Science.gov

Sample records for international planetary probe

  1. 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Martinez, Ed; Arcadi, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Included are presentations from the 2nd International Planetary Probe Workshop. The purpose of the second workshop was to continue to unite the community of planetary scientists, spacecraft engineers and mission designers and planners; whose expertise, experience and interests are in the areas of entry probe trajectory and attitude determination, and the aerodynamics/aerothermodynamics of planetary entry vehicles. Mars lander missions and the first probe mission to Titan made 2004 an exciting year for planetary exploration. The Workshop addressed entry probe science, engineering challenges, mission design and instruments, along with the challenges of reconstruction of the entry, descent and landing or the aerocapture phases. Topics addressed included methods, technologies, and algorithms currently employed; techniques and results from the rich history of entry probe science such as PAET, Venera/Vega, Pioneer Venus, Viking, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder and Mars MER; upcoming missions such as the imminent entry of Huygens and future Mars entry probes; and new and novel instrumentation and methodologies.

  2. Planetary Landers and Entry Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Andrew J.; Garry, James R. C.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.

    2007-05-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Engineering Issues Specific to Entry Probes, Landers or Penetrators: 1. Mission goals and system engineering; 2. Accommodation, launch, cruise and arrival from orbit or interplanetary trajectory; 3. Entering atmospheres; 4. Descent through an atmosphere; 5. Descent to an airless body; 6. Planetary balloons, aircraft, submarines and cryobots; 7. Arrival at a surface; 8. Thermal control of landers and entry probes; 9. Power systems; 10. Communication and tracking of entry probes; 11. Radiation environment; 12. Surface activities: arms, drills, moles and mobility; 13. Structures; 14. Contamination of spacecraft and planets; Part II. Previous Atmosphere/Surface Vehicles and Their Payloads: 15. Destructive impact probes; 16. Atmospheric entry probes; 17. Pod landers; 18. Legged landers; 19. Payload delivery penetrators; 20. Small body surface missions; Part III. 'Case Studies': 21. Surveyor landers; 22. Galileo probe; 23. Huygens; 24. Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner; 25. Deep Space 2 Mars microprobes; 26. Rosetta lander Philae; 27. Mars exploration rovers: Spirit and Opportunity; Appendix: Some key parameters for bodies in the Solar System; List of acronyms; Bibliography; References; Index.

  3. Planetary Landers and Entry Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Andrew; Garry, James; Lorenz, Ralph; Kerzhanovich, Viktor

    2010-02-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. Engineering Issues Specific to Entry Probes, Landers or Penetrators: 1. Mission goals and system engineering; 2. Accommodation, launch, cruise and arrival from orbit or interplanetary trajectory; 3. Entering atmospheres; 4. Descent through an atmosphere; 5. Descent to an airless body; 6. Planetary balloons, aircraft, submarines and cryobots; 7. Arrival at a surface; 8. Thermal control of landers and entry probes; 9. Power systems; 10. Communication and tracking of entry probes; 11. Radiation environment; 12. Surface activities: arms, drills, moles and mobility; 13. Structures; 14. Contamination of spacecraft and planets; Part II. Previous Atmosphere/Surface Vehicles and Their Payloads: 15. Destructive impact probes; 16. Atmospheric entry probes; 17. Pod landers; 18. Legged landers; 19. Payload delivery penetrators; 20. Small body surface missions; Part III. 'Case Studies': 21. Surveyor landers; 22. Galileo probe; 23. Huygens; 24. Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner; 25. Deep Space 2 Mars microprobes; 26. Rosetta lander Philae; 27. Mars exploration rovers: Spirit and Opportunity; Appendix: Some key parameters for bodies in the Solar System; List of acronyms; Bibliography; References; Index.

  4. Spin of Planetary Probes in Atmospheric Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    Probes that enter planetary atmospheres are often spun during entry or descent for a variety of reasons. Their spin rate histories are influenced by often subtle effects. The spin requirements, control methods and flight experience from planetary and earth entry missions are reviewed. An interaction of the probe aerodynamic wake with a drogue parachute, observed in Gemini wind tunnel tests, is discussed in connection with the anomalous spin behaviour of the Huygens probe.

  5. The International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, A.; Crichton, D. J.; Hughes, J. S.; Heather, D.; Martinez, S.; Beebe, R.; Neakrase, L. D. V.; Yamamoto, Y.; Capria, M. T.; Krishna, B. G.

    2013-09-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with a mission of providing access to scientific data returned from solar system missions archived at international data centers. In order to improve access and share scientific data, the IPDA was founded to develop data and software standards. The IPDA has focused on promoting standards that drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data. An initial starting point for developing such a standard has been the internationalization of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard, which has become the de-facto archival data standard. Given the demands of supporting more capable and international missions and collaborations, the Planetary Data System, in partnership with the IPDA, has embarked on developing a next generation data standard and system called PDS4. Significant progress has been made on PDS4 and early adopters are beginning to use the emerging standard on new planetary science missions.

  6. The Next Generation of Planetary Atmospheric Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Entry probes provide useful insights into the structures of planetary atmospheres, but give only one-dimensional pictures of complex four-dimensional systems that vary on all temporal and spatial scales. This makes the interpretation of the results quite challenging, especially as regards atmospheric dynamics. Here is a planetary meteorologist's vision of what the next generation of atmospheric entry probe missions should be: Dedicated sounding instruments get most of the required data from orbit. Relatively simple and inexpensive entry probes are released from the orbiter, with low entry velocities, to establish ground truth, to clarify the vertical structure, and for adaptive observations to enhance the dataset in preparation for sensitive operations. The data are assimilated onboard in real time. The products, being immediately available, are of immense benefit for scientific and operational purposes (aerobraking, aerocapture, accurate payload delivery via glider, ballooning missions, weather forecasts, etc.).

  7. Transient internal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    1993-12-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas that are inaccessible with ordinary stationary probes. A small probe of magneto-optic (Verdet) material is fired through a plasma at speeds of several km/sec, illuminated by a laser beam. The beam's polarization is rotated in the probe by the local magnetic field and retroreflection back to a polarimetry detector allows determination of the B-field profile across the diameter of a plasma at a spatial resolution of better than 1-cm and an absolute B-field resolution of a few tens of Gauss. The principal components of a TIP diagnostic system were developed and tested. A two-stage light gas gun was constructed that accelerates 30-caliber projectiles to 3 km/sec, and methods were examined for stripping a lexan sabot from a probe prior to entry into a plasma. Probes of CdMnTe and FR-5 Verdet glass were fabricated, and a polarimetry system was constructed for resolving polarization to within 0.25 deg. The diagnostic was validated by measuring a static B-field with a moving (dropped) TIP probe, and finding agreement with Hall-probe measurements to within experimental accuracy (40 Gauss).

  8. Work on Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Atmosphere Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, Alvin; Lester, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A major objective of the grant was to complete the fabrication, test, and evaluation of the atmosphere structure experiment on the Galileo Probe, and to receive, analyze, and interpret data received from the spacecraft. The grantee was competitively selected to be Principal Investigator of Jupiter's atmosphere structure on the Galileo Probe. His primary motivation was to learn as much as possible about Jupiter's atmosphere by means of a successful atmosphere structure experiment, and to support the needs and schedule of the Galileo Project. After a number of launch delays, the Flight instrument was shipped to Kennedy Space Center 2 years after the start of this collaboration, on April 14, 1989, at which time it was determined from System level tests of the ASI on the Probe that the instrument was in good working order and ready for flight. The spacecraft was launched on October 18, 1989. Data analysis of test and calibration data taken over a period of years of instrument testing was continued in preparation for the encounter. The initial instrument checkout in space was performed on October 26, 1989. The data set received by telemetry was thoroughly analyzed, and a report of the findings was transmitted to the Probe Operations Office on Feb. 28, 1990. Key findings reported were that the accelerometer biases had shifted by less than 1 mg through launch and since calibration at Bell Aerospace in 1983; accelerometer scale factors, evaluated by means of calibration currents, fell on lines of variation with temperature established in laboratory calibrations; pressure sensor offsets, correlated as a function of temperature, fell generally within the limits of several years of ground test data; atmospheric and engineering temperature sensor data were internally consistent within a few tenths of a degree; and the instrument electronics performed all expected functions without any observable fault. Altogether, this checkout was highly encouraging of the prospects of

  9. The international Planetary Data Alliance: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, Alain; Crichton, Daniel J.; Gopala Krishna, B.

    The IPDA's main emphasis is to ease discovery, access and use of planetary data by world-wide scientists regardless of which agency is collecting and distributing the data. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual space agencies. The IPDA is focusing on developing an international standard which allows the following capabilities: query, access and usage of data across international planetary data archive systems. While, trends in other areas of space science are concentrating on the sharing of science data from diverse standards and collection methods, the IPDA shall concentrate on promoting standards which drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data across the international community. Such an approach will better support the long term goal of easing data sharing across system and agency boundaries. An initial starting point for developing such a standard will be internationalization of NASA's Planetary Data System standards. We will present here the current activities of the Alliance.

  10. International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) Information Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John Steven; Beebe, R.; Guinness, E.; Heather, D.; Huang, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Osuna, P.; Rye, E.; Savorskiy, V.

    2007-01-01

    This document is the third deliverable of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) Archive Data Standards Requirements Identification project. The goal of the project is to identify a subset of the standards currently in use by NASAs Planetary Data System (PDS) that are appropriate for internationalization. As shown in the highlighted sections of Figure 1, the focus of this project is the Information Model component of the Data Architecture Standards, namely the object models, a data dictionary, and a set of data formats.

  11. Japanese contributions to International Planetary Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Hirata, Naru; Shinohara, Iku

    2012-07-01

    In this presentation, we will introduce Japanese contributions to the data archives for international collaborations. In Japan, the importance of planetary data archive was not recognized enough until early in 2000's. While NASA and ESA started their collaborations to their archives: PDS and PSA, and tried to make the new standard, JAXA was looking for the way of contributions because Japan did not have own data and archiving policy. The activities of NASA and ESA extended to the international collaborations, and International Planetary Data Alliance was established. JAXA had an opportunity to join the IPDA as an agency member. One of the contributions, the IPDA chairman was undertaken by Japanese member. The projects in IPDA were managed and were proceeded successfully during the term. For the technical part, JAXA is making several pilot systems to share planetary data. Planetary Data Access Protocol, PDAP, developed by IPDA, is implemented in JAXA's system, and provides a search system for Hayabusa and Kaguya (SELENE) data. Not only for Japanese data, but also Apollo's seismic data archives are prepared for scientific communities. The seismic data on the moon has not been measured for a long time, and Apollo's data are still precious and should be archived together with much information. The contributions to planetary data archives has just started and continues as a member of IPDA.

  12. Work on Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Atmosphere Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A summary final report of work accomplished is presented. Work was performed in the following areas: (1) Galileo Probe science analysis, (2) Galileo probe Atmosphere Structure Instrument, (3) Mars Pathfinder Atmosphere Structure/Meteorology instrument, (4) Mars Pathfinder data analysis, (5) Science Definition for future Mars missions, (6) Viking Lander data analysis, (7) winds in Mars atmosphere Venus atmospheric dynamics, (8) Pioneer Venus Probe data analysis, (9) Pioneer Venus anomaly analysis, (10) Discovery Venus Probe Titan probe instrument design, and (11) laboratory studies of Titan probe impact phenomena. The work has resulted in more than 10 articles published in archive journals, 2 encyclopedia articles, and many working papers. This final report is organized around the four planets on which there was activity, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Titan, with a closing section on Miscellaneous Activities. A major objective was to complete the fabrication, test, and evaluation of the atmosphere structure experiment on the Galileo probe, and to receive, analyze and interpret data received from the spacecraft. The instrument was launched on April 14, 1989. Calibration data were taken for all experiment sensors. The data were analyzed, fitted with algorithms, and summarized in a calibration report for use in analyzing and interpreting data returned from Jupiter's atmosphere. The sensors included were the primary science pressure, temperature and acceleration sensors, and the supporting engineering temperature sensors. Computer programs were written to decode the Experiment Data Record and convert the digital numbers to physical quantities, i.e., temperatures, pressures, and accelerations. The project office agreed to obtain telemetry of checkout data from the probe. Work to extend programs written for use on the Pioneer Venus project included: (1) massive heat shield ablation leading to important mass loss during entry; and (2) rapid planet rotation, which introduced

  13. The US planetary exploration program opportunities for international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Opportunities for international participation in US-sponsored interplanetary missions are discussed on the basis of the recommendations of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration of the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board. The initial core missions suggested are a Venus radar mapper, a Mars geoscience/climatology orbiter, a comet-rendezvous/asteroid-flyby mission, and a Titan probe/radar mapper. Subsequent core missions are listed, and the need for cooperation in planning and development stages to facilitate international participation is indicated.

  14. Future studies of planetary rings by space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent space probe observations of the rings of Jupiter and Saturn have furnished a substantial enhancement of the current understanding of the outer planets' rings. Voyager 2 offers further opportunities for the study of the Neptune and Uranus ring systems. The Galileo mission to Jupiter furnishes the first opportunity for long term space probe studies of a planetary ring system. It is suggested that an appropriately instrumented Saturn orbiter would not only provide a similar opportunity for the study of the Saturn rings, but may also be the only means by which to adequately address the nature of the diverse phenomena displayed by this prototypical planetary ring system.

  15. Great debate probes Pluto's planetary credentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-09-01

    It had all the trappings of an Olympic boxing final: two fiery competitors, a partisan crowd and the attention of the global press. But no individual gold medalist emerged from the Great Planet Debate held last month in Baltimore to discuss what type of astronomical object Pluto really is. Rather, the contest between Neil de-Grasse Tyson, director of New York's Hayden Planetarium, and Mark Sykes of the University of Arizona's Planetary Science Institute provided a view of how science deals with controversial issues of definition.

  16. The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Thomas; Gopala Krishna, Barla; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is a close association of partners with the aim of improving the quality of planetary science data and services to the end users of space based instrumentation. The specific mission of the IPDA is to facilitate global access to, and exchange of, high quality scientific data products managed across international boundaries. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual member space agencies. The IPDA is focused on developing an international standard that allows discovery, query, access, and usage of such data across international planetary data archive systems. While trends in other areas of space science are concentrating on the sharing of science data from diverse standards and collection methods, the IPDA concentrates on promoting governing data standards that drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data across the international community. This approach better supports the long term goal of easing data sharing across system and agency boundaries. An initial starting point for developing such a standard will be internationalization of NASA's Planetary Data System's (PDS) PDS4 standard. The IPDA was formed in 2006 with the purpose of adopting standards and developing collaborations across agencies to ensure data is captured in common formats. It has grown to a dozen member agencies represented by a number of different groups through the IPDA Steering Committee. Member agencies include: Armenian Astronomical Society, China National Space Agency (CNSA), European Space Agency (ESA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Italian Space Agency (ASI), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), Space Research Institute (IKI), UAE Space Agency, and UK Space Agency. The IPDA Steering Committee oversees the execution of

  17. Planetary Magnetosphere Probed by Charged Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Kempf, S.; Krueger, H.

    2010-12-01

    In-situ and remote sensing observations combined with theoretical and numerical modeling greatly advanced our understanding planetary magnetospheres. Dust is an integral component of the Saturnian and Jovian magnetospheres where it can act as a source/sink of plasma particles (dust particles are an effective source for plasma species like O2, OH, etc. through sputtering of ice particles, for example); its distribution is shaped by electrodynamic forces coupled radiation pressure, plasma, and neutral drag, for example. The complex interaction can lead to unusual dust dynamics, including the transport, capture, and ejection of dust grains. The study of the temporal and spatial evolution of fine dust within or outside the magnetosphere thus provides a unique way to combine data from a large number of observations: plasma, plasma wave, dust, and magnetic field measurements. The dust detectors on board the Galileo and Cassini spacecrafts lead to major discoveries, including the jovian dust stream originating from Io or the in-situ sampling and analysis of the plumes of Enceladus. Recent advancement in dust detector technology enables accurate measurement of the dust trajectory and elemental composition that can greatly enhance the understanding of dust magnetorspheric interaction and indentify the source of the dust with high precision. The capabilities of a modern dust detector thus can provide support for the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  18. Probing the Properties of Two Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, J. K. J.; Jacoby, G. H.; Shaw, R. A.; Stanghellini, L.; Van de Steene, G. C.; Dopita, M.

    2002-12-01

    By measuring the abundances in nebulae, and distinguishing the enrichment of processed elements (primarily He, C, N, and O) from non-processed elements, (chiefly Ar, Ne, S) we are able to probe both the chemical enrichment around the planetary nebula and the population type of the progenitor star. Where we can also determine the evolutionary state, and therefore the mass, of the central star, we can also determine the time since the progenitor was formed. Because of these useful properties, studies of 18 PNs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and six PNs in the Galactic bulge were undertaken to investigate the stellar population and PN properties in these contrasting environments. We also have spectra for eight more PN of sufficient quality to perform this analysis on them for a total of 14 planetaries out of the 95 new PN identified by Jacoby & Van de Steene. Neither of these sets of planetaries had been studied before because of the observational difficulties in obtaining high quality data. For the PNs in the Galactic center, the high extinction made it difficult to obtain the traditional optical diagnostic lines; while the study of LMC PNs required the high spatial resolution of HST to resolve the nebular structure. Moderate-dispersion spectra from MSSSO and spectral images from HST/STIS were used to examine in more detail the results of Stanghellini et al. (2000), where chemical enrichments were found in asymmetric PNs, relative to round or elliptical PNs. For the LMC planetaries, where we observed many diagnostic lines, it was straightforward to create models that matched the observed quantities very well, which then yielded a direct determination of the chemical abundances. Moderate dispersion spectra of the Galactic center PNs yielded far fewer measurable emission lines, and required extensive modeling using Gary Ferland's CLOUDY code to determine the chemical abundances. Jeffrey Fogel's research was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for

  19. International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The papers that were accepted for the International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, 31 Aug. - 2 Sep. 1992, are presented. One of the major paper topics was the Sudbury project.

  20. First international conference on laboratory research for planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Allen, J.E. Jr.; Stief, L.J.; Quillen, D.T.

    1990-05-01

    Proceedings of the First International Conference on Laboratory Research for Planetary Atmospheres are presented. The covered areas of research include: photon spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and charged particle interactions. This report contains the 12 invited papers, 27 contributed poster papers, and 5 plenary review papers presented at the conference. A list of attendees and a reprint of the Report of the Subgroup on Strategies for Planetary Atmospheres Exploration (SPASE) are provided in two appendices.

  1. First International Conference on Laboratory Research for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Kenneth (Editor); Allen, John E., Jr. (Editor); Stief, Louis J. (Editor); Quillen, Diana T. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the First International Conference on Laboratory Research for Planetary Atmospheres are presented. The covered areas of research include: photon spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and charged particle interactions. This report contains the 12 invited papers, 27 contributed poster papers, and 5 plenary review papers presented at the conference. A list of attendees and a reprint of the Report of the Subgroup on Strategies for Planetary Atmospheres Exploration (SPASE) are provided in two appendices.

  2. The Jupiter System Observer: Probing the Foundations of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, D.; Prockter, L.; Collins, G.; Cooper, J.; Hendrix, A.; Hibbitts, K.; Kivelson, M.; Orton, G.; Schubert, G.; Showman, A.; Turtle, E.; Williams, D.; Kwok, J.; Spilker, T.; Tan-Wang, G.

    2007-12-01

    Galileo's observations in the 1600's of the dynamic system of Jupiter and its moons launched a revolution in understanding the way planetary systems operate. Now, some 400 years later, the discovery of extra solar planetary systems with Jupiter-sized bodies has led to a similar revolution in thought regarding how these systems form and evolve. From the time of Galileo, the Jovian system has been viewed as a solar system in miniature, providing a laboratory to study, diverse and dynamic processes in a single place. The icy Galilean satellites provide a window into solar system history by preserving in their cratering records a chronology dating back nearly 4.5 By and extending to the present. The continuously erupting volcanoes of Io may provide insight into the era when magma oceans were common. The discovery of an internally generated magnetic field at Ganymede, one of only three terrestrial bodies to possess such a field, is a place to gain insight as to how dynamos work. The confirmation and characterization of icy satellite subsurface oceans impacts the way habitability is considered. Understanding the composition and volatile inventory of Jupiter can shed light into how planets accrete from the solar nebulae. Finally, like our sun, Jupiter influences its system through its extensive magnetic field. In early 2007, NASA's Science Mission Directorate formed four Science Definition Teams (SDTs) to formulate science goals and objectives in anticipation of the initiation of a flagship-class mission to the outer solar system (Europa, Jupiter system, Titan and Enceladus). The Jupiter System Observer (JSO) mission concept emphasizes overall Jupiter system science: 1) Jupiter and its atmosphere, 2) the geology and geophysics of the Galilean satellites (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto), 3) the magnetosphere environment - both Jupiter's and Ganymede's&pand 4) interactions within the system. Focusing on the unique geology, presence of an internal magnetic field and

  3. International Planetary Science Interoperability: The Venus Express Interface Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford Bussard, Stephen; Chanover, N.; Huber, L.; Trejo, I.; Hughes, J. S.; Kelly, S.; Guinness, E.; Heather, D.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.

    2009-09-01

    NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) have successfully demonstrated interoperability between planetary science data archives with the Venus Express (VEX) Interface prototype. Because VEX is an ESA mission, there is no memorandum of understanding to archive the data in the PDS. However, using a common communications protocol and common data standards, VEX mission science data ingested into the PSA can be accessed from a user interface at the Atmospheres Node of the PDS, making the science data accessible globally through two established planetary science data portals. The PSA makes scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions accessible to the worldwide scientific community. The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. Mission data included in the archive aside from VEX include data from the Giotto, Mars Express, Smart-1, Huygens, and Rosetta spacecraft and several ground-based cometary observations. All data are compatible to the Planetary Data System data standard. The PDS archives and distributes scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. The PDS is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. The architecture of the VEX prototype interface leverages components from both the PSA and PDS information system infrastructures, a user interface developed at the New Mexico State University, and the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP). The VEX Interoperability Project was a key project of the IPDA, whose objective is to ensure world-wide access to planetary data regardless of which agency collects and archives the data. A follow-on IPDA project will adapt the VEX Interoperability protocol for access in JAXA to the Venus Climate

  4. Summary of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop: remote sensing and image analysis of planetary dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, Lori K.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Horgan, Briony H.N.; Rubin, David M.; Titus, Timothy N.; Bishop, Mark A.; Burr, Devon M.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Kerber, Laura; Gall, Alice Le; Michaels, Timothy I.; Neakrase, Lynn D.V.; Newman, Claire E.; Tirsch, Daniela; Yizhaq, Hezi; Zimbelman, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop took place in Flagstaff, AZ, USA during June 12–15, 2012. This meeting brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss recent advances in terrestrial and planetary research on aeolian bedforms. The workshop included two and a half days of oral and poster presentations, as well as one formal (and one informal) full-day field trip. Similar to its predecessors, the presented work provided new insight on the morphology, dynamics, composition, and origin of aeolian bedforms on Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan, with some intriguing speculation about potential aeolian processes on Triton (a satellite of Neptune) and Pluto. Major advancements since the previous International Planetary Dunes Workshop include the introduction of several new data analysis and numerical tools and utilization of low-cost field instruments (most notably the time-lapse camera). Most presentations represented advancement towards research priorities identified in both of the prior two workshops, although some previously recommended research approaches were not discussed. In addition, this workshop provided a forum for participants to discuss the uncertain future of the Planetary Aeolian Laboratory; subsequent actions taken as a result of the decisions made during the workshop may lead to an expansion of funding opportunities to use the facilities, as well as other improvements. The interactions during this workshop contributed to the success of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop, further developing our understanding of aeolian processes on the aeolian worlds of the Solar System.

  5. The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

    . Over the next several years, there will be additional planetary missions to the Moon and Mars led by countries such as Japan, China, India, and Russia, along with the European Space Agency (ESA). Planetary missions are also beginning to involve more international collaboration. Thus, it is important that the archives produced by these missions have some common standards so that the data can be readily used in research by the international planetary science community. In addition, the adoption of common archive standards would save time and effort for agencies in terms of data archive design and development. ESA has successfully adopted PDS standards for archives from a suite of missions that includes Mars Express, Venus Express, Cassini-Huygens, and Rosetta. An approach for advancing the use of a common set of archiving standards for planetary data was the creation of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA). Representatives from the PDS are active participants in the IPDA. One of the PDS contributions to the IPDA is to work on IPDA projects that seek to develop a core set of archiving standards for use by the international space agencies.

  6. IPDA PDS4 Project: Towards an International Planetary Data Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Roatsch, Thomas; Capria, Maria Teresa; Heather, David; Yamamoto, Yukio; Hughes, Steven; Stein, Thomas; Cecconi, Baptiste; Prashar, Ajay; Batanov, Oleg; Gopala Krishna, Barla

    2016-07-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an international collaboration of space agencies with the main objective of facilitating discovery, access and use of planetary data managed across international boundaries. For this purpose, the IPDA has adopted the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standard as the de-facto archiving standard, and is working towards the internationalisation of the new generation of the standards, called PDS4. PDS4 is the largest upgrade in the history of the PDS, and is a significant step towards an online, distributed, model-driven and service-oriented architecture international archive. Following the successful deployment of PDS4 to support NASA's LADEE and MAVEN missions, PDS4 was endorsed by IPDA in 2014. This has led to the adoption of PDS4 by a number of international space agencies (ESA, JAXA, ISRO and Roscosmos, among others) for their upcoming missions. In order to closely follow the development of the PDS4 standards and to coordinate the international contribution and participation in its evolution, a group of experts from each international agency is dedicated to review different aspects of the standards and to capture recommendations and requirements to ensure the international needs are met. The activities performed by this group cover the assessment and implementation of all aspects of PDS4, including its use, documentation, tools, validation strategies and information model. This contribution will present the activities carried out by this group and how this partnership between PDS and IPDA provides an excellent foundation towards an international platform for planetary science research.

  7. Analytical theories for spacecraft entry into planetary atmospheres and design of planetary probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Sarag J.

    This dissertation deals with the development of analytical theories for spacecraft entry into planetary atmospheres and the design of entry spacecraft or probes for planetary science and human exploration missions. Poincare's method of small parameters is used to develop an improved approximate analytical solution for Yaroshevskii's classical planetary entry equation for the ballistic entry of a spacecraft into planetary atmospheres. From this solution, other important expressions are developed including deceleration, stagnation-point heat rate, and stagnation-point integrated heat load. The accuracy of the solution is assessed via numerical integration of the exact equations of motion. The solution is also compared to the classical solutions of Yaroshevskii and Allen and Eggers. The new second-order analytical solution is more accurate than Yaroshevskii's fifth-order solution for a range of shallow (-3 deg) to steep (up to -90 deg) entry flight path angles, thereby extending the range of applicability of the solution as compared to the classical Yaroshevskii solution, which is restricted to an entry flight path of approximately -40 deg. Universal planetary entry equations are used to develop a new analytical theory for ballistic entry of spacecraft for moderate to large initial flight path angles. Chapman's altitude variable is used as the independent variable. Poincare's method of small parameters is used to develop an analytical solution for the velocity and the flight path angle. The new solution is used to formulate key expressions for range, time-of-flight, deceleration, and aerodynamic heating parameters (e.g., stagnation-point heat rate, total stagnation-point heat load, and average heat input). The classical approximate solution of Chapman's entry equation appears as the zero-order term in the new solution. The new solution represents an order of magnitude enhancement in the accuracy compared to existing analytical solutions for moderate to large entry

  8. Planetary magnetism. [Mariner, Venera and Pioneer probe results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    Recent data on planetary magnetism are reviewed, with attention given to information obtained by Mariner 10 at Mercury, from Venera 9 and 10 orbiting Venus, and Pioneer spacecraft flying past Jupiter. In addition, less recent magnetic measurements of Mars are reconsidered. Doubts about whether Mars has an active dynamo at present are mentioned, and further planetary magnetic assessments are suggested. In particular, the need to refine knowledge of multipole moments is stressed.

  9. Development of a transient internal probe diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    1994-12-01

    A research effort was carried out to develop and test key components of the transient internal probe, a diagnostic tool for measuring internal magnetic fields in a plasma. A gasdynamic sabot separation method was developed for discarding the sabot upstream of the plasma. Separation is effected in a vented 50-caliber gun barrel, and the sabot is deflected upstream of the plasma, reliably removing the sabot without disrupting the probe trajectory. A vacuum interface was constructed to isolate the plasma from gun gases, which uses a very fast trap-door valve to prevent gas from entering the plasma chamber. A full-up test of the diagnostic was made using a 2.2 km/sec probe to measure a static field in a vacuum. This yielded excellent agreement with Hall probe measurements, with a resolution of 20 Gauss, and the gun gas entering the measurement chamber is to be acceptably small for application to plasma devices.

  10. Developing Zircon as a Probe of Planetary Impact History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    The identification of Meteor Crater in Arizona as an extraterrestrial impact by Eugene Shoemaker provided the first evidence of this geologic phenomenon and opened the door to a new field of research that has eventually lead to the identification of over ~150 terrestrial impact structures. Subsequently impacts have been evoked in the formation of the moon, delivery of volatiles and bio-precursors to early Earth, creation of habitats for the earliest life and, in more recent times, major mass extinction events. However, understanding the impact flux to the Earth-Moon system has been complicated by the constant weathering and erosion at Earth's surface and the complex nature of impactite samples such that only a hand full of terrestrial craters have been accurately and precisely dated. Currently 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analysis of impactite samples is commonly used to infer impact ages but can be problematic due to the presence of relic clasts, incomplete 40Ar outgassing or excess 40Ar, and recoil and shock effects. The work presented here attempts to develop zircon geochronology to probe planetary impact histories as an alternative to current methods and provides another tool by which to constrain the bolide flux to the Earth-Moon system. Zircon has become the premier geo-chronometer in earth science and geochemical investigation of Hadean zircon from Western Australia has challenged the long-standing, popular conception that the near-surface Hadean Earth was an uninhabitable and hellish world; Zircons may preserve environmental information regarding their formation and thus provide a rare window into conditions on early Earth. Isotopic and petrologic analyses of these ancient grains have been interpreted to suggest that early Earth was more habitable than previously envisioned, with water oceans, continental crust, and possibly even plate tectonics. The Hadean is also suspected to be a time of major planetary bombardment however identifying impact signatures within

  11. The need for international planetary cartography planning and cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, Brent; Duxbury, Thomas; Oberst, Jürgen; Wählisch, Marita; Kirk, Randolph L.; Karachevtseva, Irina P.

    Cartography is fundamental to planetary science and as such, a lack of appropriate consideration of this foundation can have and has had serious and expensive consequences to both the scientific return from planetary missions and the safety of future lander missions. In this abstract we highlight the need for, and recommend cooperative planning of, such cartographic work at the national and international level. In an effort to support the planetary exploration initiatives of the various spacefaring nations, we detail specific negative consequences of not properly accounting for cartographic constraints during mission planning and execution. We will also pose several unanswered questions that must be addressed before new exploration efforts should commence. To assure the best possible return on space exploration investments, we recommend that the following planetary cartographic issues be considered: 1. Adequate resources for mapping at all stages from mission design through calibration, operations, development of processing algorithms and software, and processing to archiving; 2. Easy access to data sets and metadata from all nations; consistent (or at least well-documented) data formats; consistent cartographic standards; 3. Cooperation and support leading to the joint analysis of data sets from many nations, in turn leading to integration in a single cartographic coordinate framework at known accuracy levels, and the ability to leverage the powerful synergistic value of multiple data sets. Possible actions that could be taken to achieve these goals will also be presented.

  12. Planetary Entry Probes and Mass Spectroscopy: Tools and Science Results from In Situ Studies of Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, Hasso B.

    2007-01-01

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future missions will hopefully also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. 1 he success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and better data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. I'he pioneering and tireless work of Al Seiff and his collaborators at the NASA Ames Research Center had provided convincing evidence of the value of entry probe science and how to practically implement flight missions. Even in the most recent missions involving entry probes i.e. Galileo and Cassini/Huygens A1 contributed uniquely to the science results on atmospheric structure, turbulence and temperature on Jupiter and Titan.

  13. Planetary Geochemistry Techniques: Probing In-Situ with Neutron and Gamma Rays (PING) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Burger, D.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lin, L.; McClanahan, T.; Nankung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument is a promising planetary science application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology so successfully used in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth. The objective of our technology development program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Astrochemistry Laboratory is to extend the application of neutron interrogation techniques to landed in situ planetary composition measurements by using a 14 MeV Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG) combined with neutron and gamma ray detectors, to probe the surface and subsurface of planetary bodies without the need to drill. We are thus working to bring the PING instrument to the point where it can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, comets and the satellites of the outer planets.

  14. Mass Spectrometry for Planetary Probes: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, Hasso B.; Harpold, Dan N.; Jamieson, Brian G.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric entry probes present a unique opportunity for performing quantitative analysis of extra-terrestrial atmospheres in cases where remote sensing alone may not be sufficient and measurements with balloons or aircraft is not practical. An entry probe can provide a complete vertical profile of atmospheric parameters including chemical composition, which cannot be obtained with most other techniques. There are, however, unique challenges associated with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme, there are inherent time constraints due to the short duration of the experiment, and the instrument experiences rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure as it descends. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements can be more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrument. Our experience building mass spectrometers for atmospheric entry probes leads us to believe that the time is right for a fundamental change in the way spaceflight mass spectrometers are built. The emergence over the past twenty years of Micro-electro- mechanical Systems (MEMS), utilizing lithographic semiconductor fabrication techniques to produce instrument systems in miniature, holds great promise for application to spaceflight mass spectrometry. A highly miniaturized, high performance and low-power mass spectrometer would be an enormous benefit to future entry probe missions, allowing, for example, parallel measurements (e.g., multiple simultaneous gas chromatographic analyses and direct atmospheric leaks.) Such an instrument would also enable mass spectrometry on board small

  15. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: International collaborations towards transparent data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for science data returned by all ESA planetary missions. Current holdings include data from Giotto, SMART-1, Cassini-Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta. In addition to the basic management and distribution of these data to the community through our own interfaces, ESA has been working very closely with international partners to globalize the archiving standards used and the access to our data. Part of this ongoing effort is channelled through our participation in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), whose focus is on allowing transparent and interoperable access to data holdings from participating Agencies around the globe. One major focus of this work has been the development of the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) that will allow for the interoperability of archives and sharing of data. This is already used for transparent access to data from Venus Express, and ESA are currently working with ISRO and NASA to provide interoperable access to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 data through our systems using this protocol. Close interactions are ongoing with NASA's Planetary Data System as the standards used for planetary data archiving evolve, and two of our upcoming missions are to be the first to implement the new 'PDS4' standards in ESA: BepiColombo and ExoMars. Projects have been established within the IPDA framework to guide these implementations to try and ensure interoperability and maximise the usability of the data by the community. BepiColombo and ExoMars are both international missions, in collaboration with JAXA and IKI respectively, and a strong focus has been placed on close interaction and collaboration throughout the development of each archive. For both of these missions there is a requirement to share data between the Agencies prior to public access, as well as providing complete open access globally once the proprietary periods have

  16. Characterizing Uranus with an Ice giant Planetary Origins Probe (Ice-POP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan; Nettelmann, Nadine; Zahnle, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    detected in Neptune but not in Uranus. A measurement of the abundance of either would constrain the source mechanisms for these molecules (exogenic or internal). A major surprise from the Galileo Entry Probe was that the heavier noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe are enhanced in Jupiter's atmosphere at a level comparable to what was seen for the chemically active volatiles N, C, and S. It had been generally expected that Ar, Kr, and Xe would be present in solar abundances, as all were expected to accrete with hydrogen during the gravitational capture of nebular gases. Enhanced abundances of Ar, Kr, and Xe is equivalent to saying that these noble gases have been separated from hydrogen. There are several mechanisms that could accomplish this but these hypotheses require further testing. Measurement of noble gas abundances in an ice giant would constrain the planetary formation and nebular mechanisms responsible for this enhancement. Standard three-layer models of Uranus find that the outer, predominantly H/He layer of Uranus does not reach pressures high enough (approximately 1 Mbar) for H2 to transition to liquid metallic hydrogen. However, valid models can also be constructed with a smaller intermediate water-rich layer, with hydrogen then reaching the metallic hydrogen phase. If this occurs, He should phase separate from the hydrogen and ``rain out," taking along a substantial abundance of Ne, as suggested for Jupiter (and likely also for Saturn). Hence He and Ne depletions could be probes of the planet's structure in the much deeper interior. A determination of Uranus' atmospheric abundances, particularly of the noble gasses, is thus critical to understanding the formation of Uranus, and giant planets in general. These measurements can only be performed with an entry probe. The second key measurement would be a temperature-pressure sounding to provide ground truth for remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and composition and to constrain the internal heat flow. This

  17. Study of Some Planetary Atmospheres Features by Probe Entry and Descent Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gil, P. J. S.; Rosa, P. M. B.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of planetary atmospheres is analyzed by its effects in the entry and descent trajectories of probes. Emphasis is on the most important variables that characterize atmospheres e.g. density profile with altitude. Probe trajectories are numerically determined with ENTRAP, a developing multi-purpose computational tool for entry and descent trajectory simulations capable of taking into account many features and perturbations. Real data from Mars Pathfinder mission is used. The goal is to be able to determine more accurately the atmosphere structure by observing real trajectories and what changes are to expect in probe descent trajectories if atmospheres have different properties than the ones assumed initially.

  18. Rugged, no-moving-parts windspeed and static pressure probe designs for measurements in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedard, A. J., Jr.; Nishiyama, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    Instruments developed for making meteorological observations under adverse conditions on Earth can be applied to systems designed for other planetary atmospheres. Specifically, a wind sensor developed for making measurements within tornados is capable of detecting induced pressure differences proportional to wind speed. Adding strain gauges to the sensor would provide wind direction. The device can be constructed in a rugged form for measuring high wind speeds in the presence of blowing dust that would clog bearings and plug passages of conventional wind speed sensors. Sensing static pressure in the lower boundary layer required development of an omnidirectional, tilt-insensitive static pressure probe. The probe provides pressure inputs to a sensor with minimum error and is inherently weather-protected. The wind sensor and static pressure probes have been used in a variety of field programs and can be adapted for use in different planetary atmospheres.

  19. The Future of NASA's Deep Space Network and Applications to Planetary Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Preston, Robert A.; Vrotsos, Peter

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) has been an invaluable tool in the world's exploration of space. It has served the space-faring community for more than 45 years. The DSN has provided a primary communication pathway for planetary probes, either through direct- to-Earth links or through intermediate radio relays. In addition, its radiometric systems are critical to probe navigation and delivery to target. Finally, the radio link can also be used for direct scientific measurement of the target body ('radio science'). This paper will examine the special challenges in supporting planetary probe missions, the future evolution of the DSN and related spacecraft technology, the advantages and disadvantages of radio relay spacecraft, and the use of the DSN radio links for navigation and scientific measurements.

  20. Theory of Tumbling Bodies Entering Planetary Atmospheres with Application to Probe Vehicles and the Australian Tektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, Murray; Peterson, Victor L.

    1964-01-01

    The tumbling motion of aerodynamically stable bodies entering planetary atmospheres is analyzed considering that the tumbling, its arrest, and the subsequent oscillatory motion are governed by the equation for the fifth Painleve' transcendent. Results based on the asymptotic behavior of the transcendent are applied to study (1) the oscillatory behavior of planetary probe vehicles in relation to aerodynamic heating and loads and (2) the dynamic behavior of the Australian tektites on entering the Earth's atmosphere, under the hypothesis that their origin was the Moon.

  1. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  2. Validation of Afterbody Aeroheating Predictions for Planetary Probes: Status and Future Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael J.; Brown, James L.; Sinha, Krishnendu; Candler, Graham V.; Milos, Frank S.; Prabhu, DInesh K.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the relevant flight conditions and physical models for planetary probe afterbody aeroheating calculations is given. Readily available sources of afterbody flight data and published attempts to computationally simulate those flights are summarized. A current status of the application of turbulence models to afterbody flows is presented. Finally, recommendations for additional analysis and testing that would reduce our uncertainties in our ability to accurately predict base heating levels are given.

  3. Current Developments in Future Planetary Probe Sensors for TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Ed; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Oishu, Tomo

    2003-01-01

    adapt a previously flown surface recession sensor, based on the Jupiter probe Galileo Analog Resistance Ablation Detector (ARAD), to appropriate aerocapture conditions.

  4. Towards an International Planetary Community Built on Open Source Software: the Evolution of the Planetary Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, D. J.; Ramirez, P.; Hardman, S.; Hughes, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Access to the worldwide planetary science research results from robotic exploration of the solar system has become a key driver in internationalizing the data standards from the Planetary Data System. The Planetary Data System, through international agency collaborations with the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), has been developing a next generation set of data standards and technical implementation known as PDS4. PDS4 modernizes the PDS towards a world-wide online data system providing data and technical standards for improving access and interoperability among planetary archives. Since 2006, the IPDA has been working with the PDS to ensure that the next generation PDS is capable of allowing agency autonomy in building compatible archives while providing mechanisms to link the archive together. At the 7th International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) Meeting in Bangalore, India, the IPDA discussed and passed a resolution paving the way to adopt the PDS4 data standards. While the PDS4 standards have matured, another effort has been underway to move the PDS, a set of distributed discipline oriented science nodes, into a fully, online, service-oriented architecture. In order to accomplish this goal, the PDS has been developing a core set of software components that form the basis for many of the functions needed by a data system. These include the ability to harvest, validate, register, search and distribute the data products defined by the PDS4 data standards. Rather than having each group build their own independent implementations, the intention is to ultimately govern the implementation of this software through an open source community. This will enable not only sharing of software among U.S. planetary science nodes, but also has the potential of improving collaboration not only on core data management software, but also the tools by the international community. This presentation will discuss the progress in developing an open source infrastructure

  5. Formation, Orbital and Internal Evolutions of Young Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruteau, Clément; Bai, Xuening; Mordasini, Christoph; Mollière, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The growing body of observational data on extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks has stimulated intense research on planet formation and evolution in the past few years. The extremely diverse, sometimes unexpected physical and orbital characteristics of exoplanets lead to frequent updates on the mainstream scenarios for planet formation and evolution, but also to the exploration of alternative avenues. The aim of this review is to bring together classical pictures and new ideas on the formation, orbital and internal evolutions of planets, highlighting the key role of the protoplanetary disk in the various parts of the theory. We begin by briefly reviewing the conventional mechanism of core accretion by the growth of planetesimals, and discuss a relatively recent model of core growth through the accretion of pebbles. We review the basic physics of planet-disk interactions, recent progress in this area, and discuss their role in observed planetary systems. We address the most important effects of planets internal evolution, like cooling and contraction, the mass-luminosity relation, and the bulk composition expressed in the mass-radius and mass-mean density relations.

