO); (3) ESCO presentations at the October 1996 NAESCO meeting; and (4) informal discussions with ESCO experts in the US. They believe that the lessons learned in this study can be transferred or applied to other countries interested in developing an ESCO industry. While energy prices have remained relatively stable over the last several years in Japan and energy capacity is not perceived as a near-term problem, other ``market drivers`` necessary for the emergence of a successful and vibrant ESCO industry exist in Japan. Despite the presence of these market drivers, significant barriers to the successful development of an ESCO industry exist in Japan.

  3. Physiotherapy at a distance: a controlled study of rehabilitation at home after a shoulder joint operation.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Lisbeth; Lindström, Britta; Gard, Gunvor; Lysholm, Jack

    2009-01-01

    We explored the benefit of video communication in home rehabilitation after shoulder joint replacement and compared it to referral for physiotherapy in the conventional way. A total of 22 patients were included in the study. The intervention group (n = 10) had training at home under the supervision of a physiotherapist at the hospital using videoconferencing. The control group (n = 12) had physiotherapy training in a conventional way in their home town. All patients had the same postoperative, three-phase-programme for two months. The outcome measures were a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, range of motion (ROM), shoulder function ability (Constant score and SRQ-S) and health-related quality of life (SF-36). Questions about areas of priority for improvement and general satisfaction with the shoulder were also included. The telemedicine group received a greater number of treatments compared to the control group. After the intervention, there were significant improvements in VAS-pain, Constant score and SRQ-S for both groups. The telemedicine group improved significantly more in all three measurements than the control group (P < 0.001 for all). When changes from baseline to follow-up were compared, the telemedicine group improved significantly more in terms of decrease in pain (P = 0.004) and vitality (P = 0.001) than the control group. Despite some limitations, there seem to be clear benefits from physiotherapy at a distance with a telemedicine technique that allows patients to obtain access to physiotherapy at home.

  4. Analysis of the cytokine profiles of the synovial fluid in a normal temporomandibular joint: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Su-Gwan; Kim, Bum-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Yun; Yun, Pil-Young; Bae, Ji-Hyun; Oh, Ji-Su; Ahn, Jong-Mo; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sook-Young

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cytokine profiles of the synovial fluid from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) spaces of normal individuals and temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. Thirty-four patients with planned orthognathic surgery did not present abnormalities of the TMJ on magnetic resonance images and radiographs and did not show the symptoms identified by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC-TMD); as a result, they were assigned to the control group. Twenty-two patients who sought treatment for TMD during the same period were assigned to the TMD group. Synovial fluid was collected from superior TMJ spaces, and cytokine expression was analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Significant differences were tested using Fisher's exact test (p<0.05). Granulocyte Macrophage Colony stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), interferon (INF), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected in the TMD group, whereas no cytokines were detected in the control group. The most prevalent cytokines in the TMD group were IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF. IL-4 and IL-5 were not detected in either the TMD group or in the control group. None of the cytokines that were detected in patients with TMD were found in the articular spaces of normal individuals.

  5. The Joint Airport Weather Studies Project - Current analysis highlights in the aviation safety context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective of the Joint Airport Weather Studies Project was to obtain high-resolution velocity, turbulence, and thermodynamic data on a convective outflow called a microburst, an intense downdraft and resulting horizontal outflow near the surface. Data collection occurred during the summer of 1982 near Denver, CO. Data sensors included three pulsed-microwave Doppler and two pulsed CO2 lidar radars, along with 27 Portable Automated Mesonet surface weather stations, the FAA's low-level-wind-shear alert system (LLWSAS), and five instrumented research aircraft. Convective storms occurred on 75 of 91 operational days, with Doppler data being collected on at least 70 microbursts. Analyses reported included a thorough examination of microburst-climatology statistics, the capability of the LLWSAS to detect adequately and accurately the presence of low-altitude wind shear danger to aircraft, the capability of a terminal Doppler radar system development to provide improved wind-shear detection and warning, and progress toward improved wind-shear training for pilots.

  6. Optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5: A joint theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbec, Juliana; Narkeviciute, Ieva; Jaramillo, Thomas; Galli, Giulia

    2015-03-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of the optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5 was conducted by means of ab initio calculations and ellipsometry measurements. Previous experimental work on Ta3N5 has not been conclusive regarding the direct or indirect nature of light absorption. Our work found excellent agreement between the optical spectrum computed using the Bethe-Salpeter equation and the measured one, with two prominent features occurring at 2.1 and 2.5 eV assigned to direct transitions between N and Ta states. The computed optical gap, obtained from the G0W0 direct photoemission gap, including spin-orbit coupling, electron-phonon interaction, and exciton binding energy, was found to be in excellent agreement with measurements. Our results also showed that Ta3N5 is a highly anisotropic material with heavy holes in several directions, suggesting low hole mobilities, consistent with low measured photocurrents in the Ta3N5 literature. Work is in progress to compute polaronic contributions to the hole and electron mobilities and to investigate the effect of substitutional doping on the electronic structure of Ta3N5. Work supported by NSF (NSF Center CHE-1305124 for CCI Solar Fuels). Computing resources provided by NERSC.

  7. Optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5: A joint theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbec, Juliana M.; Narkeviciute, Ieva; Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Galli, Giulia

    2014-10-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of the optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5 was conducted by means of ab initio calculations and ellipsometry measurements. Previous experimental work on Ta3N5 has not been conclusive regarding the direct or indirect nature of light absorption. Our work found excellent agreement between the optical spectrum computed using the Bethe-Salpeter equation and the measured one, with two prominent features occurring at 2.1 and 2.5 eV assigned to direct transitions between N and Ta states. The computed optical gap, obtained from the G0W0 direct photoemission gap, including spin-orbit coupling, electron-phonon renormalization of the conduction band, and exciton binding energy, was found to be in excellent agreement with measurements. Our results also showed that Ta3N5 is a highly anisotropic material with heavy holes in several directions, suggesting low hole mobilities, consistent with low measured photocurrents in the Ta3N5 literature.

  8. STUDY ON THE PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Alfredo dos Santos; de Brito, Marcelo Botelho Soares; Severino, Fabrício Roberto; Campos, Leila Rodrigues Andrade; Nico, Marcelo Astolfi Caetano; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study the measurements and anatomical relationships of the patellofemoral joint using magnetic resonance imaging, and to evaluate the variation in the morphology of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) according to patients' heights and ages and the variation in measurements on other structures that are known to be involved in predisposition to patellar instability. Method: Twenty-three knees (18 patients) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and their interepicondylar distance, patellar height, trochlear depth, ventral trochlear prominence, trochlear groove angle, lateral facet tilt, lateral patellar tilt and size of the lateral and medial facets and their ratio were measured. These measurements were compared with the length and thickness of the MPFL. Results: The average length of the MPFL was 46.4 mm, while the average thicknesses of its patellar insertion, middle third and femoral insertion were, respectively, 1.7 mm, 1.4 mm and 1.2 mm. The thickness of the MPFL correlated positively with the lateral condyle and interepicondylar distance measurements, and negatively with the patients' ages. Conclusion: The morphology of the MPFL varies with the interepicondylar distance and the lateral condyle distance, and with patients' ages. PMID:27042622

  9. a Joint Theoretical and Experimental Study of the SiH_2OO Isomeric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Michael C.; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    In contrast to the CH_2OO isomers, those of SiH_2OO have received relatively little attention, either theoretically or experimentally. High-level coupled cluster calculations predict a much different energy ordering in comparison to that found for CH_2OO, with the three conformers of Si-dihydroxycarbene, HOSiOH, most stable, followed by the Si-analogues of cis and trans formic acid, and then a cyclic isomer with C2v symmetry, c-SiH_2OO. Guided by these theoretical predictions, rotational lines of the cis, trans isomer of HOSiOH, as well as c-SiH_2OO, have been detected by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The lines of the cyclic form are sufficiently strong that several rare isotopic species have also been found, enabling, in combination with calculated vibrational corrections, a precise semi-experimental structure to be derived. This talk will provide a status report on our joint study of this unusual isomeric system, and an update on searches for still other isomers.