  6. FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djolov, G.; Esau, I.

    2010-05-01

    One of the greatest achievements of climate science has been the establisment of the concept of climate change on a multitude of time scales. The Earth's complex climate system does not allow a straightforward interpretation of dependences between the external parameter perturbation, internal stochastic system dynamics and the long-term system response. The latter is usually referred to as climate change in a narrow sense (IPCC, 2007). The focused international conference "Planetary Boundary Layers and Climate Change" has addressed only time scales and dynamical aspects of climate change with possible links to the turbulent processes in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). Although limited, the conference topic is by no means singular. One should clearly understand that the PBL is the layer where 99% of biosphere and human activity are concentrated. The PBL is the layer where the energy fluxes, which are followed by changes in cryosphere and other known feedbacks, are maximized. At the same time, the PBL processes are of a naturally small scale. What is the averaged long-term effect of the small-scale processes on the long-term climate dynamics? Can this effect be recognized in existing long-term paleo-climate data records? Can it be modeled? What is the current status of our theoretical understanding of this effect? What is the sensitivity of the climate model projections to the representation of small-scale processes? Are there significant indirect effects, e.g. through transport of chemical components, of the PBL processes on climate? These and other linked questions have been addressed during the conference. The Earth's climate has changed many times during the planet's history, with events ranging from ice ages to long periods of warmth. Historically, natural factors such as the amount of energy released from the Sun, volcanic eruptions and changes in the Earth's orbit have affected the Earth's climate. Beginning late in the 18th century, human activities

  7. Planetary atmospheres with mass spectrometers carried on high-speed probes or satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.

    1977-01-01

    Earth satellite-borne mass spectrometers are considered, taking into account the identification of atomic oxygen in the thermosphere with an 'open' source mass spectrometer flown on a sounding rocket, the conventional closed-source instrument, the mass spectrometers on the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, and mass spectrometer electron multiplier output. A description is presented of mass spectrometers and planetary entry probes. Attention is given to an attempt to obtain an atmospheric composition profile with a terrestrial entry probe, the descending trajectory in the early orbits of the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite, and the molecular nitrogen densities for the descending legs of the orbits. It is pointed out that chemical reactions on the surfaces of the mass spectrometer make the measurement of reactive atmospheric species such as atomic oxygen very difficult.

  8. Pile driving models for the evaluation of soil penetration resistance measurements from planetary subsurface probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kömle, Norbert I.; Poganski, Joshua; Kargl, Günter; Grygorczuk, Jerzy

    2015-05-01

    Several planetary lander missions conducted in the past and planned for the near future have instruments on board, which are dedicated to the determination of various material properties, among them mechanical properties of the surface like material strength and penetration resistance. In this paper two instruments are considered in more detail: (i) the MUPUS penetrator, a device aboard the Lander Philae of ESA's Rosetta mission, and (ii) the Mole HP3, which is part of the payload of NASA's next Discovery mission InSight, due for landing on Mars in 2016. Both devices are driven by hammering mechanisms designed to work under low or micro-gravity conditions and blaze themselves a trail into the subsurface of their respective target bodies. Naturally the speed with which this process takes place and if penetration is possible at all depends on the mechanical properties of the soil. However, a quantitative evaluation of soil mechanical parameters from measured depth-versus-time data is not a straightforward task. In this paper we apply an old technique, originally developed for modelling the driving of a pile into the ground, to describe the performance of penetrators and Moles developed for planetary applications. The numerical pile driving model of Smith (1962) is scaled and adapted for this purpose and used to predict the penetration behaviour of these instruments in dependence of their internal construction and the properties of the soil they are driven in. The model computes the permanent set of the surrounding soil in response to one hammer blow cycle as well as the oscillations and waves excited inside the devices and in the surrounding soil. Both the penetration resistance of the tip and the resistance caused by friction of the penetrator along the cylindrical side wall are calculated. By comparing the modelling results with previous laboratory measurements it is demonstrated that the models produce realistic results and can be used both as tools for proper

  9. Problems affecting the fidelity of pressure measuring instruments for planetary probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Determination is made of the nature and magnitude of surface-related effects that cause errors in pressure measuring instruments, with special reference being made to instruments intended for use in planetary probes. The interaction of gases with clean surfaces of metals likely to be used as gage construction materials was studied. Special emphasis was placed on the adsorption, chemical reaction, and electron-induced desorption processes. The results indicated that all metals tested were subject to surface processes which would degrade gage fidelity. It was also found, however, that the formation of inert adsorbed layers on these metal surfaces, such as carbon on platinum, greatly reduced or eliminated these effects. This process, combined with a system design which avoids contact between reactive gases and hot filaments, appears to offer the most promising solution to the gage fidelity problem.

  10. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-12-31

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques.

  11. Trace elements as quantitative probes of differentiation processes in planetary interiors

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, M.J.

    1980-02-01

    Abundances of trace elements in extrusive igneous rocks may be used as petrological and geochemical probes of the source regions of the rocks if differentiation processes, partition coefficients, phase equilibria, and initial concentrations in the source region are known. The characteristic trace element signature that each mineral in the source region imparts on the magma forms the conceptual basis for trace element modeling. The task of the trace element geochemist is to solve mathematically the inverse problem. Given trace element abundances in a magma, what is the ode of its source region. The most successful modeling has been performed for small planetary bodies which underwent relatively simple igneous differentiation events. An example is the eucrite parent body, a planet which produced basals at approx. =4.6 Gy. and has been quiescent ever since. This simple differentiation history permits the calculation of its bulk composition (a feldspathic peridotite) and has led to the tentative identification of asteroid 4 Westa as the eucrite parent body. The differentiation of iron meteorite groups in parent body cores is amenable to similar treatment. The 'anomalous' behavior of Cr, suggests that IIIA, B irons and main group pallasites equilibrated with troilite, spinel, ferromagnesian silicates, or some combination thereof. The moon has undergone more complex differentiation, and quantitative geochemical modeling is correspondingly more difficult. Nevertheless, modeling the two-stage evolution of mare basals raises the possibility that the primordial moon did not have chondritic relative abundances of such refractory elements as Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The nonchondritic element ratios are characteristic of planetary, not nebular, fractionation processes and are consistent with the derivation of the moon from a precursor planet, possibly the earth.

  12. The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA): Overview of the Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, A.; Gopala Krishna, B.; Crichton, D. J.; Beebe, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Arviset, C.; Di Capria, M. T.; Mickaelian, A. M.; IPDA

    2016-06-01

    An overview of activities of the IPDA is presented in the frame of the recently growing number of successful space experiments dedicated to planetary observation, with a significantly growing number of people involved in such activity and with significantly growing numbers of web services willing to share data and services in our research domain, but also, in close by domains such as astronomy, heliophysics and atmospheric sciences for the Earth. An overview of a number of space agencies and organizations is given. In total, IPDA consists of 13 national organizations: NASA (USA), CNES (France), ESA (Europe), STFC (UK), JAXA (Japan), ASI (Italy), ISRO (India), DLR (Germany), RKA (Russia), RCSA (China), FMI (Finland), ArSA (Armenia) and United Arab Emirates. Some projects of 2015 in frame of the IPDA activities are described.

  13. Pieces of the Huygens probe internal insulating foam await inspection after removal from the probe i

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Pieces of the Huygens probe internal insulating foam await inspection after removal from the probe in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) at KSC. The spacecraft was returned to the PHSF after damage to thermal insulation was discovered inside Huygens from an abnormally high flow of conditioned air. Internal inspection, insulation repair and a cleaning of the probe were required. Mission managers are targeting a mid-October launch date after Cassini returns to the pad and is once again placed atop its Titan IVB expendable launch vehicle at Launch Pad 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Station.

  14. Magnetic field measurements using the transient internal probe (TIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1995-12-31

    Knowledge of the internal magnetic field profile in hot plasmas is fundamental to understanding the structure and behavior of the current profile. The transient internal probe (TIP) is a novel diagnostic designed to measure internal magnetic fields in hot plasmas. The diagnostic involves shooting a magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities (greater than 2 km/s) using a two stage light gas gun. Local fields are obtained by illuminating the probe with an argon ion laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the reflected beam. Initial development of the diagnostic is complete. Results of magnetic field measurements conducted at 2 km/s will be presented. Helium muzzle gas introduction to the plasma chamber has been limited to less than 0.4 Torr-{ell}. Magnetic field resolution of 40 Gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm have been achieved. System frequency response is 10 MHz.

  15. International cooperation in planetary exploration - Past success and future prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of the ways in which the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has participated in international efforts to explore the solar system. Past examples of successful international cooperative programs are described. Prospects for future cooperative efforts are discussed with emphasis placed on current events, issues, and trends which are likely to affect possibilities for cooperation over the next 5 to 10 years. Key factors which will play a major role in shaping future prospects for cooperation include the move towards balancing the budget in the United States and the impact of the Challenger accident on the NASA program.

  16. The Probing In-Situ With Neutron and Gamma Rays (PING) Instrument for Planetary Composition Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument (formerly named PNG-GRAND) [I] experiment is an innovative application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology successfully used in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth over many decades. The objective of our active neutron-gamma ray technology program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is to bring PING to the point where it can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, comets and the satellites of the outer planets and measure their bulk surface and subsurface elemental composition without the need to drill into the surface. Gamma-Ray Spectrometers (GRS) have been incorporated into numerous orbital planetary science missions. While orbital measurements can map a planet, they have low spatial and elemental sensitivity due to the low surface gamma ray emission rates reSUlting from using cosmic rays as an excitation source, PING overcomes this limitation in situ by incorporating a powerful neutron excitation source that permits significantly higher elemental sensitivity elemental composition measurements. PING combines a 14 MeV deuterium-tritium Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG) with a gamma ray spectrometer and two neutron detectors to produce a landed instrument that can determine the elemental composition of a planet down to 30 - 50 cm below the planet's surface, The penetrating nature of .5 - 10 MeV gamma rays and 14 MeV neutrons allows such sub-surface composition measurements to be made without the need to drill into or otherwise disturb the planetary surface, thus greatly simplifying the lander design, We are cun'ently testing a PING prototype at a unique outdoor neutron instrumentation test facility at NASA/GSFC that provides two large (1.8 m x 1.8 m x ,9 m) granite and basalt test formations placed outdoors in an empty field, Since an independent trace elemental analysis has been performed on both these

  17. Defining the Core Archive Data Standards of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Dan; Beebe, Reta; Guinness, Ed; Heather, David; Zender, Joe

    2007-01-01

    A goal of the International Planetary Data Alliance (lPDA) is to develop a set of archive data standards that enable the sharing of scientific data across international agencies and missions. To help achieve this goal, the IPDA steering committee initiated a six month proj ect to write requirements for and draft an information model based on the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive data standards. The project had a special emphasis on data formats. A set of use case scenarios were first developed from which a set of requirements were derived for the IPDA archive data standards. The special emphasis on data formats was addressed by identifying data formats that have been used by PDS nodes and other agencies in the creation of successful data sets for the Planetary Data System (PDS). The dependency of the IPDA information model on the PDS archive standards required the compilation of a formal specification of the archive standards currently in use by the PDS. An ontology modelling tool was chosen to capture the information model from various sources including the Planetary Science Data Dictionary [I] and the PDS Standards Reference [2]. Exports of the modelling information from the tool database were used to produce the information model document using an object-oriented notation for presenting the model. The tool exports can also be used for software development and are directly accessible by semantic web applications.

  18. Radar Probing of Planetary Regoliths: An Example from the Northern Rim of Imbrium Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Ghent, Rebecca R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Leverington, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging radar measurements at long wavelengths (e.g., >30 cm) allow deep (up to tens of meters) probing of the physical structure and dielectric properties of planetary regoliths. We illustrate a potential application for a Mars orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR) using new Earth-based 70-cm wavelength radar data for the Moon. The terrae on the northern margin of Mare Imbrium, the Montes Jura region, have diffuse radar backscatter echoes that are 2-4 times weaker at 3.8-cm, 70-cm, and 7.5-m wavelengths than most other lunar nearside terrae. Possible geologic explanations are (1) a pyroclastic deposit associated with sinuous rilles in this region, (2) buried mare basalt or a zone of mixed highland/basaltic debris (cryptomaria), or (3) layers of ejecta associated with the Iridum and Plato impacts that have fewer meter-sized rocks than typical highlands regolith. While radar data at 3.8-cm to 7.5-m wavelengths suggest significant differences between the Montes Jura region and typical highlands, the surface geochemistry and rock abundance inferred from Clementine UV-VIS data and eclipse thermal images are consistent with other lunar terrae. There is no evidence for enhanced iron abundance, expected for basaltic pyroclastic deposits, near the source vents of the sinuous rilles radial to Plato. The regions of low 70-cm radar return are consistent with overlapping concentric ''haloes'' about Iridum and Plato and do not occur referentially in topographically low areas, as is observed for radar-mapped cryptomaria. Thus we suggest that the extensive radar-dark area associated with the Montes Jura region is due to overlapping, rock-poor ejecta deposits from Iridum and Plato craters. Comparison of the radial extent of low-radar-return crater haloes with a model for ejecta thickness shows that these rock-poor layers are detected by 70-cm radar where they are on the order of 10 m and thicker. A SAR in orbit about Mars could use similar deep probing to reveal the nature of

  19. Experimental and Computational Studies of the Flow Over a Sting Mounted Planetary Probe Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Michael S.; Harvey, John K.; Boyd, Iain D.; George, Jyothish; Horvath, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a series of experimental studies in the LENS shock tunnel and computations with DSMC and Navier Stokes codes which have been made to examine the aerothermal and flowfield characteristics of the flow over a sting-supported planetary probe configuration in hypervelocity air and nitrogen flows. The experimental program was conducted in the LENS hypervelocity shock tunnel at total enthalpies of 5and 10 MJkg for a range of reservoir pressure conditions from 70 to 500 bars. Heat transfer and pressure measurements were made on the front and rear face of the probe and along the supporting sting. High-speed and single shot schlieren photography were also employed to examine the flow over the model and the time to establish the flow in the base recirculation region. Predictions of the flowfield characteristics and the distributions of heat transfer and pressure were made with DSMC codes for rarefied flow conditions and with the Navier-Stokes solvers for the higher pressure conditions where the flows were assumed to be laminar. Analysis of the time history records from the heat transfer and pressure instrumentation on the face of the probe and in the base region indicated that the base flow was fully established in under 4 milliseconds from flow initiation or between 35 and 50 flow lengths based on base height. The measurements made in three different tunnel entries with two models of identical geometries but with different instrumentation packages, one prepared by NASA Langley and the second prepared by CUBRC, demonstrated good agreement between heat transfer measurements made with two different types of thin film and coaxial gage instrumentation. The measurements of heat transfer and pressure to the front face of the probe were in good agreement with theoretical predictions from both the DSMC and Navier Stokes codes. For the measurements made in low density flows, computations with the DSMC code were found to compare well with the

  20. Summary of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Remote Sensing and Image Analysis of Planetary Dunes, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, June 12-15, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Rubin, David M.; Titus, Timothy N.; Bishop, Mark A.; Burr, Devon M.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Kerber, Laura; Le Gall, Alice; Michaels, Timothy I.; Neakrase, Lynn D. V.; Newman, Claire E.; Tirsch, Daniela; Yizhaq, Hezi; Zimbelman, James R.

    2013-03-01

    The Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop took place in Flagstaff, AZ, USA during June 12-15, 2012. This meeting brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss recent advances in terrestrial and planetary research on aeolian bedforms. The workshop included two and a half days of oral and poster presentations, as well as one formal (and one informal) full-day field trip. Similar to its predecessors, the presented work provided new insight on the morphology, dynamics, composition, and origin of aeolian bedforms on Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan, with some intriguing speculation about potential aeolian processes on Triton (a satellite of Neptune) and Pluto. Major advancements since the previous International Planetary Dunes Workshop include the introduction of several new data analysis and numerical tools and utilization of low-cost field instruments (most notably the time-lapse camera). Most presentations represented advancement towards research priorities identified in both of the prior two workshops, although some previously recommended research approaches were not discussed. In addition, this workshop provided a forum for participants to discuss the uncertain future of the Planetary Aeolian Laboratory; subsequent actions taken as a result of the decisions made during the workshop may lead to an expansion of funding opportunities to use the facilities, as well as other improvements. The interactions during this workshop contributed to the success of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop, further developing our understanding of aeolian processes on the aeolian worlds of the Solar System.

  1. Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This monograph contains brief descriptions of all robotic deep space missions attempted since the opening of the space age in 1957. The missions are listed strictly chronologically in order of launch date (not by planetary encounter).

  2. Reacting to nuclear power systems in space: American public protests over outer planetary probes since the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2014-03-01

    The United States has pioneered the use of nuclear power systems for outer planetary space probes since the 1970s. These systems have enabled the Viking landings to reach the surface of Mars and both Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 to travel to the limits of the solar system. Although the American public has long been concerned about safety of these systems, in the 1980s a reaction to nuclear accidents - especially the Soviet Cosmos 954 spacecraft destruction and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accidents - heightened awareness about the hazards of nuclear power and every spacecraft launch since that time has been contested by opponents of nuclear energy. This has led to a debate over the appropriateness of the use of nuclear power systems for spacecraft. It has also refocused attention on the need for strict systems of control and rigorous checks and balances to assure safety. This essay describes the history of space radioisotope power systems, the struggles to ensure safe operations, and the political confrontation over whether or not to allow the launch the Galileo and Cassini space probes to the outer planets. Effectively, these efforts have led to the successful flights of 12 deep space planetary probes, two-thirds of them operated since the accidents of Cosmos 954, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl.

  3. Summary of the Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs - Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data, Alamosa, Colorado, USA, May 18-21, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, L.K.; Bishop, M.A.; Bourke, M.C.; Bristow, C.S.; Hayward, R.K.; Horgan, B.H.; Lancaster, N.; Michaels, T.I.; Tirsch, D.; Titus, T.N.; Valdez, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop took place in Alamosa, Colorado, USA from May 18-21, 2010. The workshop brought together researchers from diverse backgrounds to foster discussion and collaboration regarding terrestrial and extra-terrestrial dunes and dune systems. Two and a half days were spent on five oral sessions and one poster session, a full-day field trip to Great Sand Dunes National Park, with a great deal of time purposefully left open for discussion. On the last day of the workshop, participants assembled a list of thirteen priorities for future research on planetary dune systems. ?? 2010.

  4. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  5. International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae.

    PubMed

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D

    1980-03-01

    Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation.

  6. Internal magnetic field measurements on the Helicity Injected Tokamak (HIT) using the Transient Internal Probe (TIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is a novel diagnostic designed to measure internal magnetic fields in hot plasmas. The diagnostic involves shooting a magneto-optic probe through the plasma at high velocities (greater than 2 km/s) using a two stage light gas gun. Local fields are obtained by illuminating the probe with an argon ion laser and measuring the amount of Faraday rotation in the laser light reflected from the moving probe. Currently, internal magnetic profile measurements are being conducted on the Helicity Injected tokamak (HIT). HIT is a low aspect ratio (A = 1.5) tokamak designed to investigate steady state current drive using coaxial helicity injection. Operating parameters are T{sub e} {approx} 100, n{sub e} {approx} 5 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} and I{sub p} = 250 kA. Internal magnetic field profile data will be presented. The TIP diagnostic has a spatial resolution of 1 cm and 20 gauss magnetic field resolution. System frequency response is 10 MHz.

  7. Wave tilt sounding of multilayered structures. [for probing of stratified planetary surface electrical properties and thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warne, L.; Jaggard, D. L.; Elachi, C.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between the wave tilt and the electrical parameters of a multilayered structure is investigated. Particular emphasis is placed on the inverse problem associated with the sounding planetary surfaces. An inversion technique, based on multifrequency wave tilt, is proposed and demonstrated with several computer models. It is determined that there is close agreement between the electrical parameters used in the models and those in the inversion values.

  8. Probing the terrestrial regions of planetary systems: warm debris disks with emission features

    SciTech Connect

    Ballering, Nicholas P.; Rieke, George H.; Gáspár, András

    2014-09-20

    Observations of debris disks allow for the study of planetary systems, even where planets have not been detected. However, debris disks are often only characterized by unresolved infrared excesses that resemble featureless blackbodies, and the location of the emitting dust is uncertain due to a degeneracy with the dust grain properties. Here, we characterize the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 22 debris disks exhibiting 10 μm silicate emission features. Such features arise from small warm dust grains, and their presence can significantly constrain the orbital location of the emitting debris. We find that these features can be explained by the presence of an additional dust component in the terrestrial zones of the planetary systems, i.e., an exozodiacal belt. Aside from possessing exozodiacal dust, these debris disks are not particularly unique; their minimum grain sizes are consistent with the blowout sizes of their systems, and their brightnesses are comparable to those of featureless warm debris disks. These disks are in systems of a range of ages, though the older systems with features are found only around A-type stars. The features in young systems may be signatures of terrestrial planet formation. Analyzing the spectra of unresolved debris disks with emission features may be one of the simplest and most accessible ways to study the terrestrial regions of planetary systems.

  9. Measuring the electric properties of planetary environments with Mutual Impedance (MI) Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautner, R.; Grard, R.

    2002-10-01

    Mutual Impedance Probes measure the complex permittivity of material by means of a quadrupolar array of electrodes and associated electronics for generating, recording and processing waveforms. MI instruments have been developed for a number of ongoing space missions. The HASI/PWA MI probe will determine the electric properties of the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, during the descent of the Huygens probe. After landing, the instrument will provide data on the properties of Titan's surface materials. The permittivity probe PP, as part of the SESAME instrument package for the Rosetta Lander, will determine the electrical properties of comet Wirtanen's surface. The main features of MI probes are first recapitulated. Instrument architectures for atmospheric, surface and subsurface investigations are described. Results from recent field test campaigns in harsh environments are presented. A new MI probe prototype employing a linear electrode array for application on mobile platforms or on penetrator devices is described. New application areas for future MI probes and relevant technology requirements are discussed.

  10. Optimized heavy ion beam probing for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Eliseev, L. G.

    1999-01-01

    The international workgroup developed the conceptual design of a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) diagnostics for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is intended for measurements of the plasma potential profile in a gradient area. Now we optimized it by the accurate analysis of the probing trajectories and variation of positions of the injection and detection points. Optimization allows us to reduce the energy of Tl+ beam from 5.6 to 3.4 MeV for standard ITER regime. The detector line starting at the plasma edge towards the center can get an outer part of the horizontal radial potential profile by variation of the energy. The observed radial interval is slightly increased up to 0.76<ρ<1 with respect to initial version 0.8<ρ<1, that allows to cover the region of the density gradient more reliably. Almost double reduction of the beam energy is a critical point. Thus we can significantly decrease the sizes of the accelerator and energy analyzer, the cost of the equipment, and impact of the diagnostics to the machine. Therefore the optimized HIBP design can be realized in ITER.

  11. Feasibility study of low angle planetary entry. [probe design for Jovian entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a Jovian entry by a probe originally designed for Saturn and Uranus entries is examined. An entry probe is described which is capable of release near an outer planet's sphere of influence and descent to a predetermined target entry point in the planet's atmosphere. The probe is designed so as to survive the trapped particle radiation belts and an entry heating pulse. Data is gathered and relayed to an overflying spacecraft bus during descent. Probe variations for two similar missions are described. In the first flyby of Jupiter by a Pioneer spacecraft launched during the 1979 opportunity is examined parametrically. In the second mission an orbiter based on Pioneer and launched in 1980 is defined in specific terms. The differences rest in the science payloads and directly affected wiring and electronics packages.

  12. Measuring The Electric Properties of Planetary Surface Materials With Mutual Impedance (mi) Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautner, R.; Grard, R.

    Mutual Impedance Probes have been developed for a number of ongoing space mis- sions. The HASI/PWA MI probe will determine the electric properties of the atmo- sphere and surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in 2004. The Permittivity Probe of the SESAME instrument package on the Rosetta Lander will attempt to measure the conductivity and permittivity of the cometary surface material. While both instruments have similar objectives, their architecture (design and integration into the spacecraft, electrode geometry) and properties (measurement range and precision) differ signif- icantly. The main features of the Huygens PWA and Rosetta Lander SESAME MI probes are first recapitulated and their expected performances are assessed. A new MI probe prototype employing a linear electrode array for application on mobile platforms or penetrator devices is then described. Results from a recent field test campaign in the Australian desert are presented and the prototype performance is evaluated. New application areas for future MI probes and relevant technology requirements are dis- cussed.

  13. In-situ exploration of planetary upper atmospheres with balloons ejected from sounding rockets and space probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielides, Michael; Griebel, Hannes; Bayler, Klaus; Herholz, J.

    Balloon missions have been used extensively on Earth to study a large variety of atmospheric characteristics and phenomena. Of primary interest are in situ temperature, pressure and density profiles and wind velocities. The first planetary balloons were flown in the mid 1980s with the Vega 1 and 2 missions to Venus. Since then, balloons have been further developed and planed for, e.g., Mars and Titan. Testing those technologies first on Earth made sense because Earths upper (neutral) atmosphere provides many similarities to Mars atmosphere. The aim of this presentation is to provide a brief overview of the current state in scientific ballooning, and in particular report on the expertise obtained through the MIRIAM (Main Inflated Re-entry Into the Atmosphere Mission Test) Mars balloon near space deployment experiments. The test ballute MIRIAM was flown on board a REXUS 4 sounding rocket from ESRANGE in northern Sweden on October 22nd, 2008. The balloon was deployed at about 140 km altitude. On board were optical instruments, magnetometers, temperature sensors and barometers for atmospheric studies. The data gathered during decent was used to validate inflation, deployment concepts and planetary balloon technologies. Based on those results a new ballute probe MIRIAM-2 is under construction. Its aim is the recording atmospheric parameters which will be then compared to Earth upper atmospheric models. Finally, we address and discuss future prospects for balloon in situ exploration of Mars atmosphere.

  14. Reports and recommendations from COSPAR Planetary Exploration Committee (PEX) & International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    In response to the growing importance of space exploration, the objectives of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration (PEX) are to provide high quality, independent science input to support the development of a global space exploration program while working to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system bodies. PEX engages with COSPAR Commissions and Panels, science foundations, IAA, IAF, UN bodies, and IISL to support in particular national and international space exploration working groups and the new era of planetary exploration. COSPAR's input, as gathered by PEX, is intended to express the consensus view of the international scientific community and should ultimately provide a series of guidelines to support future space exploration activities and cooperative efforts, leading to outstanding scientific discoveries, opportunities for innovation, strategic partnerships, technology progression, and inspiration for people of all ages and cultures worldwide. We shall focus on the lunar exploration aspects, where the COSPAR PEX is building on previous COSPAR, ILEWG and community conferences. An updated COSPAR PEX report is published and available online (Ehrenfreund P. et al, COSPAR planetary exploration panel report, http://www.gwu.edu/~spi/assets/COSPAR_PEX2012.pdf). We celebrate 20 years after the 1st International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon at Beatenberg in June 1994. The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established the year after in April 1995 at an EGS meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon (http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ ). It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and

  15. The TMT International Observatory: A quick overview of future opportunities for planetary science exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Christophe; Dawson, Sandra; Otarola, Angel; Skidmore, Warren; Squires, Gordon; Travouillon, Tony; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Li, Jian-Yang; Lu, Junjun; Marchis, Frank; Meech, Karen J.; Wong, Michael H.

    2015-11-01

    The construction of the Thirty-Meter-Telescope International Observatory (TIO) is scheduled to take about eight years, with first-light currently planned for the horizon 2023/24, and start of science operations soon after. Its innovative design, the unequalled astronomical quality of its location, and the scientific capabilities that will be offered by its suite of instruments, all contribute to position TIO as a major ground-based facility of the next decade.In this talk, we will review the expected observing performances of the facility, which will combine adaptive-optics corrected wavefronts with powerful imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. TMT will enable ground-based exploration of our solar system - and planetary systems at large - at a dramatically enhanced sensitivity and spatial resolution across the visible and near-/thermal- infrared regimes. This sharpened vision, spanning the study of planetary atmospheres, ring systems, (cryo-)volcanic activity, small body populations (asteroids, comets, trans-Neptunian objects), and exoplanets, will shed new lights on the processes involved in the formation and evolution of our solar system, including the search for life outside the Earth, and will expand our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of extra-solar planets, complementing TIO's direct studies of planetary systems around other stars.TIO operations will meet a wide range of observing needs. Observing support associated with "classical" and "queue" modes will be offered (including some flavors of remote observing). The TIO schedule will integrate observing programs so as to optimize scientific outputs and take into account the stringent observing time constraints often encountered for observations of our solar system such as, for instance, the scheduling of target-of-oportunity observations, the implementation of short observing runs, or the support of long-term "key-science" programmes.Complementary information about TIO, and the

  16. International ultraviolet explorer spectral atlas of planetary nebulae, central stars, and related objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Oliversen, Nancy A.; Nicholsbohlin, Joy; Garhart, Matthew P.

    1988-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archives contain a wealth of information on high quality ultraviolet spectra of approximately 180 planetary nebulae, their central stars, and related objects. Selected are representative low-dispersion IUE spectra in the range 1200 to 3200 A for 177 objects arranged by Right Ascension (RA) for this atlas. For most entries, the combined short wavelength (SWP) (1200to 1900) and long wavelength (LWR) (or LWP, 1900 to 3200 A) regions are shown on 30 cm by 10 cm Calcomp plots on a uniform scale to facilitate intercomparison of the spectra. Each calibrated spectrum is also shown on an expanded vertical scale to bring out some of the weaker features.

  17. Using the transit of Venus to probe the upper planetary atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Reale, Fabio; Gambino, Angelo F; Micela, Giuseppina; Maggio, Antonio; Widemann, Thomas; Piccioni, Giuseppe

    2015-06-23

    During a planetary transit, atoms with high atomic number absorb short-wavelength radiation in the upper atmosphere, and the planet should appear larger during a primary transit observed in high-energy bands than in the optical band. Here we measure the radius of Venus with subpixel accuracy during the transit in 2012 observed in the optical, ultraviolet and soft X-rays with Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory missions. We find that, while Venus's optical radius is about 80 km larger than the solid body radius (the top of clouds and haze), the radius increases further by >70 km in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays. This measures the altitude of the densest ion layers of Venus's ionosphere (CO2 and CO), useful for planning missions in situ, and a benchmark case for detecting transits of exoplanets in high-energy bands with future missions, such as the ESA Athena.

  18. Using the transit of Venus to probe the upper planetary atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Fabio; Gambino, Angelo F.; Micela, Giuseppina; Maggio, Antonio; Widemann, Thomas; Piccioni, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    During a planetary transit, atoms with high atomic number absorb short-wavelength radiation in the upper atmosphere, and the planet should appear larger during a primary transit observed in high-energy bands than in the optical band. Here we measure the radius of Venus with subpixel accuracy during the transit in 2012 observed in the optical, ultraviolet and soft X-rays with Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory missions. We find that, while Venus's optical radius is about 80 km larger than the solid body radius (the top of clouds and haze), the radius increases further by >70 km in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays. This measures the altitude of the densest ion layers of Venus's ionosphere (CO2 and CO), useful for planning missions in situ, and a benchmark case for detecting transits of exoplanets in high-energy bands with future missions, such as the ESA Athena. PMID:26102562

  19. Langmuir probe measurements aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, B.; Asenovski, S.; Bachvarov, D.; Boneva, A.; Grushin, V.; Georgieva, K.; Klimov, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    In the current work we describe the Langmuir Probe (LP) and its operation on board the International Space Station. This instrument is a part of the scientific complex "Ostonovka". The main goal of the complex is to establish, on one hand how such big body as the International Space Station affects the ambient plasma and on the other how Space Weather factors influence the Station. The LP was designed and developed at BAS-SRTI. With this instrument we measure the thermal plasma parameters-electron temperature Te, electron and ion concentration, respectively Ne and Ni, and also the potential at the Station's surface. The instrument is positioned at around 1.5 meters from the surface of the Station, at the Russian module "Zvezda", located at the farthermost point of the Space Station, considering the velocity vector. The Multi- Purpose Laboratory (MLM) module is providing additional shielding for our instrument, from the oncoming plasma flow (with respect to the velocity vector). Measurements show that in this area, the plasma concentration is two orders of magnitude lower, in comparison with the unperturbed areas. The surface potential fluctuates between-3 and-25 volts with respect to the ambient plasma. Fast upsurges in the surface potential are detected when passing over the twilight zone and the Equatorial anomaly.

  20. Improved data reduction algorithm for the needle probe method applied to in-situ thermal conductivity measurements of lunar and planetary regoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, Seiichi; Hedlund, Magnus; Zacny, Kris; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2014-03-01

    The needle probe method (also known as the ‘hot wire’ or ‘line heat source’ method) is widely used for in-situ thermal conductivity measurements on terrestrial soils and marine sediments. Variants of this method have also been used (or planned) for measuring regolith on the surfaces of extra-terrestrial bodies (e.g., the Moon, Mars, and comets). In the near-vacuum condition on the lunar and planetary surfaces, the measurement method used on the earth cannot be simply duplicated, because thermal conductivity of the regolith can be ~2 orders of magnitude lower. In addition, the planetary probes have much greater diameters, due to engineering requirements associated with the robotic deployment on extra-terrestrial bodies. All of these factors contribute to the planetary probes requiring a much longer time of measurement, several tens of (if not over a hundred) hours, while a conventional terrestrial needle probe needs only 1 to 2 min. The long measurement time complicates the surface operation logistics of the lander. It also negatively affects accuracy of the thermal conductivity measurement, because the cumulative heat loss along the probe is no longer negligible. The present study improves the data reduction algorithm of the needle probe method by shortening the measurement time on planetary surfaces by an order of magnitude. The main difference between the new scheme and the conventional one is that the former uses the exact mathematical solution to the thermal model on which the needle probe measurement theory is based, while the latter uses an approximate solution that is valid only for large times. The present study demonstrates the benefit of the new data reduction technique by applying it to data from a series of needle probe experiments carried out in a vacuum chamber on a lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A. The use of the exact solution has some disadvantage, however, in requiring three additional parameters, but two of them (the diameter and the

  1. Improved Data Reduction Algorithm for the Needle Probe Method Applied to In-Situ Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Lunar and Planetary Regoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, S.; Hedlund, M.; Zacny, K.; Taylor, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    The needle probe method (also known as the' hot wire' or 'line heat source' method) is widely used for in-situ thermal conductivity measurements on soils and marine sediments on the earth. Variants of this method have also been used (or planned) for measuring regolith on the surfaces of extra-terrestrial bodies (e.g., the Moon, Mars, and comets). In the near-vacuum condition on the lunar and planetary surfaces, the measurement method used on the earth cannot be simply duplicated, because thermal conductivity of the regolith can be approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower. In addition, the planetary probes have much greater diameters, due to engineering requirements associated with the robotic deployment on extra-terrestrial bodies. All of these factors contribute to the planetary probes requiring much longer time of measurement, several tens of (if not over a hundred) hours, while a conventional terrestrial needle probe needs only 1 to 2 minutes. The long measurement time complicates the surface operation logistics of the lander. It also negatively affects accuracy of the thermal conductivity measurement, because the cumulative heat loss along the probe is no longer negligible. The present study improves the data reduction algorithm of the needle probe method by shortening the measurement time on planetary surfaces by an order of magnitude. The main difference between the new scheme and the conventional one is that the former uses the exact mathematical solution to the thermal model on which the needle probe measurement theory is based, while the latter uses an approximate solution that is valid only for large times. The present study demonstrates the benefit of the new data reduction technique by applying it to data from a series of needle probe experiments carried out in a vacuum chamber on JSC-1A lunar regolith stimulant. The use of the exact solution has some disadvantage, however, in requiring three additional parameters, but two of them (the diameter and the

  2. Using the Sandia Z Machine to Probe Water at Planetary Conditions: Redefining the Properties of Water in the Ice Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M.; Lemke, R.; Mattsson, T.; French, M.; Nettelmann, N.; Redmer, R.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified extrasolar planetary systems. Our understanding of their formation is tied to exoplanet internal structure models, which rely upon equation of state (EOS) models of light elements and compounds such as water at multi-Mbar pressure conditions. For the past decade, a large, interdisciplinary team at Sandia National Laboratories has been refining the Z Machine (20+ MA and 10+ MGauss) into a mature, robust, and precise platform for material dynamics experiments in the multi-Mbar pressure regime. In particular, significant effort has gone into effectively coupling condensed matter theory, magneto-hydrodynamic simulation, and electromagnetic modeling to produce a fully self-consistent simulation capability able to very accurately predict the performance of the Z machine and various experimental load configurations. This capability has been instrumental in the ability to develop experimental platforms to routinely perform magnetic ramp compression experiments to over 4 Mbar, and magnetically accelerate flyer plates to over 40 km/s, creating over 20 Mbar impact pressures. Furthermore, a strong tie has been developed between the condensed matter theory and the experimental program. This coupling has been proven time and again to be extremely fruitful, with the capability of both theory and experiment being challenged and advanced through this close interrelationship. This presentation will provide a short overview of the material dynamics platform and discuss in more detail the use of Z to perform extreme material dynamics studies with unprecedented accuracy on water in support of basic science, planetary astrophysics, and the emerging field of high energy density laboratory physics. It was found that widely used EOSs for water are much too compressible (up to 30 percent) at pressures and temperatures relevant to planetary interiors. Furthermore, it is shown that the behavior of water at these

  3. Development of the Probing In-Situ with Neutron and Gamma Rays (PING) Instrument for Planetary Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Burger, D.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument is a promising planetary science application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology that has been used successfully in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth for decades. Similar techniques can be very powerful for non-invasive in situ measurements of the subsurface elemental composition on other planets. The objective of our active neutron-gamma ray technology program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is to bring instruments using this technology to the point where they can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, comets and the satellites of the outer planets. PING combines a 14 MeV deuterium-tritium pulsed neutron generator with a gamma ray spectrometer and two neutron detectors to produce a landed instrument that can determine the elemental composition of a planet down to 30 - 50 cm below the planet's surface. The penetrating nature of.5 - 10 MeV gamma rays and 14 MeV neutrons allows such sub-surface composition measurements to be made without the need to drill into or otherwise disturb the planetary surface, thus greatly simplifying the lander design. We are currently testing a PING prototype at a unique outdoor neutron instrumentation test facility at NASA/GSFC that provides two large (1.8 m x 1.8 m x.9 m) granite and basalt test formations placed outdoors in an empty field. Since an independent trace elemental analysis has been performed on both the Columbia River basalt and Concord Gray granite materials, these samples present two known standards with which to compare PING's experimentally measured elemental composition results. We will present experimental results from PING measurements of both the granite and basalt test formations and show how and why the optimum PING instrument operating parameters differ for studying the two materials.

  4. Large Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebula Morphology: Probing Stellar Populations and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini; Shaw; Balick; Blades

    2000-05-10

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer the unique opportunity to study both the population and evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, by means of the morphological type of the nebula. Using observations from our LMC PN morphological survey, and including images available in the Hubble Space Telescope Data Archive and published chemical abundances, we find that asymmetry in PNe is strongly correlated with a younger stellar population, as indicated by the abundance of elements that are unaltered by stellar evolution (Ne, Ar, and S). While similar results have been obtained for Galactic PNe, this is the first demonstration of the relationship for extragalactic PNe. We also examine the relation between morphology and abundance of the products of stellar evolution. We found that asymmetric PNe have higher nitrogen and lower carbon abundances than symmetric PNe. Our two main results are broadly consistent with the predictions of stellar evolution if the progenitors of asymmetric PNe have on average larger masses than the progenitors of symmetric PNe. The results bear on the question of formation mechanisms for asymmetric PNe-specifically, that the genesis of PNe structure should relate strongly to the population type, and by inference the mass, of the progenitor star and less strongly on whether the central star is a member of a close binary system.

  5. Probing O-enrichment in C-rich dust planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Dell'Agli, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Yagüe, A.

    2016-05-01

    The abundance of O in planetary nebulae (PNe) has been historically used as a metallicity indicator of the interstellar medium (ISM), where they originated; e.g. it has been widely used to study metallicity gradients in our Galaxy and beyond. However, clear observational evidence for O self-enrichment in low-metallicity Galactic PNe with C-rich dust has been recently reported. Here, we report asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis predictions for the abundances of the CNO elements and helium in the metallicity range Z⊙/4 < Z < 2 Z⊙. Our AGB models, with diffusive overshooting from all the convective borders, predict that O is overproduced in low-Z low-mass (˜1-3 M⊙) AGB stars and nicely reproduce the recent O overabundances observed in C-rich dust PNe. This confirms that O is not always a good proxy of the original ISM metallicity and other chemical elements such as Cl or Ar should be used instead. The production of oxygen by low-mass stars should be thus considered in galactic-evolution models.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Fiber Optic Probe as a means of Subsurface Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilgrim, Robert Paul

    The Optical Probe for Regolith Analysis (OPRA) is an instrumentation concept designed to provide spectroscopic analysis of the near subsurface of unconsolidated regolith on bodies such as moons, asteroids and planets. Below a chemically altered surface may lay the geological history in the form of stratigraphy that is shielded from degradation due to harsh external environments. Most of what we know about our solar system comes from remote platforms, such as satellites that are deployed into orbit around the target body. In the case of Mars, we have had several successful landers and rovers however, with the exception of the Mars Science Laboratory that just drilled its first hole, the complexity of subsurface excavation has limited the extent of subsurface exploration to simple scoops deployed on the ends of robotic arms which, by their very nature, will erase any stratigraphy that it may be digging into. The OPRA instrumentation concept allows for an integrated, lightweight and simple apparatus for subsurface exploration via a small, spike like structure which contains integrated optical fibers coupled to small windows running down the length of the probe. Each window is connected to a spectrometer housed onboard the deploying spacecraft. Each window is separately interrogated via the spectrometer over the wavelength range 1-2.5 nm to produce a spectroscopic profile as a function of depth. This project takes the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the OPRA instrumentation concept to level 3, which is defined by NASA to be the demonstration either analytically or experimentally of the proof of concept for critical functions of the proposed instrument. Firstly, to demonstrate that optical fibers are feasible for this type of application, we report on the techniques used by NASA to space qualify optical fibers. We investigate the optical performance of several fiber optic bundle configurations, both experimentally and numerically, to help optimize bundle performance

  7. Trace elements as quantitative probes of differentiation processes in planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The characteristic trace element signature that each mineral in the source region imparts on the magma constitutes the conceptual basis for trace element modeling. It is shown that abundances of trace elements in extrusive igneous rocks may be used as petrological and geochemical probes of the source regions of the rocks if differentiation processes, partition coefficients, phase equilibria, and initial concentrations in the source region are known. Although compatible and incompatible trace elements are useful in modeling, the present review focuses primarily on examples involving the rare-earth elements.

  8. Surface and downhole prospecting tools for planetary exploration: tests of neutron and gamma ray probes.

    PubMed

    Elphic, R C; Chu, P; Hahn, S; James, M R; Lawrence, D J; Prettyman, T H; Johnson, J B; Podgorney, R K

    2008-06-01

    The ability to locate and characterize icy deposits and other hydrogenous materials on the Moon and Mars will help us understand the distribution of water and, therefore, possible habitats at Mars, and may help us locate primitive prebiotic compounds at the Moon's poles. We have developed a rover-borne neutron probe that localizes a near-surface icy deposit and provides information about its burial depth and abundance. We have also developed a borehole neutron probe to determine the stratigraphy of hydrogenous subsurface layers while operating within a drill string segment. In our field tests, we have used a neutron source to "illuminate" surrounding materials and gauge the instruments' efficacy, and we can simulate accurately the observed instrument responses using a Monte Carlo nuclear transport code (MCNPX). An active neutron source would not be needed for lunar or martian near-surface exploration: cosmic-ray interactions provide sufficient neutron flux to depths of several meters and yield better depth and abundance sensitivity than an active source. However, for deep drilling (>or=10 m depth), a source is required. We also present initial tests of a borehole gamma ray lithodensity tool and demonstrate its utility in determining soil or rock densities and composition.

  9. Floating Potential Probe Deployed on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 2000, at the request of the International Space Station (ISS) Program Office, a Plasma Contactor Unit Tiger Team was set up to investigate the threat of the ISS arcing in the event of a plasma contactor outage. Modeling and ground tests done under that effort showed that it is possible for the external structure of the ISS to become electrically charged to as much as -160 V under some conditions. Much of this work was done in anticipation of the deployment of the first large ISS solar array in November 2000. It was recognized that, with this deployment, the power system would be energized to its full voltage and that the predicted charging would pose an immediate threat to crewmembers involved in extravehicular activities (EVA's), as well as long-term damage to the station structure, were the ISS plasma contactors to be turned off or stop functioning. The Floating Potential Probe was conceived, designed, built, and deployed in record time by a crack team of scientists and engineers led by the NASA Glenn Research Center in response to ISS concerns about crew safety.

  10. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints were identified. The specific objectives for this reporting period were (1) to perform an analysis of the effects of PQ on an outer planet atmospheric probe, and (2) to prepare a quantitative illustration of spacecraft microbial reduction resulting from exposure to space environments. The Jupiter Orbiter Probe mission was used as a model for both of these efforts.

  11. Surface and Downhole Prospecting Tools for Planetary Exploration: Tests of Neutron and Gamma Ray Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; Prettyman, T.; Chu, P.; Podgorney, R. K.; Hubbell, J. M.; Johnson, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    Future exploration of the Moon and Mars will include searching for in situ resources for living off the land, and assessing the ease with which such resources can be extracted and used. Moreover, on Mars the search includes identification of biomarkers, ancient or contemporary habitats, and understanding the three- dimensional distribution and physical state of water. The ability to detect, localize and characterize hydrogenous materials is key to both successful resource prospecting and exploration science. Equally important is the ability to do so without disturbing the target materials. We discuss three instruments specifically aimed at detecting and assessing deposits such as water ice or other hydrogenous materials. The Surface Neutron Probe (SNeuP) identifies locales with near-surface hydrogen-bearing deposits. Mounted on a rover, SNeuP provides a record of average hydrogen abundance with position and time during a traverse. Lightweight and non-intrusive, the instrument measures neutrons produced by cosmic-ray interaction with nearby soils and rocks. There is no need for the additional mass, power and operational risk of an active neutron source. Once SNeuP has identified a promising prospect, the drill-integrated Borehole Neutron Probe (BNeuP) explores the third dimension, depth, and logs hydrogenous layers, such as water ice or hydrous minerals. Both instruments sense the presence of hydrogenous materials by measuring variations in the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes. We have carried out tests of the SNeuP instrument, and have demonstrated its ability to detect and locate near-surface hydrogen-bearing deposits. These tests have shown that it is possible to estimate depth and hydrogen abundance remotely, while roving. We have also tested BNeuP in a drilling configuration and have demonstrated its ability to locate and quantify the water-equivalent hydrogen content of layered deposits. We describe a BNeuP field test in layered Snake River basalts near

  12. The International Space Analogue Rock Store (ISAR): A key tool for future planetary exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Ramboz, C.; Foucher, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to prepare the next in situ space missions we have created a « lithothèque » of analogue rocks for calibrating and testing future (and existing) space flight instruments. This rock collection is called the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR) and is hosted in the CNRS and the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers en Region Centre (OSUC) in Orléans. For maximum science return, all instruments on a single mission should ideally be tested with the same suite of relevant analogue materials. The ISAR lithothéque aims to fulfill this role by providing suitable materials to instrument teams [1]. The lithothèque is accompanied by an online database of all relevant structural, textural, and geochemical data (www.isar.cnrs-orleans.fr).The data base will also be available during missions to aid interpretation of data obtained in situ. Mars is the immediate goal for MSL-2011 and the new international Mars 2018 mission. The lithothèque thus presently contains relevant Mars-analogue rock and mineral samples, a preliminary range of which is now available to the scientific community for instrument testing [2]. The preliminary group of samples covers a range of lithologies to be found on Mars, especially those in Noachain/Hesperian terrains where MSL will land (Gale Crater) and where the 2018 landing site will most likely be located. It includes a variety of basalts (tephrite, primitive basalt, silicified basalt; plus cumulates), komatiites, artificially synthesized martian basalts [3], volcanic sands, a banded iron formation, carbonates associated with volcanic lithologies and hydrothermalism, the clay Nontronite, and hydrothermal cherts. Some of the silicified volcanic sands contain traces of early life that are good analogues for potential martian life [4]. [1] Westall F. et al., LPI contribution 1608, 1346, 42nd LPSC, 2011; [2] Bost N. et al., in review (Icarus); [3] Bost N. et al., in review (Meteoritics); [4] Westall et al., 2011, Planetary and Space

  13. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  14. Early Results from the Floating Potential Probe on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on the International Space Station (ISS). The FPP measures the body voltage (electric potential) of the, and the measurements are then transmitted to Earth.

  15. Satellite radio occultation investigations of internal gravity waves in the planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillovich, Ivan; Gubenko, Vladimir; Pavelyev, Alexander

    Internal gravity waves (IGWs) modulate the structure and circulation of the Earth’s atmosphere, producing quasi-periodic variations in the wind velocity, temperature and density. Similar effects are anticipated for the Venus and Mars since IGWs are a characteristic of stably stratified atmosphere. In this context, an original method for the determination of IGW parameters from a vertical temperature profile measurement in a planetary atmosphere has been developed [Gubenko et al., 2008, 2011, 2012]. This method does not require any additional information not contained in the profile and may be used for the analysis of profiles measured by various techniques. The criterion for the IGW identification has been formulated and argued. In the case when this criterion is satisfied, the analyzed temperature fluctuations can be considered as wave-induced. The method is based on the analysis of relative amplitudes of the wave field and on the linear IGW saturation theory in which these amplitudes are restricted by dynamical (shear) instability processes in the atmosphere. When the amplitude of an internal wave reaches the shear instability threshold, energy is assumed to be dissipated in such a way that the IGW amplitude is maintained at the instability threshold level as the wave propagates upwards. We have extended the developed technique [Gubenko et al., 2008] in order to reconstruct the complete set of wave characteristics including such important parameters as the wave kinetic and potential energy per unit mass and IGW fluxes of the energy and horizontal momentum [Gubenko et al., 2011]. We propose also an alternative method to estimate the relative amplitudes and to extract IGW parameters from an analysis of perturbations of the Brunt-Vaislala frequency squared [Gubenko et al., 2011]. An application of the developed method to the radio occultation (RO) temperature data has given the possibility to identify the IGWs in the Earth's, Martian and Venusian atmospheres and

  16. Remote sensing of the turbulence characteristics of a planetary atmosphere by radio occultation of a space probe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.; Ishimaru, A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of small-scale turbulence on radio waves propagating through a planetary atmosphere. The analysis provides a technique for inferring the turbulence characteristics of a planetary atmosphere from the radio signals received from a spacecraft as it is occulted by the planet. The planetary turbulence is assumed to be localized and smoothly varying, with the structure constant varying exponentially with altitude. Rytov's method is used to derive the variance of log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of a wave propagating through the atmosphere.

  17. An ion thruster internal discharge chamber electrostatic probe diagnostic technique using a high-speed probe positioning system.

    PubMed

    Herman, Daniel A; Gallimore, Alec D

    2008-01-01

    Extensive resources have been allocated to diagnose and minimize lifetime-limiting factors in gridded ion thrusters. While most of this effort has focused on grid erosion, results from wear tests indicate that discharge cathode erosion may also play an important role in limiting the lifetime of ring-cusp ion thrusters proposed for future large flagship missions. The detailed characterization of the near-cathode discharge plasma is essential for mitigating discharge cathode erosion. However, severe difficulty is encountered when attempting to measure internal discharge plasma parameters during thruster operation with conventional probing techniques. These difficulties stem from the high-voltage, high-density discharge cathode plume, which is a hostile environment for probes. A method for interrogating the discharge chamber plasma of a working ion thruster over a two-dimensional grid is demonstrated. The high-speed axial reciprocating probe positioning system is used to minimize thruster perturbation during probe insertion and to reduce heating of the probe. Electrostatic probe measurements from a symmetric double Langmuir probe are presented over a two-dimensional spatial array in the near-discharge cathode assembly region of a 30-cm-diameter ring-cusp ion thruster. Electron temperatures, 2-5 eV, and number density contours, with a maximum of 8 x 10(12) cm(-3) on centerline, are measured. These data provide detailed electron temperature and number density contours which, when combined with plasma potential measurements, may shed light on discharge cathode erosion processes and the effect of thruster operating conditions on erosion rates.

  18. High-efficiency and high-resolution apertureless plasmonic near-field probe under internal illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, R. H.; Chou, H. C.; Chu, J. Y.; Chen, C.; Yen, T. J.

    2016-09-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) offers subwavelength optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit, enabling practical applications in optical imaging, sensing and nanolithography. However, due to the sub-100 nm size of apertures, conventional NSOM aperture probes suffer from the constrains of the strong attenuation of the throughput and limited the spatial resolution. To solve the problem, we designed a novel scheme for apertureless plasmonic probes with radial internal illumination. Employing non-periodic multi-rings geometry for plasmonic excitations, surface plasmons adiabatically nanofocuse energy at tip and the full width at half maximum of the optimal design is 18 nm. The proposed probe was optimized with 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis and realistic parabolic probe geometries. Comprehensive electromagnetic simulation shows that the optimal probe feature obeys Fabry-Pérot condition on the plasmonic metallic wall, giving rise to substantial field enhancement up to 6 orders of magnitude greater than conventional aperture probes without degrading its spatial resolution. We fabricated the proposed probe which possesses apex angle ( 22 degree) and tip radius ( 30 nm). Finally, the proposed near field plasmonic probe effectively combining the high resolution of apertureless probes with high throughput can enable the proposed plasmonic NSOM probe as a practical tool for applications in near field optical microscopy.

  19. Diagnosing pure-electron plasmas with internal particle flux probes.

    PubMed

    Kremer, J P; Pedersen, T Sunn; Marksteiner, Q; Lefrancois, R G; Hahn, M

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for measuring local plasma potential, density, and temperature of pure-electron plasmas using emissive and Langmuir probes are described. The plasma potential is measured as the least negative potential at which a hot tungsten filament emits electrons. Temperature is measured, as is commonly done in quasineutral plasmas, through the interpretation of a Langmuir probe current-voltage characteristic. Due to the lack of ion-saturation current, the density must also be measured through the interpretation of this characteristic thereby greatly complicating the measurement. Measurements are further complicated by low densities, low cross field transport rates, and large flows typical of pure-electron plasmas. This article describes the use of these techniques on pure-electron plasmas in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) stellarator. Measured values for present baseline experimental parameters in CNT are phi(p)=-200+/-2 V, T(e)=4+/-1 eV, and n(e) on the order of 10(12) m(-3) in the interior.

  20. Probing Planetary Bodies for Subsurface Volatiles: GEANT4 Models of Gamma Ray, Fast, Epithermal, and Thermal Neutron Response to Active Neutron Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Su, J. J.; Murray, J.

    2014-12-01

    Using an active source of neutrons as an in situ probe of a planetary body has proven to be a powerful tool to extract information about the presence, abundance, and location of subsurface volatiles without the need for drilling. The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument on Curiosity is an example of such an instrument and is designed to detect the location and abundance of hydrogen within the top 50 cm of the Martian surface. DAN works by sending a pulse of neutrons towards the ground beneath the rover and detecting the reflected neutrons. The intensity and time of arrival of the reflection depends on the proportion of water, while the time the pulse takes to reach the detector is a function of the depth at which the water is located. Similar instruments can also be effective probes at the polar-regions of the Moon or on asteroids as a way of detecting sequestered volatiles. We present the results of GEANT4 particle simulation models of gamma ray, fast, epithermal, and thermal neutron responses to active neutron illumination. The results are parameterized by hydrogen abundance, stratification and depth of volatile layers, versus the distribution of neutron and gamma ray energy reflections. Models will be presented to approximate Martian, lunar, and asteroid environments and would be useful tools to assess utility for future NASA exploration missions to these types of planetary bodies.

  1. Conductivity and Dielectric Characteristics of Planetary Surfaces Measured with Mutual Impedance Probes: From Huygens and Rosetta Lander to Netlanders and Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, M.; Grard, R.; Laakso, H.; Ney, R.; Schmidt, W.; Simoes, F.; Trautner, R.

    2004-04-01

    probes should be able to detect also the vertical inhomogeneity of the medium (match with a two layer model). After presenting the actual instruments and projects (on HUYGENS, ROSETTA Lander and NETLANDER), we show the particular interest to use a flat system of electrodes laying on the surface at some distance from the spacecraft body that is particularly well suited for the case of a rover. We will show the design of a prototype actually prepared in CETP to be used in common calibrations with the other instruments in selected well-known terrains. 1. PRINCIPLE AND HERITAGE The measurement of the planetary surface complex permittivity (electrical conductivity and dielectric constant) vs. frequency has a twofold interest: i) to contribute with other parameters to the identification of the close sub-surface materials without penetrating the surface; ii) to characterize the electrical properties of the planetary surface which control the boundary conditions for electromagnetic waves and fields, including possible DC atmospheric electric currents. The mutual impedance (MI) probes of today's planetary missions are the heritage of the quadrupolar probes developed in the first half of the XXth century for oil prospecting [1]. The principle is to inject an AC current I in the planar homogeneous ground of relative permittivity eg through a first dipole and to measure the induced potential by this dipole or by a second dipole to obtain respectively the self and mutual impedances.

  2. Narrowband Near-Infrared Imaging of Young Planetary Nebulae and Transition Objects: Probing Core and Halo Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Latter, William B.

    1997-01-01

    The new images presented here have high spatial resolution and are very sensitive to low levels of emission. We compare our new data to existing imaging and spectroscopic data to give clues as to the structure and formation of planetary nebulae, the role of shocks, and the evolution of photon-dominated regions.

  3. Edesign: Primer and Enhanced Internal Probe Design Tool for Quantitative PCR Experiments and Genotyping Assays.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasumasa; Soma, Takahiro; Kasahara, Naoko; Delobel, Diane; Hanami, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yuki; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Usui, Kengo; Harbers, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Analytical PCR experiments preferably use internal probes for monitoring the amplification reaction and specific detection of the amplicon. Such internal probes have to be designed in close context with the amplification primers, and may require additional considerations for the detection of genetic variations. Here we describe Edesign, a new online and stand-alone tool for designing sets of PCR primers together with an internal probe for conducting quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and genotypic experiments. Edesign can be used for selecting standard DNA oligonucleotides like for instance TaqMan probes, but has been further extended with new functions and enhanced design features for Eprobes. Eprobes, with their single thiazole orange-labelled nucleotide, allow for highly sensitive genotypic assays because of their higher DNA binding affinity as compared to standard DNA oligonucleotides. Using new thermodynamic parameters, Edesign considers unique features of Eprobes during primer and probe design for establishing qPCR experiments and genotyping by melting curve analysis. Additional functions in Edesign allow probe design for effective discrimination between wild-type sequences and genetic variations either using standard DNA oligonucleotides or Eprobes. Edesign can be freely accessed online at http://www.dnaform.com/edesign2/, and the source code is available for download.

  4. Planetary protection on international waters: An onboard protocol for capsule retrieval and biosafety control in sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Sekine, Yasuhito; Funase, Ryu; Takai, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Planetary protection has been recognized as one of the most important issues in sample return missions that may host certain living forms and biotic signatures in a returned sample. This paper proposes an initiative of sample capsule retrieval and onboard biosafety protocol in international waters for future biological and organic constituent missions to bring samples from possible habitable bodies in the solar system. We suggest the advantages of international waters being outside of national jurisdiction and active regions of human and traffic affairs on the condition that we accept the Outer Space Treaty. The scheme of onboard biological quarantine definitely reduces the potential risk of back-contamination of extraterrestrial materials to the Earth.

  5. Achievement of Broad Acceleration Profile for Launching Active Transient Internal Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyundae; Jarboe, Thomas; Mattick, Arthur; Smith, Roger

    2003-10-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is a diagnostic for the direct measurement of internal local magnetic or electric fields with high spatial and temporal resolution (1 cm, 1 MHz). A two-stage light-gas gun launches an optic probe at high velocity (1.5 km/s ˜ 1.8 km/s) so that the probe can transit the plasma before severe ablation occurs. The polarization change of a light, retroreflected after double-pass through the probe, provides one component of the field measurements along a chord of a plasma. A Faraday rotator glass or a Pockels cell has been used for the present passive optic probes. Active probes, currently in development, utilizing on-board sensor and electronics will allow measurements of multi-parameters including 3-D magnetic- and electric fields, plasma temperature, and density. The frequency-modulated sensor information will be transmitted to the remote detector using a LED or a laser diode. At issue is whether the on-board microelectronic components will survive the high acceleration during launch. A recent study emonstrated the survivability of a standard size electronic circuitry on ˜ 25 mm diameter circuit board, launched in a rail-gun at ˜ 1 × 10^6 m/s^2 (0.1 Mg¡¯s). [1] Considering the size of the TIP probes, ( ˜ 5 mm in diameter) it is believed the TIP active probes with surface-mount electronic components will survive much higher accelerations, up to 2 × 10^6 m/s^2 or more. Experimental and numerical studies of the TIP light gas gun have been performed to achieve a launch condition that lowers the peak acceleration and broadens the acceleration profile of the probe. [1] K. A. Schroder et al, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 35(1), Jan. 1999

  6. Nasa's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; Scheuger, A.; Race, M.

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  7. NASA's International Space Station: A Testbed for Planetary Protection Protocol Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, M. S.; Rucker, M.; Love, S.; Johnson, J.; Chambliss, J.; Pierson, D.; Ott, M.; Mary, N.; Glass, B.; Lupisella, M.; Scheuger, A.; Race, M.

    2015-01-01

    Wherever humans go, they inevitably carry along the critters that live in and on them. Conventional wisdom has long held that it is unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 some microscopic aquatic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the ISS. Unlike the Mars rovers that were cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? What about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? How will these contaminants migrate from their source in conditions encountered in space or on other planetary surfaces? This project aims to answer some of these questions by bringing together key stakeholder communities to develop a human forward contamination test, analysis, and integration plan. A system engineering approach to identify the experiments, analysis, and modeling needed to develop the contamination control protocols required will be used as a roadmap to integrate the many different parts of this problem - from launch to landing, living, and working on another planetary surface.

  8. Probing the internal composition of neutron stars with gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Yagi, Kent; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolás

    2015-11-01

    Gravitational waves from neutron star binary inspirals contain information about the as yet unknown equation of state of supranuclear matter. In the absence of definitive experimental evidence that determines the correct equation of state, a number of diverse models that give the pressure inside a neutron star as function of its density have been constructed by nuclear physicists. These models differ not only in the approximations and techniques they employ to solve the many-body Schrödinger equation, but also in the internal neutron star composition they assume. We study whether gravitational wave observations of neutron star binaries in quasicircular inspirals up to contact will allow us to distinguish between equations of state of differing internal composition, thereby providing important information about the properties and behavior of extremely high density matter. We carry out a Bayesian model selection analysis, and find that second generation gravitational wave detectors can heavily constrain equations of state that contain only quark matter, but hybrid stars containing both normal and quark matter are typically harder to distinguish from normal matter stars. A gravitational wave detection with a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 and masses around 1.4 M⊙ would provide indications of the existence or absence of strange quark stars, while a signal-to-noise ratio 30 detection could either detect or rule out strange quark stars with a 20 to 1 confidence. The presence of kaon condensates or hyperons in neutron star inner cores cannot be easily confirmed. For example, for the equations of state studied in this paper, even a gravitational wave signal with a signal-to-noise ratio as high as 60 would not allow us to claim a detection of kaon condensates or hyperons with confidence greater than 5 to 1. On the other hand, if kaon condensates and hyperons do not form in neutron stars, a gravitational wave signal with similar signal-to-noise ratio would be able to

  9. Ultrafast internal conversion dynamics of highly excited pyrrole studied with VUV/UV pump probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Spencer L.; Liu, Yusong; Chakraborty, Pratip; Matsika, Spiridoula; Weinacht, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of pyrrole after excitation with an 8 eV pump pulse to a state just 0.2 eV below the ionization potential using vacuum ultraviolet/ultraviolet pump probe spectroscopy. Our measurements in conjunction with electronic structure calculations indicate that pyrrole undergoes rapid internal conversion to the ground state in less than 300 fs. We find that internal conversion to the ground state dominates over dissociation.

  10. Probing the Internal Composition of Neutron Stars with Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Yagi, Kent; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waves from neutron star binaries carry information about the equation of state of supranuclear matter through a parameter called tidal deformability. This parameter measures the quadrupole deformation of a neutron star in the presence of an external field. Its measurability has been assessed in a number of studies, concluding it could provide important information about the equation of state of neutron star matter. In this talk, I will describe a complimentary approach to the problem of equation of state determination, one which focuses on how information from gravitational waves can be translated in ways that could be of direct benefit to nuclear physicists. Specifically, I will talk about what gravitational waves can tell us about the internal composition of neutron stars, information that is directly applicable to equation of state modeling. I will also briefly discuss the importance of spin-induced precession in the quality of information extracted. We acknowledge support from the Onassis Foundation, NSF CAREER Grant PHY-1250636, NSF Award PHY-1306702, and NSF CAREER Grant PHY-1055103.

  11. Design of a dual sensor probe array for internal field measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torusa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong-hun, Yang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; An, YoungHwa; Jung, Bong Ki; Jo, Jong Gab; Hwang, Y. S.

    2012-10-01

    A dual sensor probe array is designed and constructed for internal magnetic field measurement at Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at the Seoul National University. Simultaneous use of Hall sensors and chip inductors allows cross-calibration among the measurements and compensation for each other's weaknesses while their small sizes are expected to cause only mild plasma perturbations. Calibration of the dual sensor probe array, using a Helmholtz coil, shows good sensitivity for the magnetic field measurement of the VEST. Prior to Ohmic start-up, the magnetic field structure inside the vacuum chamber is measured by using the calibrated probe array. The dual sensor probe array is expected to be useful in analyzing the temporal magnetic field structure change during the magnetic reconnection and in reconstruction of the current profile during the discharge of the VEST device.

  12. Design of a dual sensor probe array for internal field measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Jeong-hun, Yang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; An, YoungHwa; Jung, Bong Ki; Jo, Jong Gab; Hwang, Y S

    2012-10-01

    A dual sensor probe array is designed and constructed for internal magnetic field measurement at Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at the Seoul National University. Simultaneous use of Hall sensors and chip inductors allows cross-calibration among the measurements and compensation for each other's weaknesses while their small sizes are expected to cause only mild plasma perturbations. Calibration of the dual sensor probe array, using a Helmholtz coil, shows good sensitivity for the magnetic field measurement of the VEST. Prior to Ohmic start-up, the magnetic field structure inside the vacuum chamber is measured by using the calibrated probe array. The dual sensor probe array is expected to be useful in analyzing the temporal magnetic field structure change during the magnetic reconnection and in reconstruction of the current profile during the discharge of the VEST device.

  13. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  14. Initial Results of the SSPX Transient Internal Probe System for Measuring Toroidal Field Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mattick, A. T.; Hill, D. N.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.; Cellamare, V.

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA. The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) is using a field profile diagnostic called the Transient Internal Probe (TIP). TIP consists of a verdet-glass bullet that is used to measure the magnetic field by Faraday rotation. This probe is shot through the spheromak by a light gas gun at speeds near 2 km/s. An argon laser is aligned along the path of the probe. The light passes through the probe and is retro-reflected to an ellipsometer that measures the change in polarization angle. The measurement is spatially resolved down to the probes’ 1 cm length to within 15 Gauss. Initial testing results are given. This and future data will be used to determine the field profile for equilibrium reconstruction. TIP can also be used in conjunction with wall probes to map out toroidal mode amplitudes and phases internally. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  15. Heterogeneity in maize starch granule internal architecture deduced from diffusion of fluorescent dextran probes.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Shelat, Kinnari J; Shrestha, Ashok K; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-04-02

    Heterogeneity in maize starch granules was investigated by studying the diffusion of fluorescent dextran probes (20, 70 and 150kDa) inside granules using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching combined with confocal microscopy. Access of probes to the interior of granules was greatly enhanced by limited (2.4%) amylolysis. The diffusion of probes within granules was found to be either 'fast' with diffusion coefficients in the order of 10(-6)cm(2)s(-1) or 'slow' with diffusion coefficients in the order of 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1), independent of the size of dextran probes or prior treatment of the granules by α-amylase. Results were compared with observations of pores and channels in granules by electron microscopy and by confocal microscopy after labelling with 8-amino-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid. It is proposed that there is an inherent heterogeneity of internal architecture in maize starch granules due to the presence or absence in individual granules of (a) pores leading to a central cavity, resulting in 'fast' diffusion of dextran probes and (b) accessibility of the starch polymer matrix to dextran probes, leading to 'slow' diffusion behaviour. The observed heterogeneity of maize starch granule porosity has implications for chemical modification reactions and the kinetics of digestion with amylases.

  16. Radial metallicity gradients in spiral galaxies from H II regions and planetary nebulae: probing galactic chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Letizia

    2015-08-01

    Radial metallicity gradients, typically observed in spiral galaxies, are excellent constraints for chemical evolution models. The contemporary studies of the two stellar populations, whose progenitors have formed at different times, yield to the chemical and time constraining of the models. In this context, planetary nebula and HII region analysis proved to be ideal two-epochs test populations. We present an assortment of galaxies whose oxygen abundances have been determined both with weak- and strong-line methods, and whose radial metallicity gradients and their evolution in time have disclosed very interesting correlations with the galaxy characteristics. New results from our Gemini/GMOS observations, and a review of the best literature data, set the stage for a better understanding of spiral galaxy evolution.

  17. Galileo spacecraft integration - International cooperation on a planetary mission in the Shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spehalski, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Galileo mission is designed to greatly expand scientific knowledge of Jupiter and its system. The retropropulsion module (RPM) as a major functional element of the Galileo spacecraft is described. The major mission and spacecraft requirements on the RPM are presented. Complexities of the integration process due to the international interface are identified. Challenges associated with integration with new launch vehicles, the Shuttle and upper stage, and their relationships to the RPM are discussed. The results of the integration process involving mission and propulsion performance, reliability, mechanical and thermal interfaces, and safety are described. Finally, considerations and recommendations for future missions involving international cooperation are given.

  18. The role of World Data Centers and the Lunar and Planetary Institute in the international exchange of lunar and planetary data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waranius, F. B.

    1980-01-01

    The success of many lunar and planetary investigations has resulted in the accumulation of a mass of data in a myriad of formats and medias. The application of these data to comparative planetology, origin of the solar system, and potential industrial applications of space has made it necessary for scientists from many disciplines to have access to the data. The collections of these data are so diverse that it is often difficult to select what is needed based on catalog information alone. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) proposes to bring the user and the data together. As a research support organization operated by the Universities Space Research Association, the LPI through its active Visiting Scientist Program, a balanced program of study workshops and topical conferences, and organized and supervised data collections has assisted scientists, educators, and students to review, study, and obtain the data necessary to the pursuit of their research.

  19. Tunable Laser Spectrometers for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. R.; Flesch, G. J.; Forouhar, S.; Christensen, L. E.; Briggs, R.; Keymeulen, D.; Blacksberg, J.; Alerstam, E.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-10-01

    Tunable laser spectrometers enjoy a wide range of applications in scientific research, medicine, industry, Earth and planetary space missions. We will describe instruments for planetary probes, aircraft, balloon, landers and CubeSats.

  20. Planetary systems: Formation, evolution, and detection; Proceedings of the First International Conference, Pasadena, California, Dec. 8-10, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Bernard F. (Editor); Rahe, Jurgen H. (Editor); Roettger, Elizabeth E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The papers in these proceedings relate to our present understanding about planetary system formation, the various methods and imaging techniques that may be used in searching for planets (or protoplanets) that are outside of the solar system (extrasolar planets), and the stars that seem most likely to have planetary systems, using recent observations. It was noted at the conference that, at this time, the only confirmed example of a planetary system is the one that surrounds our sun.

  1. THE CHANDRA X-RAY SURVEY OF PLANETARY NEBULAE (CHANPLANS): PROBING BINARITY, MAGNETIC FIELDS, AND WIND COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R. Jr.; Rapson, V.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Frank, A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Guerrero, M. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Behar, E.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; Sandin, C. E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.il; and others

    2012-08-15

    We present an overview of the initial results from the Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first systematic (volume-limited) Chandra X-Ray Observatory survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The first phase of CHANPLANS targeted 21 mostly high-excitation PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc of Earth, yielding four detections of diffuse X-ray emission and nine detections of X-ray-luminous point sources at the central stars (CSPNe) of these objects. Combining these results with those obtained from Chandra archival data for all (14) other PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc that have been observed to date, we find an overall X-ray detection rate of {approx}70% for the 35 sample objects. Roughly 50% of the PNe observed by Chandra harbor X-ray-luminous CSPNe, while soft, diffuse X-ray emission tracing shocks-in most cases, 'hot bubbles'-formed by energetic wind collisions is detected in {approx}30%; five objects display both diffuse and point-like emission components. The presence (or absence) of X-ray sources appears correlated with PN density structure, in that molecule-poor, elliptical nebulae are more likely to display X-ray emission (either point-like or diffuse) than molecule-rich, bipolar, or Ring-like nebulae. All but one of the point-like CSPNe X-ray sources display X-ray spectra that are harder than expected from hot ({approx}100 kK) central stars emitting as simple blackbodies; the lone apparent exception is the central star of the Dumbbell nebula, NGC 6853. These hard X-ray excesses may suggest a high frequency of binary companions to CSPNe. Other potential explanations include self-shocking winds or PN mass fallback. Most PNe detected as diffuse X-ray sources are elliptical nebulae that display a nested shell/halo structure and bright ansae; the diffuse X-ray emission regions are confined within inner, sharp-rimmed shells. All sample PNe that display diffuse X-ray emission have inner shell dynamical ages {approx}< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup

  2. Occultations of Astrophysical Radio Sources as Probes of Planetary Environments: A Case Study of Jupiter and Possible Applications to Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Paul; Vogt, Marissa F.

    2017-02-01

    Properties of planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres are difficult to measure from Earth. Radio occultations are a common method for measuring these properties, but they traditionally rely on radio transmissions from a spacecraft near the planet. Here, we explore whether occultations of radio emissions from a distant astrophysical radio source can be used to measure magnetic field strength, plasma density, and neutral density around planets. In a theoretical case study of Jupiter, we find that significant changes in polarization angle due to Faraday rotation occur for radio signals that pass within 10 Jupiter radii of the planet and that significant changes in frequency and power occur from radio signals that pass through the neutral atmosphere. There are sufficient candidate radio sources, such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, and masers, that occultations are likely to occur at least once per year. For pulsars, time delays in the arrival of their emitted pulses can be used to measure plasma density. Exoplanets, whose physical properties are very challenging to observe, may also occult distant astrophysical radio sources, such as their parent stars.

  3. Surface and Downhole Prospecting Tools for Planetary Exploration: Tests of Neutron and Gamma Ray Probes - Research Paper

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Elphic; P. Chu; S. Hahn; M. R. James; D. J. Lawrence; T. H. Prettyman; J. B. Johnson; R. K. Podgorney

    2008-06-01

    The ability to locate and characterize icy deposits and other hydrogenous materials on the Moon and Mars will help us understand the distribution of water and, therefore, possible habitats at Mars, and may help us locate primitive prebiotic compounds at the Moon’s poles. We have developed a rover-borne neutron probe that localizes a near-surface icy deposit and provides information about its burial depth and abundance. We have also developed a borehole neutron probe to determine the stratigraphy of hydrogenous subsurface layers while operating within a drill string segment. In our field tests, we have used a neutron source to “illuminate” surrounding materials and gauge the instruments’ efficacy, and we can simulate accurately the observed instrument responses using a Monte Carlo nuclear transport code (MCNPX). An active neutron source would not be needed for lunar or martian near-surface exploration: cosmic-ray interactions provide sufficient neutron flux to depths of several meters and yield better depth and abundance sensitivity than an active source. However, for deep drilling (>10 m depth), a source is required. We also present initial tests of a borehole gamma ray lithodensity tool and demonstrate its utility in determining soil or rock densities and composition.

  4. Transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe with B-flow imaging for extracranial internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Sakima, Hirokuni; Isa, Katsunori; Anegawa, Takahiro; Kokuba, Kazuhito; Nakachi, Koh; Goya, Yoshino; Tokashiki, Takashi; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Ohya, Yusuke

    2012-11-01

    We report on transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe with B-flow imaging for determining spontaneous extracranial internal carotid artery dissection just below the petrous portion. A 49-year-old man suffered cortical and subcortical infarction in the region of the right middle cerebral artery. Magnetic resonance angiography on the third day of admission revealed spontaneous recanalization of the right internal carotid artery associated with an intimal flap-like structure at the petrous portion. Transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe revealed right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection, showing an increased diameter of the right extracranial internal carotid artery with double lumen formation, stenosis of the true lumen, and a mobile intimal flap in B-flow imaging. Transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe was helpful to attempt a self-expanding stent for recanalizing right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. The patient recovered and was discharged ambulatory. The size of the micro convex probe was optimum for transoral carotid ultrasonography in our patient. Micro convex probe is more commonly used than the standard transoral carotid ultrasonography probe, which lacks versatility. We consider that transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe could be routinely used for ultrasonographic evaluation of extracranial internal carotid artery dissection.

  5. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Small and Large Scale Missions: Approaching TRL 6 for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions and TRL 9 for Small Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Gasch, M. J.; Milos, F. S.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Smith, B. P.; Switzer, M. R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wilder, M. C.; Boghhozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an effort to develop an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) material that would have improved properties when compared to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and AVCOAT. Their goal was a conformal material, processed with a flexible reinforcement that would result in similar or better thermal characteristics and higher strain-to-failure characteristics that would allow for easier integration on flight aeroshells than then-current rigid ablative TPS materials. In 2012, NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began funding the maturation of the best formulation of the game changing conformal ablator, C-PICA. Progress has been reported at IPPW over the past three years, describing C-PICA with a density and recession rates similar to PICA, but with a higher strain-to-failure which allows for direct bonding and no gap fillers, and even more important, with thermal characteristics resulting in half the temperature rise of PICA. Overall, C-PICA should be able to replace PICA with a thinner, lighter weight, less complicated design. These characteristics should be particularly attractive for use as backshell TPS on high energy planetary entry vehicles. At the end of this year, the material should be ready for missions to consider including in their design, in fact, NASAs Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is considering incentivizing the use of C-PICA in the next Discovery Proposal call. This year both scale up of the material to large (1-m) sized pieces and the design and build of small probe heatshields for flight tests will be completed. NASA, with an industry partner, will build a 1-m long manufacturing demonstration unit (MDU) with a shape based on a mid LD lifting body. In addition, in an effort to fly as you test and test as you fly, NASA, with a second industry partner, will build a small probe to test in the Interactive Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet and, using nearly the

  6. Continuing Studies of Planetary Atmospheres Associated With Experiments on the Galileo Jupiter Probe and Infrared Observations of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman,Jindra; Ragent, Boris

    1998-01-01

    The results of the nephelometer experiment conducted aboard the Probe of the Galileo mission to Jupiter are presented. The tenuous clouds and sparse particulate matter in the relatively particle-free 5-micron "hot spot" region of the Probe's descent were documented from about 0.46 bars to about 12 bars. Three regions of apparent coherent structure were noted, in addition to many indications of extremely small particle concentrations along the descent path. From the first valid measurement at about 0.46 bars down to about 0.55 bars a feeble decaying lower portion of a cloud, corresponding with the predicted ammonia particle cloud, was encountered. A denser, but still very modest, particle structure was present in the pressure regime extending from about 0.76 to a distinctive base at 1.34 bars, and is compatible with the expected ammonium hydrosulfide cloud. No massive water cloud was encountered, although below the second structure, a small, vertically thin layer at about 1.65 bars may be detached from the cloud above, but may also be water condensation, compatible with reported measurements of water abundance from other Galileo Mission experiments. A third small signal region, extending from about 1.9 to 4.5 bars, exhibited quite weak but still distinctive structure, and, although the identification of the light scatterers in this region is uncertain, may also be a water cloud perhaps associated with lateral atmospheric motion and/or reduced to a small mass density by atmospheric subsidence or other explanations. Rough descriptions of the particle size distributions and cloud properties in these regions have been derived, although they may be imprecise because of the small signals and experimental difficulties. These descriptions document the small number densities of particles, the moderate particle sizes, generally in the slightly submicron to few micron range, and the resulting small optical depths, mass densities due to particles, column particle number loading

  7. Continuing Studies of Planetary Atmospheres Associated with Experiments on the Galileo Jupiter Probe and Infrared Observations of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragent, Boris

    1998-01-01

    The results of the nephelometer experiment conducted aboard the Probe of the Galileo mission to Jupiter are presented. The tenuous clouds and sparse particulate matter in the relatively particle-free 5-micron "hot spot" region of the Probe's descent were documented from about 0.46 bars to about 12 bars. Three regions of apparent coherent structure were noted, in addition to many indications of extremely small particle concentrations along the descent path. From the first valid measurement at about 0.46 bars down to about 0.55 bars a feeble decaying lower portion of a cloud, corresponding with the predicted ammonia particle cloud, was encountered. A denser, but still very modest, particle structure was present in the pressure regime extending from about 0.76 to a distinctive base at 1.34 bars, and is compatible with the expected ammonium hydrosulfide cloud. No massive water cloud was encountered, although below the second structure, a small, vertically thin layer at about 1.65 bars may be detached from the cloud above, but may also be water condensation, compatible with reported measurements of water abundance from other Galileo Mission experiments. A third small signal region, extending from about 1.9 to 4.5 bars, exhibited quite weak but still distinctive structure, and, although the identification of the light scatterers in this region is uncertain, may also be a water cloud perhaps associated with lateral atmospheric motion and/or reduced to a small mass density by atmospheric subsidence or other explanations. Rough descriptions of the particle size distributions and cloud properties in these regions have been derived, although they may be imprecise because of the small signals and experimental difficulties. These descriptions document the small number densities of particles, the moderate particle sizes, generally in the slightly submicron to few micron range, and the resulting small optical depths, mass densities due to particles, column particle number loading

  8. Synthesis, metal coordination, and cellular internalization of a siderophore-bearing NIR fluorescent carbocyanine probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yunpeng; Xu, Baogang; Bloch, Sharon; Achilefu, Samuel

    2006-02-01

    In order to explore novel NIR fluorescent probes for optical imaging in biomedicines, one desferrioxamine (DFO)-bearing NIR fluorescent probe was designed and synthesized based on a dicarboxylic acid-containing carbocyanine (Cypate). Similar to the free DFO, the resulting conjugate Cypate-DFO showed high binding affinity with Fe(III) and Ga(III) as identified by ES-MS. Nevertheless, the iron binding was found to quench its fluorescent emission significantly, suggesting that the siderophore moiety might perturb the spectroscopic properties of the attached carbocyanine fluorophore through metal binding. As observed by fluorescence microscopy, Cypate-DFO showed significant cellular internalization in A549 cells in vitro. Further studies on novel Cypate-DFO derivatives of this type may reveal some exciting properties and biological activities.

  9. Measuring planetary field parameters by scattered cubes from the Husar-5 rover: educational space probe construction for a field work mission with great number of 5 cm sized sensorcube units launched from the rover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Kocsis, A.; Gats, J.

    2015-10-01

    The Hunveyor-Husar project tries to keep step with the main trends in the space research, in our recent case with the so called MSSM (Micro Sized Space- Mothership) and NPSDR (Nano, Pico Space Devices and Robots). [1]Of course, we do not want to scatter the smaller probe-cubes from a mothership, but from the Husar rover, and to do it on the planetary surface after landing.

  10. Development of internal magnetic probe for current density profile measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, J. W.; Jung, B. K.; Chung, K. J.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    An internal magnetic probe using Hall sensors to measure a current density profile directly with perturbation of less than 10% to the plasma current is successfully operated for the first time in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). An appropriate Hall sensor is chosen to produce sufficient signals for VEST magnetic field while maintaining the small size of 10 mm in outer diameter. Temperature around the Hall sensor in a typical VEST plasma is regulated by blown air of 2 bars. First measurement of 60 kA VEST ohmic discharge shows a reasonable agreement with the total plasma current measured by Rogowski coil in VEST.

  11. Development of internal magnetic probe for current density profile measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Lee, J W; Jung, B K; Chung, K J; Hwang, Y S

    2014-11-01

    An internal magnetic probe using Hall sensors to measure a current density profile directly with perturbation of less than 10% to the plasma current is successfully operated for the first time in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). An appropriate Hall sensor is chosen to produce sufficient signals for VEST magnetic field while maintaining the small size of 10 mm in outer diameter. Temperature around the Hall sensor in a typical VEST plasma is regulated by blown air of 2 bars. First measurement of 60 kA VEST ohmic discharge shows a reasonable agreement with the total plasma current measured by Rogowski coil in VEST.

  12. Exo-C: a probe-scale space observatory for direct imaging and spectroscopy of extrasolar planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Dekens, Frank G.; Brenner, Michael P.; Warfield, Keith R.; Belikov, Ruslan; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Dubovitsky, Serge; Effinger, Robert T.; Hirsch, Brian; Kissil, Andrew; Krist, John E.; Lang, Jared J.; Marley, Mark S.; McElwain, Michael W.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Nissen, Joel; Oseas, Jeffrey M.; Pong, Chris; Serabyn, Eugene; Sunada, Eric; Trauger, John T.; Unwin, Stephen C.

    2015-09-01

    "Exo-C" is NASAs first community study of a modest aperture space telescope mission that is optimized for high contrast observations of exoplanetary systems. The mission will be capable of taking optical spectra of nearby exoplanets in reflected light, discovering previously undetected planets, and imaging structure in a large sample of circumstellar disks. It will obtain unique science results on planets down to super-Earth sizes and serve as a technology pathfinder toward an eventual flagship-class mission to find and characterize habitable Earth-like exoplanets. We present the mission/payload design and highlight steps to reduce mission cost/risk relative to previous mission concepts. Key elements are an unobscured telescope aperture, an internal coronagraph with deformable mirrors for precise wavefront control, and an orbit and observatory design chosen for high thermal stability. Exo-C has a similar telescope aperture, orbit, lifetime, and spacecraft bus requirements to the highly successful Kepler mission (which is our cost reference). Much of the needed technology development is being pursued under the WFIRST coronagraph study and would support a mission start in 2017, should NASA decide to proceed. This paper summarizes the study final report completed in March 2015.

  13. Newly Discovered Silicate Features in the Spectra of Young Warm Debris Disks: Probing Terrestrial Regions of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballering, N.; Rieke, G.