  10. Simulated flight through JAWS wind shear - In-depth analysis results. [Joint Airport Weather Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Chang, H.-P.; Elmore, K. L.; Mccarthy, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) field experiment was carried out in 1982 near Denver. An analysis is presented of aircraft performance in the three-dimensional wind fields. The fourth dimension, time, is not considered. The analysis seeks to prepare computer models of microburst wind shear from the JAWS data sets for input to flight simulators and for research and development of aircraft control systems and operational procedures. A description is given of the data set and the method of interpolating velocities and velocity gradients for input to the six-degrees-of-freedom equations governing the motion of the aircraft. The results of the aircraft performance analysis are then presented, and the interpretation classifies the regions of shear as severe, moderate, or weak. Paths through the severe microburst of August 5, 1982, are then recommended for training and operational applications. Selected subregions of the flow field defined in terms of planar sections through the wind field are presented for application to simulators with limited computer storage capacity, that is, for computers incapable of storing the entire array of variables needed if the complete wind field is programmed.

  11. Vertical Tracer Concentration Profiles Measured During the Joint Urban 2003 Dispersion Study

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, Julia E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, K Jerry; Allwine, Eugene J.

    2007-12-01

    An atmospheric tracer dispersion study known as Joint Urban 2003 was conducted in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma during the summer of 2003. As part of this field program, vertical concentration profiles were measured at approximately 1 km from downtown tracer gas release locations. These profiles indicated that the urban landscape was very effective in mixing the plume vertically. The height of the plume centerline (as determined by the maximum concentration over the depth of the measurements) for any specific 30 min period varied over the 65 m measurement range. Most of the variations in tracer concentration observed in the profile time series were related to changes in wind direction as opposed to changes in turbulence. As a simple analysis tool for emergency response, maximum normalized concentration curves were developed with 5-minute averaged measurements. These curves give the maximum concentration (normalized by the release rate) that would be observed as a function of downwind distance in an urban area. The 5-min data resulted in greater concentrations than predicted with a simple Gaussian plume model. However, the curve compared well with results from a computational fluid dynamics simulation. This dispersion dataset is a valuable asset not only for refining air quality models, but also for developing new tools for emergency response personnel in the event of a toxic release.

  12. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Xia, Ping; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI)-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People's Republic of China during 2011-2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A "Plan, Do, Check, Act" cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000), and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People's Republic of China, (April 2012-October 2012), the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05). Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine equivalent dose per discharged patient increased from 8.52 mg/person to 20.36 mg/person. A 100% implementation rate of independent double-check prior to narcotics dosing has been achieved since January 2013. From 2014 to 2015, the ratio of number of narcotics-related medication errors to number of discharged patients significantly decreased (6.95% versus 0.99%, P=0.0000). Taken together, continuous quality improvements have been

  13. Safe medication management and use of narcotics in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xu; Zhu, Ling-ling; Pan, Sheng-dong; Xia, Ping; Chen, Meng; Zhou, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Safe medication management and use of high-alert narcotics should arouse concern. Risk management experiences in this respect in a large-scale Joint Commission International (JCI)-accredited academic medical center hospital in the People’s Republic of China during 2011–2015, focusing on organizational, educational, motivational, and information technological measures in storage, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administration, and monitoring of medication are summarized. The intensity of use of meperidine in hospitalized patients in 2015 was one-fourth that in 2011. A 100% implementation rate of standard storage of narcotics has been achieved in the hospital since December 2012. A “Plan, Do, Check, Act” cycle was efficient because the ratio of number of inappropriate narcotics prescriptions to total number of narcotics prescriptions for inpatients decreased from August 2014 to December 2014 (28.22% versus 2.96%, P=0.0000), and it was controlled below 6% from then on. During the journey to good pain management ward accreditation by the Ministry of Health, People’s Republic of China, (April 2012–October 2012), the medical oncology ward successfully demonstrated an increase in the pain screening rate at admission from 43.5% to 100%, cancer pain control rate from 85% to 96%, and degree of satisfaction toward pain nursing from 95.4% to 100% (all P-values <0.05). Oral morphine equivalent dosage in the good pain management ward increased from 2.3 mg/patient before June 2012 to 54.74 mg/patient in 2014. From 2011 to 2015, the oral morphine equivalent dose per discharged patient increased from 8.52 mg/person to 20.36 mg/person. A 100% implementation rate of independent double-check prior to narcotics dosing has been achieved since January 2013. From 2014 to 2015, the ratio of number of narcotics-related medication errors to number of discharged patients significantly decreased (6.95% versus 0.99%, P=0.0000). Taken together, continuous quality improvements

  14. Lessons Learned During TBCC Design for the NASA-AFRL Joint System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Espinosa, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the Air Force Research Laboratory are involved in a Joint System Study (JSS) on Two-Stage-to-Orbit (TSTO) vehicles. The JSS will examine the performance, operability and analysis uncertainty of unmanned, fully reusable, TSTO launch vehicle concepts. NASA is providing a vehicle concept using turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion on the booster stage and an all-rocket orbiter. The variation in vehicle and mission requirements for different potential customers, combined with analysis uncertainties, make it problematic to define optimum vehicle types or concepts, but the study is being used by NASA for tool assessment and development, and to identify technology gaps. Preliminary analyses were performed on the entire TBCC booster concept; then higher-fidelity analyses were performed for particular areas to verify results or reduce analysis uncertainties. Preliminary TBCC system analyses indicated that there would be sufficient thrust margin over its mission portion. The higher fidelity analyses, which included inlet and nozzle performance corrections for significant area mismatches between TBCC propulsion requirements versus the vehicle design, resulted in significant performance penalties from the preliminary results. TBCC system design and vehicle operation assumptions were reviewed to identify items to mitigate these performance penalties. The most promising items were then applied and analyses rerun to update performance predictions. A study overview is given to orient the reader, quickly focusing upon the NASA TBCC booster and low speed propulsion system. Details for the TBCC concept and the analyses performed are described. Finally, a summary of "Lessons Learned" are discussed with suggestions to improve future study efforts.

  15. Changes in disc status in the reducing and nonreducing anterior disc displacement of temporomandibular joint: a longitudinal retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying Kai; Yang, Chi; Xie, Qian Yang

    2016-09-27

    Treatment procedures for anterior disc displacement (ADD) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are far from reaching a consensus. The aim of the study was to evaluate disc status changes of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDWR) and without reduction (ADDWoR) comparatively, to get a better understanding of the disease progress without intervention. This longitudinal retrospective study included 217 joints in 165 patients, which were divided into ADDWR group and ADDWoR group based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The joints were assessed quantitatively for disc length and displacement distance at initial and follow-up visits. Disc morphology, which was classified in 5 types, was also evaluated. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess intra-group differences and independent t-test for inter-group differences. Moreover, analysis of covariance was applied to analyze influential factors for changes in disc length and displacement distance. According to our results, discs tended to become shorter, move further forward and distort more seriously in ADDWoR group than in ADDWR group after follow-up. Moreover, discs were prone to become shorter and more anteriorly displaced in teenagers, type I and III morphologies, advanced Wilkes stages, or those with joint effusion. Follow-up period seemed to be not critical.