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial planets form by the collisional accretion of planetesimals during the first 100 Myr of a system’s lifetime. For most systems, the terrestrial regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging (e.g. with HST, MagAO, or LBTI) and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers (e.g. ALMA). Mid-infrared excess spectra—originating from the thermal emission of the circumstellar dust leftover from these collisions—remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. The spectra of most debris disks are featureless, taking the shape of (modified) blackbodies. Determining the properties of debris disks with featureless spectra is complicated by a degeneracy between the grain size and location (large grains near the star and small grains farther from the star may be indistinguishable). Debris disk spectra that exhibit solid state emission features allow for a more accurate determination of the dust size and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). We report here a successful search for such features. We identified our targets with a preliminary search for signs of emission features in the Spitzer IRS spectra of a number of young early type stars known to harbor warm debris disks. We fit to each target a physically-motivated model spectrum consisting of the sum of the stellar photosphere (modeled as a blackbody) and thermal emission from two dust belts. Each belt was defined by 6 parameters: the inner and outer orbital radii (rin and rout), the index of the radial surface density power law (rexp), the minimum and maximum grain sizes (amin and amax), and the index of the grain size distribution power law (aexp). aexp was fixed to -3.65 and amax was fixed to 1000 μm for all models; all other parameters were allowed to

  14. 7th International Workshop on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The extended abstracts that follow present a summary of the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at Columbia University’s Kellogg Center in New York City on March 15–17, 2006. These International Workshops on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response have been held regularly since 1993 (1–5). Since the first workshop, there has been a rapid growth (see Fig. 1) in the number of centers developing microbeams for radiobiological research, and worldwide there are currently about 30 microbeams in operation or under development. Single-cell/single-particle microbeam systems can deliver beams of different ionizing radiations with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers down to a few tenths of a micrometer. Microbeams can be used to addressquestions relating to the effects of low doses of radiation (a single radiation track traversing a cell or group of cells), to probe subcellular targets (e.g. nucleus or cytoplasm), and to address questions regarding the propagation of information about DNA damage (for example, the radiation-induced bystander effect). Much of the recent research using microbeams has been to study low-dose effects and ‘‘non-targeted’’ responses such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. This Workshop provided a forum to assess the current state of microbeam technology and current biological applications and to discuss future directions for development, both technological and biological. Over 100 participants reviewed the current state of microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments in the fields of both physics and biology.

  15. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  16. Amateur - professional collaborations in Giant Planets Atmospheres Research through the Planetary Virtual Observatory of the International Outer Planets Watch (PVOL - IOPW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, R.; Legarreta, J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2015-10-01

    The atmospheres node of the International Outer Planets Watch (IOPW) maintains a large database of observations of the Giant Planets called Planetary Virtual Observatory Laboratory (PVOL) [1]. This image repository is contributed by amateur astronomers worldwide and its images keep a record of atmospheric activity on Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus over the years. PVOL was created as an unfunded project that has been online since 2004. Its data content has been growing ever since then, now containing about 25,000 image files that cover the period 2000-2015. The main characteristic of PVOL, when compared with other amateur images repositories, is that it is built as a database with different searching tools. This characteristic has made PVOL an important research tool over the years for various scientific teams. Here we update the description of the data in PVOL and we discuss new development plans in the context of the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) collaboration which will bring life to a Virtual Observatory for Planetary Sciences. The database is available in the following address:

  17. Probing planetary pollution from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    The data sets obtained from instruments that have measured carbon monoxide and tropospheric ozone from space are reviewed. These instruments include a gas cell correlation radiometer named MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites), the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. Particular attention is given to differential absorption lidar technology which can determine the vertical distribution of aerosols and selected trace gases with considerably more resolution than passive remote sensing techniques. The current plans for monitoring pollution from spaceborne platforms are also discussed.

  18. Planetary Seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. In addition to Earth, seismometers have been installed on Venus, Mars, and the Moon. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon (now over 40 years ago) revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this talk I will discuss some of these methods and review the history of planetary seismology.

  19. Planetary protection - assaying new methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellen, J.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.

    Space age began in 1957 when the USSR launched the first satellite into earth orbit. In response to this new challenge the International Council for Science, formerly know as International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), established the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) in 1958. The role of COSPAR was to channel the international scientific research in space and establish an international forum. Through COSPAR the scientific community agreed on the need for screening interplanetary probes for forward (contamination of foreign planets) and backward (contamination of earth by returned samples/probes) contamination. To prevent both forms of contamination a set of rules, as a guideline was established. Nowadays the standard implementation of the planetary protection rules is based on the experience gained during NASA's Viking project in 1975/76. Since then the evaluation-methods for microbial contamination of spacecrafts have been changed or updated just slowly. In this study the standard method of sample taking will be evaluated. New methods for examination of those samples, based on the identification of life on the molecular level, will be reviewed and checked for their feasibility as microbial detection systems. The methods will be examined for their qualitative (detection and verification of different organisms) and quantitative (detection limit and concentration verification) qualities. Amongst the methods analyzed will be i.e. real-time / PCR (poly-chain-reaction), using specific primer-sets for the amplification of highly conserved rRNA or DNA regions. Measurement of intrinsic fluorescence, i.e ATP using luciferin-luciferase reagents. The use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) and microchips for microbial identification purposes. The methods will be chosen to give a good overall coverage of different possible molecular markers and approaches. The most promising methods shall then be lab-tested and evaluated for their use under spacecraft assembly

  20. Topographically induced internal solitary waves in a pycnocline: Ultrasonic probes and stereo-correlation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dossmann, Yvan; Paci, Alexandre; Auclair, Francis; Lepilliez, Mathieu; Cid, Emmanuel

    2014-05-15

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) are large amplitude stable waves propagating in regions of high density gradients such as the ocean pycnocline. Their dynamics has often been investigated in two-dimensional approaches, however, their three-dimensional evolution is still poorly known. Experiments have been conducted in the large stratified water tank of CNRM-GAME to study the generation of ISWs in two academic configurations inspired by oceanic regimes. First, ultrasonic probes are used to measure the interfacial displacement in the two configurations. In the primary generation case for which the two layers are of constant density, the generation of ISWs is investigated in two series of experiments with varying amplitude and forcing frequency. In the secondary generation case for which the lower layer is stratified, the generation of ISWs from the impact of an internal wave beam on the pycnocline and their subsequent dynamics is studied. The dynamics of ISWs in these two regimes accords well with analytical approaches and numerical simulations performed in analogous configurations. Then, recent developments of a stereo correlation technique are used to describe the three-dimensional structure of propagating ISWs. In the primary generation configuration, small transverse effects are observed in the course of the ISW propagation. In the secondary generation configuration, larger transverse structures are observed in the interfacial waves dynamics. The interaction between interfacial troughs and internal waves propagating in the lower stratified layer are a possible cause for the generation of these structures. The magnitude of these transverse structures is quantified with a nondimensional parameter in the two configurations. They are twice as large in the secondary generation case as in the primary generation case.

  1. Interfacing click chemistry with automated oligonucleotide synthesis for the preparation of fluorescent DNA probes containing internal xanthene and cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-14

    Double-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing fluorophores interacting by energy-transfer mechanisms are essential for modern bioanalysis, molecular diagnostics, and in vivo imaging techniques. Although bright xanthene and cyanine dyes are gaining increased prominence within these fields, little attention has thus far been paid to probes containing these dyes internally attached, a fact which is mainly due to the quite challenging synthesis of such oligonucleotide probes. Herein, by using 2'-O-propargyl uridine phosphoramidite and a series of xanthenes and cyanine azide derivatives, we have for the first time performed solid-phase copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click labeling during the automated phosphoramidite oligonucleotide synthesis followed by postsynthetic click reactions in solution. We demonstrate that our novel strategy is rapid and efficient for the preparation of novel oligonucleotide probes containing internally positioned xanthene and cyanine dye pairs and thus represents a significant step forward for the preparation of advanced fluorescent oligonucleotide probes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the novel xanthene and cyanine labeled probes display unusual and very promising photophysical properties resulting from energy-transfer interactions between the fluorophores controlled by nucleic acid assembly. Potential benefits of using these novel fluorescent probes within, for example, molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy include: Considerable Stokes shifts (40-110 nm), quenched fluorescence of single-stranded probes accompanied by up to 7.7-fold light-up effect of emission upon target DNA/RNA binding, remarkable sensitivity to single-nucleotide mismatches, generally high fluorescence brightness values (FB up to 26), and hence low limit of target detection values (LOD down to <5 nM).

  2. Extrasolar planetary systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.-S.

    1973-01-01

    The terms 'planet' and 'planet-like objects' are defined. The observational search for extrasolar planetary systems is described, as performable by earthbound optical telescopes, by space probes, by long baseline radio interferometry, and finally by inference from the reception of signals sent by intelligent beings in other worlds. It is shown that any planetary system must be preceded by a rotating disk of gas and dust around a central mass. A brief review of the theories of the formation of the solar system is given, along with a proposed scheme for classification of these theories. The evidence for magnetic activity in the early stages of stellar evolution is presented. The magnetic braking theories of solar and stellar rotation are discussed, and an estimate is made for the frequency of occurrence of planetary systems in the universe.

  3. Planetary ecology; Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Environmental Biogeochemistry, Santa Fe, NM, October 10-14, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, D. E. (Editor); Brierley, J. A. (Editor); Brierley, C. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Topics presented include biological evolution and planetary chemistry; C-1 compounds; transport, deposition, and weathering; sulfur transformations; ground water; transformation processes for nitrogen oxides; and soils. Papers are presented on immunological studies on the organic matrix of recent and fossil invertebrate shells; biogenic gases in sediments deposited since Miocene times on the Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic Ocean; aspects of the biogeochemistry of Big Soda Lake, NV; mesophilic manganese-oxidizing bacteria from hydrothermal discharge areas at 21 deg North on the East Pacific Rise; and autotrophic growth and iron oxidation and inhibition kinetics of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Consideration is also given to thermophilic archaebacteria occurring in submarine hydrothermal areas; fate of sulfate in a soft-water, acidic lake; geochemical conditions in the ground water environment; microbial transformations as sources and sinks for nitrogen oxides; and the biogeochemistry of soil phosphorus.

  4. Planetary maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  5. Planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1987-04-21

    A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

  6. Planetary Magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  7. Foundations of planetary quarantine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L. B.; Lyle, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of some of the problems in microbiology and engineering involved in the implementation of planetary quarantine. It is shown that the solutions require new knowledge in both disciplines for success at low cost in terms of both monetary outlay and man's further exploration of the planets. A related problem exists in that engineers are not accustomed to the wide variation of biological data and microbiologists must learn to work and think in more exact terms. Those responsible for formulating or influencing national and international policies must walk a tightrope with delicate balance between unnecessarily stringent requirements for planetary quarantine on the one hand and prevention of contamination on the other. The success of planetary quarantine measures can be assured only by rigorous measures, each checked, rechecked, and triple-checked to make sure that no errors have been made and that no factor has been overlooked.

  8. Internal Probing of the Supramolecular Organization of Pyrene-Based Organogelators.

    PubMed

    Lai, Thanh-Loan; Canevet, David; Avarvari, Narcis; Sallé, Marc

    2016-01-01

    A thorough study of the unexpected spectroscopic behavior of two new luminescent pyrene-urea-based organogelators is rationalized as a function of their aggregation state and provides a key method to probe the supramolecular organization of the material.

  9. Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Hallinan, Gregg; Planetary Habitability Study Team

    2016-06-01

    The W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) sponsored the Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability Study to review the state of knowledge of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields and the prospects for their detection. There were multiple motivations for this Study. Planetary-scale magnetic fields are a window to a planet's interior and provide shielding of the planet's atmosphere. The Earth, Mercury, Ganymede, and the giant planets of the solar system all contain internal dynamo currents that generate planetary-scale magnetic fields. In turn, these internal dynamo currents arise from differential rotation, convection, compositional dynamics, or a combination of these in objects' interiors. If coupled to an energy source, such as the incident kinetic or magnetic energy from the solar wind or an orbiting satellite, a planet's magnetic field can produce intense electron cyclotron masers in its magnetic polar regions. The most well known example of this process in the solar system is the Jovian decametric emission, but all of the giant planets and the Earth contain similar electron cyclotron masers within their magnetospheres. Extrapolated to extrasolar planets, the remote detection of the magnetic field of an extrasolar planet would provide a means of obtaining constraints on the thermal state, composition, and dynamics of its interior--all of which will be difficult to determine by other means--as well as improved understanding of the basic planetary dynamo process. This report presents the findings from the Study, including potential mission concepts that emerged and future work in both modeling and observations. There was also an identification of that radio wavelength observations would likely be key to making significant progress in this field. The entire Study program would not have been possible without the generous support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We thank Michele Judd, Tom Prince, and the staff of the W. M. Keck Institute for

  10. The History of Planetary Exploration Using Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    At the Planetary Probe Workshop Dr. Paul Mahaffy will give a tutorial on the history of planetary exploration using mass spectrometers. He will give an introduction to the problems and solutions that arise in making in situ measurements at planetary targets using this instrument class.

  11. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

  12. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  13. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  14. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Developed methodologies and procedures for the reduction of microbial burden on an assembled spacecraft at the time of encapsulation or terminal sterilization are reported. This technology is required for reducing excessive microbial burden on spacecraft components for the purposes of either decreasing planetary contamination probabilities for an orbiter or minimizing the duration of a sterilization process for a lander.

  15. Planetary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  16. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective is to identify those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints. The objective of the phase being described was to develop an approach for using decision theory in performing a PQ analysis for a Mariner Jupiter Uranus Mission and to compare it with the traditional approach used for other missions.

  17. Planetary seismology and interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.

    1979-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes knowledge gained in the area of planetary seismology in the period 1969-1979. Attention is given to the seismic instruments, the seismic environment (noise, characteristics of seismic wave propagation, etc.), and the seismicity of the moon and Mars as determined by the Apollo missions and Viking Lander experiments, respectively. The models of internal structures of the terrestrial planets are discussed, with the earth used for reference.

  18. Electric Field Penetration in Au/Nb:SrTiO3 Schottky Junctions Probed by Bias-Dependent Internal Photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Hikita, Y.

    2011-08-15

    Electric field penetration into the metallic side of a Schottky junction is in principle a universal phenomenon, the magnitude of which increases with the semiconductor permittivity. Here, we quantitatively probe this effect using bias-dependent internal photoemission spectroscopy at the Schottky junction between a large dielectric permittivity semiconductor SrTiO{sub 3} and gold. A clear linear reduction of the barrier height with increasing interface electric field was observed, highlighting the importance of field penetration into the gold. The interfacial permittivity of SrTiO{sub 3} at the interface is reduced from the bulk value, reflecting intrinsic suppression at the interface.

  19. Planetary System Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Contents include a summary of publications followed by their abstracts titeled: 1. On microlensing rates and optical depth toward the Galactic center. 2. Newly discovered brown dwarfs not seen in microlensing timescale frequency distribution? 3. Origin and evolution of the natural satellites. 4. Probing the structure of the galaxy with microlensing. 5. Tides, Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6. The Puzzle of the Titan-Hyperion 4:3 Orbital Resonance. 7. On the Validity of the Coagulation Equation and the Nature of Runaway Growth. 8. Making Hyperion. 9. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: Scientific objectives and implementation. 10. A Survey of Numerical Solutions to the Coagulation. 11. Probability of detecting a planetary companion during a microlensing event. 12. Dynamics and origin of the 2:l orbital resonances of the GJ876 planets. 13. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics. 14. A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean Satellites. 15. A procedure for determining the nature of Mercury's core. 16. Secular evolution of hierarchical planetary systems. 17. Tidally induced volcanism. 18. Extrasolar planets and mean motion resonances. 19. Comparison of a ground-based microlensing search for planets with a search from space.

  20. Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Planetary atmospheres are the external gaseous envelopes which surround the planets. In the case of the telluric planets, they represent only a negligible fraction of their mass, but they play an essential role in the energy balance between the surfaces and the Sun. In the case of the GIANT PLANETS, which are mostly gaseous, they account for a large fraction of their total mass and constitute the...

  1. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  2. Probing zeolite internal structures using very low temperature {sup 129}Xe NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Labouriau, A.; Crawford, S.N.; Earl, W.L.; Pietrass, T.; Weber, W.A.; Panjabi, G.; Gates, B.C.

    1998-08-01

    In recent years, probing pore structure with {sup 129}Xe NMR has received a bad reputation. This is due to the fact that the method is more complex than was originally suggested so the data is somewhat difficult to interpret. The authors find that the use of a wide temperature range (40--350 K) allows them to interpret {sup 129}Xe chemical shifts in terms of van der Waals attraction between the xenon atom and oxygen in zeolite walls. Using rather simple models from the literature, they can extract useful pore size information as well as the van der Waals potential energy.

  3. International Thematic Probe: The Influence of Relative Age on Learner Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Caroline; George, Nalia; Sargent, Claire; O'Donnell, Sharon; Heron, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This rapid review of research evidence was commissioned by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) to investigate the issue of relative age in the international context. The review findings are drawn from 18 research studies published from 2000 to 2008 and carried out in Australia, Chile, the United Kingdom and the USA together with…

  4. Single-Nanowire Electrochemical Probe Detection for Internally Optimized Mechanism of Porous Graphene in Electrochemical Devices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Yan, Mengyu; Wang, Xuanpeng; Han, Chunhua; He, Liang; Wei, Xiujuan; Niu, Chaojiang; Zhao, Kangning; Tian, Xiaocong; Wei, Qiulong; Li, Zijia; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-03-09

    Graphene has been widely used to enhance the performance of energy storage devices due to its high conductivity, large surface area, and excellent mechanical flexibility. However, it is still unclear how graphene influences the electrochemical performance and reaction mechanisms of electrode materials. The single-nanowire electrochemical probe is an effective tool to explore the intrinsic mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions in situ. Here, pure MnO2 nanowires, reduced graphene oxide/MnO2 wire-in-scroll nanowires, and porous graphene oxide/MnO2 wire-in-scroll nanowires are employed to investigate the capacitance, ion diffusion coefficient, and charge storage mechanisms in single-nanowire electrochemical devices. The porous graphene oxide/MnO2 wire-in-scroll nanowire delivers an areal capacitance of 104 nF/μm(2), which is 4.0 and 2.8 times as high as those of reduced graphene oxide/MnO2 wire-in-scroll nanowire and MnO2 nanowire, respectively, at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. It is demonstrated that the reduced graphene oxide wrapping around the MnO2 nanowire greatly increases the electronic conductivity of the active materials, but decreases the ion diffusion coefficient because of the shielding effect of graphene. By creating pores in the graphene, the ion diffusion coefficient is recovered without degradation of the electron transport rate, which significantly improves the capacitance. Such single-nanowire electrochemical probes, which can detect electrochemical processes and behavior in situ, can also be fabricated with other active materials for energy storage and other applications in related fields.

  5. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar-based astronomy offers major prospects for solar system research in the coming century. In addition to active advocacy of both ground-based and Lunar-based astronomy, a workshop on the value of asteroids as a resource for man is being organized. The following subject areas are also covered: (1) astrophysics from the Moon (composition and structure of planetary atmospheres); (2) a decade of cost-reduction in Very Large Telescopes (the SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes); and (3) a plan for development of lunar astronomy.

  6. Planetary Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonenko, I.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    The final report consists of 10 journal articles concerning Planetary Volcanism. The articles discuss the following topics: (1) lunar stratigraphy; (2) cryptomare thickness measurements; (3) spherical harmonic spectra; (4) late stage activity of volcanoes on Venus; (5) stresses and calderas on Mars; (6) magma reservoir failure; (7) lunar mare basalt volcanism; (8) impact and volcanic glasses in the 79001/2 Core; (9) geology of the lunar regional dark mantle deposits; and (10) factors controlling the depths and sizes of magma reservoirs in Martian volcanoes.

  7. Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    The MAGSAT-program has added significantly to our knowledge of planetary magnetism. The accuracy of observations has been improved such that a reliable extrapolation of the magnetic field to the core surface is now much more feasible than it has been before, and the prospect of further MAGSAT missions raises the expectation that the time dependence of the geomagnetic field will be known with similar accuracy in the future. In the research support it has been attempted to develop dynamo theory with these applications in mind.

  8. Planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    A concise overview is presented of our understanding of planetary magnetospheres (and in particular, of that of the Earth), as of the end of 1981. Emphasis is placed on processes of astrophysical interest, e.g., on particle acceleration, collision-free shocks, particle motion, parallel electric fields, magnetic merging, substorms, and large scale plasma flows. The general morphology and topology of the Earth's magnetosphere are discussed, and important results are given about the magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury, including those derived from the Voyager 1 and 2 missions and those related to Jupiter's satellite Io. About 160 references are cited, including many reviews from which additional details can be obtained.

  9. Probing Internal Stress and Crystallinity in Wet Foam via Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, T. K.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Roy, A.

    In this paper, we correlate the internal stress and the characteristics of a vibrational mode in wet foam. Using microscope images, we estimate the average size of the bubbles in wet foam, at specific time intervals, over a duration of 24 h. Raman spectra are also recorded at the same time intervals, over the same time frame. We show that the internal stress, originated from the microscopic structural change of foam with aging, can be related to the observed Raman shift of the low-frequency methylene rocking mode of the constituent surfactant molecules in foam. In this paper, we also show the capability of the Raman spectroscopy to reveal the crystallinity in foamy materials, when studied for a longer period of time.

  10. Internal Hydration Properties of Single Bacterial Endospores Probed by Electrostatic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Van Der Hofstadt, Marc; Fabregas, Rene; Millan-Solsona, Ruben; Juarez, Antonio; Fumagalli, Laura; Gomila, Gabriel

    2016-12-27

    We show that the internal hydration properties of single Bacillus cereus endospores in air under different relative humidity (RH) conditions can be determined through the measurement of its electric permittivity by means of quantitative electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). We show that an increase in the RH from 0% to 80% induces a large increase in the equivalent homogeneous relative electric permittivity of the bacterial endospores, from ∼4 up to ∼17, accompanied only by a small increase in the endospore height, of just a few nanometers. These results correlate the increase of the moisture content of the endospore with the corresponding increase of environmental RH. Three-dimensional finite element numerical calculations, which include the internal structure of the endospores, indicate that the moisture is mainly accumulated in the external layers of the endospore, hence preserving the core of the endospore at low hydration levels. This mechanism is different from what we observe for vegetative bacterial cells of the same species, in which the cell wall at high humid atmospheric conditions is not able to preserve the cytoplasmic region at low hydration levels. These results show the potential of quantitative EFM under environmental humidity control to study the hygroscopic properties of small-scale biological (and nonbiological) entities and to determine its internal hydration state. A better understanding of nanohygroscopic properties can be of relevance in the study of essential biological processes and in the design of bionanotechnological applications.

  11. Planetary Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  12. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  13. Probing ultrafast internal conversion of o-xylene via femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuzhu; Tang, Bifeng; Shen, Huan; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Bing

    2010-03-15

    The dynamics of excited states in o-xylene molecules has been studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging coupled with time-resolved mass spectroscopy. The ultrafast internal conversion from the S(2) state to the vibrationally hot S(1) state on timescale of 60 fs is observed on real time. The secondarily populated high vibronic S(1) state deactivates further to the S(0) state on timescale of 9.85 ps. Interestingly, the lifetime of the low vibronic S(1) state is much longer, extrapolated to ~12.7 ns. The great differences of lifetime of different vibronic S(1) state are due to their different radiationless dynamics.

  14. Overview of Solar Seismology: Oscillations as Probes of Internal Structure and Dynamics in the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomre, J.

    1984-01-01

    The physical nature of solar oscillations is reviewed. The nomenclature of the subject and the techniques used to interpret the oscillations are discussed. Many of the acoustic and gravity waves that can be observed in the atmosphere of the Sun are actually resonant or standing modes of the interior; precise measurements of the frequencies of such modes allow deductions of the internal structure and dynamics of this star. The scientific objectives of such studies of solar seismic disturbances, or of solar seismology, are outlined. The reasons why it would be very beneficial to carry out further observations of solar oscillations both from ground based networks and from space will be discussed.

  15. Advanced planetary analyses. [for planetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results are summarized of research accomplished during this period concerning planetary mission planning are summarized. The tasks reported include the cost estimations research, planetary missions handbook, and advanced planning activities.

  16. Probing a 2-aminobenzimidazole library for binding to RNA internal loops via two-dimensional combinatorial screening.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Pushechnikov, Alexei; Labuda, Lucas P; French, Jonathan M; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-11-16

    There are many potential RNA drug targets in bacterial, viral, and human transcriptomes. However, there are few small molecules that modulate RNA function. This is due, in part, to a lack of fundamental understanding about RNA-ligand interactions including the types of small molecules that bind to RNA structural elements and the RNA structural elements that bind to small molecules. In an effort to better understand RNA-ligand interactions, we diversified the 2-aminobenzimidazole core (2AB) and probed the resulting library for binding to a library of RNA internal loops. We chose the 2AB core for these studies because it is a privileged scaffold for binding RNA based on previous reports. These studies identified that N-methyl pyrrolidine, imidazole, and propylamine diversity elements at the R1 position increase binding to internal loops; variability at the R2 position is well tolerated. The preferred RNA loop space was also determined for five ligands using a statistical approach and identified trends that lead to selective recognition.

  17. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    A synoptic view of early and recent data on the planetary magnetism of Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn is presented. The data on Mercury from Mariner 10 are synthesized with various other sources, while data for Venus obtained from 120 orbits of Pioneer Venus give the upper limit of the magnetic dipole. Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter data provided the first evidence of lunar magnetization, but it was the Apollo subsatellite data that measured accurately the magnetic dipole of the moon. A complete magnetic survey of Mars is still needed, and only some preliminary data are given on the magnetic dipole of the planet. Figures on the magnetic dipoles of Jupiter and Saturn are also suggested. It is concluded that if the magnetic field data are to be used to infer the interior properties of the planets, good measures of the multiple harmonics in the field are needed, which may be obtained only through low altitude polar orbits.

  18. Probing insulin bioactivity in oral nanoparticles produced by ultrasonication-assisted emulsification/internal gelation

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Marlene A; Abrahim-Vieira, Bárbara; Oliveira, Claudia; Fonte, Pedro; Souza, Alessandra M T; Lira, Tammy; Sequeira, Joana A D; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Cabral, Lúcio M; Sarmento, Bruno; Seiça, Raquel; Veiga, Francisco; Ribeiro, António J

    2015-01-01

    Alginate–dextran sulfate-based particles obtained by emulsification/internal gelation technology can be considered suitable carriers for oral insulin delivery. A rational study focused on the emulsification and particle recovery steps was developed in order to reduce particles to the nanosize range while keeping insulin bioactivity. There was a decrease in size when ultrasonication was used during emulsification, which was more pronounced when a cosurfactant was added. Ultrasonication add-on after particle recovery decreased aggregation and led to a narrower nanoscale particle-size distribution. Insulin encapsulation efficiency was 99.3%±0.5%, attributed to the strong pH-stabilizing electrostatic effect between insulin and nanoparticle matrix polymers. Interactions between these polymers and insulin were predicted using molecular modeling studies through quantum mechanics calculations that allowed for prediction of the interaction model. In vitro release studies indicated well-preserved integrity of nanoparticles in simulated gastric fluid. Circular dichroism spectroscopy proved conformational stability of insulin and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique showed rearrangements of insulin structure during processing. Moreover, in vivo biological activity in diabetic rats revealed no statistical difference when compared to nonencapsulated insulin, demonstrating retention of insulin activity. Our results demonstrate that alginate–dextran sulfate-based nanoparticles efficiently stabilize the loaded protein structure, presenting good physical properties for oral delivery of insulin. PMID:26425087

  19. Planetary heat flow from shallow subsurface measurements: Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, Marc; Hagermann, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Planetary heat flow probes measure heat flow (depth-resolved temperature and thermal conductivity) to provide insight into the internal state of a planet. The probes have been utilized extensively on Earth, twice on the Moon, and once on the Surface of comet 67P-CG. Mars is an important target for heat flow measurement as heat flow is a critical parameter in Martian thermal history models. Earlier studies indicate that Martian planetary heat flow can be accessed at 5 m below the surface in dry regolith monitored over at least one Martian year. A one Martian year monitoring period is necessary because, in the shallow subsurface, heat flow from the interior is superposed with time varying heat flow contributions, primarily due to insolation. Given that a heat flow probe may not achieve its target depth or monitoring period, this study investigates how the depth (2-5 m), duration (0-1 Martian year) and quality of measurements influence the accuracy of planetary heat flow. An inverse model is used to show that, in the preceding scenarios, the accuracy of planetary heat flow directly estimated from depth-dependent thermal conductivity with 10-20% precision errors, temperatures with 50-100 mK precision errors and modelling uncertainties up to 500 mK, can, on average, be improved by a factor of 27 with optimization to 13%. Accuracies increase with sensor penetration depth and regolith monitoring period. Heat flow optimized from instantaneous measurements or those with the shortest regolith monitoring periods have increased accuracy where the frequency and amplitude of the temperature variation are lowest. The inverse model is based on the Function Specification Inversion method. This study demonstrates that a solution subspace can be identified within a space of uncertainties modelled for the temperature measurements and planetary heat flow: the subspace is defined by a constant log-ratio of their respective standard deviations. Optimized heat flow estimates display

  20. From Miras to planetary nebulae: Which path for stellar evolution?; Proceedings of the International Colloquium, Universite de Montpellier II, France, Sept. 4-7, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Omont, A.

    This book considers stellar evolution of Mira variables to planetary nebulae. Topics discussed include pulsation and shock waves; mass loss; circumstellar dust; maser emission and OH/IR stars; C stars; and post-AGB evolution to planetary nebulae, protoplanetary nebulae, and prewhite dwarfs and binaries. Papers are presented on pulsations of model Mira variables, the environment of Miras from interferometry, the physics of mass loss from AGB stars, the mixing length and the mass loss rate, dust formation and stellar wind, dust formation in circumstellar shells of Mira variables, the evolution of water masers on the AGB, and phase lags from OH/IR stars. Attention is also given to the variability of carbon stars, transfer reactions as neutron sources for the s-process, planetary nebulae as post-AGB objects, the kinematic structure of NGC 7139, the post-AGB evolution of low-mass stars, OH/IR stars as the progenitors of planetary nebulae, atmospheric parameters for pre-WD, and a new protoplanetary nebula.

  1. Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles (Editor); Treiman, Allan H. (Editor); Kostiuk, Theodor (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report on planetary surface investigations and planetary landers covers: (1) the precise chemical analysis of solids; (2) isotopes and evolved gas analyses; (3) planetary interiors; planetary atmospheres from within as measured by landers; (4) mineralogical examination of extraterrestrial bodies; (5) regoliths; and (6) field geology/processes.

  2. Planetary science at APL.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.

    1999-12-01

    Planetary science at APL did not begin with the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission, although NEAR, as the first planetary mission ever implemented by a non-NASA center, is what brought the Laboratory into the main arena of planetary exploration. This is the story of how that happened, how planetary science developed at APL, and what lies ahead.

  3. Ceres’ impact craters: probes of near-surface internal structure and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Michael T.; Raymond, Carol; Park, Ryan; Schenk, Paul; McCord, Tom; Reddy, Vishnu; King, Scott; Sykes, Mark; Russell, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Dawn Framing Camera images of Ceres have revealed the existence of a heavily cratered surface. Shape models derived from these images indicate that most (though not all) large craters are quite deep: up to 6 km for craters larger than 100 km in diameter. The retention of deep craters is not consistent with a simple differentiated internal structure consisting of an outer layer composed solely of pure water ice (covered with a rocky lag) overlying a rocky core. Here we use finite element simulations to show that, for Ceres’ relatively warm surface temperatures, the timescale required to completely flatten a crater 60-km in diameter (or greater) is less than 100 Myr, assuming a relatively pure outer ice layer (for ice grain sizes ≤ 1 cm). Preserving substantial topography requires that the viscosity of Ceres’ outer-most layer (25-50 km thick) is substantially greater than that of pure water ice. A factor of ten increase in viscosity can be achieved by assuming the layer is a 50/50 ice-rock mixture by volume; however, our simulations show that such an increase is insufficient to prevent substantial relaxation over timescales of 1 Gyr. Only particulate volume fractions greater than 50% provide an increase in viscosity sufficient to prevent large-scale, rapid relaxation. Such volume fractions suggest an outer layer composed of frozen soil/regolith (i.e., more rock than ice by volume), a very salt-rich layer, or both. Notably, while most basins appear quite deep, a few relatively shallow basins have been observed (e.g., Coniraya), suggesting that relaxation may be occurring over very long timescales (e.g., 4 Ga), that Ceres’ interior is compositionally and spatial heterogeneous, and/or that temporal evolution of the interior structure and composition has occurred. If these shallow basins are in fact the result of relaxation, it places an upper limit on the viscosity of Ceres’ outer-most interior layer, implying at least some low-viscosity material is present

  4. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  5. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-05-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  6. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-01-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  7. Planetary Geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major problems in the series of ice runs was that the subsurface temperature probes did not function. AIC re-evaluated the design and, after testing several suitable sensors, installed 50 type T thermocouples, each 2 m long. In this design, each thermocouple was soldered to a rectangular copper foil spreader 0.3 com wide by 2.8 cm long to ensure an acute reading. The long rectangular shape was used because it had a large area for good thermal connection to the test material.

  8. CASSIOPE Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Small Satellite Mission: Space Plasma Observations and International Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.; James, H. G.

    2009-06-01

    In-situ observation of the micro-scale characteristics of plasma acceleration and related outflow processes is a primary scientific target of the Canadian Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) small satellite mission. The e-POP instrument payload will include imaging plasma and neutral particle sensors, magnetometers, dual-frequency GPS receivers, CCD cameras, a radio wave receiver and a beacon transmitter. The imaging plasma sensors will measure particle distributions and the magnetometers will measure field-aligned currents on the time scale of 10 ms and spatial scale of ~100 m. The CCD cameras will perform auroral imaging on the time scale of 100 ms and at spatial (pixel) resolution up to 0.4 km. The GPS and radio-wave receivers will perform near real-time imaging studies of the ionosphere in conjunction with ground-based radars, and the beacon transmitter in conjunction with ground receiving stations. The e-POP payload will be flown on the Canadian CASSIOPE small satellite, which is scheduled for launch in late 2008 into a polar orbit (325×1500 km, 80° inclination). International collaboration is an important and integral part of the e-POP mission strategy. Two of the 8 e-POP science instruments will be contributed by JAXA/ISAS, Japan, and Naval Research Laboratory, USA, respectively. Many of the planned e-POP investigations will entail coordinated observations using Canadian as well as foreign ground facilities, including magnetic and optical observatories, radars and heaters, such as the HAARP facility in Alaska, the EISCAT radar, and the NSF Antarctic facility. International collaboration in these investigations is expected to significantly enhance the science returns of the e-POP mission.

  9. The OpenPlanetary initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, Nicolas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Hare, Trent; Aye, Michael; Galluzzi, Valentina; van Gasselt, Stephan; Martinez, Santa; McAuliffe, Jonathan; Million, Chase; Nass, Andrea; Zinzi, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    "Open" has become attached to several concepts: science, data, and software are some of the most obvious. It is already common practice within the planetary science community to share spacecraft missions data freely and openly [1]. However, this is not historically the case for software tools, source code, and derived data sets, which are often reproduced independently by multiple individuals and groups. Sharing data, tools and overall knowledge would increase scientific return and benefits [e.g. 2], and recent projects and initiatives are helping toward this goal [e.g. 3,4,5,6].OpenPlanetary is a bottom-up initiative to address the need of the planetary science community for sharing ideas and collaborating on common planetary research and data analysis problems, new challenges, and opportunities. It started from an initial participants effort to stay connected and share information related to and beyond the ESA's first Planetary GIS Workshop [7]. It then continued during the 2nd (US) Planetary Data Workshop [8], and aggregated more people.Our objective is to build an online distributed framework enabling open collaborations within the planetary science community. We aim to co-create, curate and publish resource materials and data sets; to organise online events, to support community-based projects development; and to offer a real-time communication channel at and between conferences and workshops.We will present our current framework and resources, developing projects and ideas, and solicit for feedback and participation. OpenPlanetary is intended for research and education professionals: scientists, engineers, designers, teachers and students, as well as the general public that includes enthusiasts and citizen scientists. All are welcome to join and contribute at openplanetary.co[1] International Planetary Data Alliance, planetarydata.org. [2] Nosek et al (2015), dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aab2374. [3] Erard S. et al. (2016), EGU2016-17527. [4] Proposal for a PDS

  10. Internal potential mapping of charged solid-state-lithium ion batteries using in situ Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hideki; Ishida, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Yoichiro; Ito, Daigo; Fujita, Daisuke

    2017-01-05

    Solid-state-lithium ion batteries (SS-LIBs) are a promising candidate for next-generation energy storage devices. Novel methods for characterizing electrochemical reactions occurring during battery operation at the nanoscale are highly required for understanding the fundamental working principle and improving the performance of the devices. In this work, we combined Ar ion milling under non-atmospheric conditions with in situ cross-sectional Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) for direct imaging of the internal electrical potential distribution of the SS-LIBs. We succeeded in the direct visualization of the change in the potential distribution of a cathode composite electrode (a mixture of the active materials, solid electrolytes, and conductive additives) arising from battery charging (electrochemical reaction). The observed results provided several insights into battery operation, such as the behavior of Li ions and inhomogeneity of electrochemical reactions in the electrode. Our method paves the way to characterize the fundamental aspects of SS-LIBs for the improvement of device performance, including the evaluation of the distribution of the Li ion depleted regions, visualization of the conductive paths, and analysis of the cause of degradation.

  11. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Color and spectral data from spectrometer observations and computerized analyses of asteroid spectra are discussed. Potential occultations of bright asteroids by the moon are summarized. Analysis of anisotropic scattering within Saturn's rings indicates that mineral contamination of the 120 particles cannot exceed 5 percent by weight, and that the rings formed from particle breakup rather than from particle condensation. Raman probe applications to Jupiter and Uranus atmospheres indicate the presence of aerosol particles. A review of Mariner 9 Mars cloud topography data establishes that most blue clouds are orographic uplift clouds composed of condensates, and that sporadic red clouds are associated with blue clouds or volcanoes and thus probably do not represent dust storm phenomena.

  12. Virtual reality and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  13. Planetary protection: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, L.

    Planetary protection is a very wide subject because of the variety of physical conditions on individual planets and their moons. At present, we have good photographs or imagery, as well as other evidence, from most planets and from a selection of their moons. The most important factor is the presence or absence of any form of life. Material samples are available from the Moon and possibly, in the form of a few meteorites, from Mars. The danger of contamination has been recognized in the past and it became clear that some measures would have to be taken. The adoption of measures will have to be universal in mssions to planets and their moons because for an undesirablei contamination to occur, one failed measure of protection may be enough. The question is, if we can learn from experience gained in the last forty years in adopting laws, rules or unbinding recommendations for space activities. Several examples will be discussed, such as the amount of knowledge at a time when international treaties on space law were adopted, the consequences of the failed discussion at the United Nations on the definition of outer space, or of the break-up of Cosmos 954. Special attention will be devoted to the ongoing discussion of space debris in the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its relevance for planetary protection, to the general compliance with the Registration Convention and to the experience gained with the recommendation to re-orbit geostationary satellites.

  14. Planetary protection: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Planetary protection is a very wide subject because of the variety of physical conditions on individual planets and their moons. At present, we have good photographs or imagery, as well as other evidence, from most planets and from a selection of their moons. The most important factor is the presence or absence of any form of life. Material samples are available from the Moon and possibly, in the form of a few meteorites, from Mars. The danger of contamination has been recognized in the past and it became clear that some measures would have to be taken. The adoption of measures will have to be universal in missions to planets and their moons because for an undesirable contamination to occur, one failed measure of protection may be enough. The question is, if we can learn from experience gained in the last forty years in adopting laws, rules or unbinding recommendations for space activities. Several examples will be discussed, such as the amount of knowledge at a time when international treaties on space law were adopted, the consequences of the failed discussion at the United Nations on the definition of outer space, or of the break-up of Cosmos 954. Special attention will be devoted to the ongoing discussion of space debris in the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its relevance for planetary protection, to the general compliance with the Registration Convention and to the experience gained with the recommendation to re-orbit geostationary satellites.

  15. A system for systematically preparing atom-probe field-ion-microscope specimens for the study of internal interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakauer, B. W.; Hu, J. G.; Kuo, S.-M.; Mallick, R. L.; Seki, A.; Seidman, D. N.; Baker, J. P.; Loyd, R. J.

    1990-11-01

    A versatile system has been designed and fabricated to prepare atom-probe field-ion-microscope (APFIM) specimens in a systematic manner, such that internal interfaces can be positioned in the tips of these wire specimens for subsequent analysis of their chemical composition. This system incorporates both beaker electrolytic and zone electrolytic cell configurations, a specially constructed power supply, and a special transmission electron microscope holder for wires. The power supply enables ac electroetching or dc electropolishing in the automated or manual modes. The ac wave forms available are sine (0.002 Hz-200 kHz) or square (10 Hz-20 kHz). Triggering and gating are performed manually or with a pulse generator. The dc output is gated manually to produce a continuous output or with a pulse generator to produce single pulses with widths in the range 50 μs-1 s. A counter indicates the number of periods of voltage applied, and the total charge transferred in the electrolytic cell is integrated in the range 10 μA s-1 kA s. The power supply provides 0 to ±48 V peak at 1 A peak. A double-tilt stage for an Hitachi H-700H 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) was radically modified to hold APFIM specimens; this stage is vibrationless at 310 000× magnification. It has a tilting range of ±30° and ±27° for the x and y tilts, respectively. Examples are given of the controlled backpolishing of W-3 at. % Re, W-25 at. % Re, Mo-5.4 at. % Re, and Fe-3 at. % Si specimens, and their observation by TEM, to selectively place grain boundaries in the tip region. The analysis of the chemical composition of a grain boundary, which is first located in a W-25 at. % Re specimen via TEM, by the APFIM technique is presented.

  16. Observed Coupling Between the International Space Station PCU Plasma and a FPMU Langmuir Probe Facilitated by the Geomagnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, William; Koontz, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is a matter of serious concern resulting from the possibility of vehicle arcing and electrical shock hazard to crew during extravehicular activity (EVA). A Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) was developed and integrated into ISS in order to control the ISS floating potential, thereby, minimize vehicle charging and associated hazards. One of the principle factors affecting ISS electrical charging is the ionosphere plasma state (i.e., electron temperature and density). To support ISS electrical charging studies a Floating Potential Monitoring Unit (FPMU) is also integrated into ISS in order to measure the ionosphere properties using Langmuir probes (LP). The FPMU was located on the Starboard side of ISS. The PCU is located near the center of ISS with its plasma exhaust pointed to port. From its integration on ISS in 2006 through November of 2009, the FPMU data exhibited nominal characteristics during PCU operation. On November 21, 2009 the FPMU was relocated from the Starboard location to a new Port location. After relocation significant enhanced noise was observed in both the LP current-voltage sweeps and the derived electron temperature data. The enhanced noise only occurred when the PCU was in discharge and at unique and repeatable locations of the ISS orbit. The cause of this enhanced noise was investigated. It was found that there is coupling occurring between the PCU plasma and the FPMU LP. In this paper we shall 1) present the on-orbit data and the presence of enhanced noise, 2) demonstrate that the coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU measurements is geomagnetically organized, 3) show that coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU is primarily due to and driven by particle-wave interaction and 4) show that the ionosphere conditions are adequate for Alfven waves to be generated by the PCU plasma.

  17. Correlation of flow probe determinations of common carotid artery blood flow and internal carotid artery blood flow with microsphere determinations of cerebral blood flow in piglets.

    PubMed

    Meadow, W; Rudinsky, B; Raju, T; John, E; Fornell, L; Shankararao, R

    1999-03-01

    We investigated whether blood flow determined by a flow probe situated on one common carotid artery provided an accurate estimation of unilateral cerebral blood flow (CBF) in piglets. In eight anesthetized, mechanically ventilated piglets, blood flow determined by an ultrasonic flow probe placed on the right common carotid artery was correlated with CBF determined by microspheres under two experimental conditions: 1) before ligation of the right external carotid artery with both the right external and internal carotid circulations intact [common carotid artery blood flow (CCABF) condition], and 2) after ligation of the right external carotid artery (ipsilateral to the flow probe) with all residual right-sided carotid artery blood flow directed through the right internal carotid artery [internal carotid artery blood flow (ICABF) condition]. The left carotid artery was not manipulated in any way in either protocol. Independent correlations of unilateral CCABF and ICABF with microsphere-determined unilateral CBF were highly significant over a 5-fold range of CBF induced by hypercarbia or hypoxia (r = 0.94 and 0.92, respectively; both p < 0.001). The slope of the correlation of unilateral CCABF versus unilateral CBF was 1.68 +/- 0.19 (SEM), suggesting that CCABF overestimated CBF by 68%. The slope of the correlation of unilateral ICABF versus unilateral CBF did not differ significantly from unity (1.06 +/- 0.15), and the y intercept did not differ significantly from zero [-1.3 +/- 5.2 (SEM) mL]. Consequently, unilateral ICABF determined by flow probe accurately reflected unilateral CBF determined by microspheres under these conditions. Flow probe assessments of CCABF and ICABF in piglets may provide information about dynamic aspects of vascular control in the cerebral circulation that has heretofore been unavailable.

  18. Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Ghandhi, J B

    2000-10-20

    Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston-liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine.

  19. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    the rotation axe. But this unevenness is undesirable because it creates tectonic stresses and increases energetic status that is against the natural tendency to minimize these physical characteristics. So, a body tends to lower angular momentum of tropics and increase it in extra-tropics. With the same angular velocity it remains only mass and radius to play in this tendency. Tropical belt is destructed (for an example, the lithosphere disintegration in solid bodies), extra-tropical belts add dense material (plumes), expand - the constructive tendency [6]. Both tectonic peculiarities-polyhedrons and constructive - destructive tendencies - are common for celestial bodies of various classes. They are characteristic for our star, planets, satellites and small bodies. That is why a term "supertectonics" seems rather suitable. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonic dichotomy, sectoring and granulation of Earth and other celestial bodies // Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Concepts in Global Tectonics, "NCGT-98 TSUKUBA", Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Nov 20-23, 1998, p. 144-147. [3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., 1999, V.1, №3, 700. [4] Kochemasov G.G. Plato' polyhedra as shapes of small icy satellites // Geophys. Res. Abstracts, Vol. 10, 2008, EGU2008-A-01271, CD-ROM; [5] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) "Diamond" and "dumb-bells"-like shapes of celestial bodies induced by inertia-gravity waves // 30th Vernadsky-Brown microsymposium on comparative planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst.,, 49-50; [6] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonics of rotating celestial globes // Vernadsky-Brown microsymposium 48, 20-22 Oct. 2008, Moscow, Abstr. m48_20.

  20. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  1. Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cezzar, Ruknet; Sen, Ranjan K.

    1989-01-01

    The Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER) project is essentially research oriented towards technology insertion issues for NASA's unmanned planetary probes. It was initiated to complement and augment the long-term efforts for space exploration with particular reference to NASA/LaRC's (NASA Langley Research Center) research needs for planetary exploration missions of the mid and late 1990s. The requirements for space missions as given in the somewhat dated Advanced Information Processing Systems (AIPS) requirements document are contrasted with the new requirements from JPL/Caltech involving sensor data capture and scene analysis. It is shown that more stringent requirements have arisen as a result of technological advancements. Two possible architectures, the AIPS Proof of Concept (POC) configuration and the MAX Fault-tolerant dataflow multiprocessor, were evaluated. The main observation was that the AIPS design is biased towards fault tolerance and may not be an ideal architecture for planetary and deep space probes due to high cost and complexity. The MAX concepts appears to be a promising candidate, except that more detailed information is required. The feasibility for adding neural computation capability to this architecture needs to be studied. Key impact issues for architectural design of computing systems meant for planetary missions were also identified.

  2. Standardization of Observatories, Instruments and Reference Frames for Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Erard, Stéphane; Le Sidaner, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The recent developments on planetary science interoperability showed that a standardization of naming conventions was required for observatories (including ground based facilities and space mission), instruments (types and names) as well as reference frames used to describe planetary observations. A review of existing catalogs and naming for those entities is presented. We also report on the discussions that occurred within the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance), IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) and VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) working groups. A proposal for standard lists, possibly to be endorsed by IAU, is presented and discussed.

  3. Standardization of Observatories, Instruments and Reference Frames for Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Erard, S.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2015-10-01

    The recent developments on planetary science interoperability showed that a standardization of naming conventions was required for observatories (including ground based facilities and space mission), instruments (types and names) as well as reference frames used to describe planetary observations. A review of existing catalogs and naming for those entities is presented. We also report on the discussions that occurred within the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance), IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) and VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) working groups. A proposal for standard lists, possibly to be endorsed by IAU, is presented and discussed.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of light scattering by composite particles in a planetary surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Buratti, B.

    2001-01-01

    Composite particles containing internal scatterers have been proposed as an explanation for the fact that most photometric studies of planetary surfaces based on Hapke's bidirectional reflectance model have found the planetary particles to exhibit moderately backscattering phase functions.

  5. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (< 100 kg) can be used in a variety of architectures consisting of orbiters, landers, rovers, atmospheric probes, and penetrators. A few such vehicles have been flown in the past as technology demonstrations. However, technologies such as new miniaturized science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  6. Saturn Probe: Revealing Solar System Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Comparative studies of the gas giant and ice giant planets are needed to reliably discriminate among competing theories of the origin and evolution of giant planets and the solar system, but we lack critical measurements. A Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission would fill a vital part of that gap, allowing comparative studies of Jupiter and Saturn, providing the basis for later comparisons with the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, and informing studies of extrasolar planetary systems now being characterized. The Galileo Probe mission provided the first in situ studies of Jupiter's atmosphere. Similar measurements at Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would provide an important comparative planetology context for the Galileo results. Cassini's "Proximal Orbits" in 2017 will reveal Saturn's internal structure to complement the Juno mission's similar measurements at Jupiter. A Saturn entry probe, complementing the Galileo Probe investigations at Jupiter, would complete a solid basis for improved understanding of both Jupiter and Saturn, an important stepping stone to understanding Uranus and Neptune and solar system formation and evolution. The 2012 Decadal Survey ("DS") added Saturn Probe science objectives to NASA's New Frontiers Program: highest-priority Tier 1 objectives any New Frontiers implementation must achieve, and Tier 2, high priority but lower than Tier 1. A DS mission concept study using extremely conservative assumptions concluded that a Saturn Probe project could fit within New Frontiers resource constraints, giving a PI confidence that they could pursue some Tier 2 objectives, customizing for the proper balance of science return, science team composition, procured or contributed instruments, etc. Contributed instruments could significantly enhance the payload and the science team for greater science return. They also provide international collaboration opportunities, with science benefits well demonstrated by missions such as Cassini-Huygens and Rosetta.

  7. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  8. Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry Missions (CAPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime; Baumann, Jean-Pierre; Herdrich, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry Missions (CAPE) concept describes a high-performing Cubesat system which includes a propulsion module and miniaturized technologies capable of surviving atmospheric entry heating, while reliably transmitting scientific and engineering data. The Micro Return Capsule 2 (MIRKA2) is CAPE’s first planetary entry probe flight prototype. Within this context, this paper summarizes CAPE’s configuration and typical operational scenario. It also summarizes MIRKA2’s design and basic aerodynamic characteristics, and discusses potential challenges drawn from the experience of missions such as Stardust and MUSES-C. CAPE not only opens the door to new planetary mission capabilities, it also offers relatively low-cost opportunities especially suitable to university participation.

  9. SPACE AND PLANETARY ENVIRONMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES, PLUTO (PLANET), SATURN(PLANET), SOLAR RADIATION, SOLAR WIND, SPECTROGRAPHY, STARS, SUN, TERRAIN, GEOMAGNETISM, ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION, URANUS(PLANET), VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELT, VENUS(PLANET).

  10. Planetary geosciences, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); Plescia, Jeff L. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Research topics within the NASA Planetary Geosciences Program are presented. Activity in the fields of planetary geology, geophysics, materials, and geochemistry is covered. The investigator's current research efforts, the importance of that work in understanding a particular planetary geoscience problem, the context of that research, and the broader planetary geoscience effort is described. As an example, theoretical modelling of the stability of water ice within the Martian regolith, the applicability of that work to understanding Martian volatiles in general, and the geologic history of Mars is discussed.

  11. Dust in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H.; Graps, A.

    2007-01-01

    The workshop 'Dust in Planetary Systems' was held in Kauai'i/Hawaii from September 26 to 30, 2005, following the tradition of holding meetings in the field of Interplanetary Dust Research at regular intervals of a few years. The series of meetings started in Honolulu, Hawaii (USA) in 1967, followed by Heidelberg (Germany) in 1975, Ottawa (Canada) in 1979, Marseilles (France) in 1984, Kyoto (Japan) in 1990, Gainesville, Florida (USA) in 1995, with the last being held in Canterbury, (U.K.) in 2000. The Kauai'i workshop in 2005 was attended by 150 scientists from 20 countries who actively discussed recent progress made through remote observations from the ground and from space, in-situ measurements, as well as from theory and laboratory experiments. Since the last meeting in Canterbury, numerous space missions provided significant progress in various fields of cosmic dust research. For studies of comet nuclei, scientists in our field were involved in three space missions. In 2001, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft flew by comet Borelly. In 2004, Stardust flew by comet Wild 2, with many exciting results from the Stardust return capsule still to come. In 2005, the Deep Impact probe collided with comet Tempel 1. In addition, the comet dust community made large strides forward when Rosetta was launched to begin its 10-year voyage towards comet Churyumov-Gerasimenkov. Saturn's environment also provides a natural laboratory for cosmic dust researchers. The Saturn ring system with its spokes has been the prime motivator for dusty plasma studies since the time of the Voyager spacecraft twenty years ago. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn since 2004 is well-placed to not only continue those studies, but to start new studies provided by Saturn's enigmatic moon Enceladus. Jupiter's dusty environment has not been neglected by spacecraft in these last five years either. While the Galileo mission was terminated in 2003 after the spacecraft's 7-year orbital tour about Jupiter

  12. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1A: Brief descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. S. (Editor); Vostreys, R. W. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Planetary and heliocentric spacecraft, including planetary flybys and probes, are described. Imaging, particles and fields, ultraviolet, infrared, radio science and celestial mechanics, atmospheres, surface chemistry, biology, and polarization are discussed.

  13. High-Throughput Screening for Internalizing Antibodies by Homogeneous Fluorescence Imaging of a pH-Activated Probe

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Thilo; van Boxtel, Egon; Bosch, Martijn; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Gerritsen, Arnout F.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent a rapidly growing class of biotherapeutics that deliver drugs specifically to target cells by binding of the antibody component to surface receptors. The majority of ADCs require receptor internalization depending on intrinsic features of the specific ADC-antigen interaction. The development of potent ADCs would greatly benefit from the identification of efficiently internalizing antibodies at early stages of discovery. We developed a highly sensitive and rapid antibody internalization assay using an indirect Cypher5E label. The pH-activated CypHer5E label becomes fluorescent upon internalization into the acidic environment of endocytic organelles, whereas background fluorescence of noninternalized CypHer5E is minimal. The pH-dependency of the CypHer5E signal enables robust discrimination of antibody internalization from surface binding. The favorable signal-over-background ratio allows a homogeneous assay design with high-throughput fluorescence imaging in 384- and 1536-well formats. The biophysical readout of the primary internalization event substantially shortens incubation times compared to killing assays using toxin internalization. The assay was validated with tumor-relevant targets, including receptor tyrosine kinases (EGFR and HER2) and a class II cytokine receptor (TF) expressed by A431, AU565, and SKOV-3 cells and transient expression systems (CHO-S). Our method enables functional screening of large antibody libraries to identify therapeutic antibody candidates with internalization characteristics favorable for the development of ADCs. PMID:26518032

  14. HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    each of the lobes to expand, much like a pair of balloons with internal heaters. This observation was taken Sept. 9, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Hubble 5 is 2,200 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA [Bottom center ] - Like NGC 6826, NGC 7009 has a bright central star at the center of a dark cavity bounded by a football-shaped rim of dense, blue and red gas. The cavity and its rim are trapped inside smoothly-distributed greenish material in the shape of a barrel and comprised of the star's former outer layers. At larger distances, and lying along the long axis of the nebula, a pair of red 'ansae', or 'handles' appears. Each ansa is joined to the tips of the cavity by a long greenish jet of material. The handles are clouds of low-density gas. NGC 7009 is 1,400 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The Hubble telescope observation was taken April 28, 1996 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy), NASA [Bottom right ] - NGC 5307 also lies in Centaurus but is about 10,000 light-years away and has a diameter of approximately 0.6 light-year. It is an example of a planetary nebula with a pinwheel or spiral structure; each blob of gas ejected from the central star has a counterpart on the opposite side of the star. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA

  15. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  16. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  17. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  18. Multistage Planetary Power Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Dyba, G. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Kleckner, R. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1986-01-01

    PLANETSYS simulates thermomechanical performance of multistage planetary performance of multistage planetary power transmission. Two versions of code developed, SKF version and NASA version. Major function of program: compute performance characteristics of planet bearing for any of six kinematic inversions. PLANETSYS solves heat-balance equations for either steadystate or transient thermal conditions, and produces temperature maps for mechanical system.

  19. Astrometric Follow Up of Wide Planetary Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkan, Stephen; Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    The current population of known exoplanets is biased towards close in, short period planets due to the detection rate of transit and radial velocity techniques. However the advancement in direct imaging technologies and image reduction techniques has opened up sensitivity to massive planets at large separations, rapidly expanding the parameter space over which planetary existence and characteristics can be probed. The Spitzer space telescope is ideally suited for the direct imaging of such planets that have peak thermal emission at wavelengths around 4.5 microns. Previous Spitzer data collected under programs 34 and 48 has recently been the subject of a sophisticated principal components analysis reduction technique. This technique has removed stellar PSF to a much greater degree than preceding studies have achieved, the reduced archival Spitzer observations are sensitive to planetary mass companions at a much smaller separations than previously attainable. This reduction technique accompanied by stringent criteria, such as ≥5 sigma significance, realistic visual characteristics and taking into account the predicted spectral energy distribution of Jupiter mass planets, has identified a number of potential planetary companions. These targets must be observed in a 2nd epoch to test for common proper motion to offer a firm confirmation or refutation of the candidate's planetary nature. Here we propose to observe 12 of these targets for which data does not exist in a 2nd epoch to a sufficient degree of sensitivity to recover the potential planetary candidates for astrometric investigation.

  20. Interdisciplinary research produces results in understanding planetary dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, Timothy N.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Remote Sensing and Image Analysis of Planetary Dunes; Flagstaff, Arizona, 12–16 June 2012. This workshop, the third in a biennial series, was convened as a means of bringing together terrestrial and planetary researchers from diverse backgrounds with the goal of fostering collaborative interdisciplinary research. The small-group setting facilitated intensive discussions of many problems associated with aeolian processes on Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, Triton, and Pluto. The workshop produced a list of key scientifc questions about planetary dune felds.

  1. The PSA: Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelemy, Maud; Metselaar, Harold; Martinez, Santa; Heather, David; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Manaud, Nicolas; Ortiz, Iñaki; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    , starting from the definition of the data products, definition of data labels towards the validation and ingestion of the products into the archive. To ensure a common archiving approach for all of ESA's planetary missions as well as to provide a similar data quality and standard for end users, a dataset validation tool was developed supporting the instrument teams in syntactically validating their datasets before delivering to the PSA. In future, a further validation step is envisaged at the PSA to ensure correctness, completeness and cross correlation of all information, label and data content, within a data set. All data in the PSA are compatible with the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standard of NASA, and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS staff. A PSA advisory body has been established in order to assess the continuing development of the PSA. The advisory panel aims to meet regularly, reviewing the progress on defined requirements and providing feedback on our activities. New areas of data exploitation include attempts to standardize the way in which planetary data sets are constructed internationally. This is driving towards ‘interoperability' of the data systems maintained at all Agencies archiving planetary data, and it is hoped that in the long-run any data can be obtained from any of the co-operating archives using the same protocol. Representatives from most major archiving agencies are members of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), and regular meetings are now taking place as standards are discussed.

  2. The PSA: Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelemy, M.; Metselaar, H.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; Vazquez, J. L.; Wirth, K.; Manaud, N.; Ortiz, I.; Arviset, C.; Fernandez, M.

    2009-04-01

    , starting from the definition of the data products, definition of data labels towards the validation and ingestion of the products into the archive. To ensure a common archiving approach for all of ESA's planetary missions as well as to provide a similar data quality and standard for end users, a dataset validation tool was developed supporting the instrument teams in syntactically validating their datasets before delivering to the PSA. In future, a further validation step is envisaged at the PSA to ensure correctness, completeness and cross correlation of all information, label and data content, within a data set. All data in the PSA are compatible with the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standard of NASA, and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS staff. A PSA advisory body has been established in order to assess the continuing development of the PSA. The advisory panel aims to meet regularly, reviewing the progress on defined requirements and providing feedback on our activities. New areas of data exploitation include attempts to standardize the way in which planetary data sets are constructed internationally. This is driving towards ‘interoperability' of the data systems maintained at all Agencies archiving planetary data, and it is hoped that in the long-run any data can be obtained from any of the co-operating archives using the same protocol. Representatives from most major archiving agencies are members of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), and regular meetings are now taking place as standards are discussed.

  3. The PSA: Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelemy, M.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; Vazquez, J. L.; Arviset, C.; Osuna, P.; PSA development Team

    2012-04-01

    through to validation and ingestion of the products into the archive. All data in the PSA are compatible with the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standard of NASA, and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS staff. To ensure a common archiving approach for all of ESA's planetary missions as well as to provide a similar data quality and standard for end users, a tool has been developed supporting the instrument teams in syntactically validating their datasets before delivering to the PSA. This tool, and the overall archiving process is being streamlined in line with the re-development of the science ground segment for Rosetta. This will be very important for the efficient handling and release of data during Rosetta's encounter with the comet Churyamov-Gerasimenko. A PSA advisory body has been established in order to assess the continuing development of the PSA. The advisory panel aims to meet regularly, reviewing the progress on defined requirements and providing feedback on our activities. New areas of data exploitation include attempts to standardize the way in which planetary data sets are constructed internationally. This is driving towards 'interoperability' of the data systems maintained at all Agencies archiving planetary data, and it is hoped that in the long-run any data can be obtained from any of the co-operating archives using the same protocol. Representatives from most major archiving agencies are members of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), and regular meetings are now taking place as standards are discussed.

  4. Planetary/DOD entry technology flight experiments. Volume 2: Planetary entry flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, H. E.; Krieger, R. J.; Mcneilly, W. R.; Vetter, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    The technical feasibility of launching a high speed, earth entry vehicle from the space shuttle to advance technology for the exploration of the outer planets' atmospheres was established. Disciplines of thermodynamics, orbital mechanics, aerodynamics propulsion, structures, design, electronics and system integration focused on the goal of producing outer planet environments on a probe shaped vehicle during an earth entry. Major aspects of analysis and vehicle design studied include: planetary environments, earth entry environment capability, mission maneuvers, capabilities of shuttle upper stages, a comparison of earth entry planetary environments, experiment design and vehicle design.

  5. Planetary and exoplanetary low frequency radio observations from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarka, P.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Briand, C.; Cecconi, B.; Falcke, H.; Girard, J.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Hess, S.; Klein-Wolt, M.; Konovalenko, A.; Lamy, L.; Mimoun, D.; Aminaei, A.

    2012-12-01

    We analyze the planetary and exoplanetary science that can be carried out with precursor as well as future low frequency radio instruments on the Moon, assessing the limiting noise sources, comparing them to the average and peak spectra of all planetary radio components as they will be seen from the Lunar surface or orbit. We identify which objectives will be accessible with each class of instrument, and discuss the interest of these observations compared to observations by planetary probes and to ground-based observations by large low-frequency radio arrays. The interest of goniopolarimetry is emphasized for pathfinder missions.

  6. Neptune Polar Orbiter with Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienstock, Bernard; Atkinson, David; Baines, Kevin; Mahaffy, Paul; Steffes, Paul; Atreya, Sushil; Stern, Alan; Wright, Michael; Willenberg, Harvey; Smith, David; Frampton, Robert; Sichi, Steve; Peltz, Leora; Masciarelli, James; VanCleve, Jeffey

    2005-01-01

    The giant planets of the outer solar system divide into two distinct classes: the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn, which consist mainly of hydrogen and helium; and the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, which are believed to contain significant amounts of the heavier elements oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon and sulfur. Detailed comparisons of the internal structures and compositions of the gas giants with those of the ice giants will yield valuable insights into the processes that formed the solar system and, perhaps, other planetary systems. By 2012, Galileo, Cassini and possibly a Jupiter Orbiter mission with microwave radiometers, Juno, in the New Frontiers program, will have yielded significant information on the chemical and physical properties of Jupiter and Saturn. A Neptune Orbiter with Probes (NOP) mission would deliver the corresponding key data for an ice giant planet. Such a mission would ideally study the deep Neptune atmosphere to pressures approaching and possibly exceeding 1000 bars, as well as the rings, Triton, Nereid, and Neptune s other icy satellites. A potential source of power would be nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). Such an ambitious mission requires that a number of technical issues be investigated, however, including: (1) atmospheric entry probe thermal protection system (TPS) design, (2) probe structural design including seals, windows, penetrations and pressure vessel, (3) digital, RF subsystem, and overall communication link design for long term operation in the very extreme environment of Neptune's deep atmosphere, (4) trajectory design allowing probe release on a trajectory to impact Neptune while allowing the spacecraft to achieve a polar orbit of Neptune, (5) and finally the suite of science instruments enabled by the probe technology to explore the depths of the Neptune atmosphere. Another driving factor in the design of the Orbiter and Probes is the necessity to maintain a fully operational flight system during the lengthy transit time

  7. Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

  8. Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

  9. Robots and Humans in Planetary Exploration: Working Together?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Today's approach to human-robotic cooperation in planetary exploration focuses on using robotic probes as precursors to human exploration. A large portion of current NASA planetary surface exploration is focussed on Mars, and robotic probes are seen as precursors to human exploration in: Learning about operation and mobility on Mars; Learning about the environment of Mars; Mapping the planet and selecting landing sites for human mission; Demonstration of critical technology; Manufacture fuel before human presence, and emplace elements of human-support infrastructure

  10. 75 FR 33838 - NASA Advisory Council; Ad-Hoc Task Force on Planetary Defense; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    .... Asteroid detection, warning, response, and concepts for deflection. International coordination on planetary..., Advisory Committee Management Officer, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. BILLING CODE P...

  11. The NASA planetary biology internship experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkle, G.; Margulis, L.

    1991-01-01

    By providing students from around the world with the opportunity to work with established scientists in the fields of biogeochemistry, remote sensing, and origins of life, among others, the NASA Planetary Biology Internship (PBI) Program has successfully launched many scientific careers. Each year approximately ten interns participate in research related to planetary biology at NASA Centers, NASA-sponsored research in university laboratories, and private institutions. The PBI program also sponsors three students every year in both the Microbiology and Marine Ecology summer courses at the Marine Biological Laboratory. Other information about the PBI Program is presented including application procedure.

  12. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  13. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  14. The Planetary Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, Louis P.

    2016-06-01

    This poster presentation presents the Planetary Project, a multi-week simulated research experience for college non-science majors. Students work in research teams of three to investigate the properties of a fictitious planetary system (the “Planetary System”) created each semester by the instructor. The students write team and individual papers in which they use the available data to draw conclusions about planets, other objects or general properties of the Planetary System and in which they compare, contrast and explain the similarities between the objects in the Planetary System and comparable objects in the Solar System.Data about the orbital and physical properties of the planets in the Planetary System are released at the start of the project. Each week the teams request data from a changing pool of available data. For example, in week one pictures of the planets are available. Each team picks one planet and the data (pictures) on that planet are released only to that team. Different data are available in subsequent weeks. Occasionally a news release to all groups reports an unusual occurrence - e.g. the appearance of a comet.Each student acts as principal author for one of the group paper which must contain a description of the week’s data, conclusions derived from that data about the Planetary System and a comparison with the Solar System. Each students writes a final, individual paper on a topic of their choice dealing with the Planetary System in which they follow the same data, conclusion, comparison format. Students “publish” their papers on a class-only restricted website and present their discoveries in class talks. Data are released to all on the website as the related papers are “published.” Additional papers commenting on the published work and released data are encouraged.The successes and problems of the method are presented.

  15. Dissipation in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerald; Mitchell, J.

    2012-10-01

    The net radiative entropy flux of a planet is negative because atmospheres absorb solar radiation at a higher temperature than the temperature at which they re-emit an equal amount of longwave radiation to space. If in the long term the entropy of an atmosphere is constant, the radiative entropy loss must be balanced by the entropy production associated with thermally direct heat transports and dissipation. Given estimates of the thermally direct sources of entropy production and the temperature at which dissipation occurs, this determines the rate of dissipation in an atmosphere. It is estimated that the entropy production due to dissipation in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan occurs at the rate, respectively, of about ≤23, 29, 2, and ≤4 mW m-2 K-1. If the dissipation in Earth’s atmosphere occurs between temperatures of 250 K and 288 K the dissipation rate must lie between 7.3 and 8.4 W m- 2, consistent with other recent estimates. The terrestrial heat engine operates with an efficiency of about 60% of the Carnot efficiency. Sources of dissipation in planetary atmospheres are highly uncertain, even for Earth. For Earth, frictional dissipation in rainfall is comparable to the turbulent dissipation of kinetic energy. Rainfall might also be a significant source of dissipation on Titan but it is not likely to be important for Mars or Venus. The breaking of upward propagating internal gravity waves generated by convection and flow over the surface topography is another source of dissipation and is possibly dominant on Venus.

  16. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  17. Measuring the internal energies of species emitted from hypervelocity nanoprojectile impacts on surfaces using recalibrated benzylpyridinium probe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBord, J. Daniel; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Perez, Lisa M.; North, Simon W.; Hall, Michael B.; Schweikert, Emile A.

    2013-06-01

    We present herein a framework for measuring the internal energy distributions of vibrationally excited molecular ions emitted from hypervelocity nanoprojectile impacts on organic surfaces. The experimental portion of this framework is based on the measurement of lifetime distributions of "thermometer" benzylpyridinium ions dissociated within a time of flight mass spectrometer. The theoretical component comprises re-evaluation of the fragmentation energetics of benzylpyridinium ions at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples level. Vibrational frequencies for the ground and transition states of select molecules are reported, allowing for a full description of vibrational excitations of these molecules via Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus unimolecular fragmentation theory. Ultimately, this approach is used to evaluate the internal energy distributions from the measured lifetime distributions. The average internal energies of benzylpyridinium ions measured from 440 keV Au400+4 impacts are found to be relatively low (˜0.24 eV/atom) when compared with keV atomic bombardment of surfaces (1-2 eV/atom).

  18. Infrastructure for Planetary Sciences: Universal planetary database development project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa; Capria, M. T.; Crichton, D.; Zender, J.; Beebe, R.

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), formally formed under COSPAR (Formal start: from the COSPAR 2008 at Montreal), is a joint international effort to enable global access and exchange of high quality planetary science data, and to establish archive stan-dards that make it easier to share the data across international boundaries. In 2008-2009, thanks to the many players from several agencies and institutions, we got fruitful results in 6 projects: (1) Inter-operable Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) implementations [led by J. Salgado@ESA], (2) Small bodies interoperability [led by I. Shinohara@JAXA N. Hirata@U. Aizu], (3) PDAP assessment [led by Y. Yamamoto@JAXA], (4) Architecture and standards definition [led by D. Crichton@NASA], (5) Information model and data dictionary [led by S. Hughes@NASA], and (6) Venus Express Interoperability [led by N. Chanover@NMSU]. 'IPDA 2009-2010' is important, especially because the NASA/PDS system reformation is now reviewed as it develops for application at the international level. IPDA is the gate for the establishment of the future infrastructure. We are running 8 projects: (1) IPDA Assessment of PDS4 Data Standards [led by S. Hughes (NASA/JPL)], (2) IPDA Archive Guide [led by M.T. Capria (IASF/INAF) and D. Heather (ESA/PSA)], (3) IPDA Standards Identification [led by E. Rye (NASA/PDS) and G. Krishna (ISRO)], (4) Ancillary Data Standards [led by C. Acton (NASA/JPL)], (5) IPDA Registries Definition [led by D. Crichton (NASA/JPL)], (6) PDAP Specification [led by J. Salgado (ESA/PSA) and Y. Yamamoto (JAXA)], (7) In-teroperability Assessment [R. Beebe (NMSU) and D. Heather (ESA/PSA)], and (8) PDAP Geographic Information System (GIS) extension [N. Hirata (Univ. Aizu) and T. Hare (USGS: thare@usgs.gov)]. This paper presents our achievements and plans summarized in the IPDA 5th Steering Com-mittee meeting at DLR in July 2010. We are now just the gate for the establishment of the Infrastructure.

  19. Demographics of Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagenal, F.; White, S.

    2011-10-01

    A survey was sent out to university departments around the US that were thought to include faculty involved in planetary science research and/or offer planetary science undergraduate or graduate degrees. This is Part A of a study of the demographics of planetary science carried out by the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and sponsored by NASA's Planetary Science Division. Part B will be a survey of the planetary scientists with PhDs working in the US, to be carried out by the AIP in mid-2011. Starting on December 8th 2010 surveys were sent out by email to department chairs. A total of 48 departments responded between December 9th and April 8th . There is only U of Arizona that has a department that is called planetary sciences - the rest are combined with Earth sciences (14), astronomy (15), geology/geophysics (8), physics (7), atmospheric science (5), something else or combinations thereof. We present statistics from these 48 departments on faculty, researchers, graduate and undergraduate students.

  20. Speed reducing or increasing planetary gear apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Minegishi, K.; Ishida, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a planetary gear apparatus. It includes: an external gear mounted on an input shaft with an eccentric member and a bearing fitted onto the eccentric member therebetween; an internal gear engaging with the external gear, the internal gear being coaxial with respect to the input shaft; an output shaft for outputting a reduced rotational force; and a drive for coupling the external gear and the output shaft, the planetary gear apparatus being adapted to transmit the rotational force of the input shaft to the output shaft after it has reduced the speed of the rotational force, or to transmit the rotational force of the output shaft to the input shaft after it has increased the speed of the rotational force by fixing the internal gear.

  1. Planetary surface research with acoustic sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Seidensticker, K. J.

    2007-08-01

    Planetary space missions like Rosetta and ExoMars put more and more emphasis on the in-situ investigation of planetary surfaces. The use of mechanical vibrations in the audible frequency range provide a new means to study the structure and properties of the surface layers of terrestrial planets and minor bodies like comets. As the first of this new type of instruments, the Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment (CASSE) on the Rosetta Lander Philae intends to determine elastic parameters and the structure of the surface layer of the target comet. One drawback of CASSE is unknown possibly weak coupling to the cometary surface. A DFG project is being conducted at the DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt - to test the applicability of planetary penetration instruments like PLUTO, planetary sampling tool, developed for the Mars Express lander Beagle 2, or MUPUS, a heat probe instrument also on Philae, as stronger acoustic sources as well as to develop new methods for the analysis of acoustic data. From the analysis of the polarisation of the recorded acoustic signals it is possible to separate the mixture of different propagating wave types. These identified waves can be used for the determination of mechanical soil properties and near-surface layering. We also will present how acoustic receivers can be used to locate acoustic penetrators or nearby seismic sources using the travel time and/or the polarisation of the acoustic waves.

  2. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  3. Acrylonitrile quenching of trp phosphorescence in proteins: a probe of the internal flexibility of the globular fold.

    PubMed

    Strambini, Giovanni B; Gonnelli, Margherita

    2010-08-04

    Quenching of Trp phosphorescence in proteins by diffusion of solutes of various molecular sizes unveils the frequency-amplitude of structural fluctuations. To cover the sizes gap between O(2) and acrylamide, we examined the potential of acrylonitrile to probe conformational flexibility of proteins. The distance dependence of the through-space acrylonitrile quenching rate was determined in a glass at 77 K, with the indole analog 2-(3-indoyl) ethyl phenyl ketone. Intensity and decay kinetics data were fitted to a rate, k(r) =k(0) exp[-(r -r(0))/r(e)], with an attenuation length r(e) = 0.03 nm and a contact rate k(0) = 3.6 x 10(10) s(-1). At ambient temperature, the bimolecular quenching rate constant (kq) was determined for a series of proteins, appositely selected to test the importance of factors such as the degree of Trp burial and structural rigidity. Relative to kq = 1.9 x 10(9) M(-1)s(-1) for free Trp in water, in proteins kq ranged from 6.5 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) for superficial sites to 1.3 x 10(2) M(-1)s(-1) for deep cores. The short-range nature of the interaction and the direct correlation between kq and structural flexibility attest that in the microsecond-second timescale of phosphorescence acrylonitrile readily penetrates even compact protein cores and exhibits significant sensitivity to variations in dynamical structure of the globular fold.

  4. Mpo - the Bepicolombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhoff, J.

    2008-09-01

    so far. BepiColombo will also contribute to the understanding of the history and formation of the inner planets of the Solar System in general, including the Earth. The 'Mercury Planetary Orbiter' (MPO), under ESA's responsibility, will study the surface and the internal composition of the planet at different wavelengths and with different techniques. The Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), under the responsibility of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), will study the magnetosphere, that is the region of space around the planet that is dominated by its magnetic field. Objectives BepiColombo will study and understand the composition, geophysics, atmosphere, magnetosphere and history of Mercury, the least explored planet in the inner Solar System. In particular, the mission objectives are: • markedly higher than that of all other terrestrial planets, Moon included • to understand if the core of Mercury is liquid or solid, and if the planet is still tectonically active today • to understand why such a small planet possesses an intrinsic magnetic field, while Venus, Mars and the Moon do not have any, and investigate if Mercury's magnetised environment is characterised by features reminiscent of the aurorae, radiation belts and magnetospheric substorms observed at Earth • to understand why spectroscopic observations not reveal the presence of any iron, while this element is supposedly the major constituent of the planet • to investigate if the permanently shadowed craters of the polar regions contain sulphur or water ice • to observe the yet unseen hemisphere of Mercury • to study the production mechanisms of the exosphere and to understand the interaction between planetary magnetic field and the solar wind in the absence of a ionosphere • to obtain new clues about the composition of the primordial solar nebula and about the formation of the solar system • to test general relativity with improved accuracy, taking advantage of the

  5. Evaluation of internal potential distribution and carrier extraction properties of organic solar cells through Kelvin probe and time-of-flight measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yuya; Noguchi, Yutaka; Oda, Keisuke; Nakayama, Yasuo; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Tokairin, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hisao

    2014-09-01

    The carrier extraction property of a prototypical small molecule organic solar cell (OSC) composed of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), C60, and bathocuproine (BCP) was studied on the basis of the internal potential distribution and carrier dynamics in the device. The internal potential distribution in the OSC structure at the interfaces and in the bulk region was determined by the Kelvin probe method. Significant potential gradients were found in the CuPc film on indium tin oxide and in the C60 film on CuPc, consistent with charge transfer through the contacts. Moreover, surface potential of the BCP layer grew linearly with increasing film thickness with a slope of ca. 35 mV/nm (giant surface potential: GSP), which indicated spontaneous orientation polarization in the film. The potential gradient and GSP significantly changed the built-in potential of the device. Current-voltage and modified time-of-flight measurements revealed that the BCP layer worked as an electron injection and extraction layer despite the wide energy gap. These results were discussed based on the contributions of GSP and the gap states in the BCP layer.

  6. Evaluation of internal potential distribution and carrier extraction properties of organic solar cells through Kelvin probe and time-of-flight measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yuya; Oda, Keisuke; Nakayama, Yasuo; Noguchi, Yutaka Ishii, Hisao; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Tokairin, Hiroshi

    2014-09-21

    The carrier extraction property of a prototypical small molecule organic solar cell (OSC) composed of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), C⁶⁰, and bathocuproine (BCP) was studied on the basis of the internal potential distribution and carrier dynamics in the device. The internal potential distribution in the OSC structure at the interfaces and in the bulk region was determined by the Kelvin probe method. Significant potential gradients were found in the CuPc film on indium tin oxide and in the C⁶⁰ film on CuPc, consistent with charge transfer through the contacts. Moreover, surface potential of the BCP layer grew linearly with increasing film thickness with a slope of ca. 35 mV/nm (giant surface potential: GSP), which indicated spontaneous orientation polarization in the film. The potential gradient and GSP significantly changed the built-in potential of the device. Current–voltage and modified time-of-flight measurements revealed that the BCP layer worked as an electron injection and extraction layer despite the wide energy gap. These results were discussed based on the contributions of GSP and the gap states in the BCP layer.

  7. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. Last year, PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of

  8. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  9. Small planetary missions for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the concept of a small planetary mission that might be described as one which: (1) focuses on a narrow set of discovery-oriented objectives, (2) utilizes largely existing and proven subsystem capabilities, (3) does not tax future launch vehicle capabilities, and (4) is flexible in terms of mission timing such that it can be easily integrated with launch vehicle schedules. Three small planetary mission concepts are presented: a tour of earth-sun Lagrange regions in search of asteroids which might be gravitationally trapped, a network of spacecraft to search beyond Pluto for a tenth planet; and a probe which could be targeted for infrequent long period 'comets of opportunity' or for a multitude of shorter period comets.

  10. Developing the planetary science virtual observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, Stéphane; Capria, Maria Teresa; Chanteur, Gerard; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Henry, Florence; Cecconi, Baptiste; Andre, Nicolas; Schmitt, Bernard; Genot, Vincent; Chauvin, Cyril

    In the framework of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA, International Virtual Observatory Alliance), Solar and Heliospheric Sciences (HELIO, Heliophysics Integrated Observatory), Space Physics (SPASE, Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) and Planetary Data Space Archive services (IPDA, International Planetary Data Alliance). In particular, it remains consistent with extensions of IVOA standards. The current architecture is aiming at connecting existing data services with IVOA protocols (Cone Search, TAP (Table Access Protocol)…) or with the IPDA protocol (PDAP, Planetary Data Access Protocol) whenever relevant. However, a more general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames. This protocol, named EPN-TAP (Europlanet-TAP), is based on TAP and includes precise requirements to describe the contents of a data service. It is based on an IVOA compliant data model (EPNcore). A light framework (DaCHS/GAVO) and a procedure have been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. The data services are declared in standard IVOA registries. Support to new data services in Europe will be provided in the framework of the proposed H2020 Europlanet program, with a focus on planetary mission support (Rosetta, Cassini…). Although TAP services can be accessed and queried from tools such as TOPCAT, a full client has been developed

  11. Planetary gear train of automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1987-03-31

    A planetary gear train is described for an automatic transmission having input and output shafts, comprising: a first planetary gear unit including a first sun gear, a first internal gear and a first pinion carrier; a second planetary gear unit including a second sun gear, a second internal gear and a second pinion carrier, the first internal gear and the second pinion carrier being constantly connected to the output shaft; a first brake unit capable of braking the first and second sun gears which are connected to each other to rotate together; a clutch through which the first pinion carrier is connectable to the input shaft; a second brake unit capable of braking the first pinion carrier; a third brake unit capable of braking the second internal gear; and first and second groups of one-way means which are parallelly interposed between the input shaft and the first sun gear and arranged in a mutually reversed relationship so that the power transmission from the input shaft to the first sun gear and that from the first sun gear to the input shaft are respectively carried out by the first and second groups of one-way means.

  12. Planetary Radars Operating Centre PROC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catallo, C.; Flamini, E.; Seu, R.; Alberti, G.

    2007-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR) plays an important role in Italy. Numerous scientific international space programs are currently carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three important experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry), provided by ASI either as contribution to ESA programs either within a NASA/ASI joint venture framework, are now operating: MARSIS on-board Mars Express, SHARAD on-board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft. In order to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation three Italian dedicated operational centers have been realized, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD ( Processing Altimetry Data). Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution. Although they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). PROC is conceived in order to include the three operational centers, namely SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD, either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view. The Planetary Radar Processing Center shall be conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs. Therefore, scalability, easy use and management shall be the design drivers. The paper describes how PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. Furthermore, in the frame of

  13. Public Participation in Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    In the past several years The Planetary Society has created several innovative opportunities for general public participation in the exploration of the solar system and the search for extraterrestrial life. The conduct of such exploration has traditionally been the province of a few thousand, at most, of professionally involved scientists and engineers. Yet the rationale for spending resources required by broad and far-reaching exploration involves a greater societal interest - it frequently being noted that the rationale cannot rely on science alone. This paper reports on the more notable of the opportunities for general public participation, in particular: 1) Visions of Mars: a CD containing the works of science fiction about Mars, designed to be placed on Mars as the first library to be found by eventual human explorers; 2) MAPEX: a Microelectronics And Photonics Experiment, measuring the radiation environment for future human explorers of Mars, and containing a electron beam lithograph of names of all the members of The Planetary Society at a particular time; 3) Naming of spacecraft: Involvement in the naming of spacecraft: Magellan, Sojourner; 4) The Mars Microphone: the first privately funded instrument to be sent to another world; 5) Red Rover Goes to Mars: the first commercial-education partnership on a planetary mission; 6) Student designed nanoexperiments: to fly on a Mars lander; and 7) SETI@home: a tool permitting millions to contribute to research and data processing in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. A brief description of each of the projects will be given, and the opportunity it provided for public participation described. The evolving complexity of these projects suggest that more opportunities will be found, and that the role of public participation can increase at the same time as making substantive contributions to the flight missions. It will be suggested that these projects presage the day that planetary exploration will be truly

  14. Airships for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing an airship for planetary atmospheric exploration was assessed. The environmental conditions of the planets and moons within our solar system were evaluated to determine their applicability for airship flight. A station-keeping mission of 50 days in length was used as the baseline mission. Airship sizing was performed utilizing both solar power and isotope power to meet the baseline mission goal at the selected planetary location. The results show that an isotope-powered airship is feasible within the lower atmosphere of Venus and Saturn s moon Titan.

  15. Parachute Swivel Mechanism for planetary entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birner, R.; Kaese, J.; Koller, F.; Muehlner, E.; Luhmann, H.-J.