  16. Changes in disc status in the reducing and nonreducing anterior disc displacement of temporomandibular joint: a longitudinal retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying Kai; Yang, Chi; Xie, Qian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Treatment procedures for anterior disc displacement (ADD) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are far from reaching a consensus. The aim of the study was to evaluate disc status changes of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDWR) and without reduction (ADDWoR) comparatively, to get a better understanding of the disease progress without intervention. This longitudinal retrospective study included 217 joints in 165 patients, which were divided into ADDWR group and ADDWoR group based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. The joints were assessed quantitatively for disc length and displacement distance at initial and follow-up visits. Disc morphology, which was classified in 5 types, was also evaluated. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess intra-group differences and independent t-test for inter-group differences. Moreover, analysis of covariance was applied to analyze influential factors for changes in disc length and displacement distance. According to our results, discs tended to become shorter, move further forward and distort more seriously in ADDWoR group than in ADDWR group after follow-up. Moreover, discs were prone to become shorter and more anteriorly displaced in teenagers, type I and III morphologies, advanced Wilkes stages, or those with joint effusion. Follow-up period seemed to be not critical. PMID:27671371

  17. Experimental Study of Internal Gettering Efficiency of Iron in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarahiltunen, A.; Yli-Koski, M.; Väinölä, H.; Palokangas, M.; Saarnilehto, E.; Sinkkonen, J.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied internal gettering efficiency of iron in silicon by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and standard lifetime methods (SPV, µPCD). Conventional high low high anneals were performed to produce a series of wafers with varying denuded zone (DZ) width and oxygen precipitation density. The wafers were intentionally iron contaminated to a level of about 3 5*1013cm 3. After contamination the wafers were annealed at 900°C and then slowly cooled to 850, 800, 750, 700 or 600°C. After cooling the remaining interstitial iron concentration was measured by SPV, µ-PCD and DLTS. The experimental results are compared with simulations. Our results indicate that with this contamination level, the gettering is effective only at temperatures below 750°C when iron is supersaturated over a factor of twenty. For temperatures above 750°C the gettering is limited by iron precipitation in the bulk.

  18. Primary repair of capsuloligamentous structures of trapeziometacarpal joint: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammed Tahir; Kotwal, Prakash P.; Morey, Vivek Machhindra

    2014-01-01

    Background Isolated trapezio-metacarpal joint dislocation is uncommon and challenging since controversy still exists regarding its management. Description We present a short case series in which direct repair of trapezio-metacarpal ligaments was done in three patients who had isolated, unstable dislocation of the thumb carpometacarpal joint. All of them were engaged in tasks where no compromise in hand functions and grip strength was affordable. The dislocation was addressed primarily by repair of volar oblique and dorsoradial ligaments with suture anchors. The joint was immobilised in a cast for 4 weeks followed by gradual mobilisation. Results At an average follow up of 15 months, all the three patients have no restriction in the range of motion. There are no symptoms and signs of instability. In two patients, there is no pain at all; while one patient has occasional pain which is mild and does not interfere with the hand function. Radiographic examination showed normal joint alignment and no signs of subluxation or early osteoarthritis. Conclusion Repair of the capsuloligamentous complex with suture anchors may be considered as a treatment option in unstable trapezio-metacarpal joint dislocations in high demand patients. PMID:25983496

  19. Study on the Failure Mechanism of Basalts with Columnar Joints in the Unloading Process on the Basis of an Experimental Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Changyu; Yang, Chengxiang; Fang, Dan; Xu, Shuai

    2015-05-01

    Basalt with columnar joints is a kind of jointed rock body cut by both original joints and aphanitic microcracks. After unloading during excavation, such rock bodies manifest obvious mechanical phenomena such as discontinuities, anisotropy, and liability to fracture. In this work, the failure modes of basalts with columnar joints are studied based on monitoring of test tunnels on the one hand, and also through the mechanical properties of the original joints and those of microfissures of aphanitic microcracks in the unloading process analyzed by a discrete element method using a strain-softening constitutive model. Through comprehensive analysis of the numerical simulation results and the monitored behaviors of the basalts with columnar joints, their failure mechanisms are revealed, which may provide a basis for choosing suitable support plans for this kind of rock mass.

  20. Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

  1. Bone and Joint Problems Associated with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... joint disorders. Certain factors, such as nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy), arterial disease and obesity, may contribute to these ... ... osteodystrophy): Time for recognition. Osteoporosis International. 2016;27: ...

  2. Surgical treatment for septic arthritis of the knee joint in elderly patients: a 10-year retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Ming; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Tung-Fu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2013-04-01

    Septic arthritis is the most rapidly destructive joint disease, but its early diagnosis remains challenging; delayed or inadequate treatment, even by expert physicians, can lead to irreversible joint destruction. Between 25% and 50% of patients develop irreversible loss of joint function, which is especially concerning in elderly patients. To understand the factors influencing the outcome of septic arthritis, the authors reviewed patients aged older than 50 years who had undergone debridement surgery for primary septic arthritis at their institution between 1998 and 2008. Ninety-two patients (92 knees) were enrolled in the study; 14 did not meet inclusion criteria and were excluded from the final analysis. Of the 78 included patients, 7 underwent arthrodesis, 22 underwent total knee arthroplasty, 19 were indicated for total knee arthroplasty for severe knee joint osteoarthritis but did not undergo surgery by the end of this study, and the remaining 30 had no or mild symptoms of osteoarthrosis and did not receive any surgical procedure. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogenic agent (38%), followed by mixed bacterial infection (10%). Several factors negatively influenced the final clinical outcome, including delayed treatment, advanced macroscopic staging made during debridement surgery, performing multiple debridement surgeries, and a larger Lysholm score difference pre- and posttreatment. More antibiotics administered, longer duration of antibiotic treatment, and more pathogenic agents present were also significantly correlated with poor outcome. These findings shed new light on the management of septic arthritis. Accurate diagnoses and effective treatments are important for the clinical outcome of knee joint bacterial infection in elderly patients.

  3. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Annual Progress Report for the 1985 Study Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the first year of a 3-year study designed to assess the possible environmental effects of a +-500-kV dc transmission line. This first annual report documents site development, initiation of the livestock and crop studies, and the integration and interfacing of the agricultural and BPA's electrical monitoring study. The overall objective is to assess whether operation of a +-500-kV dc transmission line results in any detectable effects (beneficial or adverse) on plants or livestock, under controlled, simulated farming and ranching conditions. These two biological systems were selected because they can be expected to experience long-term exposure to maximum field and ion concentrations on the transmission right-of-way. This study is designed to provide data on end points and parameters of primary interest in commercial farming and ranching operations.

  4. Study of mechanical joint strength of aluminum alloy 7075-T6 and dual phase steel 980 welded by friction bit joining and weld-bonding under corrosion medium

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, Yong Chae; Squires, Lile; Pan, Tsung-Yu; ...

    2014-12-30

    We have employed a unique solid-sate joining process, called friction bit joining (FBJ), to spot weld aluminum alloy (AA) 7075-T6 and dual phase (DP) 980 steel. Static joint strength was studied in the lap shear tension configuration. In addition, weld-bonding (adhesive + FBJ) joints were studied in order to evaluate the ability of adhesive to mitigate the impact of corrosion on joint properties. Accelerated laboratory cyclic corrosion tests were carried out for both FBJ only and weld-bonding joints. Furthermore, the FBJ only joints that emerged from corrosion testing had lap shear failure loads that were significantly lower than freshly preparedmore » joints. However, weld-bonding specimens retained more than 80% of the lap shear failure load of the freshly prepared weld-bonding specimens. Moreover, examination of joint cross sections confirmed that the presence of adhesive in the weld-bonding joints mitigated the effect of the corrosion environment, compared to FBJ only joints.« less

  5. Characteristics of Highly Talented International Business Professionals Defined: Qualitative Study among International Business Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Heugten, Petra; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Paans, Wolter; Wolfensberger, Marca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of talent in relation to international business to facilitate selection and development of talent in human resources (HR) and human resource development (HRD). Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method design was used: focus groups with business professionals to identify the…

  6. Synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint: a clinical, radiological and histological study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Granizo, Rafael; Sánchez, Juan Jesús; Jorquera, Manuela; Ortega, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a cartilaginous metaplasy of the mesenchymal remnants of the synovial tissue of the joints. It is characterized by the formation of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium and inside the articular space (loose bodies). SC mainly affects to big synovial joints such as the knee and the elbow, being uncommon the onset within the TMJ, where 75 cases have been published. The main symptoms are pain, inflammation, limitation of the movements of the jaw and crepitation. Different methods of diagnosis include panoramic radiograph, CT, MR and arthroscopy of the TMJ. We report a new case of unilateral SC of the TMJ, including diagnostic images, treatment performed and histological analysis.