    1993-01-01

    A parachute swivel mechanism (PSM) for planetary entry missions such as a Mars probe (MARSNET) or return of cometary material samples (ROSETTA mission) has been developed. The purpose of the PSM is to decouple the spin of the probe from the parachute, with low friction torque, during both the deployment and descent phases. Critical requirements are high shock loads, low friction, low temperatures, and several years of storage in the deep space environment (during the cruise phase of the probe, prior to operation). The design uses a main thrust ball bearing to cope with the load requirement and a smaller thrust ball bearing for guiding of the shaft. Except for use on the Viking and Galileo swivels, it appears that this type of bearing has very rarely been employed in space mechanisms, so that little is known of its friction behavior with dry lubrication. A slip ring assembly allows the transfer of electrical power for post-reefing of the parachute. A test program has been conducted covering the environmental conditions of Mars entry and Earth reentry. This paper describes requirement constraints, model missions of planetary entries, a bearing trade-off, analyses performed, design details, the lubrication system, and test results (friction torque versus load/spin rate). In addition, the design of the test rig is addressed.

  16. Starter with planetary gear type speed reducing mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, T.; Yukawa, Y.

    1987-01-13

    A starter is described for an internal combustion engine having a ring gear, the starter comprising: a starter motor having an armature shaft; a drive shaft extending in coaxial relation to the armature shaft, the drive shaft having a projection extending radially outwardly from an axial end of the drive shaft adjacent the armature shaft; a pinion in spline engagement with an outer periphery of the drive shaft and adapted to be in mesh with the ring gear of the internal combustion engine; a planetary gear type speed reducing mechanism comprising a sun gear formed on an outer periphery of an axial end portion of the armature shaft of the starter motor, Planetary gears rotatably mounted on the projection of the drive shaft so as to be in meshing engagement with the sun gear, and an internal gear disposed radially outwardly of the planetary gears so as to be in meshing engagement with the planetary gears. The planetary gear type speed reducing mechanism is operative to reduce the rotational speed of the armature shaft and transmit the rotation of the armature shaft to the drive shaft through the sun gear, the planetary gears and the internal gear; a center bracket comprising a cylindrical portion supported through a bearing by an outer periphery of one of the drive shaft and the armature shaft, and a disc-shaped portion extending radially outwardly from an axial end of the cylindrical portion; and a shock absorber unit.

  17. Planetary science comes to Nantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Robert

    2011-12-01

    MEETING REPORT Robert Massey reports on highlights of the first joint meeting of the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) and the AAS Division of Planetary Scientists (DPS) in Nantes in October.

  18. Advances in SPICE Support of Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is the de facto international standard for determining the geometric conditions-parameters such as altitude, lighting angles, and LAT/LON coverage of an instrument footprint-pertaining to scientific observations acquired by instruments on board robotic spacecraft. This system, comprised of data and allied software, is used for planning science observations and for analyzing the data returned from those observations. Use of SPICE is not a NASA requirement but is recommended by NASA's Planetary Data System and by the International Planetary Data Alliance. Owing in part to its reliability, stability, portability and user support, the use of SPICE has spread to many national space agencies, including those of the U.S., Europe (ESA), Japan, Russia and India. SPICE has been in use since the Magellan mission to Venus and so has many well-known capabilities. But the NAIF Team responsible for implementing SPICE continues to add new features; this presentation describes a number of these.

  19. PDS4: Developing the Next Generation Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, D.; Beebe, R.; Hughes, S.; Stein, T.; Grayzeck, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is in the midst of a major upgrade to its system. This upgrade is a critical modernization of the PDS as it prepares to support the future needs of both the mission and scientific community. It entails improvements to the software system and the data standards, capitalizing on newer, data system approaches. The upgrade is important not only for the purpose of capturing results from NASA planetary science missions, but also for improving standards and interoperability among international planetary science data archives. As the demands of the missions and science community increase, PDS is positioning itself to evolve and meet those demands.

  20. Trajectory analysis for solar electric propulsion stage /SEPS/ planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dazzo, E. J.; Nagorski, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    This paper summarizes a portion of the planetary mission analysis results of past and present studies conducted by Rockwell International for NASA-MSFC (Contract NAS8-27360) dealing with the feasibility of a Solar Electric Propulsion Stage (SEPS). The SEPS is envisioned as an upper stage of a transportation system capable of delivering either separable payload spacecraft or attached science packages to various planetary targets. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that, from a payload performance capability standpoint, a common SEP Stage can deliver various payloads to a host of planetary targets including inner and outer planets, asteroids, and comets.

  1. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Oconnell, R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution are addressed.

  2. Asteroidal and planetary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Photometric, spectrophotometric, and radiometric investigations of asteroids and planets are reported. Profiles of the planetary disk were used to study the physical structure of the Uranus atmosphere, and thermal and photographic properties of Saturn rings were theoretically modelled. Ground-based Mars observations were made for long-term comparison with Mariner 9 results.

  3. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrametz, K.; Kofler, L.

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution were addressed.

  4. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  5. Planetary quarantine computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    The computer programs are identified pertaining to planetary quarantine activities within the Project Engineering Division, both at the Air Force Eastern Test Range and on site at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief description of each program and program inputs are given and typical program outputs are shown.

  6. Advanced flight computers for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, R. Rhoads

    1988-01-01

    Research concerning flight computers for use on interplanetary probes is reviewed. The history of these computers from the Viking mission to the present is outlined. The differences between ground commercial computers and computers for planetary exploration are listed. The development of a computer for the Mariner Mark II comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission is described. Various aspects of recently developed computer systems are examined, including the Max real time, embedded computer, a hypercube distributed supercomputer, a SAR data processor, a processor for the High Resolution IR Imaging Spectrometer, and a robotic vision multiresolution pyramid machine for processsing images obtained by a Mars Rover.

  7. Outer planet entry probe system study. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    General mission considerations and science prospectus, which are of a general nature that applies to several or all planetary applications, are presented. Five probe systems are defined: nominal Jupiter probe system, and Jupiter probe-dedicated alternative probe system, Jupiter spacecraft radiation-compatible alternative probe system, Saturn probe system, and Saturn probe applicability for Uranus. Parametric analysis is summarized for mission analysis of a general nature, and then for specific missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The program is also discussed from the hardware availability viewpoint and the aspect of commonality.

  8. An ethical approach to planetary protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, Jacques; Debus, André

    2008-09-01

    What hazards might biological contamination pose to planets, comets and other celestial bodies visited by probes launched from Earth? What hazards might returning probes pose to Earth and its inhabitants? What should be considered an acceptable level of risk? What technologies, procedures and constraints should be applied? What sort of attitude has to be chosen concerning human crews, who themselves could become both contaminated victims and contaminating agents? The vast issue of planetary protection must, more than ever, spark ethical debate. Space treaty, COSPAR recommendations offer borders and context for this reflection, which has to be introduced in the actual humanist: never has been anthropocentrism so practical and concerned, in the same time, by the next generations, because of the historical character of life. At least an ethics of risk is necessary (far from the myth of zero-risk) for all the three types of contamination: other celestial bodies (forward contamination), Earth (backward contamination) and astronauts.

  9. Solar thermal propulsion for planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that many desirable planetary exploration missions require large injection delta-V. Solar Thermal Rocket (STR) propulsion, under study for orbit-raising applications may enhance or enable such high-energy missions. The required technology of thermal control for liquid hydrogen propellant is available for the required storage duration. Self-deploying, inflatable solar concentrators are under study. The mass penalty for passive cryogenic thermal control, liquid hydrogen tanks and solar concentrators does not compromise the specific impulse advantage afforded by the STR as compared to chemical propulsion systems. An STR injection module is characterized and performance is evaluated by comparison to electric propulsion options for the Saturn Orbiter Titan Probe (SOTP) and Uranus Flyby Uranus Probe (UFUP) missions.

  10. STEREO as a "Planetary Hazards" Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guhathakurta, M.; Thompson, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's twin STEREO probes, launched in 2006, have advanced the art and science of space weather forecasting more than any other spacecraft or solar observatory. By surrounding the Sun, they provide previously-impossible early warnings of threats approaching Earth as they develop on the solar far side. They have also revealed the 3D shape and inner structure of CMEs-massive solar storms that can trigger geomagnetic storms when they collide with Earth. This improves the ability of forecasters to anticipate the timing and severity of such events. Moreover, the unique capability of STEREO to track CMEs in three dimensions allows forecasters to make predictions for other planets, giving rise to the possibility of interplanetary space weather forecasting too. STEREO is one of those rare missions for which "planetary hazards" refers to more than one world. The STEREO probes also hold promise for the study of comets and potentially hazardous asteroids.

  11. Sonar equations for planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Michael A; Leighton, Timothy G

    2016-08-01

    The set of formulations commonly known as "the sonar equations" have for many decades been used to quantify the performance of sonar systems in terms of their ability to detect and localize objects submerged in seawater. The efficacy of the sonar equations, with individual terms evaluated in decibels, is well established in Earth's oceans. The sonar equations have been used in the past for missions to other planets and moons in the solar system, for which they are shown to be less suitable. While it would be preferable to undertake high-fidelity acoustical calculations to support planning, execution, and interpretation of acoustic data from planetary probes, to avoid possible errors for planned missions to such extraterrestrial bodies in future, doing so requires awareness of the pitfalls pointed out in this paper. There is a need to reexamine the assumptions, practices, and calibrations that work well for Earth to ensure that the sonar equations can be accurately applied in combination with the decibel to extraterrestrial scenarios. Examples are given for icy oceans such as exist on Europa and Ganymede, Titan's hydrocarbon lakes, and for the gaseous atmospheres of (for example) Jupiter and Venus.

  12. Archiving of Planetary Ring Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, James L.

    2001-01-01

    Stellar occultation data provide our only Earth-based means of probing planetary rings at kilometer spatial resolution. The occultation data archive at MIT contains original data and analysis products of stellar occultations by the ring systems of the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune observed by members of the group (and other groups) from 1977 to the present. During this time period, several media have been used to record and store the original and processed data: (1) chart records; (2) printed output, (3) audio reel tape; (4) audio cassette tape; (5) 7-track, 1/2-inch computer tape; (6) 9-track, 1/2-inch computer tape at 800, 1600, and 6250 bpi; (7) NOVA disk platters (2.5 and 5.0 Mbyte); (8) write once optical disks; (9) punched cards; and (10) read-write optical disks. With the rapid change of computer technology over this time period, some of these media have become not only obsolete, but nearly extinct. In particular, it has become nearly impossible to find any facilities that can still read 800 bpi tapes, which contain the only copies of several important data sets for the ring system of Uranus. In particular, we have an extensive ring data collection that includes data sets for the following Uranian ring occultations: U0, U11, U12, U13, U14, U25, U17, and U36.

  13. Planetary gear unit

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, S.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes a planetary gear unit for the transmission of a motor vehicle, comprising: a first planetary gear unit which includes a pinion shaft, a planet pinion rotatably mounted on the pinion shaft, a sun gear engaging the planet pinion, and an arm member supporting the pinion shaft and having an extending portion extending to a point adjacent the sun gear; a thrust washer contacting the arm member, the thrust washer having radiating conduit means formed on a contacting surface thereof so as to communicate an inner circumference of the extending portion of the arm member with the pinion shaft, the pinion shaft having a conduit formed therein so as to communicate with the radiating conduit means with an inner surface of the planet pinion wherein the radiating conduit means further comprises uniform spaced bevel surfaces and grooves in communication with the bevel surfaces.

  14. Strongly Interacting Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Both ground-based Doppler surveys and NASA's Kepler mission have discovered a diversity of planetary system architectures that challenge theories of planet formation. Systems of tightly-packed or near-resonant planets are particularly useful for constraining theories of orbital migration and the excitation of orbital eccentricities and inclinations. In particular, transit timing variations (TTVs) provide a powerful tool to characterize the masses and orbits of dozens of small planets, including many planets at orbital periods beyond the reach of both current Doppler surveys and photoevaporation-induced atmospheric loss. Dynamical modeling of these systems has identified some ``supper-puffy'' planets, i.e., low mass planets with surprisingly large radii and low densities. I will describe a few particularly interesting planetary systems and discuss the implications for the formation of planets ranging from gaseous super-Earth-size planets to rocky planets the size of Mars.

  15. Shuttle/IUS performance for planetary missions. [Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Driver, J. M.; Wright, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Potential requirements for planetary missions in the 1980s, capabilities of the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) candidates to perform those missions, and Shuttle/IUS mission profile options for performance enhancement are examined. The most demanding planetary missions are the Pioneer Saturn/Uranus/Titan Probe and the Mariner-class orbiters of Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn. Options available to designers of these missions will depend on the specific IUS selected for development and the programmatic phasing of the IUS and the NASA Tug. Use of Shuttle elliptic orbits as initial conditions for IUS ignition offers significant performance improvements; specific values are mission dependent.

  16. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  17. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  18. Direct Communication to Earth from Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Scott J.; Folkner, William M.; Abraham, Douglas S.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on outer planetary probe communications to Earth is shown. The topics include: 1) Science Rational for Atmospheric Probes to the Outer Planets; 2) Controlling the Scientific Appetite; 3) Learning more about Jupiter before we send more probes; 4) Sample Microwave Scan From Juno; 5) Jupiter s Deep Interior; 6) The Square Kilometer Array (SKA): A Breakthrough for Radio Astronomy; 7) Deep Space Array-based Network (DSAN); 8) Probe Direct-to-Earth Data Rate Calculations; 9) Summary; and 10) Enabling Ideas.

  19. Hayabusa Sample Curation in the JAXA's Planetary Material Curation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Abe, M.; Fujimura, A.; Yada, T.; Ishibashi, Y.; Uesugi, M.; Yuzuru, K.; Yakame, S.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Zolensky, M.; Sandford, S.; Ueno, M.; Mukai, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kawaguchi, J.

    2011-12-01

    Hayabusa has successfully returned its reentry capsule in Australia on June 13th, 2010. As detailed previously [1], a series of processes have been held in the JAXA's Planetary Material Curation Facility to introduce the sample container of reentry capsule into the pure nitrogen filled clean chamber without influence by water or oxygen, retrieve fine particles found inside the container, characterize them with scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), classify them into mineral or rock types, and store them for future analysis. Some of those particles are delivered for initial analysis to catalogue them [2-10]. The facility is demanded to develop new methodologies or train techniques to pick up the recovered samples much finer than originally expected One of them is the electrostatic micro-probe for pickups, and .a trial started to slice the fine samples for detailed analysis of extra-fine structures. Electrostatic nano-probe to be used in SEM is also considered and developed.. To maximize the scientific outputs, the analyses must go on .based on more advanced methodology or sophisticated ideas. So far we have identified those samples as materials from S-class asteroid 25143 Itokawa due to their consistency with results by remote near-infrared and X-rsy spectroscopy: about 1500 ultra-fine particles (mostly smaller than 10 microns) caught by Teflon spatula scooping, and about 100 fine particles (mostly 20-200 microns) collected by compulsory fall onto silica glass plates. Future schedule for sample distribution must be planned. The initial analyses are still in progress, and we will distribute some more of particles recovered. Then some part of the particles will be distributed to NASA, based on the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between Japan and U.S.A. for the Hayabusa mission. Finally, in the near future an international Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for sample analyses will be open to any interested researchers In

  20. Planetary gear train

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1988-10-04

    A planetary gear train is described comprising: an input member; an output member; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear, a first ring gear, and a first pinion carrier rotatably supporting first planet pinions; a secondary planetary gear set including a second sun gear, and second ring gear and a second pinion carrier rotatably supporting second planet pinions; first drive means for connecting the input member with the first ring gear; second drive means for connecting the input member with the first sun gear; third drive means for constantly connecting the first sun gear with the second sun gear and establishing a force transmitting positive drive from the first sun gear to the second sun gear, whereby the first sun gear rotates at a speed different from the second sun gear; first brake means for braking the second sun gear; second brake means for braking the second pinion carrier; fourth drive means for connecting the second ring gear with the output member and providing a first speed ratio therebetween; and fifth drive means for connecting the first pinion carrier with the output member and providing a second speed ratio therebetween, the second speed ratio being different from the first speed ratio.

  1. Galactic planetary science.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-04-28

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy.

  2. Galactic planetary science

    PubMed Central

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets—mainly radial velocity and transit—or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even ‘just’ in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current ‘understanding’. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy. PMID:24664916

  3. Development of Sampling Techniques For Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coste, P.; Eiden, M.; Gromov, V.; Ilykorpi, T.; Kochan, H.; Re, E.; Richter, L.

    During the last 15 years, the European Space Agency has initiated the development of a number of sampling techniques for planetary surfaces, in the frame of its basic Technology and Research Programme (TRP). Sampling may be performed by means of drilling, coring, milling, grain scooping or picking, and penetration. The items addressed in particular are: the Sample Acquisition System (SAS) for the late Comet Nucleus Sample and Return mission; the Small Sample Acquisition and Distribution Tool (SSA/DT): the Mole and the Sampling Mole (SM). Some of these devices have found a direct application within an ESA planetary mission, as expected; in other cases, their concept was used and modified to fulfill updated requirements. Sampling or soil probing capabilities are included to various extents in these current or near-future ESA missions: the Huygens Probe (on NASA's CASSINI spacecraft), on its way to Titan surface; the RoLand Lander (on ROSETTA s/c), onto Comet Wirtanen; the Beagle2 Lander (carried by MARS EXPRESS s/c) sampling the Martian surface and sub- surface. Future sampling missions to Mercury, the Moon and to asteroids are being studied. Even more challenging missions to Venus are considered.

  4. The final fate of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet around a main-sequence star in 1995 has changed the way we think about the Universe: our solar system is not unique. Twenty years later, we know that planetary systems are ubiquitous, orbit stars spanning a wide range in mass, and form in an astonishing variety of architectures. Yet, one fascinating aspect of planetary systems has received relatively little attention so far: their ultimate fate.Most planet hosts will eventually evolve into white dwarfs, Earth-sized stellar embers, and the outer parts of their planetary systems (in the solar system, Mars and beyond) can survive largely intact for billions of years. While scattered and tidally disrupted planetesimals are directly detected at a small number of white dwarfs in the form infrared excess, the most powerful probe for detecting evolved planetary systems is metal pollution of the otherwise pristine H/He atmospheres.I will present the results of a multi-cycle HST survey that has obtained COS observations of 136 white dwarfs. These ultraviolet spectra are exquisitely sensitive to the presence of metals contaminating the white atmosphere. Our sophisticated model atmosphere analysis demonstrates that at least 27% of all targets are currently accreting planetary debris, and an additional 29% have very likely done so in the past. These numbers suggest that planet formation around A-stars (the dominant progenitors of today's white dwarf population) is similarly efficient as around FGK stars.In addition to post-main sequence planetary system demographics, spectroscopy of the debris-polluted white dwarf atmospheres provides a direct window into the bulk composition of exo-planetesimals, analogous to the way we use of meteorites to determine solar-system abundances. Our ultraviolet spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the detection of Si, a dominant rock-forming species, and we identify up to ten additional volatile and refractory elements in the most strongly

  5. Study of alternative probe technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A number of implied technologies for a deep probe mission was examined; i.e., one that would provide the capability to scientifically examine planetary atmospheres at the 1000 bar level. Conditions imposed by current Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus atmospheric models were considered. The major thrust of the measurements was to determine lower atmosphere composition, even to trace constituents of one part per billion. Two types of instruments having the necessary accuracy to meet the science objectives were considered and integrated into a deep probe configuration. One deep probe option that resulted was identified as a Minimum Technology Development approach. The significant feature of this option is that only three technology developments are required to enable the mission, i.e., (1) science instrument development, (2) advanced data processing, and (3) external high pressure/thermal insulation. It is concluded that a probe designed for a Jupiter mission could, with minor changes, be used for a Saturn or Uranus mission.

  6. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  7. Atom probe tomography study of internal interfaces in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin-films

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, T. Cojocaru-Mirédin, O.; Choi, P. Raabe, D.; Mousel, M.; Redinger, A.; Siebentritt, S.

    2015-09-07

    We report on atom probe tomography studies of the composition at internal interfaces in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin-films. For Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} precursors, which are deposited at 320 °C under Zn-rich conditions, grain boundaries are found to be enriched with Cu irrespective of whether Cu-poor or Cu-rich growth conditions are chosen. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} grains are found to be Cu-poor and excess Cu atoms are found to be accumulated at grain boundaries. In addition, nanometer-sized ZnSe grains are detected at or near grain boundaries. The compositions at grain boundaries show different trends after annealing at 500 °C. Grain boundaries in the annealed absorber films, which are free of impurities, are Cu-, Sn-, and Se-depleted and Zn-enriched. This is attributed to dissolution of ZnSe at the Cu-enriched grain boundaries during annealing. Furthermore, some of the grain boundaries of the absorbers are enriched with Na and K atoms, stemming from the soda-lime glass substrate. Such grain boundaries show no or only small changes in composition of the matrix elements. Na and K impurities are also partly segregated at some of the Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4}/ZnSe interfaces in the absorber, whereas for the precursors, only Na was detected at such phase boundaries possibly due to a higher diffusivity of Na compared to K. Possible effects of the detected compositional fluctuations on cell performance are discussed.

  8. A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of the Literature to Evaluate Potential Threats to Internal Validity in Probe Procedures for Chained Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer L.; Smith, Katie A.; Mataras, Theologia; Shepley, Sally B.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The two most frequently used methods for assessing performance on chained tasks are single opportunity probes (SOPs) and multiple opportunity probes (MOPs). Of the two, SOPs may be easier and less time-consuming but can suppress actual performance. In comparison, MOPs can provide more information but present the risk of participants acquiring…

  9. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.

    1994-08-02

    A support structure is described bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe. 3 figs.

  10. Spectrophotometric probe

    DOEpatents

    Prather, William S.; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1994-01-01

    A support structure bearing at least one probe for making spectrophotometric measurements of a fluid using a source of light and a spectrophotometer. The probe includes a housing with two optical fibers and a planoconvex lens. A sleeve bearing a mirror surrounds the housing. The lens is separated from the mirror by a fixed distance, defining an interior space for receiving a volume of the fluid sample. A plurality of throughholes extending through the sleeve communicate between the sample volume and the exterior of the probe, all but one hole bearing a screen. A protective jacket surrounds the probe. A hollow conduit bearing a tube is formed in the wall of the probe for venting any air in the interior space when fluid enters. The probe is held at an acute angle so the optic fibers carrying the light to and from the probe are not bent severely on emergence from the probe.

  11. Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

  12. Objectives and models of the planetary quarantine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werber, M.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the planetary quarantine program are presented and the history of early contamination prevention efforts is outlined. Contamination models which were previously established are given and include: determination of parameters; symbol nomenclature; and calculations of contamination and hazard probabilities. Planetary quarantine is discussed as an issue of national and international concern. Information on international treaty and meetings on spacecraft sterilization, quarantine standards, and policies is provided. The specific contamination probabilities of the U.S.S.R. Venus 3 flyby are included.

  13. Thermal Modeling on Planetary Regoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, A. S.; Hapke, B.W.

    2002-01-01

    The thermal region of the spectrum is one of special interest in planetary science as it is the only region where planetary emission is significant. Studying how planetary surfaces emit in the thermal infrared can tell us about their physical makeup and chemical composition, as well as their temperature profile with depth. This abstract will discuss a model of thermal energy transfer in planetary regoliths on airless bodies which includes both conductive and radiative processes while including the time dependence of the solar input function.

  14. Volcanoes. A planetary perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, P.

    In this book, the author gives an account of the familiar violent aspects of volcanoes and the various forms that eruptions can take. He explores why volcanoes exist at all, why volcanoes occur where they do, and how examples of major historical eruptions can be interpreted in terms of physical processes. Throughout he attempts to place volcanism in a planetary perspective, exploring the pre-eminent role of submarine volcanism on Earth and the stunning range of volcanic phenomena revealed by spacecraft exploration of the solar system.

  15. Planetary Spatial Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keely, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This is a status report for the project entitled Planetary Spatial Analyst (PSA). This report covers activities from the project inception on October 1, 2007 to June 1, 2008. Originally a three year proposal, PSA was awarded funding for one year and required a revised work statement and budget. At the time of this writing the project is well on track both for completion of work as well as budget. The revised project focused on two objectives: build a solid connection with the target community and implement a prototype software application that provides 3D visualization and spatial analysis technologies for that community. Progress has been made for both of these objectives.

  16. Planetary entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.

    1994-01-01

    The final report summarizes the results from three research areas: (1) window design for the radiometric measurement of the forebody radiative heating experienced by atmospheric entry spaceraft; (2) survey of the current understanding of chemical species on selected solar system bodies and assess the importance of measurements with regard to vehicle environment and with regard to understanding of planetary atmospheres with emphasis on Venus, Mars, and Titan; and (3) measure and analyze the radiation (VUV to near-IR) from the shock heated gas cap of a blunt body in an Ames arc Jet wind-tunnel facility.

  17. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  18. Science Case for Planetary Exploration with Planetary CubeSats and SmallSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Raymond, Carol; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John

    2016-07-01

    Nano-spacecraft and especially CubeSats are emerging as viable low cost platforms for planetary exploration. Increasing miniaturization of instruments and processing performance enable smart and small packages capable of performing full investigations. While these platforms are limited in terms of payload and lifetime, their form factor and agility enable novel mission architectures and a refreshed relationship to risk. Leveraging a ride with a mothership to access far away destinations can significantly augment the mission science return at relatively low cost. Depending on resources, the mothership may carry several platforms and act as telecom relay for a distributed network or other forms of fractionated architectures. In Summer 2014 an international group of scientists, engineers, and technologists started a study to define investigations to be carried out by nano-spacecrafts. These applications flow down from key science priorities of interest across space agencies: understanding the origin and organization of the Solar system; characterization of planetary processes; assessment of the astrobiological significance of planetary bodies across the Solar system; and retirement of strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) for Human exploration. This presentation will highlight applications that make the most of the novel architectures introduced by nano-spacecraft. Examples include the low cost reconnaissance of NEOs for science, planetary defense, resource assessment, and SKGs; in situ chemistry measurements (e.g., airless bodies and planetary atmospheres), geophysical network (e.g., magnetic field measurements), coordinated physical and chemical characterization of multiple icy satellites in a giant planet system; and scouting, i.e., risk assessment and site reconnaissance to prepare for close proximity observations of a mothership (e.g., prior to sampling). Acknowledgements: This study is sponsored by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). Part of this work is

  19. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Manaud, Nicolas; Martinez, Santa; Szumlas, Marek; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; PSA Development Team

    2013-04-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. The PSA currently holds data from Mars Express, Venus Express, SMART-1, Huygens, Rosetta and Giotto, as well as several ground-based cometary observations. It will be used for archiving on ExoMars, BepiColombo and for the European contributions to Chandrayaan-1. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Advanced Search Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. - The Map-based Interface is currently operational only for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA data. This interface allows an end-user to specify a region-of-interest by dragging a box onto a base map of Mars. From this interface, it is possible to directly visualize query results. The Map-based and Advanced interfaces are linked and cross-compatible. If a user defines a region-of-interest in the Map-based interface, the results can be refined by entering more detailed search parameters in the Advanced interface. - The FTP Browser Interface is designed for more experienced users, and allows for direct browsing and access of the data set content through ftp-tree search. Each dataset contains documentation and calibration information in addition to the scientific or engineering data. All PSA data are prepared by the corresponding instrument teams, and are made to comply with the internationally recognized PDS standards. PSA supports the instrument teams in the full archiving process, from the definition of the data products, meta-data and product labels through to

  20. Planetary Ringmoon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The last decade has seen an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Much of the structure revealed was thoroughly puzzling and fired the imagination of workers in a variety of disciplines. Consequently, we have also seen steady progress in our understanding of these systems as our intuitions (and our computers) catch up with the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems (refs 1-5). The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems and families of regular satellites are invariably found together, and there is an emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system.

  1. Planetary foreshock radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncic, Zdenka; Cairns, Iver H.

    2005-07-01

    The electron foreshock regions upstream of Earth's bow shock and upstream of traveling interplanetary shocks are known to be propitious sites for a variety of energetic particle and plasma wave phenomena, including radio emissions. A quantitative theoretical model has been developed for radio emissions associated with the terrestrial foreshock and for type II radio bursts associated with interplanetary shocks. Here, we generalize this model and apply it to other planetary foreshocks. We present predictions for the levels of planetary foreshock radio emissions and compare these with observations by past and present space missions. One key result is that Mercury can be a strong source of foreshock radio emissions, and this prediction may be testable with the anticipated BepiColombo space mission. Although the terrestrial foreshock radio emissions are the most detectable with existing instruments, our results predict that they are the second strongest in absolute terms, following the Jovian foreshock emissions. Indeed, we predict that the radio instrument on board Ulysses should have detected Jovian foreshock radio emissions, and we suggest that there is some evidence in the data to support this. We also suggest that Cassini was potentially capable of detecting foreshock emissions from Venus during its gravity-assist flybys and may possibly be capable of detecting foreshock emissions from Saturn under favorable solar wind conditions.

  2. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  3. Planetary migration, accretion, and atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian M.

    This dissertation explores three distinct projects in the field of planetary formation and evolution: type I migration, cessation of mass accretion, and the atmospheric dynamics of hot Jupiters. All three of these projects touch on outstanding or unresolved issues in the field. Each attempts to unify analytic and numerical approaches in order to physically motivate solutions while simultaneously probing areas currently inaccessible to purely analytic approaches. The first section, type I migration, explores the outstanding problem of the rapid inward migration of low mass planets embedded in protoplanetary disks. Analytic estimates of migration predict characteristic timescales that are much shorter then either observed disk lifetimes or theoretical core-accretion formation timescales. If migration is actually as efficient as these analytic estimates predict, planet formation across the observed range of masses and semimajor axis' is difficult. Here I introduce several new formalisms to both allow the disk to adiabatically adjust to the presence of a planet and include the effect of axisymmetric disk self-gravity. I find that these modifications increase migration timescales by approximately 4 times. In addition to these numerical improvements, I present simulations of migration in lower sound-speed regions of the disk on the grounds that self shadowing within the disk could yield substantially cooler gas temperatures then those derived by most irradiated disk models. In such regions the planetary perturbation excites a secondary instability, leading to the formation of vortices. These vortices cause a substantial reduction in the net torque, increasing migration timescales by up to approximately 200 times the analytically predicted rate. The second section addresses the mechanism for shutting off accretion onto giant planets. According to the conventional sequential accretion scenario, giant planets acquire a majority of their gas in a runaway phase. Conventional

  4. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

  5. Circumstellar disks and planetary formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huélamo, N.

    2017-03-01

    Circumstellar disks are very common around young intermediate-, low-mass stars, and brown dwarfs. They are the cradle of planetary systems, although the mechanism to form planets is still unknown. In this text I review some advances in the field of circumstellar disks and planetary formation coming from observations.

  6. Fourier spectroscopy and planetary research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.; Kunde, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) to planetary research is reviewed. The survey includes FTS observations of the sun, all the planets except Uranus and Pluto, the Galilean satellites and Saturn's rings. Instrumentation and scientific results are considered and the prospects and limitations of FTS for planetary research in the forthcoming years are discussed.

  7. Scientific Value of a Saturn Atmospheric Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Atreya, S. K.; Spilker, T. R.; Coustenis, A.; Atkinson, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric entry probe mISSions to the giant planets can uniquely discriminate between competing theories of solar system formation and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. This provides for important comparative studies of the gas and ice giants, and to provide a laboratory for studying the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, and interiors of all the planets including Earth. The giant planets also represent a valuable link to extrasolar planetary systems. As outlined in the recent Planetary Decadal Survey, a Saturn Probe mission - with a shallow probe - ranks as a high priority for a New Frontiers class mission [1].

  8. Impact of lunar and planetary missions on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The impacts upon the growth space station of several advanced planetary missions and a populated lunar base are examined. Planetary missions examined include sample returns from Mars, the Comet Kopff, the main belt asteroid Ceres, a Mercury orbiter, and a saturn orbiter with multiple Titan probes. A manned lunar base build-up scenario is defined, encompassing preliminary lunar surveys, ten years of construction, and establishment of a permanent 18 person facility with the capability to produce oxygen propellant. The spacecraft mass departing from the space station, mission Delta V requirements, and scheduled departure date for each payload outbound from low Earth orbit are determined for both the planetary missions and for the lunar base build-up. Large aerobraked orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) are used. Two 42 metric ton propellant capacity OTV's are required for each the the 68 lunar sorties of the base build-up scenario. The two most difficult planetary missions (Kopff and Ceres) also require two of these OTV's. An expendable lunar lander and ascent stage and a reusable lunar lander which uses lunar produced oxygen are sized to deliver 18 metric tons to the lunar surface. For the lunar base, the Space Station must hangar at least two non-pressurized OTV's, store 100 metric tons of cryogens, and support an average of 14 OTV launch, return, and refurbishment cycles per year. Planetary sample return missions require a dedicated quarantine module.

  9. Huygens probe on target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    In October 1997, a Titan/Centaur rocket lifting-off from Cape Canaveral will boost the spacecraft into a 6.7 year trajectory to reach Saturn. The trajectory will use two swing-bys of Venus in April 1998 and June 1999, followed by an Earth swing-by in August 1999 and a Jupiter swing-by in December 2000 to boost speed and reach Saturn in July 2004. A few months after going into orbit around Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft will release the Huygens probe for its descent through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. The Huygens probe will measure the abundance of elements and compounds in Titan's atmosphere, the distribution of trace gases and aerosols, winds, temperature, pressure and surface state and its composition. A multi-spectral camera on the probe will provide images of the landscape of Titan. Titan is a unique planetary body in the solar system. It has an atmosphere which is primarily nitrogen. but is also rich in hydrocarbons. Due to the vast distance of the Saturnian system from the Sun, this atmosphere is at a very low temperature, thus greatly slowing down all the chemical processes. A study of this atmosphere will throw light on the development of our own atmosphere and contribute to our understanding of the origins of life on Earth. The Huygens probe is being developed by ESA with Aerospatiale (F) as the industrial prime contractor. Since the start of the programme in April 1990, very good progress has been made in design and hardware development. The entry into the Titan atmosphere will result in a very high surface temperature on the probe, generated as it decelerates due to the friction of the upper atmospheric layers. After the probe has slowed down sufficiently, a system of parachutes ensures a slow descent to the surface of Titan in approximately two and a half hours. The scientific measurements can only begin after the heat shield, which is needed to protect the probe during the high temperature entry phase, has been ejected

  10. Dissociative recombination in planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionization in planetary atmospheres can be produced by solar photoionization, photoelectron impact ionization, and, in auroral regions, by impact of precipitating particles. This ionization is lost mainly in dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions. Although atomic ions cannot undergo DR, they can be transformed locally through ion-molecule reactions into molecular ions, or they may be transported vertically or horizontally to regions of the atmosphere where such transformations are possible. Because DR reactions tend to be very exothermic, they can be an important source of kinetically or internally excited fragments. In interplanetary thermospheres, the neutral densities decrease exponentially with altitude. Below the homopause (or turbopause), the atmosphere is assumed to be throughly mixed by convection and/or turbulence. Above the homopause, diffusion is the major transport mechanism, and each species is distributed according to its mass, with the logarithmic derivative of the density with repect to altitude given approximately by -1/H, where H = kT/mg is the scale height. In this expression, T is the neutral temperature, g is the local acceleratiion of gravity, and m is the mass of the species. Thus lighter species become relatively more abundant, and heavier species less abundant, as the altitude increases. This variation of the neutral composition can lead to changes in the ion composition; furthermore, as the neutral densities decrease, dissociative recombination becomes more important relative to ion-neutral reactions as a loss mechanism for molecular ions.

  11. The Evolution and Disruption of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Planetary systems that encounter passing stars can experience severe orbital disruption, and the efficiency of this process is greatly enhanced when the impinging systems are binary pairs rather than single stars. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we have performed nearly half a million numerical experiments to examine the long term ramifications of planetary scattering on planetary systems. We have concluded that systems which form in dense environments such as Orion's Trapezium cluster have roughly a ten percent chance of being seriously disrupted. We have also used our programs to explore the long-term prospects for our own Solar system. Given the current interstellar environment, we have computed the odds that Earth will find its orbit seriously disrupted prior to the emergence of a runaway greenhouse effect driven by the Sun's increasing luminosity. This estimate includes both direct disruption events and scattering processes that seriously alter the orbits of the Jovian planets, which then force severe changes upon the Earth's orbit. We then explore the consequences of the Earth being thrown into deep space. The surface biosphere would rapidly shut down under conditions of zero insolation, but the Earth's radioactive heat is capable of maintaining life deep underground, and perhaps in hydrothermal vent communities, for some time to come. Although unlikely for the Earth, this scenario may be common throughout the universe, since many environments where liquid water could exist (e.g., Europa and Callisto) must derive their energy from internal (rather than external) heating.

  12. The Birth of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1997-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. Modern theories of star and planet formation, which are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large- enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Another potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  13. Planetary mission summaries. Volume 1: Introduction and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Tabular synopses of twelve missions are presented along with the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 mission for comparison. Mission definitions considered include: Mars Polar Orbiter; Mars Surface Sample Return; Mars Rover; Marine Jupiter/Uranus 1979 with Uranus Entry Probe; Mariner Jupiter Orbiter; Mariner Mercury Orbiter 1978; Early Mariner Comet Flyby Solar Electric Encke Slow Flyby; Mariner Encke Ballistic Flyby; Solar Electric Encke Rendezvous 1981; Venus Orbital Imaging Radar; Solar Electric Out-of-the-Eliptic Probe 1979. Technical conclusions of mission studies are given in order that these results may interact with the broader questions of scope, pace, and priorities in the planetary exploration program.

  14. Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars.

    PubMed

    Kaib, Nathan A; Raymond, Sean N; Duncan, Martin

    2013-01-17

    Nearly half the exoplanets found within binary star systems reside in very wide binaries with average stellar separations greater than 1,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit (AU) being the Earth-Sun distance), yet the influence of such distant binary companions on planetary evolution remains largely unstudied. Unlike their tighter counterparts, the stellar orbits of wide binaries continually change under the influence of the Milky Way's tidal field and impulses from other passing stars. Here we report numerical simulations demonstrating that the variable nature of wide binary star orbits dramatically reshapes the planetary systems they host, typically billions of years after formation. Contrary to previous understanding, wide binary companions may often strongly perturb planetary systems, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets. Although hitherto not recognized, orbits of giant exoplanets within wide binaries are statistically more eccentric than those around isolated stars. Both eccentricity distributions are well reproduced when we assume that isolated stars and wide binaries host similar planetary systems whose outermost giant planets are scattered beyond about 10 AU from their parent stars by early internal instabilities. Consequently, our results suggest that although wide binaries eventually remove the most distant planets from many planetary systems, most isolated giant exoplanet systems harbour additional distant, still undetected planets.

  15. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  16. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  17. KINEMATIC DISTANCES OF GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, A. Y.; Tian, W. W.; Zhu, H.; Wu, D.; Leahy, D. A. E-mail: ayyang@bao.ac.cn

    2016-03-15

    We construct H i absorption spectra for 18 planetary nebulae (PNs) and their background sources using data from the International Galactic Plane Survey. We estimate the kinematic distances of these PNs, among which 15 objects’ kinematic distances are obtained for the first time. The distance uncertainties of 13 PNs range from 10% to 50%, which is a significant improvement with uncertainties of a factor of two or three smaller than most previous distance measurements. We confirm that PN G030.2−00.1 is not a PN because of its large distance found here.

  18. Planetary maps - Passports for the mind

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The various types of planetary maps are reviewed. Included are basic descriptions of planimetric, topographic, geologic, and digital maps. It is noted that planimetric maps are pictorial representations of a planet's round surface flattened into a plane, such as controlled photomosaic maps and shaded relief maps. Topographic maps, those usually made with data from altimeters and stereoscopic images, have contour lines indicating the shapes and elevations of landforms. Geologic maps carry additional information about landforms, such as rock types, the processes that formed them, and their relative ages. The International Astronomical Union nomenclature system is briefly discussed, pointing out that the Union often assigns themes to areas to be mapped.

  19. Rheology of planetary ices

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    1996-04-24

    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  20. Photochemistry in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Graedel, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Widely varying paths of evolutionary history, atmospheric processes, solar fluxes, and temperatures have produced vastly different planetary atmospheres. The similarities and differences between the earth atmosphere and those of the terrestrial planets (Venus and Mars) and of the Jovian planets are discussed in detail; consideration is also given to the photochemistry of Saturn, Uranus, Pluto, Neptune, Titan, and Triton. Changes in the earth's ancient atmosphere are described, and problems of interest in the earth's present troposphere are discussed, including the down wind effect, plume interactions, aerosol nucleation and growth, acid rain, and the fate of terpenes. Temperature fluctuations in the four principal layers of the earth's atmosphere, predicted decreases in the ozone concentration as a function of time, and spectra of particles in the earth's upper atmosphere are also presented. Finally, the vertical structure of the Venus cloud system and the thermal structure of the Jovian planets are shown graphically.

  1. Planetary Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.

    2012-04-01

    Invited Talk - Space weather at other planets While discussion of space weather effects has so far largely been confined to the near-Earth environment, there are significant present and future applications to the locations beyond, and to other planets. Most obviously, perhaps, are the radiation hazards experienced by astronauts on the way to, and on the surface of, the Moon and Mars. Indeed, the environment experienced by planetary spacecraft in transit and at their destinations is of course critical to their design and successful operation. The case of forthcoming missions to Jupiter and Europa is an exreme example. Moreover, such craft can provide information which in turn increases our understanding of geospace. Indeed, space weather may be a significant factor in the habitability of other solar system and extrasolar planets, and the ability of life to travel between them.

  2. Planetary exploration sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the instruments that have been used in planetary exploration have been either spectrometers or imaging devices. Instruments of these types are being developed for the Galileo and VOIR (Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar) missions. Galileo will take advantage of new CCD (charge-coupled device) technology, and VOIR will use techniques of synthetic aperture radar developed for Seasat. For determining the macrostructure of mineral resources, the best approach is believed to involve acoustic imaging, essentially a seismic data processing technique. Determinations of microstructure would require a light microscope and an electron microscope. For determining the nature and form of volatiles, a differential scanning calorimeter could be used. To determine the mineral composition, an electron beam microprobe with X-ray fluorescence and spectroscopy would be used.

  3. Exploration of planetary atmospheres - Current knowledge, future opportunities and the possible role of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. E.

    1985-05-01

    Solar system planetology has evolved into an extended branch of the earth sciences and away from the domain of astronomy. Extraterrestrial planetary meteorological studies have thus far been focused on Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn and the moon Titan. Known meteorological details of each of the well-viewed planets are reviewed, and comparisons are drawn with equivalent phenomena on earth. Several new planetary probes have been proposed, including a joint NASA/ESA Cassini mission to place satellites around Saturn and Titan. The Space Telescope will, however, be the most effective instrument available for broad planetary studies over the next decade.

  4. Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry (CAPE) Missions: Micro-Reentry Capsule (MIRCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The Cubesat Application for Planetary Entry Missions (CAPE) concept describes a high-performing Cubesat system which includes a propulsion module and miniaturized technologies capable of surviving atmospheric entry heating, while reliably transmitting scientific and engineering data. The Micro Return Capsule (MIRCA) is CAPEs first planetary entry probe flight prototype. Within this context, this paper briefly describes CAPEs configuration and typical operational scenario, and summarizes ongoing work on the design and basic aerodynamic characteristics of the prototype MIRCA vehicle. CAPE not only opens the door to new planetary mission capabilities, it also offers relatively low-cost opportunities especially suitable to university participation.