  7. News Language and the Study of International Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lule, Jack

    1992-01-01

    Presents a model outline for the international news reporting class, focusing on news language and global journalism. Shows how concepts from philosophy, political science, and rhetoric were applied the language of international news and the reporting process by which a very few global events are selected and crafted into the symbolic form of the…

  8. Teaching the Scientific Study of International Relations to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, D. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how theory and science are integrated into "Introduction to International Relations" and "International Relations Theory", two undergraduate courses at Pennsylvania State University (University Park). Highlights five issues that are used in the author's approach to teaching theory and science. (CMK)

  9. Teachers' Stances towards Chinese International Students: An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Kristina; Arkoudis, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    The international marketing of school education has gathered momentum in the Asia Pacific region, where an English medium education is prized by many parents. This paper investigates the responses of a group of teachers in Australia to the needs of international students in their school. The analysis of a 1 h professional discussion between four…

  10. Using English for International Business: A European Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson-Revell, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    With the continuing globalisation of markets and internationalisation of trade, professionals from a wide range of organisations, from large multinational corporations to small to medium size enterprises, are increasingly coming together to do business in the international workplace, particularly in meetings. Such international events usually…

  11. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, P.; Halevy, I.

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  12. A comprehensive joint replacement program for total knee arthroplasty: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jon R; Warren, Meghan; Ganley, Kathleen J; Prefontaine, Paul; Wylie, Jack W

    2008-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the US. It is important to have a comprehensive inpatient TKA program which maximizes outcomes while minimizing adverse events. The purpose of this study was to describe a TKA program – the Joint Replacement Program (JRP) – and report post-surgical outcomes. Methods 74 candidates for a primary TKA were enrolled in the JRP. The JRP was designed to minimize complications and optimize patient-centered outcomes using a team approach including the patient, patient's family, and a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The JRP consisted of a pre-operative class, standard pathways for medical care, comprehensive peri-operative pain management, aggressive physical therapy (PT), and proactive discharge planning. Measures included functional tests, knee range of motion (ROM), and medical record abstraction of patient demographics, length of stay, discharge disposition, and complications over a 6-month follow-up period. Results All patients achieved medical criteria for hospital discharge. The patients achieved the knee flexion ROM goal of 90° (91.7 ± 5.4°), but did not achieve the knee extension ROM goal of 0° (2.4 ± 2.6°). The length of hospital stay was two days for 53% of the patients, with 39% and 7% discharged in three and four days, respectively. All but three patients were discharged home with functional independence. 68% of these received outpatient physical therapy compared with 32% who received home physical therapy immediately after discharge. Two patients (< 3%) had medical complications during the inpatient hospital stay, and 9 patients (12%) had complications during the 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion The comprehensive JRP for TKA was associated with satisfactory clinical outcomes, short lengths of stay, a high percentage of patients discharged home with outpatient PT, and minimal complications. This JRP may represent an efficient, effective and safe

  13. Elbow clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic study in patients with inflammatory joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Uson, Jacqueline; Miguélez-Sánchez, Roberto; de Los Riscos, Marina; Martínez-Blasco, María Jesús; Fernández-Espartero, Cruz; Villaverde-García, Virginia; Garrido, Jesús; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional observational study was to investigate the relationship between clinical, ultrasonographic (US) and radiographic elbow features in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD). The secondary objective was to evaluate the association between regional clinical elbow diagnoses and imaging findings. Consecutive patients with IJD attending follow-up visits were assessed for elbow pain and standardized elbow examination. Seven regional clinical diagnoses were defined. Digital elbow radiographs were read for 9 abnormalities. A standardized elbow grayscale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) scan recorded 13 defined abnormalities. Analysis encompassed 361 clinical, 361 US and 340 radiographic elbow assessments from 181 patients. US and clinical assessments showed an overall higher agreement than radiographic and clinical assessments (68.8 vs 59.1%, p = 0.001). When structural US abnormalities were compared with radiographic findings, agreement was slightly higher than when comparing all US abnormalities with radiographic findings (77.3%, k 0.533 and 73.5%, k 0.492). Enthesophytes, the most common abnormalities, were not associated with clinical findings. Subclinical US-synovitis and US-enthesopathy were found, respectively, in 17.3 and 14.1% of the clinically normal elbows. Clinical elbow arthritis prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) agreement was good for radiographic fat pad sign, PD-synovitis and GS-synovitis. Clinical elbow enthesopathy PABAK agreement was moderate for GS-enthesopathy and radiographic calcifications. US showed acceptable agreement with clinical and radiographic assessments for detecting elbow inflammatory and structural abnormalities in patients with IJD. Because US detected more abnormalities than radiography and has the capability to detect more subclinical abnormalities, US may be potentially used as a first-line elbow diagnostic tool in this clinical setting.

  14. International Halley Watch: Discipline specialists for near-nucleus studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.; Rahe, J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Near-Nucleus Studies Net is to study the processes taking place in the near-nucleus environment as they relate to the nature of nucleus. This is accomplisghed by measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of dust, gases and ions in the coma on high resolution images taken from many observatories around the world. By modeling the motions of discrete dust features in Comet Halley, it is often possible to determine the locations of the emission sources on the surface and learn about the nucleus structure. In addition to the general goals shared by all IHW nets, the scientific goals of the net has been to determine (1)the gross surface structure of the nucleus, (2)the nucleus spin vector, (3)the distribution and evolution of jet sources and (4)the interrelationships between the gas, dust and ion components of the coma. An additional Comet Giacobini-Zinner watch was carried out by the NNSN in support of the NASA International Cometary Explorer flyby.

  15. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. Design: A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Methods: Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. Results: A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. Conclusions: These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions. PMID:12198271

  16. International round-robin study on the Ames fluctuation test.

    PubMed

    Reifferscheid, G; Maes, H M; Allner, B; Badurova, J; Belkin, S; Bluhm, K; Brauer, F; Bressling, J; Domeneghetti, S; Elad, T; Flückiger-Isler, S; Grummt, H J; Gürtler, R; Hecht, A; Heringa, M B; Hollert, H; Huber, S; Kramer, M; Magdeburg, A; Ratte, H T; Sauerborn-Klobucar, R; Sokolowski, A; Soldan, P; Smital, T; Stalter, D; Venier, P; Ziemann, Chr; Zipperle, J; Buchinger, S

    2012-04-01

    An international round-robin study on the Ames fluctuation test [ISO 11350, 2012], a microplate version of the classic plate-incorporation method for the detection of mutagenicity in water, wastewater and chemicals was performed by 18 laboratories from seven countries. Such a round-robin study is a precondition for both the finalization of the ISO standardization process and a possible regulatory implementation in water legislation. The laboratories tested four water samples (spiked/nonspiked) and two chemical mixtures with and without supplementation of a S9-mix. Validity criteria (acceptable spontaneous and positive control-induced mutation counts) were fulfilled by 92-100%, depending on the test conditions. A two-step method for statistical evaluation of the test results is proposed and assessed in terms of specificity and sensitivity. The data were first subjected to powerful analysis of variance (ANOVA) after an arcsine-square-root transformation to detect significant differences between the test samples and the negative control (NC). A threshold (TH) value based on a pooled NC was then calculated to exclude false positive test results. Statistically, positive effects observed by the William's test were considered negative, if the mean of all replicates of a sample did not exceed the calculated TH. By making use of this approach, the overall test sensitivity was 100%, and the test specificity ranged from 80 to 100%.

  17. A study of the effects of water concentration on the stability of interfaces in adhesive joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.S.; Kinloch, A.J.; Gardhan, L.M.; Bowditch, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of water concentration on steel-epoxide joints was assessed. The 90{degrees} peel test method has been used to obtain fracture energy, G{sub c} values for adhered joints which have been previously conditioned in a range of relative humidities. Firstly, a loss of peel strength has been seen with increased water content of the adhesive. Further, a critical water concentration marking the transition from slight to pronounced loss of joint strength has been observed. Secondly, a theory for G{sub c} has been used to account for elastic and plastic deformation in the peel arm. However, the theory has not been able to fully account for changes in peel arm thickness but has for changes in the peel angle. Thirdly, apparent interfacial failure has been observed under visual inspection. Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy will be employed to (i) identify the locus of joint failure and (ii) the site and mechanisms of environmental attack by water.

  18. Biological study of tobacco seeds flown in the joint Apollo-Soyouz Test-Project.

    PubMed

    Barbier, M; Dulieu, H L

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was carried out in order to detect eventual effects attributable to primary and background cosmic radiations received by tobacco seeds during the joint Apollo-Soyouz space flight. No genetic effect was observed but several developmental and physiological alterations took place.

  19. Neuro-cognitive mechanisms of decision making in joint action: a human-robot interaction study.

    PubMed

    Bicho, Estela; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Louro, Luis; e Silva, Eliana Costa

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present a model for action preparation and decision making in cooperative tasks that is inspired by recent experimental findings about the neuro-cognitive mechanisms supporting joint action in humans. It implements the coordination of actions and goals among the partners as a dynamic process that integrates contextual cues, shared task knowledge and predicted outcome of others' motor behavior. The control architecture is formalized by a system of coupled dynamic neural fields representing a distributed network of local but connected neural populations. Different pools of neurons encode task-relevant information about action means, task goals and context in the form of self-sustained activation patterns. These patterns are triggered by input from connected populations and evolve continuously in time under the influence of recurrent interactions. The dynamic model of joint action is evaluated in a task in which a robot and a human jointly construct a toy object. We show that the highly context sensitive mapping from action observation onto appropriate complementary actions allows coping with dynamically changing joint action situations.

  20. A retrospective study of temporomandibular joint ankylosis secondary to surgical treatment of mandibular condylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Guo-lin; Long, Xing; Deng, Mo-hong; Han, Qian-chao; Meng, Qing-gong; Li, Bo

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the incidence of ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) after open operations for fractures of the mandibular condyle, and analysed possible risk factors in a total of 385 patients with 492 condylar fractures who had been operated on in our department from 2001 to 2010. Sixteen patients developed postoperative ankylosis of the TMJ with 26 joints (5%) affected during a follow-up of 6 months-10 years. Of the 492 condylar fractures, the most common ones that were associated with postoperative ankylosis were those of the condylar head (20/248), followed by the condylar neck (6/193). Subcondylar fractures did not cause postoperative ankylosis (0/51). Among the 16 patients with postoperative ankylosis, 13 had associated anterior mandibular fractures. Long-screw (bicortical screw) fixation of fractures of the condylar head seemed to be associated with a lower incidence of postoperative ankylosis than fixation by miniplate and wire or removal of the fractured fragment. The articular discs were damaged in all ankylosed joints, and the remaining fractured fragment was found in 10 ankylosed joints after fractures of the condylar head. The results suggest that fractures of the condylar head are more prone to lead to postoperative ankylosis of the TMJ, and that the possible risk factors seem to include the technique used for fixation and damage to the disc, together with an anterior mandibular fracture with the fractured fragment remaining.

  1. A prospective morphological study of facet joint integrity following intervertebral disc replacement with the CHARITE Artificial Disc.

    PubMed

    Trouillier, Hans; Kern, P; Refior, H J; Müller-Gerbl, M

    2006-02-01

    In degenerative disc disease (DDD), increased loading in the posterior column increases facet joint subchondral bone density and may lead to facet joint degeneration. While spinal fusion is commonly used to treat patients with symptomatic DDD, increased stress at the levels adjacent to fusion may accelerate facet joint and adjacent segment degeneration. Artificial disc replacements have been developed as an alternative to fusion. In this prospective study, the effects of disc replacement with the CHARITE Artificial Disc on facet joint loading and integrity were evaluated. Thirteen patients aged <50 years with symptomatic DDD were recruited. Computed tomography (CT) osteoabsorptiometry was performed prior to the implantation of the CHARITE Artificial Disc and six months after. With this technique, increases or decreases in facet joint loading and integrity are indicated by corresponding changes in subchondral bone density. Changes in the distribution of load alter the distribution of the areas of maximum bone density. Clinical outcome was also assessed at pre-operative and 6 and 12 month post-operative visits using the Visual Analogue Scale back and leg pain scores, the Oswestry Disability Index and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. The height of the intervertebral space at the operated level was monitored by lateral X-ray. Subchondral bone density was evaluated in the facet joints of all 13 patients at the operated level, 12 patients at the level above the operated segment, and five patients at the level below the operated segment. Quantitative measurements revealed no significant increases (> or =3%) in subchondral bone density of the facet joints at any level in any patient. Significant decreases (> or =3%) in subchondral bone density were measured at the operated level in 10/13 patients, at the level above the operated segment in 6/12 patients, and at the level below the operated segment in 3/5 patients. There were no changes in the distribution of the

  2. The effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in autistic children: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further.

  3. The State of the States: State Initiatives in Foreign Languages and International Studies, 1979-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Jamie B.

    As a followup to the 1979 report by the President's Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies, "Strength Through Wisdom," a study was conducted to learn what progress has been made toward improving international knowledge among Americans. State foreign language supervisors and others responsible for international education…

  4. An Empirical Study on the Determinants of International Student Mobility: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper, based on the data of 48 countries and regions from 1999 to 2008, studies the economic and educational determinants of how countries of different types attract international students. The study finds that: the volume of merchandise trade between countries facilitates international student mobility across borders; international students…

  5. International Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in the UK Banking Sector: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…

  6. Comparison of the Treatment Implications of American Society of Hypertension and International Society of Hypertension 2013 and Eighth Joint National Committee Guidelines: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Venkatesh L; Shah, Ravi V; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Brook, Robert D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple guidelines and statements related to hypertension have recently been published. Much discord has arisen from discrepant treatment and target systolic blood pressure thresholds for individuals aged 60 to 79 years of <150 mm Hg in the guideline published by members assigned to the Eighth Joint National Committee and <140 mm Hg in a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and International Society of Hypertension 2013. We sought to evaluate the public health implications of these differences using data from the 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles. NHANES is an ongoing survey designed to allow characterization of the US population and subpopulations. We found that only .2.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.5.3.2%) of adults aged 60 to 79 years had indications for antihypertensive treatment under the more stringent American Society of Hypertension and International Society of Hypertension 2013 guideline but not under Eighth Joint National Committee. About 65.7% (95% confidence interval, 62.4.69.0%) of adults aged 60 to 79 years had indications for treatment under both guidelines. Furthermore, those with indications for treatment under American Society of Hypertension and International Society of Hypertension 2013 but not under Eighth Joint National Committee generally had higher systolic blood pressure and less favorable lipid profiles compared with those with indications for treatment under both guidelines. Importantly, a larger group, comprising 21.0% (95% confidence interval, 18.7.23.2%) of adults aged 60 to 79 years, had either untreated or inadequately treated hypertension and represents an important group for continued efforts.

  7. A study of Hot Flow Anomalies and their internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, Artyom; Vaisberg, Oleg

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were studied for long time. Here we attempt to study internal structure of HFAs. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used data from ion-spectrometer SCA-1, magnetic field measurements from MIF and ELECTRON spectrometer measurements. We have chosen five anomalies for our investigation on the basis of well resolved structure. We calculated displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA and compared convection patterns within them. We checked the main criteria of HFA formation: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it (except one case), bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities, viewed in coordinate system determined by shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal, clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. HFAs we analyzed can be separated in two groups according to pattern of convection velocities. First type of HFAs have velocities directed from central region and circulation in leading and trailing parts. Second type of HFAs show predominant motion along the current sheet. There also other differences between these two types of HFA that are discussed in presentation. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs received additional evidence that central region is the source of energy and momentum near interplanetary current sheet crossing location. We calculated balance of energy within HFA using momentum equation to estimate what amount of reflected particles is needed for central region to be the energy source.

  8. The IMS Satellite Situation Center. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Vette, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    Following a brief historical review of the SSC (Satellite Situation Center), created by the U.S. for the IMS (International Magnetospheric Study), its main functions are discussed. The services of the SSC include the accurate orbit determination of the satellites, 12-18 months in advance and the coordination of simultaneous observations by a multispacecraft system, which are essential for the optimization of the scientific gains from experiments conducted with limited resources. For 1976 SSC generated plots of the satellites Vela 5B, Vela 6A, Vela 6B, Hawkeye 1, Imp H (7), Imp J (8) by computing certain projections of the solar ecliptic, solar magnetospheric, and solar magnetic coordinate systems. The SSC system was automated by the addition of a computer system capable of interactive graphics. The SSC can also provide the ground-based campaigns with a graphical or tabular information about the position low-altitude satellites in any coordinate system. The possible participation of the SSC in future Electrodynamics Explorer mission, Space Shuttle programs is also being explored.