  5. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments.

  6. Historical Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    1995-12-01

    Historical planetary astronomy refers to attempts to use archival physical descriptions and depictions of the Moon and planets to help solve modern problems in planetary science. These data are usually qualitative in nature, most often coming to us in the form of telescopic observers' reports and drawings made in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. For this reason, such data must be treated differently from more-modern photographic and digital imagery. Most useful historical records come from the telescopic (but pre-photographic) era. However, the eyewitness account, in the year 1178, of what may have been a large, crater-producing impact on the Moon, dates as the earliest historical datum applied to lunar science. The studies of lunar transient phenomena (LTPs), and of the "ashen light" on Venus, also benefit from a body of historical records. Other examples that I will discuss include attempts to determine if a periodicity exists in the appearance of major dust storms on Mars and attempts to understand the seeming periodicity of the appearance of large, white spots in the northern latitudes of Saturn. I also will discuss my own attempts to use the historical record to search for past jovian features similar to those produced by the collision of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 and Jupiter in 1994. I will conclude by listing a number of "filters" through which historical data necessarily pass before becoming of use to modern astronomers. These considerations are: 1) resolution, 2) instrumentation, 3) observing conditions, 4) observing technique, 5) observers' experience, 6) observers' purpose, 7) language, and 8) observer objectivity. Recognition of them is necessary to assess the quality of historical records and their applicability to a given astronomical problem. These "filters" will be illustrated by applying them to the example problems described above.

  7. Deciphering Kepler's Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithwick, Yoram

    The theory for how planetary systems form and achieve their final configuration remains highly uncertain. Until now, theories could only be tested against a single system -- the solar system. The Kepler mission, with its abundance of planetary systems, will likely prove to be a Rosetta stone. However, much remains to be deciphered. To help realize the potential of the Kepler mission, we propose to pursue the complementary tasks of characterizing the properties of the Kepler systems and developing theories to explain these properties: 1) Characterizing Kepler systems. We will characterize these planets using the transit-time-variation (TTV) signatures obtained by the mission. We have recently derived a simple expression for the TTV, and used it to derive the masses and eccentricities of a couple dozen Kepler planets. We will extend that work by applying it to many more planets, and by deriving higher-order TTV effects that will allow us to obtain more accurate measurements by breaking degeneracies. We will also use the TTV signals, as well as other observables, to infer the intrinsic orbital architecture of Kepler planets. This will form the basis for the following study. 2) Assembling Kepler systems. Informed by our above analysis, we will try to uncover how the Kepler planets were assembled onto their current orbits. Our recent work on the resonant repulsion mechanism suggests that the final assembly was shaped by a dissipative process, and we will explore that mechanism further. We will also run simulations to test the conjecture that planetesimals were the dissipative agent responsible for final assembly -- just as they are thought to be responsible for the assembly of the planets in the outer solar system

  8. Physics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkavyi, N.

    2007-08-01

    It is difficult to enumerate all the surprises presented by the planetary rings. The Saturnian rings are stratified into thousands of ringlets and the Uranian rings are compressed into narrow streams, which for some reason or other differ from circular orbits like the wheel of an old bicycle. The edge of the rings is jagged and the rings themselves are pegged down under the gravitational pressure of the satellites, bending like a ship's wake. There are spiral waves, elliptical rings, strange interlacing of narrow ringlets, and to cap it all one has observed in the Neptunian ring system three dense, bright arcs - like bunches of sausages on a transparent string. For celestial mechanics this is a spectacle as unnatural as a bear's tooth in the necklace of the English queen. In the dynamics of planetary rings the physics of collective interaction was supplemented by taking collisions between particles into account. One was led to study a kinetic equation with a rather complex collision integral - because the collisions are inelastic - which later on made it possible, both by using the Chapman-Enskog method and by using the solution of the kinetic equation for a plasma in a magnetic field, to reduce it to a closed set of (hydrodynamical) moment equations [1]. The hydrodynamical instabilities lead to the growth of short-wavelength waves and large-scale structures of the Saturnian rings [1]. We have shown that the formation of the existing dense Uranian rings is connected with the capture of positively drifting ring particles in inner Lindblad resonances which arrest this drift [1]. After the formation of dense rings at the positions of satellite resonances the collective interaction between resonant particles is amplified and the rings can leave the resonance and drift away from the planet and the parent resonance. We can expect in the C ring an appreciable positive ballistic particle drift caused by the erosion of the B ring by micrometeorites. It is therefore natural

  9. Origin and evolution of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John S.

    1992-01-01

    This report concerns several research tasks related to the origin and evolution of planetary atmospheres and the large-scale distribution of volatile elements in the Solar System. These tasks and their present status are as follows: (1) we have conducted an analysis of the volatility and condensation behavior of compounds of iron, aluminum, and phosphorus in the atmosphere of Venus in response to publish interpretations of the Soviet Venera probe XRF experiment data, to investigate the chemistry of volcanic gases, injection of volatiles by cometary and asteroidal impactors, and reactions in the troposphere; (2) we have completed and are now writing up our research on condensation-accretion modeling of the terrestrial planets; (3) we have laid the groundwork for a detailed study of the effects of water transport in the solar nebula on the bulk composition, oxidation state, and volatile content of preplanetary solids; (4) we have completed an extensive laboratory study of cryovolcanic materials in the outer solar system; (5) we have begun to study the impact erosion and shock alteration of the atmosphere of Mars resulting from cometary and asteroidal bombardment; and (6) we have developed a new Monte Carlo model of the cometary and asteroidal bombardment flux on the terrestrial planets, including all relevant chemical and physical processes associated with atmospheric entry and impact, to assess both the hazards posed by this bombardment to life on Earth and the degree of cross-correlation between the various phenomena (NO(x) production, explosive yield, crater production, iridium signature, etc.) that characterize this bombardment. The purpose of these investigations has been to contribute to the developing understanding of both the dynamics of long-term planetary atmosphere evolution and the short-term stability of planetary surface environments.

  10. An introduction to the lunar and planetary science activities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Lee, Joo-Hee; Seo, Haingja; Ju, Gwanghyeok; Lee, Sang-Ryool; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Sim, Eun-Sup; Lee, Tai Sik

    2014-11-01

    Korea is planning a series of lunar space programs in 2020 starting with a lunar orbiter and a lander with a rover. Compared to other countries, Korea has a relatively brief history in space and planetary sciences. With the expected Korean missions on the near-term horizon and the relatively few Korean planetary scientists, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has established a new planetary research group focusing on development of prospective lunar instruments, analysis of the publicly available planetary data of the Moon, organizing nationwide planetary workshops, and initiating planetary educational programs with academic institutions. Korea has also initiated its own rocket development program, which could acquire a rocket-launch capability toward the Korean lunar mission. For the prospective Korea's lunar science program, feasibility studies for some candidate science payloads have been started since 2010 for an orbiter and a lander. The concept design of each candidate instrument has been accomplished in 2012. It is expected that the development of science payloads may start by 2014 as Phase A. Not only developing hardware required for the lunar mission but also educational activities for young students are high priorities for Korea. The new plan of the Korean lunar mission can be successfully accomplished with international cooperative outreach programs in conjunction with internationally accessible planetary data system (PDS). This paper introduces the KIGAM's international cooperative planetary research and educational programs and also summarizes other nationwide new developments for Korean lunar research projects at Kyung Hee University and Hanyang University.

  11. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

  12. Planetary Landscape Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  13. Mars, Moon, Mercury: Magnetometry Constrains Planetary Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connerney, John E. P.

    2015-04-01

    We have long appreciated that magnetic measurements obtained about a magnetized planet are of great value in probing the deep interior. The existence of a substantial planetary magnetic field implies dynamo action requiring an electrically conducting, fluid core in convective motion and a source of energy to maintain it. Application of the well-known Lowe's spectrum may in some cases identify the dynamo outer radius; where secular variation can be measured, the outer radius can be estimated using the frozen flux approximation. Magnetic induction may be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the mantle and crust. These are useful constraints that together with gravity and/or other observables we may infer the state of the interior and gain insight into planetary evolution. But only recently has it become clear that space magnetometry can do much more, particularly about a planet that once sustained a dynamo that has since disappeared. Mars is the best example of this class: the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft globally mapped a remanent crustal field left behind after the demise of the dynamo. This map is a magnetic record of the planet's evolution. I will argue that this map may be interpreted to constrain the era of dynamo activity within Mars; to establish the reversal history of the Mars dynamo; to infer the magnetization intensity of Mars crustal rock and the depth of the magnetized crustal layer; and to establish that plate tectonics is not unique to planet Earth, as has so often been claimed. The Lunar magnetic record is in contrast one of weakly magnetized and scattered sources, not easily interpreted as yet in terms of the interior. Magnetometry about Mercury is more difficult to interpret owing to the relatively weak field and proximity to the sun, but MESSENGER (and ultimately Beppi Columbo) may yet map crustal anomalies (induced and/or remanent).

  14. Spatial Query for Planetary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Powell, Mark W.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Fox, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Science investigators need to quickly and effectively assess past observations of specific locations on a planetary surface. This innovation involves a location-based search technology that was adapted and applied to planetary science data to support a spatial query capability for mission operations software. High-performance location-based searching requires the use of spatial data structures for database organization. Spatial data structures are designed to organize datasets based on their coordinates in a way that is optimized for location-based retrieval. The particular spatial data structure that was adapted for planetary data search is the R+ tree.

  15. Probing the extreme planetary atmosphere of WASP-12b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Mark; Deroo, Pieter; Tinetti, Giovanna; Hollis, Morgan; Tessenyi, Marcell; Line, Michael; Kawahara, Hajime; Fujii, Yuka; Showman, Adam P.; Yurchenko, Sergey N.

    2013-07-01

    We report near-infrared measurements of the terminator region transmission spectrum and dayside emission spectrum of the exoplanet WASP-12b obtained using the HST WFC3 instrument. The disk-average dayside brightness temperature averages about 2900 K, peaking to 3200 K around 1.46 μm. We modeled a range of atmospheric cases for both the emission and transmission spectrum and confirm the recent finding by Crossfield et al. (Crossfield, I., Barman, T., Hansen, B., Tanaka, I., Kodama, T. [2012b]. arXiv: 1210.4836C) that there is no evidence for C/O > 1 in the atmosphere of WASP-12b. Assuming a physically plausible atmosphere, we find evidence that the presence of a number of molecules is consistent with the data, but the justification for inclusion of these opacity sources based on the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) is marginal. We also find the near-infrared primary eclipse light curve is consistent with small amounts of prolate distortion. As part of the calibration effort for these data, we conducted a detailed study of instrument systematics using 65 orbits of WFC3-IR grims observations. The instrument systematics are dominated by detector-related affects, which vary significantly depending on the detector readout mode. The 256 × 256 subarray observations of WASP-12 produced spectral measurements within 15% of the photon-noise limit using a simple calibration approach. Residual systematics are estimated to be ⩽70 ppm.

  16. Planetary Probe Entry Atmosphere Estimation Using Synthetic Air Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Chris; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops an atmospheric state estimator based on inertial acceleration and angular rate measurements combined with an assumed vehicle aerodynamic model. The approach utilizes the full navigation state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and attitude) to recast the vehicle aerodynamic model to be a function solely of the atmospheric state (density, pressure, and winds). Force and moment measurements are based on vehicle sensed accelerations and angular rates. These measurements are combined with an aerodynamic model and a Kalman-Schmidt filter to estimate the atmospheric conditions. The new method is applied to data from the Mars Science Laboratory mission, which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars in August 2012. The results of the new estimation algorithm are compared with results from a Flush Air Data Sensing algorithm based on onboard pressure measurements on the vehicle forebody. The comparison indicates that the new proposed estimation method provides estimates consistent with the air data measurements, without the use of pressure measurements. Implications for future missions such as the Mars 2020 entry capsule are described.

  17. Experimental study of planetary gases with applications to planetary interior models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Peter M.; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    1988-01-01

    High-pressure experimental data on planetary materials are critical in developing planetary models and in addressing otherwise insoluble problems of the internal structure of the major planets. Progress in the last five years has been particularly marked. Maximum static pressure of 550 GPa was achieved. For the first time, X-ray diffraction of solidified gases (Ne, Xe) and ices (H2O) were obtained at pressures above one megabar, single-crystal diffraction of ultralight elements (H2, He) were detected up to 25 GPa, pressures over 200 GPa at 77 K were reached in solid hydrogen, including the discovery of a phase transformation in the molecular solid. Advances in instrumentation and new measurements performed during 1983 to 1988 are summarized.

  18. Possible concepts for an in situ Saturn probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Mousis, Olivier; Atkinson, David H.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Reh, Kim R.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Atreya, Sushil; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cavalie, Thibault; Colaprete, Anthony; Gautier, Daniel; Guillot, Tristan; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Marty, Bernard; Morse, Andy; Sims, Jon; Spilker, Tom; Spilker, Linda

    2014-05-01

    In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere would bring insights in two broad themes: the formation history of our solar system and the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. The science case for in situ measurements at Saturn are developed in [1] and two companion abstracts (see Mousis et al., and Atkinson et al.). They are summarized here. Measurements of Saturn's bulk chemical and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula and hence on the formation mechanisms. An in situ probe, penetrating from the upper atmosphere (μbar level) into the convective weather layer to a minimum depth of 10 bar, would also contribute to our knowledge of Saturn's atmospheric structure, dynamics, composition, chemistry and cloud-forming processes. Different mission architectures are envisaged, all based on an entry probe that would descend through Saturn's stratosphere and troposphere under parachute down to a minimum of 10 bars [1]. Future studies will focus on the trade-offs between science return and the added design complexity of a probe that could operate at pressures larger than 10 bars. Accelerometry measurements may also be performed during the entry phase in the higher part of the stratosphere prior to starting measurements under parachute. A carrier system would be required to deliver the probe along its interplanetary trajectory to the desired atmospheric entry point at Saturn. The entry site would be carefully selected. Three possible mission configurations are currently under study (with different risk/cost trades): • Configuration 1: Probe + Carrier. After probe delivery, the carrier would follow its path and be destroyed during atmospheric entry, but could perform pre-entry science. The carrier would not be used as a radio relay, but the probe would transmit its data to the ground system via a direct-to-Earth (DTE) RF link; • Configuration 2: Probe + Carrier/Relay. The probe would detach from the

  19. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Research supported by grant NAGW-1928 has addressed a variety of problems related to planetary evolution. One important focus has been on questions related to the role of chemical buoyancy in planetary evolution with application to both Venus and the Moon. We have developed a model for the evolution of the Moon (Hess and Parmentier, 1995) in which dense, highly radioactive, late stage magma ocean cumulates sink forming a core. This core heats the overlying, chemically layered mantle giving rise to a heated, chemically well-mixed layer that thickens with time. This Mixed layer eventually becomes hot enough and thick enough that its top begins to melt at a pressure low enough that melt is buoyant, thus creating mare basalts from a high pressure source of the correct composition and at an appropriate time in lunar evolution. In work completed during the last year, numerical experiments on convection in a chemically stably stratified fluid layer heated from below have been completed. These results show us how to calculate the evolution of a mixed layer in the Moon, depending on the heat production in the ilmenite- cumulate core and the chemical stratification of the overlying mantle. Chemical stratification of the mantle after its initial differentiation is would trap heat in the deep interior and prevent the rapid rise of plumes with accompanying volcanism. This trapping of heat in the interior can explain the thickness of the lunar lithosphere as a function of time as well as the magmatic evolution. We show that heat transported to the base of the lithosphere at a rate determined by current estimates of radioactivity in the Moon would not satisfy constraints on elastic lithosphere thickness from tectonic feature associated with basin loading. Trapping heat at depth by a chemically stratified mantle may also explain the absence of global compressional features on the surface that previous models predict for an initially hot lunar interior. For Venus, we developed a

  20. Formation of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Stars are observed to be forming within cold regions of the galaxy called molecular clouds. A clump of gas and dust within a molecular cloud can collapse into a rotationally- supported disk orbiting the pre s sure -supported star. Such a disk has the same initial elemental composition as the growing star. At sufficient distances from the central star, it is cool enough for approx. 1 - 2% of this material to be in solid form, either remnant interstellar grains or condensates formed within the disk. During the infall stage, the disk is very active and probably highly turbulent. When the infall slows substantially or stops, the disk becomes more quiescent. The dust grows from micron-sized dust to kilometer-sized planetesimals by physical collisions, possibly aided by collective gravity. The dynamics of larger solid bodies within protoplanetary disks are better characterized. The primary perturbations on the orbits of kilometer-sized and larger planetesimals in protoplanetary disks are mutual gravitational interactions and physical collisions. These interactions lead to accretion (and in some cases erosion and fragmentation) of planetesimals. The most massive planets have the largest gravitationally-enhanced collision cross-sections, and accrete almost everything with which they collide. The size distribution of solid bodies becomes quite skewed, with a few large bodies growing much faster than the rest of the swarm, until they have accumulated most of the small bodies within their gravitational reach. Slower growth continues (at least for solid, earth-like planets) as the eccentricities of planetary embryos are pumped up by long-range mutual gravitational perturbations. As planetary masses increase, they become more efficient at stirring random velocities of neighboring bodies. If sufficiently massive and dense planets exist far enough from the star, they can eject material into interstellar space. In most models, giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial

  1. Goddard Summer Interns: Andy Ryan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Andy Ryan is an intern staff assistant with the Lunar and Planetary Science Academy. This summer the LPSA traveled to the Channeled Scablands of eastern Washington to study and map the geology of t...

  2. Planetary science: Eris under scrutiny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbis, Amanda

    2011-10-01

    A stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Eris provides a new estimate of its size. It also reveals a surprisingly bright planetary surface, which could indicate the relatively recent condensation of a putative atmosphere. See Letter p.493

  3. Reaching Water: Planetary Deep Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B.; Bergman, D.; Davis, R.; Hoftun, C.; Lee, P.; Johansen, B.

    2017-02-01

    Deeper drilling to 100m depths is easy on Earth, but an extreme challenge on other solar system bodies. Deeper planetary subsurface access into ocean worlds or to the Mars cryosphere is possible with new drilling concepts.

  4. Magnetic Helicity and Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2012-01-01

    A model planetary dynamo based on the Boussinesq approximation along with homogeneous boundary conditions is considered. A statistical theory describing a large-scale MHD dynamo is found, in which magnetic helicity is the critical parameter

  5. Integration of planetary protection activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    1995-01-01

    For decades, NASA has been concerned about the protection of planets and other solar system bodies from biological contamination. Its policies regarding biological contamination control for outbound and inbound planetary spacecraft have evolved to focus on three important areas: (1) the preservation of celestial objects and the space environment; (2) protection of Earth from extraterrestrial hazards; and (3) ensuring the integrity of its scientific investigations. Over the years as new information has been obtained from planetary exploration and research, planetary protection parameters and policies have been modified accordingly. The overall focus of research under this cooperative agreement has been to provide information about non-scientific and societal factors related to planetary protection and use it in the planning and implementation phases of future Mars sample return missions.

  6. Planetary geosciences, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Lunine, Jonathan I. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn J. (Editor); Phillips, Roger J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Geosciences Programs (the Planetary Geology and Geophysics and the Planetary Material and Geochemistry Programs) provide support and an organizational framework for scientific research on solid bodies of the solar system. These research and analysis programs support scientific research aimed at increasing our understanding of the physical, chemical, and dynamic nature of the solid bodies of the solar system: the Moon, the terrestrial planets, the satellites of the outer planets, the rings, the asteroids, and the comets. This research is conducted using a variety of methods: laboratory experiments, theoretical approaches, data analysis, and Earth analog techniques. Through research supported by these programs, we are expanding our understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. This document is intended to provide an overview of the more significant scientific findings and discoveries made this year by scientists supported by the Planetary Geosciences Program. To a large degree, these results and discoveries are the measure of success of the programs.

  7. Planetary Scientist Profile: Noah Petro

    NASA Video Gallery

    Noah Petro is a NASA planetary geologist who studies the surface of airless bodies in space, primarily focusing on the moon. In this video profile, Noah talks about how he was inspired to become a ...

  8. Online Planetary Science Courses at Athabasca University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, M. G.; Bredeson, C.; Munyikwa, K.

    2014-12-01

    Athabasca University offers distance education courses in science, at freshman and higher levels. It has a number of geology courses, and recently opened a planetary science course as the first upper division astronomy course after many years of offering freshman astronomy. Astronomy 310, Planetary Science, focuses on the physics of the Solar System and allows the study of planetary astronomy in a deeper way than what is offered in a freshman course. With a mathematically based approach, it looks at the planets and smaller bodies such as meteoroids, asteroids and comets found in our own solar neighbourhood. It provides an understanding of the basic physics and equations needed for studies of planetary science and looks at the formation of the principal bodies in the Solar System. It investigates the interiors of planets and planetary surface phenomena such as cratering, volcanism and tectonics, and examines the atmospheres of planets, including how they originated and whether planets can keep an atmosphere. As a new course, it has grown rapidly.Geology 415, Earth's Origin and Early Evolution, explores the evidence for the various processes, events, and materials involved in the formation and evolution of Earth. The course provides an overview of objects in the Solar System, including the Sun, the planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. Earth's place in the Solar System is examined and physical laws that govern the motion of objects in the universe are looked at. Various geochemical tools and techniques used by geologists to reveal and interpret the evidence for the formation and evolution of bodies in the Solar System as well as the age of Earth are also explored. After looking at lines of evidence used to reconstruct the evolution of the Solar System, processes involved in the formation of planets and stars are examined. The course concludes with a look at the origin and nature of Earth's internal structure. GEOL415 is a senior undergraduate course and enrols

  9. Planetary Tectonics and Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.

    1997-01-01

    The study of tectonic and volcanological processes on the terrestrial planets, with particular emphasis on Venus, in order to better understand the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of these bodies is reported.

  10. The Charging of Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graps, Amara L.; Horanyi, M.; Havnes, O.; Gruen, E.

    2008-09-01

    Planetary rings have an undeniable aesthetic appeal, resulting in media icons of ringed planets as descriptive of the planetary sciences field as a whole. Such far-reaching symbolism might not be misplaced, however, because planetary rings represent a fundamental class of planetary structure that invites interdisciplinary investigations from specialists in dust, gravitational, plasma, collisional, and radiative transfer physics, due to: its sub-micron to meters-sized particles, its immersion in the planet's magnetic field, its embedded moonlets and its close proximity to the ringed planet's ionosphere and innermost moons. As such, planetary rings are a metaphoric bridge through a wide range of planetary physical processes. Processes to charge ring particles have different relative dynamical effects, dependent upon the rings' particle sizes, and the ring's plasma, magnetic and gravitational environments. This presentation will review what is known about the charging parameters and processes of planetary rings, in particular the sum of the individual currents from the time-varying charge dQ/dt, of the planetary ring particle. The individual currents depend on the environmental plasma conditions: number density, flow speed, temperature, and mass for the currents: electron and ion capture from the plasma, ion currents to a moving grain, photoelectron emission, secondary electron emission, thermionic effects, with stochastic charging influencing all of the above. Since rings are an ensemble of particles, ("cloud" Ring), we will define an ensemble, and consider the above currents, including those for the smallest ring particles, the dust particles, to arrive at a table giving charge potential and other relevant parameters.

  11. Planetary Interior in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, R; Bastea, M; Mitchell, A C; Minich, R W; Nellis, W J

    2003-01-31

    In the three years of this project, we have provided a complete database of the electrical conductivity of planetary materials to 180 GPa. The electrical conductivities of these planetary materials now provide a basis for future modeling of planets taking into account full magnetohydrodynamics. By using a full magnetohydrodynamics simulation, the magnetic fields of the planets can then be taken into account. Moreover, the electrical conductivities of the planetary materials have given us insight into the structure and nature of these dense fluids. We showed that simple monoatomic fluids such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen at planetary interior conditions undergo a common metallization process which can be explained on a simple basis of their radial charge density distributions. This model also shows that the metallization process is actually rather common and likely to take place in a number of materials such as carbon monoxide which is also present within planetary objects. On the other hand, we have also showed that a simple two component fluid like water and methane take on much different behaviors than say nitrogen due to the chemical interactions within these systems. The dynamics of an even more complex system, ''synthetic Uranus'' are still being analyzed but suggest that on some levels the behavior is very simple, i.e. the electrical conductivity is essentially the same as water, but the local dynamics are very complex. This project has shed much light on the nature of electrical transport within planetary interiors but also has shown that understanding chemical processes in the complex fluids within planetary interiors to be very important. Understanding those local interactions and processes is required to gain further insight into planetary interiors.

  12. Planetary waves in rotating ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Khantadze, A. G.; Jandieri, V. G.; Jandieri, G. V.

    2008-06-15

    The problem of propagation of ultralong planetary waves in the Earth's upper atmosphere is considered. A new exact solution to the MHD equations for the ionosphere is obtained in spherical coordinates with allowance for the geomagnetic field and Earth's rotation. A general dispersion relation is derived for planetary waves in the ionospheric E and F regions, and the characteristic features of their propagation in a weakly ionized ionospheric plasma are discussed.

  13. Planetary Data Workshop, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The community of planetary scientists addresses two general problems regarding planetary science data: (1) important data sets are being permanently lost; and (2) utilization is constrainted by difficulties in locating and accessing science data and supporting information necessary for its use. A means to correct the problems, provide science and functional requirements for a systematic and phased approach, and suggest technologies and standards appropriate to the solution were explored.

  14. Planetary Photojournal Home Page Graphic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image is an unannotated version of the Planetary Photojournal Home Page graphic. This digital collage contains a highly stylized rendition of our solar system and points beyond. As this graphic was intended to be used as a navigation aid in searching for data within the Photojournal, certain artistic embellishments have been added (color, location, etc.). Several data sets from various planetary and astronomy missions were combined to create this image.

  15. Migrating microbes and planetary protection.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Schuerger, Andrew C; Race, Margaret S

    2009-09-01

    Since the dawn of the space age, humans have wrestled with concerns about planetary cross-contamination. Spacecraft launched from Earth can transport hitchhiker microbes to new worlds on both robotic and crewed vehicles. As plans proceed for future life detection and human exploration missions, planetary protection considerations are again uppermost on the agendas of mission planners, and microbiologists have an important role to play.

  16. Very Long Baseline Interferometry for Planetary Science Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, L. I.; Pogrebenko, S. V.

    2007-08-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferomtery (VLBI), a radio astronomy technique that offers the highest angular resolution and sensitivity, has progressed rapidly over the last years. It offers now a sub-kilometre-scale accuracy of position determination for weak transmitters at the distance of up to ten AU with minimal requirements for the composition of on-board instrumentation. Being combined with other advanced tracking techniques (such as DeltaDOR and two-way Doppler measurements), it brings about a possibility to conduct a variety of planetary science experiments with unprecedented accuracy. Recently the VLBI technique was demonstrated for the Huygens Probe during its descent in the atmosphere and on the surface of Titan. Similar experiments are being considered for a number of prospective planetary missions. In this review presentation we will discuss the basic principles of VLBI tracking of planetary missions. Major requirements and specifications for the on-board and Earth-based segments of VLBI tracking experiments will be presented. We will also describe several potential applications of this technique for various experiments in the interest of atmosphere physics, geodynamics and other planetary science disciplines. Another attractive potential of the technique links it with the general mission support as an efficient diagnostic and navigation tool. In the coming months and years a number of planetary missions will employ the VLBI technique and necessitate its further development.We will conclude the presentation with a brief outline of specifications of VLBI facilities that can be relied on by planetary missions in the coming 10-20 years.

  17. Planetary Vital Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  18. Lunar and planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.; Goldreich, P.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Westphal, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    This grant supports the core program in planetary astronomy at Caltech. The research includes observations in the IR, sub-mm, mm and cm wavelengths at national and Caltech observatories with a strong emphasis on integrating the observations with spacecraft data and with models of atmospheric structure, dynamics and chemistry. Muhleman's group made extensive observations of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune which are being interpreted in terms of deep atmospheric structures which are obvious in the 2 and 6 cm maps of Saturn and Uranus. The microwave measurements are one of the few sources of information below the 2 bar level. Goldreich is investigating the dynamics of narrow rings with postdoctoral fellow, Pierre-Yves Longaretti. Their work has focused on the role of collisional stresses on the precession of the rings, since the Voyager radio science results imply that the previous model based on the ring's self-gravity is not the entire story. In addition Borderies, Goldreich and Tremaine have completed an investigation of the dynamics of the Encke division in Saturn's A ring.

  19. Extrasolar Planetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Andrew Collier

    An extrasolar planet will transit the visible hemisphere of its host star if its orbital plane lies sufficiently close to the observer's line of sight. The resulting periodic dips in stellar flux reveal key system parameters, including the density of the host star and, if radial-velocity observations are available, the surface gravitational acceleration of the planet. In this chapter I present the essential methodology for modelling the time-dependent flux variation during a transit, and its use in determining the posterior probability distribution for the physical parameters of the system. Large-scale searches for transiting systems are an efficient way of discovering planets whose bulk densities, and hence compositions, can be accessed if their masses can also be determined. I present algorithms for detrending large ensembles of light curves, for searching for transit-like signals among them. I also discuss methods for identifying diluted stellar eclipsing binaries mimicking planetary transit signals, and validation of transit candidates too faint for radial-velocity follow-up. I review the use of time-resolved spectrophotometry and high-resolution spectroscopy during transits to identify the molecular constituents of exoplanetary atmospheres.

  20. Planetary Seismometers: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapmeyer, M.; Akito, A.; Bampasidis, G.; Banerdt, W. B.; Coustenis, A.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Khavroshkin, O.; Kobayashi, N.; Moussas, X.; Pike, W. T.; Seidensticker, K. J.; Solomonidou, A.; Yu, H.; Zakharov, A.

    2012-04-01

    Seismometers were part of lander payloads since the launch of Ranger 3 in early 1962, which was the first attempt to deliver scientific instruments to the surface of another celestial body. Since then, active and passive seismic experiments were conducted with great success on the Moon, and to a lesser extent on Mars and Venus. Proposals have been made or are in preparation for new experiments with single instruments or instrument networks on Venus, Moon, Mars, Phobos, Titan, Europa, and other bodies. One instrument (CASSE, sensitive for acoustic frequencies >= 30Hz) is currently flying to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on board of the Rosetta Mission. We give an overview of seismometers for use in planetary missions, including instruments of past and future missions. The focus is on the current developments as represented by the authors of the presentation. These encompass a Micro-Electromechanic System, several piezoelectric transducers that are able to resist strong decelerations, as well as new developments based on laser-interferometric sensing or hydrodynamic flow of electrolytic liquids.

  1. Wave structure in planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Linda Joyce

    1992-01-01

    Planetary rings contain a wealth of wavelike structure that is driven by gravitational resonance interactions with nearby satellites. Wave behavior is a powerful tool for estimating physical ring parameters that are key to our understanding of ring origin and evolution. A new technique, utilizing the Burg autoregressive power spectral algorithm, was developed for probing the physical characteristics of rings and for detecting waves that are not otherwise visible. Data from the Voyager photopolarimeter (PPS) stellar occultations by the rings of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and the Voyager radio science (RSS) occultation by Saturn's rings were used. Local surface mass density estimates are obtained from the dispersion of 40 spiral density waves in Saturn's A ring, including 10 weaker waves not previously analyzed. Surface mass densities vary from 20 to 60 gm sq cm. Increasing optical depth is not correlated with increasing surface mass density, especially after the Keeler gap, suggesting that ring particle size and composition are not uniform throughout the A ring. Saturn's A ring mass is reestimated using the surface mass densities and is 5.2 +/- 1.3 x 1021 gm. The wakes of Saturn's satellite Pan are not short timescale phenomena because the effects of Pan's gravitational perturbations persist for more than one Pan encounter. Four additional Pan wakes were discovered at longitudes greater than 360 deg. Collective effects such as collisions modify the wake dispersion more extensively at greater longitudes. Pan is the dominant mass in the Encke gap. A spiral density wave was detected inside the Uranian delta ring. Upper and lower bounds were estimated for the surface mass density of the delta ring 5 less than or equal to sigma less than or equal to 10 gm/sq cm, the viscosity 10 less than or equal to nu less than or equal to 40 sq cm/sec, and the local ring height 7 less than or equal to h less than or equal to 20 m. These values are comparable to the corresponding

  2. The Language of Planetary Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This graph of data from NASA's Spitzer Space telescope shows changes in the infrared light output of two star-planet systems (one above, one below) located hundreds of light-years away. The data were taken while the planets, called HD 209458b and TrES-1, disappeared behind their stars in what is called a 'secondary eclipse.' The dip seen in the center of each graph represents the time when the planets were eclipsed, and tells astronomers exactly how much light they emit.

    Why a secondary eclipse? When a planet transits, or passes in front of, its star, it partially blocks the light of the star. When the planet swings around behind the star, the star completely blocks its light. This drop in total light can be measured to determine the amount of light coming from just the planet.

    Why infrared? In visible light, the glare of a star overwhelms its planetary companion and the little light the planet reflects. In infrared, a star shines less brightly, and its planet gives off its own internal light, or heat radiation, making the planet easier to detect.

    By observing these secondary eclipses at different infrared wavelengths, astronomers can obtain the planet's temperature, and, in the future, they may be able to pick out chemicals sprinkled throughout a planet's atmosphere. The technique also reveals whether a planet's orbit is elongated or circular.

    This strategy will not work for all known extrasolar planets. It is ideally suited to study those Jupiter-sized planets previously discovered to cross, or transit, between us and the Sun-like stars they orbit, out to distances of 500 light-years. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was the first to successfully employ this technique.

    The data of HD 209458b were taken by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer using the 24-micron array. The data of TrES-1 were taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera using the 8-micron array.

  3. Geophysics of Small Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, Erik I.

    1998-01-01

    As a SETI Institute PI from 1996-1998, Erik Asphaug studied impact and tidal physics and other geophysical processes associated with small (low-gravity) planetary bodies. This work included: a numerical impact simulation linking basaltic achondrite meteorites to asteroid 4 Vesta (Asphaug 1997), which laid the groundwork for an ongoing study of Martian meteorite ejection; cratering and catastrophic evolution of small bodies (with implications for their internal structure; Asphaug et al. 1996); genesis of grooved and degraded terrains in response to impact; maturation of regolith (Asphaug et al. 1997a); and the variation of crater outcome with impact angle, speed, and target structure. Research of impacts into porous, layered and prefractured targets (Asphaug et al. 1997b, 1998a) showed how shape, rheology and structure dramatically affects sizes and velocities of ejecta, and the survivability and impact-modification of comets and asteroids (Asphaug et al. 1998a). As an affiliate of the Galileo SSI Team, the PI studied problems related to cratering, tectonics, and regolith evolution, including an estimate of the impactor flux around Jupiter and the effect of impact on local and regional tectonics (Asphaug et al. 1998b). Other research included tidal breakup modeling (Asphaug and Benz 1996; Schenk et al. 1996), which is leading to a general understanding of the role of tides in planetesimal evolution. As a Guest Computational Investigator for NASA's BPCC/ESS supercomputer testbed, helped graft SPH3D onto an existing tree code tuned for the massively parallel Cray T3E (Olson and Asphaug, in preparation), obtaining a factor xIO00 speedup in code execution time (on 512 cpus). Runs which once took months are now completed in hours.

  4. Internal shim

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Clyde H.; Blizinski, Theodore W.

    2003-05-13

    An internal shim used to accurately measure spaces in conjunction with a standard small probe has a shim top and a chassis. The internal shim is adjustably fixed within the space to be measured using grippers that emerge from the chassis and which are controlled by an arm pivotably attached to the shim top. A standard small probe passes through the shim along guides on the chassis and measures the distance between the exterior of the chassis and the boundary. By summing the measurements on each side of the chassis and the width of the chassis, the dimension of the space can be determined to within 0.001 inches.

  5. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  6. Optical probe

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth; Flower, William L.

    1999-01-01

    A compact optical probe is disclosed particularly useful for analysis of emissions in industrial environments. The instant invention provides a geometry for optically-based measurements that allows all optical components (source, detector, rely optics, etc.) to be located in proximity to one another. The geometry of the probe disclosed herein provides a means for making optical measurements in environments where it is difficult and/or expensive to gain access to the vicinity of a flow stream to be measured. Significantly, the lens geometry of the optical probe allows the analysis location within a flow stream being monitored to be moved while maintaining optical alignment of all components even when the optical probe is focused on a plurality of different analysis points within the flow stream.

  7. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  8. Magnetostrophic balance in planetary dynamos - Predictions for Neptune's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1986-01-01

    With the purpose of estimating Neptune's magnetic field and its implications for nonthermal Neptune radio emissions, a new scaling law for planetary magnetic fields was developed in terms of externally observable parameters (the planet's mean density, radius, mass, rotation rate, and internal heat source luminosity). From a comparison of theory and observations by Voyager it was concluded that planetary dynamos are two-state systems with either zero intrinsic magnetic field (for planets with low internal heat source) or (for planets with the internal heat source sufficiently strong to drive convection) a magnetic field near the upper bound determined from magnetostrophic balance. It is noted that mass loading of the Neptune magnetosphere by Triton may play an important role in the generation of nonthermal radio emissions.

  9. Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomaliti, L. V.

    2000-11-01

    The discovery of planetary systems around alien stars is an outstanding achievement of recent years. The idea that the Solar System may be representative of planetary systems in the Galaxy in general develops upon the knowledge, current until the last decade of the 20th century, that it is the only object of its kind. Studies of the known planets gave rise to a certain stereotype in theoretical research. Therefore, the discovery of exoplanets, which are so different from objects of the Solar System, alters our basic notions concerning the physics and very criteria of normal planets. A substantial factor in the history of the Solar System was the formation of Jupiter. Two waves of meteorite bombardment played an important role in that history. Ultimately there arose a stable low-entropy state of the Solar System, in which Jupiter and the other giants in stable orbits protect the inner planets from impacts by dangerous celestial objects, reducing this danger by many orders of magnitude. There are even variants of the anthropic principle maintaining that life on Earth owes its genesis and development to Jupiter. Some 20 companions more or less similar to Jupiter in mass and a few ``infrared dwarfs,'' have been found among the 500 solar-type stars belonging to the main sequence. Approximately half of the exoplanets discovered are of the ``hot-Jupiter'' type. These are giants, sometimes of a mass several times that of Jupiter, in very low orbits and with periods of 3-14 days. All of their parent stars are enriched with heavy elements, [Fe/H] = 0.1-0.2. This may indicate that the process of exoplanet formation depends on the chemical composition of the protoplanetary disk. The very existence of exoplanets of the hot-Jupiter type considered in the context of new theoretical work comes up against the problem of the formation of Jupiter in its real orbit. All the exoplanets in orbits with a semimajor axis of more than 0.15-0.20 astronomical units (AU) have orbital

  10. NASA Planetary Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.; Kim, R.

    2004-12-01

    NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one

  11. Vision and Voyages: Lessons Learned from the Planetary Decadal Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The most recent planetary decadal survey, entitled Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, provided a detailed set of priorities for solar system exploration. Those priorities drew on broad input from the U.S. and international planetary science community. Using white papers, town hall meetings, and open meetings of the decadal committees, community views were solicited and a consensus began to emerge. The final report summarized that consensus. Like many past decadal reports, the centerpiece of Vision and Voyages was a set of priorities for future space flight projects. Two things distinguished this report from some previous decadals. First, conservative and independent cost estimates were obtained for all of the projects that were considered. These independent cost estimates, rather than estimates generated by project advocates, were used to judge each project's expected science return per dollar. Second, rather than simply accepting NASA's ten-year projection of expected funding for planetary exploration, decision rules were provided to guide program adjustments if actual funding did not follow projections. To date, NASA has closely followed decadal recommendations. In particular, the two highest priority "flagship" missions, a Mars rover to collect samples for return to Earth and a mission to investigate a possible ocean on Europa, are both underway. The talk will describe the planetary decadal process in detail, and provide a more comprehensive assessment of NASA's response to it.

  12. Interdisciplinary Research Produces Results in the Understanding of Planetary Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Hayward, Rosalyn Kay; Bourke, Mary C.

    2010-08-01

    Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs—Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data; Alamosa, Colorado, 18-21 May 2010; Dunes and other eolian bed forms are prominent on several planetary bodies in our solar system. Despite 4 decades of study, many questions remain regarding the composition, age, and origins of these features, as well as the climatic conditions under which they formed. Recently acquired data from orbiters and rovers, together with terrestrial analogs and numerical models, are providing new insights into Martian sand dunes, as well as eolian bed forms on other terrestrial planetary bodies (e.g., Titan). As a means of bringing together terrestrial and planetary researchers from diverse backgrounds with the goal of fostering collaborative interdisciplinary research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, the Desert Research Institute, and the U.S. National Park Service held a workshop in Colorado. The small group setting facilitated intensive discussion of problems and issues associated with eolian processes on Earth, Mars, and Titan.

  13. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  14. Dynamics of early planetary gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    August, R.; Kasuba, R.; Frater, J. L.; Pintz, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method to analyze the static and dynamic loads in a planetary gear train was developed. A variable-variable mesh stiffness (VVMS) model was used to simulate the external and internal spur gear mesh behavior, and an equivalent conventional gear train concept was adapted for the dynamic studies. The analysis can be applied either involute or noninvolute spur gearing. By utilizing the equivalent gear train concept, the developed method may be extended for use for all types of epicyclic gearing. The method is incorporated into a computer program so that the static and dynamic behavior of individual components can be examined. Items considered in the analysis are: (1) static and dynamic load sharing among the planets; (2) floating or fixed Sun gear; (3) actual tooth geometry, including errors and modifications; (4) positioning errors of the planet gears; (5) torque variations due to noninvolute gear action. A mathematical model comprised of power source, load, and planetary transmission is used to determine the instantaneous loads to which the components are subjected. It considers fluctuating output torque, elastic behavior in the system, and loss of contact between gear teeth. The dynamic model has nine degrees of freedom resulting in a set of simultaneous second order differential equations with time varying coefficients, which are solved numerically. The computer program was used to determine the effect of manufacturing errors, damping and component stiffness, and transmitted load on dynamic behavior. It is indicated that this methodology offers the designer/analyst a comprehensive tool with which planetary drives may be quickly and effectively evaluated.