  9. Recent Pharmacology Studies on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes a variety of potential stressors including the absence of Earth's gravity, elevated exposure to radiation, confined living and working quarters, a heavy workload, and high public visibility. The effects of this extreme environment on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and even on stored medication doses, are not yet understood. Dr. Wotring will discuss recent analyses of medication doses that experienced long duration storage on the ISS and a recent retrospective examination of medication use during long-duration spaceflights. She will also describe new pharmacology experiments that are scheduled for upcoming ISS missions. Dr. Virginia E. Wotring is a Senior Scientist in the Division of Space Life Sciences in the Universities Space Research Association, and Pharmacology Discipline Lead at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Human Heath and Countermeasures Division. She received her doctorate in Pharmacological and Physiological Science from Saint Louis University after earning a B.S. in Chemistry at Florida State University. She has published multiple studies on ligand gated ion channels in the brain and spinal cord. Her research experience includes drug mechanisms of action, drug receptor structure/function relationships and gene & protein expression. She joined USRA (and spaceflight research) in 2009. In 2012, her book reviewing pharmacology in spaceflight was published by Springer: Space Pharmacology, Space Development Series.

  10. International Pediatric MS Study Group Global Members Symposium report.

    PubMed

    Wassmer, Evangeline; Chitnis, Tanuja; Pohl, Daniela; Amato, Maria Pia; Banwell, Brenda; Ghezzi, Angelo; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Krupp, Lauren B; Makhani, Naila; Rostásy, Kevin; Tardieu, Marc; Tenembaum, Silvia; Waldman, Amy; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Kornberg, Andrew J

    2016-08-30

    The International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group held its inaugural educational program, "The World of Pediatric MS: A Global Update," in September 2014 to discuss advances and challenges in the diagnosis and management of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory CNS disorders. Highlights included a discussion on the revised diagnostic criteria, which enable the differentiation of MS, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and other neuroinflammatory disorders. While these criteria currently identify clinical and MRI features for a particular diagnosis, advances in biomarkers may prove to be useful in the future. An update was also provided on environmental factors associated with pediatric MS risk and possibly outcomes, notably vitamin D deficiency. However, optimal vitamin D intake and its role in altering MS course in children have yet to be established. Regarding MS outcomes, our understanding of the cognitive consequences of early-onset MS has grown. However, further work is needed to define the course of cognitive function and its long-term outcome in diverse patient samples and to develop strategies for effective cognitive rehabilitation specifically tailored to children and adolescents. Finally, treatment strategies were discussed, including a need to consider additional drug treatment options and paradigms (escalation vs induction), although treatment should be tailored to the individual child. Of critical importance, clinical trials of newer MS agents in children are required. Although our understanding of childhood MS has improved, further research is needed to have a positive impact for children and their families.

  11. 22 CFR 228.34 - Joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint ventures. 228.34 Section 228.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND... Financing § 228.34 Joint ventures. A joint venture or unincorporated association is eligible only if each...

  12. 22 CFR 228.34 - Joint ventures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Joint ventures. 228.34 Section 228.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND... Financing § 228.34 Joint ventures. A joint venture or unincorporated association is eligible only if each...

  13. Studying the Dynamics of TCR Internalization at the Immune Synapse.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Enrique; Alarcón, Balbino; Oeste, Clara L

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a stable interaction between a T cell and an antigen presenting cell (APC) involves the formation of an immune synapse (IS). It is through this structure that the T cell can integrate all the signals provided by the APC. The IS also serves as a mechanism for TCR downregulation through internalization. Here, we describe methods for visualizing MHC-engaged T cell receptor (TCR) internalization from the IS in human cell lines and mouse primary T cells by confocal fluorescence microscopy techniques.

  14. Introduction to the special issue on the joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2011-09-01

    The joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics took place in Edinburgh from August 9-12, 2010. The conference was attended by 390 delegates from more than 40 different countries. There were 4 plenary speakers, 56 invited speakers, and a further 222 contributed oral presentations in 7 parallel session. In addition there were 215 poster presentations. Key topics addressed at the conference included piezoelectric materials, leadfree piezoelectrics, and multiferroics.

  15. Mechanics of the knee. A study of joint and muscle load with clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Nisell, R

    1985-01-01

    The load moment of force about the knee joint during machine milking and when lifting a 12.8 kg box was quantified using a computerized static sagittal plane body model. Surface electromyography of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles was normalized and expressed as a percentage of an isometric maximum voluntary test contraction. Working with straight knees and the trunk flexed forwards induced extending knee load moments of maximum 55 Nm. Lifting the box with flexed knees gave flexing moments of 50 Nm at the beginning of the lift, irrespective of whether the burden was between or in front of the feet. During machine milking, a level difference between operator and cow of 0.70 m - 1.0 m significantly lowered the knee extending moments. To quantify the force magnitudes acting in the tibio-femoral and patello-femoral joints, a local biomechanical model of the knee was developed using a combination of cadaver knee dissections and lateral knee radiographs of healthy subjects. The moment arm of the knee extensor was significantly shorter for women than for men, which resulted in higher knee joint forces in women if the same moment was produced. A diagram for quantifying patellar forces was worked out. The force magnitudes given by the knee joint biomechanical model correlated well with experimentally forces measured by others. During the parallel squat in powerlifting, the maximum flexing knee load moment was estimated to 335-550 Nm when carrying a 382.5 kg burden and the in vivo force of a complete quadriceps tendon-muscle rupture to between 10,900 and 18,300 N. During isokinetic knee extension, the tibio-femoral compressive force reached peak magnitudes of 9 times body weight and the anteroposterior shear force was close to 1 body weight at knee angles straighter than 60 degrees, indicating that high forces stress the anterior cruciate ligament. A proximal resistance pad position decreased the shear force considerably, and this position is recommended in early

  16. Ceramic joints

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  17. International perspective on common core competencies for occupational physicians: a modified Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Lalloo, Drushca; Demou, Evangelia; Kiran, Sibel; Cloeren, Marianne; Mendes, René; Macdonald, Ewan B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The competencies required of occupational physicians (OPs) have been the subject of peer-reviewed research in Europe and individual countries around the world. In the European Union (EU), there has been development of guidance on training and common competencies, but little research has extended beyond this. The aim of this study was to obtain consensus on and identify the common core competencies required of OPs around the world. Methods A modified Delphi study was carried out among representative organisations and networks of OPs in a range of countries around the world. It was conducted in 2 rounds using a questionnaire based on the specialist training syllabus of a number of countries, expert panel reviews and conference discussions. Results Responses were received from 51 countries around the world, with the majority from Europe (60%; 59%) and North and South America (24%; 32%) in rounds 1 and 2, respectively. General principles of assessment and management of occupational hazards to health and good clinical care were jointly considered most important in ranking when compared with the other topic areas. Assessment of disability and fitness for work, communication skills and legal and ethical issues completed the top five. In both rounds, research methods and teaching and educational supervision were considered least important. Conclusions This study has established the current priorities among OPs across 51 countries of the common competencies required for occupational health (OH) practice. These findings can serve as a platform for the development of common core competencies/qualifications within specific geographical regions or internationally. This is particularly pertinent with globalisation of commerce and free movement within the EU. PMID:27076063

  18. A hip joint simulator study using simplified loading and motion cycles generating physiological wear paths and rates.

    PubMed

    Barbour, P S; Stone, M H; Fisher, J

    1999-01-01

    In some designs of hip joint simulator the cost of building a highly complex machine has been offset with the requirement for a large number of test stations. The application of the wear results generated by these machines depends on their ability to reproduce physiological wear rates and processes. In this study a hip joint simulator has been shown to reproduce physiological wear using only one load vector and two degrees of motion with simplified input cycles. The actual path of points on the femoral head relative to the acetabular cup were calculated and compared for physiological and simplified input cycles. The in vitro wear rates were found to be highly dependent on the shape of these paths and similarities could be drawn between the shape of the physiological paths and the simplified elliptical paths.

  19. Microstructural study on Kirkendall void formation in Sn-containing/Cu solder joints during solid-state aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Quan; Shang, Pan-Ju; Tan, Feifei; Li, Douxing

    2013-08-01

    Kirkendall void formation at the solder/metallization interface is an important reliability concern for Cu conductors and under-bump metallization in microelectronic packaging industry, whose mechanism is still hard to be understood for different individual cases. In the present work, two typical solder/Cu-diffusing couples, eutectic SnIn/Cu and SnBi/Cu, were studied by scanning/transmission electron microscopy to investigate the microstructural evolution and voiding process after soldering and then solid-state aging. It was concluded that Kirkendall voids formed between two sublayers within Cu2(In,Sn) phase in eutectic SnIn/Cu solder joint, whereas they appeared at the Cu3Sn/Cu interface or within Cu3Sn for eutectic SnBi/Cu solder joint. Besides the effect of impurity elements, the morphological difference within one intermetallic compound layer could change the diffusing rates of reactive species, hence resulting in void formation in the reaction zone.

  20. Internal Wave Study in the South China Sea Using SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Hsu, Ming-Kuang; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the internal wave distribution maps in the China Seas have been compiled from hundreds of ERS-1/2, RADARSAT, and Space Shuttle SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images from 1993 to 1999. Based on internal wave distribution map, most of internal waves in the northeast part of South China Sea were propagating westward. The wave crest can be as long as 200 km with amplitude of 100 m due to strong current from the Kuroshio branching out into the South China Sea. Based on the observations from drilling rigs near DongSha Island by Amoco Production Co., the solitons may be generated in a 4 km wide channel between Batan and Sabtang islands in Luzon Strait. The proposed generation mechanism is similar to the lee wave formation from a shallow topography. Both depression and elevation internal waves have been observed in the same RADARSAT ScanSAR image on May 4, 1998 near DongSha Island. Furthermore, depression and elevation internal waves have also been observed by SAR at the same location on the shelf in April and June, 1993 (in different seasons) respectively. Numerical models have been used to interpret their generation mechanism and evolution processes. Based on the SAR images, near DongSha Island, the westward propagating huge internal solitons are often encountered and diffracted/broken by the coral reefs on the shelf. After passing the island, the diffracted waves will re-merge or interact with each other. It has been observed that after the nonlinear wave-wave interaction, the phase of wave packet is shifted and wavelength is also changed. Examples of mesoscale features observed in SAR images, such as fronts, raincells, bathymetry, ship wakes, and oil spills will be presented. Recent mooring measurements in April 1999 near Dongsha Island, future field test ASIAEX (Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment) planned for April 2001, and some pretest survey data will be discussed in this paper.

  1. [The causes of arthrosis of the hip-joint. A radiologic study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mutter, K; Schlegel, K F

    1975-06-01

    It is often possible to establish the origin of an arthosis of the hip joint radiologically. Only in 17 out of 445 patients were we unable to arrive at a classification because the arthrosis was already too advanced. Data relating to the history are of limited value -- only 21% of our patients knew of earlier disorders of the joint --, so definition of causes an radiographs is important. The high percentage of arthroses the origin of which is known, makes it likely that the concept of "primary arthrosis" is unnecessary, since behind it there hide those cases of apparently ill-defined arhtroses which -- as shown in our results -- can be further differentiated. This radiologically based classification will serve to increase the possibilities of progressing from symptomatic to prophylactic treatment.

  2. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F; Raso, Rossella; Ruta, Liliana; Rossi, Ilaria; Ballarani, Agnese; Fulceri, Francesca; Darini, Alessandra; Maroscia, Emilia; Lattarulo, Caterina; Tortorella, Gaetano; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Comminiello, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action. PMID:27187230

  3. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-05-17

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action.

  4. How can international studies such as the international mathematics and science study and the programme for international student assessment be used to inform practice, policy and future research in science education in New Zealand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robyn; Jones, Alister

    2005-02-01

    New Zealand is investing in two international studies that assess the achievement of students in science--the International Mathematics and Science Study and the Programme for International Student Assessment. While the studies have very different purposes, they both provide extensive data on student achievement in science and about factors that impact on this achievement. Currently the international and national study reports describe general findings but there has been no systematic secondary analysis or commentary by the New Zealand science education community. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of these international studies including some of the major findings so as to highlight their potential for further interrogation by science educators both nationally and internationally to inform policy, practice and further research.

  5. Study on Subgrain Rotation Behavior at Different Interfaces of a Solder Joint During Thermal Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jing; Tan, Shihai; Guo, Fu

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate subgrain rotation behavior in the recrystallized region of lead-free solder joints, a ball grid array (BGA) specimen with a cross-sectioned edge row was thermally shocked. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to obtain the microstructure and orientations of Sn grains or subgrains in as-reflowed and thermally shocked conditions. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) showed that several subgrains were formed at the tilted twin grain boundaries, near the chip side and near the printed circuit board (PCB) side after 200 thermal shocks due to a highly mismatched coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of twin grains. Also, subgrains formed at the chip side and PCB side in the solder joint were selected to research the grain rotation behavior in lead-free solder joints. The analysis of subgrain rotation also indicated that the rotation behavior of subgrains was different between the chip side and PCB side. It was closely related with the large different crystal orientations between the chip side and PCB side. Furthermore, electron backscattered patterns (EBSPs) at several parts of the joint were not obtained after 300 thermal shocks due to the serious deformation caused by mismatched CTE during thermal shock. But 4 subgrains were selected and compared with that of the initial state and 200-thermal shock conditions. The results showed that the subgrains at the chip side were also rotated around the Sn [101] and [001] axes and the subgrains at the PCB side were also rotated around the Sn [100] axis, which indicated a continuous process of subgrain rotation.

  6. Institutionalizing Blended Learning into Joint Training: A Case Study and Ten Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    order to integrate blended learning into joint exercises . This three-year research and development effort included construction of both the blended...For instance, some notable results included 21% higher learning outcomes (knowledge) when complementary e-learning courses preceded an exercise , and...when an additional team- training simulation was added to the pre- exercise preparation, 62.9% of participants indicated that they felt more confident

  7. Delirium epidemiology in critical care (DECCA): an international study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is a frequent source of morbidity in intensive care units (ICUs). Most data on its epidemiology is from single-center studies. Our aim was to conduct a multicenter study to evaluate the epidemiology of delirium in the ICU. Methods A 1-day point-prevalence study was undertaken in 104 ICUs from 11 countries in South and North America and Spain. Results In total, 975 patients were screened, and 497 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were enrolled (median age, 62 years; 52.5% men; 16.7% and 19.9% for ICU and hospital mortality); 64% were admitted to the ICU because of medical causes, and sepsis was the main diagnosis (n = 76; 15.3%). In total, 265 patients were sedated with the Richmond agitation and sedation scale (RASS) deeper than -3, and only 232 (46.6%) patients could be evaluated with the confusion-assessment method for the ICU. The prevalence of delirium was 32.3%. Compared with patients without delirium, those with the diagnosis of delirium had a greater severity of illness at admission, demonstrated by higher sequential organ-failure assessment (SOFA (P = 0.004)) and simplified acute physiology score 3 (SAPS3) scores (P < 0.0001). Delirium was associated with increased ICU (20% versus 5.7%; P = 0.002) and hospital mortality (24 versus 8.3%; P = 0.0017), and longer ICU (P < 0.0001) and hospital length of stay (LOS) (22 (11 to 40) versus 7 (4 to 18) days; P < 0.0001). Previous use of midazolam (P = 0.009) was more frequent in patients with delirium. On multivariate analysis, delirium was independently associated with increased ICU mortality (OR = 3.14 (1.26 to 7.86); CI, 95%) and hospital mortality (OR = 2.5 (1.1 to 5.7); CI, 95%). Conclusions In this 1-day international study, delirium was frequent and associated with increased mortality and ICU LOS. The main modifiable risk factors associated with the diagnosis of delirium were the use of invasive devices and sedatives (midazolam). PMID:21092264

  8. International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-25

    IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland) This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop Secretariat  IWLC2010 is hosted by CERN

  9. Tribology studies of the natural knee using an animal model in a new whole joint natural knee simulator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aiqin; Jennings, Louise M; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2015-09-18

    The successful development of early-stage cartilage and meniscus repair interventions in the knee requires biomechanical and biotribological understanding of the design of the therapeutic interventions and their tribological function in the natural joint. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a porcine knee model using a whole joint knee simulator for investigation of the tribological function and biomechanical properties of the natural knee, which could then be used to pre-clinically assess the tribological performance of cartilage and meniscal repair interventions prior to in vivo studies. The tribological performance of standard artificial bearings in terms of anterior-posterior (A/P) shear force was determined in a newly developed six degrees of freedom tribological joint simulator. The porcine knee model was then developed and the tribological properties in terms of shear force measurements were determined for the first time for three levels of biomechanical constraints including A/P constrained, spring force semi-constrained and A/P unconstrained conditions. The shear force measurements showed higher values under the A/P constrained condition (predominantly sliding motion) compared to the A/P unconstrained condition (predominantly rolling motion). This indicated that the shear force simulation model was able to differentiate between tribological behaviours when the femoral and tibial bearing was constrained to slide or/and roll. Therefore, this porcine knee model showed the potential capability to investigate the effect of knee structural, biomechanical and kinematic changes, as well as different cartilage substitution therapies on the tribological function of natural knee joints.

  10. Rock Cracking Indices for Improved Tunnel Support Design: A Case Study for Columnar Jointed Rock Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Hao, Xian-Jie; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-jun; Hudson, John A.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements indicate that the development of cracking is a key feature relating to the strength and collapse of a columnar jointed rock mass. In this context, a new support design method utilising rock cracking indices for columnar jointed rock mass under high stress is proposed to restrain the development of cracking in the surrounding rock mass. The method involves limiting the cracking evolution of the surrounding rock mass by designing the appropriate parameters and time of installation of the support system. Two indices are suggested: the allowable depth of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ); and the allowable damage extent of the rock mass in the EDZ. The method involves limiting the evolution of cracking in the surrounding rock mass by designing the parameters and time of installation of the support system. The support system should have a suitable stiffness and installation time so as to restrain the evolution of the depth and damage extent of the EDZ within the surrounding rock. Therefore, the depth and damage extent of the EDZ, as well as the axial stress in the anchor bolts, are calculated at different distances between the support location and the tunnel working face to find the appropriate stiffness and installation time of the support system. The method has been successfully adopted to determine the thickness of shotcrete, the arrangement and installation time of rockbolts, and other parameters, for five large diversion tunnels at the Baihetan hydropower station, China, which were excavated in columnar jointed rock masses.

  11. Propagation of high amplitude stress waves through a filled artificial joint: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaolin; Qi, Shengwen; Xia, Kaiwen; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Bowen

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the propagation of high amplitude stress waves through a filled joint using a modified steel split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Quartz sand fillings with various thickness are placed in a steel tube and then sandwiched between the incident and transmitted bars to simulate the filled rock joints. Using SHPB, the incident stress waves with similar frequency spectrum but varying amplitude are induced to load the artificial filled joints. The particle size distributions of the fillings after tests are analyzed. It is discovered that as the amplitude of the incident wave increases, the fillings experience three stages of deformation: initial compaction, crushing and crushing and compaction. In the initial compaction stage and the crushing and compaction stage, the fillings are mainly compacted, and thus the transmission coefficient increases with the amplitude of the incident wave. However in the crushing stage, the transmission coefficient decreases with the increase of the amplitude of the incident wave. This is a result of energy consumption due to particle crushing. The observed dependence of the transmission coefficient on the wave amplitude is consistent with the particle size distribution of recovered fillings.

  12. Anatomical study of the lateral collateral ligament and its circumference structures in the human knee joint.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Sasaki, Wataru; Hitomi, Jiro

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-six cadavers (55 sides) were used to observe the innervation of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and its circumference structures with gross anatomical and histological methods to clarify the cause of indistinct pain in the lateral part of the knee joint. The innervating branches of the LCL could be divided into three types: (1) from the muscular branch of the biceps femoris muscle at lower 1/3 level of the thigh; (2) from the common fibular nerve (CFN) at the higher level of the fossa poplitea; (3) from the CFN at the level of the caput fibular. Furthermore, the three branches could singly or plurally distribute to the LCL (six types). Two of the connecting tissue membranes surrounding the surface of LCL formed an incomplete sheath structure, and a shutting "gap" was observed between the two membranes. Fine peripheral nervous branches were also observed in the two of the membranes. On the other hand, three types of nerve endings in the LCL (Type I/Ruffini mechanoreceptor; Type III/Golgi mechanoreceptor; Type IV/free nerve ending) were observed, and their presence was consistent with the ankle joint of humans. Therefore, the innervation of the two membranes (to form the shutting gap) in the surface of LCL may be associated with an indistinct pain when the knee joint is damaged.

  13. STS payloads mission control study continuation phase A-1. Volume 2-C, task 3: Identification of joint activities and estimation of resources in preparation for joint flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Payload mission control concepts are developed for real time flight operations of STS. Flight planning, training, simulations, and other flight preparations are included. Payload activities for the preflight phase, activity sequences and organizational allocations, and traffic and experience factors to establish composite man-loading for joint STS payload activities are identified for flight operations from 1980 to 1985.

  14. Geomechanical/ Geochemical Modeling Studies onducted Within the International DECOVALEX Project

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer; J. Rutqvist; E.L. Sonnenthal; D. Barr; M.Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; M. Xie; C. Zhang

    2006-02-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. One of the research tasks, initiated in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the long-term impact of geomechanical and geochemical processes on the flow conditions near waste emplacement tunnels. Within this task, four international research teams conduct predictive analysis of the coupled processes in two generic repositories, using multiple approaches and different computer codes. Below, we give an overview of the research task and report its current status.

  15. Studying Abroad: Developing a Model for the Decision Process of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branco Oliveira, Diana; Soares, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Attracting international students is increasingly important for higher education institutions. In order to contribute to the understanding of how international students choose a university, we conducted a qualitative study in a public university in the north of Portugal. Results show that students seek an international experience mainly for…

  16. Issues of International Students' Academic Adaptation in the ESL Writing Class: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eunjeong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the contribution to economic and social impact on the institutions in the United States, international students' academic adaptation has been always challenging. The study investigated international graduate students' academic adaptation scales via a survey questionnaire and explored how international students are academically adapted in…

  17. Factors Influencing International PhD Students to Study Physics in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Serene H.-J.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Townson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Since physics research is an activity of an active international community, international visits are a common way for physicists to share scientific knowledge and skills. International mobility of physicists is also important for PhD physics study and research training. We investigated personal and social factors that influenced the decision for…

  18. 34 CFR 660.4 - What definitions apply to the International Research and Studies Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What definitions apply to the International Research... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM General § 660.4 What definitions apply to the International Research and...

  19. 34 CFR 660.4 - What definitions apply to the International Research and Studies Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What definitions apply to the International Research... Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM General § 660.4 What definitions apply to the International Research and...

  20. The Glioma International Case-Control Study: A Report From the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N.; Zhou, Renke; Lau, Ching C.; Claus, Elizabeth B.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Il'yasova, Dora; Schildkraut, Joellen; Ali-Osman, Francis; Sadetzki, Siegal; Johansen, Christoffer; Houlston, Richard S.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lachance, Daniel; Olson, Sara H.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Merrell, Ryan T.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Davis, Faith G.; Lai, Rose; Shete, Sanjay; Amos, Christopher I.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Aldape, Kenneth; Alafuzoff, Irina; Brännström, Thomas; Broholm, Helle; Collins, Peter; Giannini, Caterina; Rosenblum, Marc; Tihan, Tarik; Melin, Beatrice S.; Bondy, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010–2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen collection. To our knowledge, the GICC Study is the largest glioma study to date that includes collection of blood samples, which will allow for genetic analysis and interrogation of gene-environment interactions. PMID:26656478