  15. The internal dynamics of mini c TAR DNA probed by electron paramagnetic resonance of nitroxide spin-labels at the lower stem, the loop, and the bulge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Ziwei; Grigoryants, Vladimir M; Myers, William K; Liu, Fei; Earle, Keith A; Freed, Jack H; Scholes, Charles P

    2012-10-30

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 236.6 and 9.5 GHz probed the tumbling of nitroxide spin probes in the lower stem, in the upper loop, and near the bulge of mini c TAR DNA. High-frequency 236.6 GHz EPR, not previously applied to spin-labeled oligonucleotides, was notably sensitive to fast, anisotropic, hindered local rotational motion of the spin probe, occurring approximately about the NO nitroxide axis. Labels attached to the 2'-aminocytidine sugar in the mini c TAR DNA showed such anisotropic motion, which was faster in the lower stem, a region previously thought to be partially melted. More flexible labels attached to phosphorothioates at the end of the lower stem tumbled isotropically in mini c TAR DNA, mini TAR RNA, and ψ(3) RNA, but at 5 °C, the motion became more anisotropic for the labeled RNAs, implying more order within the RNA lower stems. As observed by 9.5 GHz EPR, the slowing of nanosecond motions of large segments of the oligonucleotide was enhanced by increasing the ratio of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 to mini c TAR DNA from 0 to 2. The slowing was most significant at labels in the loop and near the bulge. At a 4:1 ratio of NCp7 to mini c TAR DNA, all labels reported tumbling times of >5 ns, indicating a condensation of NCp7 and TAR DNA. At the 4:1 ratio, pulse dipolar EPR spectroscopy of bilabels attached near the 3' and 5' termini showed evidence of an NCp7-induced increase in the 3'-5' end-to-end distance distribution and a partially melted stem.

  16. International, collaborative assessment of limitations of chromosome-specific probes (CSP) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH): Analysis of expected detections in 73,000 prenatal cases

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.I.; Henry, G.P.; Miller, W.A.

    1994-09-01

    FISH and CSP have been proposed to reduce karyotyping need. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential efficacy of CSP-FISH using currently available probes (13, 18, 21, X, & Y) in large, prenatal diagnostic centers. Results (1990-1993) from 7 centers in 4 countries were divided by those expected to be detectable by currently available probes, and those which would be missed assuming 10% probe efficacy. 72,994 karyotypes included 699 trisomy 21`s, 352 trisomy 18`s, 136 trisomy 13`s, 358 sex chromosome aneuploidies, 70 triploidies, and 855 others (translocations, inversions, deletions, markers). Of 2,613 abnormalities, 1,745 would be detectable (66.8%). [Detroit 55.7%, Stockholm 68.3%, Boston 52.6%, Denver 61.3%, Muenster 77.0%, London 84.5%, Philadelphia 69.4%]. Centers with high proportions of referrals for ultrasound anomalies had the highest CSP-FISH positives secondary to increased T 18 & 13. We conclude: (1) 73,000 karyotypes show relatively consistent incidences of the common trisomies, sex chromosome abnormalities, and other chromosome abnormalities among the centers. (2) The proportion expected detectable by FISH-CSP technology varies from 52.6% to 84.5%, averaging 66.8%. (3) 1/3 of the karyotypic abnormalities would be missed, and therefore, replacement of complete karyotyping with FISH would have unacceptably high false-negative rates for routine evaluation. (4) FISH-CSP, while useful when positive for anomalies, is not sufficient when negative to obviate the need for a complete karyotype.

  17. The Internal Dynamics of Mini c TAR DNA Probed by EPR of Nitroxide Spin Labels at the Lower Stem, the Loop, and the Bulge †

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Ziwei; Grigoryants, Vladimir M.; Myers, William K.; Liu, Fei; Earle, Keith A.; Freed, Jack H.; Scholes, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 236.6 GHz and 9.5 GHz probed the tumbling of nitroxide spin probes in the lower stem, the upper loop, and near the bulge of mini c TAR DNA. High frequency 236.6 GHz EPR, not previously applied to spin labeled oligonucleotides, was notably sensitive to fast, anisotropic, hindered local rotational motion of the spin probe, occurring approximately about the NO nitroxide axis. Labels attached to the 2′-amino cytidine sugar in the mini c TAR DNA showed such anisotropic motion, which was faster in the lower stem, a region previously suggested to be partially melted. More flexible labels attached to phosphorothioates at the end of the lower stem tumbled isotropically in mini c TAR DNA, mini TAR RNA, and ψ3 RNA, but at 5 °C the motion became more anisotropic for the labeled RNAs, implying more order within the RNA lower stems. As observed by 9.5 GHz EPR, the slowing of nanosecond motions of large segments of the oligonucleotide was enhanced by increasing the ratio of the nucleocapsid protein NCp7 to mini c TAR DNA from zero to two. The slowing was most significant at labels in the loop and near the bulge. At a 4:1 ratio of NCp7 to mini c TAR DNA all labels reported tumbling times > 5 ns, indicating a condensation of NCp7 and TAR DNA. At the 4:1 ratio, pulse dipolar EPR spectroscopy of bi-labels attached near the 3′ and 5′ terminals showed evidence for an NCp7-induced increase in the 3′ - 5 ′end-to-end distance distribution and a partially melted stem. PMID:23009298

  18. Interstellar Transfer of Planetary Microbiota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Max K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Panspermia theories require the transport of micro-organisms in a viable form from one astronomical location to another. The evidence of material ejection from planetary surfaces, of dynamical orbit evolution and of potential survival on landing is setting a firm basis for interplanetary panspermia. Pathways for interstellar panspermia are less clear. We compare the direct route, whereby life-bearing planetary ejecta exit the solar system and risk radiation hazards en route to nearby stellar systems, and an indirect route whereby ejecta hitch a ride within the shielded environment of comets of the Edgeworth- Kuiper Belt that are subsequently expelled from the solar system. We identify solutions to the delivery problem. Delivery to fully-fledged planetary systems of either the direct ejecta or the ejecta borne by comets depends on dynamical capture and is of very low efficiency. However, delivery into a proto-planetary disc of an early solar-type nebula and into pre-stellar molecular clouds is effective, because the solid grains efficiently sputter the incoming material in hypervelocity collisions. The total mass of terrestrial fertile material delivered to nearby pre-stellar systems as the solar system moves through the galaxy is from kilogrammes up to a tonne. Subject to further study of bio-viability under irradiation and fragmenting collisions, a few kg of original grains and sputtered fragments could be sufficient to seed the planetary system with a wide range of solar system micro-organisms.

  19. The fragility of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Jílková, Lucie

    2015-07-01

    We specify the range to which perturbations penetrate a planetesimal system. Such perturbations can originate from massive planets or from encounters with other stars. The latter can have an origin in the star cluster in which the planetary system was born, or from random encounters once the planetary system has escaped its parental cluster. The probability of a random encounter, either in a star cluster or in the Galactic field depends on the local stellar density, the velocity dispersion and the time spend in that environment. By adopting order of magnitude estimates, we argue that the majority of planetary systems born in open clusters will have a Parking zone, in which planetesimals are affected by encounters in their parental star cluster but remain unperturbed after the star has left the cluster. Objects found in this range of semimajor axis and eccentricity preserve the memory of the encounter that last affected their orbits, and they can therefore be used to reconstruct this encounter. Planetary systems born in a denser environment, such as in a globular cluster are unlikely to have a Parking zone. We further argue that some planetary systems may have a Frozen zone, in which orbits are not affected either by the more inner massive planets or by external influences. Objects discovered in this zone will have preserved information about their formation in their orbital parameters.

  20. Stellar Ablation of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    We review observations and theories of the solar ablation of planetary atmospheres, focusing on the terrestrial case where a large magnetosphere holds off the solar wind, so that there is little direct atmospheric impact, but also couples the solar wind electromagnetically to the auroral zones. We consider the photothermal escape flows known as the polar wind or refilling flows, the enhanced mass flux escape flows that result from localized solar wind energy dissipation in the auroral zones, and the resultant enhanced neutral atom escape flows. We term these latter two escape flows the "auroral wind." We review observations and theories of the heating and acceleration of auroral winds, including energy inputs from precipitating particles, electromagnetic energy flux at magnetohydrodynamic and plasma wave frequencies, and acceleration by parallel electric fields and by convection pickup processes also known as "centrifugal acceleration." We consider also the global circulation of ionospheric plasmas within the magnetosphere, their participation in magnetospheric disturbances as absorbers of momentum and energy, and their ultimate loss from the magnetosphere into the downstream solar wind, loading reconnection processes that occur at high altitudes near the magnetospheric boundaries. We consider the role of planetary magnetization and the accumulating evidence of stellar ablation of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Finally, we suggest and discuss future needs for both the theory and observation of the planetary ionospheres and their role in solar wind interactions, to achieve the generality required for a predictive science of the coupling of stellar and planetary atmospheres over the full range of possible conditions.

  1. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  2. Interoperability In The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; Grotheer, E.; Besse, S.; Martinez, S.; Heather, D.; De Marchi, G.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, there is a greater need to provide interoperability with software and applications that are commonly being used globally. For this purpose, the development of the new Planetary Science Archive (PSA), by the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) Science Data Centre (ESDC), is focused on building a modern science archive that takes into account internationally recognised standards in order to provide access to the archive through tools from third parties, for example by the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), the VESPA project from the Virtual Observatory of Paris as well as other international institutions. The protocols and standards currently being supported by the new Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The architecture of the PSA consists of a Geoserver (an open-source map server), the goal of which is to support use cases such as the distribution of search results, sharing and processing data through a OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) and a Web Map Service (WMS). This server also allows the retrieval of requested information in several standard output formats like Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Geography Markup Language (GML), shapefile, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) and Comma Separated Values (CSV), among others. The provision of these various output formats enables end-users to be able to transfer retrieved data into popular applications such as Google Mars and NASA World Wind.

  3. Sources and acceleration of energetic particles in planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moebius, Eberhard

    1994-01-01

    Energetic particles in the magnetospheres of the solar system originate from various different sources, such as the solar wind, the planetary ionospheres as well as the moons and rings of the planetary systems. Important acceleration sites are the auroral regions, the magnetotail, and the equatorial regions of the magnetospheres where electric fields, wave-particle interactions, and magnetic pumping are among the major acceleration mechanisms proposed. Over the last decade mass- and charge-sensitive particle spectrometers on satellites and space probes have collected a wealth of information about the relative contribution of the various particle sources and the major acceleration processes to the energetic particle populations. Emphasis will be put on recent studies of the source populations and the acceleration processes in the Earth's auroral zones and magnetotail. Furthermore, the Jovian system with the largest magnetosphere and its unique mixture of particle sources with strong contributions from moons will be highlighted in some results from Ulysses.

  4. Radio-planetary from tie from Phobos-2 VLBI data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, C. E.; Iijima, B. A.; Kroger, P. M.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to improve the knowledge of the relative orientation (the 'frame tie') of the planetary ephemeris reference frame used in deep navigation and a second reference frame that is defined by the coordinates of a set of extragalactic radio sources, VLBI observations of the Soviet Phobos-2 spacecraft and nearby (in angle) radio sources were obtained at two epochs in 1989, shortly after the spacecraft entered orbit about Mars. The frame tie is an important systematic error source affecting both interplanetary navigation and the process of improving the theory of the Earth's orientation. The data from a single Phobos-2 VLBI session measure one component of the direction vector from Earth to Mars in the frame of the extragalactic radio sources (the 'radio frame'). The radio frame has been shown to be stable and internally consistent with an accuracy of 5 nrad. The planetary ephemeris reference frame has an internal consistency of approximately 15 nrad. The planetary and radio source reference frames were aligned prior to 1989 and measurements of occulations of the radio source 3C273 by the Moon. The Phobos-2 VLBI measurements provide improvement in the accuracy of two of the three angles describing a general rotation between the planetary and radio reference frames. A complete set of measurements is not available because data acquisition was terminated prematurely by loss of spacecraft. The analysis of the two Phobos-2 VLBI data sets indicates that, in the directions of the two rotation components determined by these data, the JPL planetary ephemeris DE200 is aligned with the radio frame as adopted by the International Earth Rotation Service within an accuracy of 20-40 nrad, depending on direction. The limiting errors in the solutions for these offsets are spacecraft trajectory (20 nrad), instrumental biases (19 nrad), and dependence of quasar coordinates on observing frequency (24 nrad).

  5. Linking the Planetary Ephemerides to the ICRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkner, William; Kuchynka, Petr

    2012-08-01

    An extensive campaign of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and range measurements of spacecraft in orbit about Mars have been performed by the NASA Deep Space Network since 1999 in order to support increasingly stringent targeting for spacecraft landings at Mars. The measurement campaign has intensified in the last few years leading up to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing on Mars in August 2012. MSL requires that the orbit of Mars with respect to Earth be determined with an accuracy better than 300 meters. As a result of the measurement campaign, the orientation of the orbits of the Earth and Mars with respect to the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) has been determined with an accuracy of 0.1 milli - arcseconds. The distances from the Earth to the Sun are estimated to have uncertainties of a few meters for several centuries about the current epoch. The improved ephemeris of the Earth provides an accurate reference for pulsar timing experiments. The accuracies of the orbits of Mercury, Venus, and Saturn have been recently improved from measurements of the MESSENGER, Venus Express, and Cassini spacecraft respectively. The current planetary observation sets and residuals to fitted ephemerides will be described. The next major improvement in the planetary ephemerides is expected to come with the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter in 2016.

  6. Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, George W.

    2002-01-01

    During the past decade, progress has been made by relating the 'standard model' for the formation of planetary systems to computational and observational advances. A significant contribution to this has been provided by this grant. The consequence of this is that the rigor of the physical modeling has improved considerably. This has identified discrepancies between the predictions of the standard model and recent observations of extrasolar planets. In some cases, the discrepancies can be resolved by recognition of the stochastic nature of the planetary formation process, leading to variations in the final state of a planetary system. In other cases, it seems more likely that there are major deficiencies in the standard model, requiring our identifying variations to the model that are not so strongly constrained to our Solar System.

  7. Robotic vehicles for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian; Matthies, Larry; Gennery, Donald; Cooper, Brian; Nguyen, Tam; Litwin, Todd; Mishkin, Andrew; Stone, Henry

    1992-01-01

    A program to develop planetary rover technology is underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Developmental systems with the necessary sensing, computing, power, and mobility resources to demonstrate realistic forms of control for various missions have been developed, and initial testing has been completed. These testbed systems and the associated navigation techniques used are described. Particular emphasis is placed on three technologies: Computer-Aided Remote Driving (CARD), Semiautonomous Navigation (SAN), and behavior control. It is concluded that, through the development and evaluation of such technologies, research at JPL has expanded the set of viable planetary rover mission possibilities beyond the limits of remotely teleoperated systems such as Lunakhod. These are potentially applicable to exploration of all the solid planetary surfaces in the solar system, including Mars, Venus, and the moons of the gas giant planets.

  8. Atomic hydrogen in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Silverglate, Peter R.; Altschuler, Daniel R.; Giovanardi, Carlo

    1987-01-01

    The authors searched for neutral atomic hydrogen associated with 22 planetary nebulae and three evolved stars in the 21 cm line at the Arecibo Observatory. Objects whose radial velocities permitted discrimination from Galactic H I were chosen for observation. Hydrogen was detected in absorption from IC 4997. From the measurements new low limits are derived to the mass of atomic hydrogen associated with the undetected nebulae. Radio continuum observations were also made of several of the nebulae at 12.6 cm. The authors reexamine previous measurements of H I in planetary nebulae, and present the data on a consistent footing. The question of planetary nebula distances is considered at length. Finally, implications of the H I measurements for nebular evolution are discussed and it is suggested that atomic hydrogen seen in absorption was expelled from the progenitor star during the final 1000 yr prior to the onset of ionization.

  9. Planetary systems in star clusters .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Shu, Qi; Cai, Maxwell Xu; Spurzem, Rainer

    Thousands of confirmed and candidate exoplanets have been identified in recent years. Consequently, theoretical research on the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems has seen a boost, and the processes of planet-planet scattering, secular evolution, and interaction between planets and gas/debris disks have been well-studied. Almost all of this work has focused on the formation and evolution of isolated planetary systems, and neglect the effect of external influences, such as the gravitational interaction with neighbouring stars. Most stars, however, form in clustered environments that either quickly disperse, or evolve into open clusters. Under these conditions, young planetary systems experience frequent close encounters with other stars, at least during the first 106-107 years, which affects planets orbiting at any period range, as well as their debris structures.

  10. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole

  11. Planetary Atmospheres as Heat Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Mitchell, J. L.

    We review the workings of Earth's atmospheric heat engine and describe the energy and entropy exchanges that occur to support the atmospheric circulation. The heat absorbed by the atmosphere increases its internal and gravitational potential energies. A very small percentage of potential energy is converted into kinetic energy to maintain the circulation against dissipation, which irreversibly converts it to internal energy. The thermodynamic efficiency of the atmospheric heat engine can be defined as the fraction of the radiative imbalance at the surface converted to the kinetic energy of the motions. This is equivalent to the ratio of the frictional energy dissipation to the convective heat flux. Estimates of this ratio for Earth are several percent, much less than the Carnot efficiency of about 13%. We apply these concepts to the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, and Titan. The rate of dissipation of atmospheric kinetic energy is one of the main quantities entering the energy budgets of these planetary atmospheres. For Earth, frictional dissipation in rainfall is comparable to the turbulent dissipation of kinetic energy. Rainfall might also be a significant source of dissipation on Titan but it is not likely to be important for Mars or Venus. Frictional dissipation in dust storms might be a uniquely martian phenomenon. The breaking of upward propagating internal gravity waves generated by convection and flow over surface topography is another source of dissipation and is possibly dominant on Venus. The fluxes of radiative entropy are estimated for Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan. The net radiative entropy flux of a planet is negative because atmospheres absorb solar radiation at a higher temperature than the temperature at which they reemit an equal amount of longwave radiation to space. If in a state of statistical equilibrium, the entropy of an atmosphere is constant; the radiative entropy loss must be balanced by the entropy production associated with thermally

  12. NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2001-01-01

    The Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) provided access to data from NASA planetary missions and expert assistance about the data sets and how to order subsets of the collections. This ensures that the benefit/cost of acquiring the data is maximized by widespread dissemination and use of the observations and resultant collections. The RPIF provided education and outreach functions that ranged from providing data and information to teachers, involving small groups of highly motivated students in its activities, to public lectures and tours. These activities maximized dissemination of results and data to the educational and public communities.

  13. Shock modelling of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, L.; Phillips, J. P.; Mampaso, A.

    1994-06-01

    The kinematics of Planetary Nebulae are analyzed in terms of the solutions to the equations of hydrodynamic equilibrium developed by J. Canto. We apply our analysis to the Planetary Nebulae NGC 6905 and NGC 6537. A detailed spectroscopic study of these objects reveals the existence of high nuclear velocities, together with complex kinematic structures and unusual emission line intensities. Shock ionization clearly plays a key role in these nebulae. Remarkably good agreement is obtained when comparing the synthetic maps and spectra resulting from the shock solutions with the observational data.

  14. Quantitative Studies in Planetary Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baloga, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    Scientific research was conducted on volcanic processes on Mars, Venus, Io, the moon, and the Earth. The achievements led to scientific advances in the understanding of volcanic plumes, lava flow emplacements, coronae, and regoliths on the solid surfaces. This research led to multiple publications on each of the main topics of the proposal. Research was also presented at the annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at Houston. Typically, this grant contributed to 3-4 presentations each year. This grant demonstrated, numerous times, the usefulness of NASA mission data for advancing the understanding of volcanic processes on other planetary surfaces and the Earth.

  15. Density in a Planetary Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Jackson; Kyle, Herbert L.

    1961-01-01

    A discussion of the Opik-Singer theory of the density of a planetary exosphere is presented. Their density formula permits the calculation of the depth of the exosphere. Since the correctness of their derivation of the basic formula for the density distribution has been questioned, an alternate method based directly on Liouville's theorem is given. It is concluded that the Opik-Singer formula seems valid for the ballistic component of the exosphere; but for a complete description of the planetary exosphere, the ionized and bound-orbit components must also be included.

  16. Refinement of planetary protection policy for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P.; Barengoltz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Under existing COSPAR policy adopted in 1984, missions to Mars (landers, probes, and some orbiters) are designated as Category IV missions. As such, the procedures for implementing planetary protection requirements could include trajectory biasing, cleanrooms, bioload reduction, sterilization of hardware, and bioshields. In 1992, a U.S. National Research Council study recommended that controls on forward contamination of Mars be tied to specific mission objectives. The report recommended that Mars landers with life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level sterilization procedures for bioload reduction, while spacecraft (including orbiters) without life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level pre-sterilization procedures for bioload reduction but need not be sterilized. In light of this, it is proposed that the current policy's Category IV and its planetary protection requirements be divided into two sub-categories as follows: Category IVa, for missions comprising landers and probes without life detection experiments, which will meet a specified bioburden limit for exposed surfaces, and Category IVb, for landers and probes with life detection experiments, which will require sterilization of landed systems. In addition, Category III orbiter mission specifications are expanded to be consistent with these recommendations.

  17. Planetary protection program for Mars 94/96 mission.

    PubMed

    Rogovski, G; Bogomolov, V; Ivanov, M; Runavot, J; Debus, A; Victorov, A; Darbord, J C

    1996-01-01

    Mars surface in-situ exploration started in 1975 with the American VIKING mission. Two probes landed on the northern hemisphere and provided, for the first time, detailed information on the martian terrain, atmosphere and meteorology. The current goal is to undertake larger surface investigations and many projects are being planned by the major Space Agencies with this objective. Among these projects, the Mars 94/96 mission will make a major contributor toward generating significant information about the martian surface on a large scale. Since the beginning of the Solar System exploration, planets where life could exist have been subject to planetary protection requirements. Those requirements accord with the COSPAR Policy and have two main goals: the protection of the planetary environment from influence or contamination by terrestrial microorganisms, the protection of life science, and particularly of life detection experiments searching extra-terrestrial life, and not life carried by probes and spacecrafts. As the conditions for life and survival for terrestrial microorganisms in the Mars environment became known, COSPAR recommendations were updated. This paper will describe the decontamination requirements which will be applied for the MARS 94/96 mission, the techniques and the procedures which are and will be used to realize and control the decontamination of probes and spacecrafts.

  18. Revision to Planetary Protection Policy for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P.; Barengoltz, J.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Under existing COSPAR policy adopted in 1984, missions to Mars (landers, probes, and some orbiters) are designated as Category IV missions. As such, the procedures for implementing planetary protection requirements could include trajectory biasing, cleanrooms, bioload reduction, sterilization of hardware, and bioshields, i. e. requirements could be similar to Viking. However, in 1992, a U. S. National Academy of Sciences study recommended that controls on forward contamination of Mars be tied to specific mission objectives. The report recommended that Mars landers with life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level sterilization procedures for bioload reduction, while spacecraft (including orbiters) without life detection instruments be subject to at least Viking-level pre sterilization procedures for bioload reduction but need not be sterilized. In light of this, it is proposed that the current policy's Category IV missions and their planetary protection requirements be divided into two subcategories as follows: Category IV A, for missions comprising landers and probes without life detection experiments and some orbiters, which will meet a specified bioburden limit for exposed surfaces; Category IV B, for landers and probes with life detection experiments, which will require complete system sterilization. For Category IV A missions, bioburden specifications will be proposed and implementing procedures discussed. A resolution will be proposed to modify the existing COSPAR policy to reflect these changes. Similar specifications, procedures, and resolution for Category IV B missions will be the subject of a later study.

  19. Identification of members of Mycobacterium avium species by Accu-Probes, serotyping, and single IS900, IS901, IS1245 and IS901-flanking region PCR with internal standards.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Milan; Hlozek, Pavel; Svastova, Petra; Dvorska, Lenka; Bull, Tim; Matlova, Ludmila; Parmova, Ilona; Kuhn, Isolde; Stubbs, Janine; Moravkova, Monika; Kintr, Jaromir; Beran, Vladimir; Melicharek, Ivan; Ocepek, Matjaz; Pavlik, Ivo

    2006-03-01

    From Mycobacterium avium species Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (n=961), Mycobacterium a. avium (n=677), Mycobacterium a. silvaticum (n=5), and Mycobacterium a. hominissuis (n=1566) were examined, and from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex M. tuberculosis (n=2), Mycobacterium bovis (n=13), M. bovis BCG (n=4), and Mycobacterium caprae (n=10) were examined. From other mycobacterial species Mycobacterium intracellulare (n=60) and atypical mycobacteria (n=256) including Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium gastri and other species of conditionally pathogenic mycobacteria were analysed. The internal standard molecules corresponding to insertion sequences IS900, IS901, IS1245, and flanking region (FR300) of IS901 were produced by PCR of alfalfa genome segment and inserted into plasmid vector. The resulting recombinant plasmid molecules were used as internal standards in coamplification with a total of 4729 mycobacterial collection strains and field isolates between 1996 and 2003. The size differences between amplicons obtained from IS900 (258 bp), IS901 (1108 bp), IS1245 (427 bp), and FR300 (300 bp) and from corresponding internal standard molecules ISIS900 (591 bp), ISIS901 (1 336 bp), ISIS1245 (583 bp), and IS901 flanking region of 300 bp ISFR300 (488 bp), respectively, allowed easy discrimination. The internal amplicons were visible by naked aye on agarose gel when 10(1), 10(3), 10(2), and 10(2) molecules for ISIS900, ISIS901, ISIS1245, and ISFR300 were used in the PCR, respectively, when no bacterial DNA was added to the reaction. The system was tested to define the amount of internal standards that could be used in the PCR without affecting the amplification of the specific segment. Non-specific amplifications were observed in M. fortuitum with IS1245 PCR and mixed infections with M. a. avium and M. a. hominissuis from pigs and cattle were found. PCR results of typing were compared with serotyping

  20. Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific and administrative activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute are summarized. Recent research relating to geophysics, planetary geology, the origin of the Earth and Moon, the lunar surface, Mars, meteorites, and image processing techniques is discussed.

  1. Planetary quarantine. Space research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Planetary quarantine strategies for advanced spacecraft consider effects of satellite encounter, Jupiter atmosphere entry, space radiation, and cleaning and decontamination techniques on microbiological growth probability. Analytical restructuring is developed for microbial burden prediction and planetary contamination.

  2. Improving Performance in Planetary Ultraviolet Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. W.; Gladstone, G. R.; Retherford, K. D.

    2016-10-01

    Four planetary ultraviolet spectrographs by SwRI have successfully operated on different planetary missions. Two more will operate aboard the JUICE and Europa missions with advancements to allow operations in the Jovian environment.

  3. Progress of Interoperability in Planetary Research for Geospatial Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, T. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    For nearly a decade there has been a push in the planetary science community to support interoperable methods of accessing and working with geospatial data. Common geospatial data products for planetary research include image mosaics, digital elevation or terrain models, geologic maps, geographic location databases (i.e., craters, volcanoes) or any data that can be tied to the surface of a planetary body (including moons, comets or asteroids). Several U.S. and international cartographic research institutions have converged on mapping standards that embrace standardized image formats that retain geographic information (e.g., GeoTiff, GeoJpeg2000), digital geologic mapping conventions, planetary extensions for symbols that comply with U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee cartographic and geospatial metadata standards, and notably on-line mapping services as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The latter includes defined standards such as the OGC Web Mapping Services (simple image maps), Web Feature Services (feature streaming), Web Coverage Services (rich scientific data streaming), and Catalog Services for the Web (data searching and discoverability). While these standards were developed for application to Earth-based data, they have been modified to support the planetary domain. The motivation to support common, interoperable data format and delivery standards is not only to improve access for higher-level products but also to address the increasingly distributed nature of the rapidly growing volumes of data. The strength of using an OGC approach is that it provides consistent access to data that are distributed across many facilities. While data-steaming standards are well-supported by both the more sophisticated tools used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing industries, they are also supported by many light-weight browsers which facilitates large and small focused science applications and public use. Here we provide an

  4. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  5. A perception system for a planetary explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, M.; Krotkov, E.; Kanade, T.

    1989-01-01

    To perform planetary exploration without human supervision, a complete autonomous robot must be able to model its environment and to locate itself while exploring its surroundings. For that purpose, the authors propose a modular perception system for an autonomous explorer. The perception system maintains a consistent internal representation of the observed terrain from multiple sensor views. The representation can be accessed from other modules through queries. The perception system is intended to be used by the Ambler, a six-legged vehicle being built at CMU. A partial implementation of the system using a range scanner is presented as well as experimental results on a testbed that includes the sensor, one computer-controlled leg, and obstacles on a sandy surface.

  6. Communication Research for NASA's Planetary Protection Program: Science, Risk, Models, Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, L.

    2004-12-01

    Planetary protection is the term used to describe policies and practices that are intended to prevent 1) contamination of extraterrestrial environments by microbial Earth life (forward contamination) and 2) contamination of Earth's environment by possible extraterrestrial microbial life (back contamination) in the course of solar system exploration. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the international Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) both have planetary protection policies in place. Because the practice of planetary protection involves many different disciplines and many different national and international and governmental and nongovernmental organizations, communication has always been an important element of the practice. Thus NASA Planetary Protection Office has a long-term communication research initiative under way, addressing legal and ethical issues relating to planetary protection, models and methods of science and risk communication, and communication strategy and planning. With the pace of solar system exploration picking up, the era of solar system sample return under way, and public concerns about biological contamination heightened, communication is an increasingly important concern in the planetary protection community. This paper will describe current activities in communication research for NASA's planetary protection program.

  7. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Miriam L; de Wit, Cynthia A; Molander, Sverker; Scheringer, Martin; Backhaus, Thomas; Lohmann, Rainer; Arvidsson, Rickard; Bergman, Åke; Hauschild, Michael; Holoubek, Ivan; Persson, Linn; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Vighi, Marco; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Rockström et al. (2009a, 2009b) have warned that humanity must reduce anthropogenic impacts defined by nine planetary boundaries if "unacceptable global change" is to be avoided. Chemical pollution was identified as one of those boundaries for which continued impacts could erode the resilience of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales, which in aggregate threaten ecosystem and human viability. The PBCP allows humanity to explicitly address the increasingly global aspects of chemical pollution throughout a chemical's life cycle and the need for a global response of internationally coordinated control measures. We submit that sufficient evidence shows stresses on ecosystem and human health at local to global scales, suggesting that conditions are transgressing the safe operating space delimited by a PBCP. As such, current local to global pollution control measures are insufficient. However, while the PBCP is an important conceptual step forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental concentrations, exposures and adverse effects. As well, the normative nature of a PBCP presents challenges of negotiating pollution limits amongst societal groups with differing viewpoints. Thus, a combination of approaches is recommended as follows: develop indicators of chemical pollution, for both control and response variables, that will aid in quantifying a PBCP(s) and gauging progress towards reducing chemical pollution; develop new technologies and technical and social

  8. Manned flight and planetary scientific exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian; Moreau, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Human explorers had a fundamental role in the success of the APOLLO moon programme, they were at the same time the indispensable pilots, scientific operators and on the last missions lead scientists. Since, man did not either return to the moon or land on Mars but manned operation centres on the earth are now conducting extensive telescience on both celestial bodies. Manned flights to moon, Mars and asteroids are however still on the agenda and even if the main drive of these projects is outside science, it is to the planetary scientists to both prepare the data bases necessary for these flights and to ensure that the scientific advantage of conducting research in real time and in situ is exploited to the maximum. The current manned flight programme in Europe concentrates on the use of the International Space Station, the scientific activities can be roughly divided between the pressurized payloads and the external payloads. Technology developments occur also in parallel and prepare new exploration techniques. The current planning leads to exploitation up to 2020 but the space agencies study further extensions, the date of 2028 having already been considered. The relation of these programmes to future manned planetary exploration will be described both from the science and development point of view. The complementary role of astronauts and ground operation centres will be described on the basis of the current experience of operation centres managing the International Space Station. Finally, the NASA ORION project of exploration in the solar system will be described with emphasis on its current European participations. The science opportunities presented by independent ventures as Inspiration Mars or Mars One will be presented.

  9. Reports of planetary astronomy - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahe, Jurgen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This publication provides information about currently funded scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program during 1991, and consists of two main sections. The first section gives a summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and projected future investigations, as submitted by each principal investigator. In the second section, recent scientifically significant accomplishments within the Program are highlighted.

  10. Isotopic analysis of planetary solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, M.; Riedo, A.; Neuland, M.; Meyer, S.; Wurz, P.

    2013-09-01

    Isotopic analysis of planetary surfaces is of considerable interest for planetology. Studies of isotope composition can deliver information on radio-isotope chronology of planetary soil/regolith, an insight to processes that altered planetary surface (space weathering) or on possible biogenic processes that occurred or still occur on the planet. Mass spectrometry is a well-suited method that delivers accurate and precise isotope composition. Among other instruments (LAZMA and LAMS), the miniature laser ablation/ionisation mass analyser, LMS developed in Bern for in situ space research can be used to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of planetary solids. LMS support mass spectrometric investigation with a mass resolution of m/Δm≈500-1500, dynamic range of at least 8 decades and detection sensitivity of ~10 ppb. Current studies of various solid materials and standard reference materials show that isotope composition can be conducted with an accuracy and precision at per mill level if the isotope concentration exceeds 10-100 ppm. Implications of the studies for in situ application are discussed.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This CD-ROM presents papers presented to the Thirty-first Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17, 2000, Houston, Texas. Eighty-one conference sessions, and over one thousand extended abstracts are included. Abstracts cover topics such as Martian surface properties and geology, meteoritic composition, Martian landing sites and roving vehicles, planned Mars Sample Return Missions, and general astrobiology.

  12. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators funded through NASA's Planetary Astronomy Office. It provides a summarization of work conducted in this program in 1989. Each report contains a brief statement on the strategy of investigation and lists significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract, plans for future work, and publications.

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  14. Simulating Planetary Dynamics in a Laboratory Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2013-04-01

    The technological feats of rovers on planets and the stunning images that these and other space missions return from celestial bodies in the solar system tend to dominate public perception of what it means to be a planetary scientist. However, many planetary scientists are also involved with experimental planetary science research in the laboratory.

  15. Control strategies for planetary rover motion and manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trautwein, W.

    1973-01-01

    An unusual insect-like vehicle designed for planetary surface exploration is made the occasion for a discussion of control concepts in path selection, hazard detection, obstacle negotiation, and soil sampling. A control scheme which actively articulates the pitching motion between a single-loop front module and a dual loop rear module leads to near optimal behavior in soft soil; at the same time the vehicle's front module acts as a reliable tactile forward probe with a detection range much longer than the stopping distance. Some optimal control strategies are discussed, and the photos of a working scale model are displayed.

  16. Studies on possible propagation of microbial contamination in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmick, R. L.; Wolochow, H.; Chatigny, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    Maintained aerosols were studied to demonstrate the metabolism and propagation of microbes in clouds which could occur in the course of a probe of a planetary atmosphere. Bacteriophage was used as a tool to test whether the mechanisms for DNA production remain intact and functional within the airborne bacterial cell. In one test method, bacteria were mixed with coliphage in an atomizer to allow attachment before aerosolization; in another, two suspensions were atomized saperately into a common air stream prior to aerosolization. Results show that biochemical and physiological mechanisms to allow aerobic microbes to propagate in the airborne state do exist.

  17. Turning Planetary Theory Upside Down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    Didier Queloz of Geneva Observatory. Two of the newly discovered retrograde planets have already been found to have more distant, massive companions that could potentially be the cause of the upset. These new results will trigger an intensive search for additional bodies in other planetary systems. This research was presented at the Royal Astronomical Society National Astronomy Meeting (NAM2010) that is taking place this week in Glasgow, Scotland. Nine publications submitted to international journals will be released on this occasion, four of them using data from ESO facilities. On the same occasion, the WASP consortium was awarded the 2010 Royal Astronomical Society Group Achievement Award. Notes [1] The current count of known exoplanets is 454. [2] The nine newly found exoplanets were discovered by the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP). WASP comprises two robotic observatories, each consisting of eight wide-angle cameras that simultaneously monitor the sky continuously for planetary transit events. A transit occurs when a planet passes in front of its parent star, temporarily blocking some of the light from it. The eight wide-angle cameras allow millions of stars to be monitored simultaneously to detect these rare transit events. The WASP cameras are operated by a consortium including Queen's University Belfast, the Universities of Keele, Leicester and St Andrews, the Open University, the Isaac Newton Group on La Palma and the Instituto Astrofisica Canarias. [3] To confirm the discovery and characterise a new transiting planet, it is necessary to do radial velocity follow-up to detect the wobble of the host star around its common centre of mass with the planet. This is done with a worldwide network of telescopes equipped with sensitive spectrometers. In the northern hemisphere, the Nordic Optical Telescope in the Canary Islands and the SOPHIE instrument on the 1.93-metre telescope at Haute-Provence in France lead the search. In the south, the HARPS exoplanet hunter

  18. Enabling Virtual Observatory Access to Planetary Resources through PDS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. S.; Hardman, S. H.; Crichton, D. J.; Cecconi, B.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.

    2015-12-01

    PDS4, the next generation Planetary Data System (PDS), was developed using architectural principles that enable relatively easy access to the planetary science digital archive. The Virtual Observatory's Europlanet-VO Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) provides a good use case to demonstrate how an additional international protocol can be applied to allow access to international planetary science resources. PDS4 consists primarily of two architectural components, an information and systems architecture. The information architecture is developed and maintained independent of the systems architecture and provides a formal, sharable, and stable set of requirements that enable understanding of the system, the configuration of system components, and the basis for mapping to and from external systems. The architecture also includes multi-level governance for flexibility. The application architecture is a system based on generic common software and common protocols for accessing that software. These include the PDS Registry Service with its REST-based API as the main component and the PDS Search Service based on Apache Solr providing support for high performance facet-based search. The PDS4 information model provides data object definitions and configures the software where appropriate. The EPN-TAP data access protocol has been set up to search and retrieve Planetary Science data in general. This protocol will allow the user to select a subset of data from an archive in a standard way, based on the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP). The TAP mechanism is defined by an underlying Data Model and reference dictionaries. This presentation will provide an overview of PDS4, EPN-TAP, and a test-bed to demonstrate and test the potential capabilities for Virtual Observatory access to NASA's Planetary Science Archive.

  19. Planetary radio waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    Three planets, the earth, Jupiter and Saturn are known to emit nonthermal radio waves which require coherent radiation processes. The characteristic features (frequency spectrum, polarization, occurrence probability, radiation pattern) are discussed. Radiation which is externally controlled by the solar wind is distinguished from internally controlled radiation which only originates from Jupiter. The efficiency of the externally controlled radiation is roughly the same at all three planets (5 x 10 to the -6th) suggesting that similar processes are active there. The maser radiation mechanism for the generation of the radio waves and general requirements for the mechanism which couples the power generator to the region where the radio waves are generated are briefly discussed.

  20. Optical Spectrum of the Compact Planetary Nebula IC 5117

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyung, Siek; Aller, Lawrence H.; Feibelman, Walter A.; Lee, Seong-Jae; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High resolution spectroscopic data of the very compact planetary nebula IC 5117 are obtained in the optical wavelengths, 3700A - 10050A, with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory, and which have been analyzed along with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) UV archive data. Although a diagnostic diagram shows significant density and temperature fluctuations, our analysis indicates that the nebular gas may be represented by a homogeneous shell of extremely high density gas, N(sub epsilon) approx. 90 000 /cu cm. The average electron temperatures, e.g. indicated by the [OIII] diagnostics, are around 12 000 K. We construct a photoionization model to represent most of the observed line intensities, and the physical condition of this compact nebulosity. Based on the semi-empirical ionization correction approach, and model indications, we derived the elemental abundances: He, C, N, O, Ne, and Ar appear to be normal or marginally depleted compared to the average planetary nebula, while the remaining elements, S, Cl, and K appear to be enhanced. IC 5117 is perhaps a very young compact planetary nebula, slightly more evolved than the other well-known compact planetary nebula IC 4997. The central stellar temperature is likely to be around 120 000 K, evolved from a C-rich AGB progenitor.

  1. Report on the 2015 COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkin, Victoria; Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    In consultation with the COSPAR Scientific Commissions B (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) and F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection organised a colloquium at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland, in September 2015, to cover two pertinent topics: * Icy moon sample return planetary protection requirements * Mars Special Regions planetary protection requirements These two topics were addressed in two separate sessions. Participation from European, North American and Japanese scientists reflected broad expertise from the respective COSPAR Commissions, recent NASA MEPAG Science Analysis Group and National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine/European Science Foundation Mars Special Regions Review Committee. The recommendations described in this report are based on discussions that took place during the course of the colloquium and reflect a consensus of the colloquium participants that participated in the two separate sessions. These recommendations are brought to the 2016 COSPAR Scientific Assembly for further input and discussion as part of the recognised process for updating COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy.

  2. Planetary gear train ring gear and support structure investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valco, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Most helicopter transmissions utilize a planetary gear train as the final speed reduction stage. Due to weight constraints these transmissions have high power-to-weight ratios and relatively flexible structures. This investigation addresses the analysis of planetary gear trains with the ring gear mounted on a flexible support structure. The approach utilizes recent advances in automated contact methods for nonlinear finite element analysis. Rather than using a line of action spring to model gear pair mesh stiffness, finite element models of complete gears are developed, and the elastic gear members are engaged and rolled through mesh. The procedure includes detailed gear tooth geometry with profile modifications. A nonlinear approach is required due to large displacements associated with gear rotation and nonlinear boundary conditions associated with the gear tooth surface contact. The updated Lagrangian formulation and the MARC K-4.1 automated contact features are applied in the analysis. The ring gear support structure is modeled by an elastic foundation linking the ring gear to a rigid support. Calculation of gear pair deflections, stresses, transmission error, and mesh stiffness through the gear meshing cycle are demonstrated for external and internal spur gear pairs and a planetary gear train. Issues relating to the accuracy of the nonlinear finite element contact method, gear mesh stiffness, transmission error, and the planetary gear train elastic support structure are discussed.

  3. Distribution of ESA's planetary mission data via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; Ortiz, Inaki

    Scientific and engineering data from the European Space Agency's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. All data in the PSA are compatible with the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standard of NASA, and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS staff. One major part of the ongoing development of the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) has been to draw upon the lessons learned on both sides of this working relationship in order to refine and streamline the Standards. This is driving towards ‘interoperability' of the data systems maintained at all Agencies archiving planetary data, and it is hoped that in the long-run any data can be obtained from any of the co-operating archives using the same protocol. Currently, the PSA contains data from the GIOTTO spacecraft, several ground-based cometary observations, and the Mars Express, Smart-1, and Huygens missions. Independent reviews for the first Venus Express data are schedule for Spring 2008 and the first Venus Express data should be released on the PSA in late spring 2008. The first data release from the ROSETTA mission is also expected to be released on the PSA by spring 2008. Preparation for the release of data from the SMART-1 spacecraft is ongoing. Future missions such as ExoMars and Bepi- Colombo will also aim to work with the PSA to distribute their data to the community. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Classical Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. By nature, this interface requires careful use and heavy

  4. Planetary landscape: a new synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    The elements that build up a landscape on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements, which interact with one another. For example the same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. The mosaic of ecotopes (topical) units, which are the system of homogenous caharacteristic areas of various geotopes makes up different level geochores (chorical unit). Geochores build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface.On Earth, landscapes can be qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered especially when speaking of a residental area. We now propose the determination of "planetary landscape sets" which can potentially occur on the solid surface of a planetary body during its lifetime. This naturally includes landscapes of the present state of planetary bodies and also paleolandscapes from the past of planets, including Earth. Landscapes occur in the boundary of the planets solid and not solid sphere that is on the solid-vacuum, the solid - gas and on the solid - liquid boundary. Thinking this way a landscape can occurs on the ocean floor as well. We found that for the determination of a planetary landscape system, we can use the experiences from the making of the terminology and nomenclature system of Earth undersea topography. [1] The nomenclature system and the terminology used by astrogeologists could be revised. Common names of features should be defined (nova, tessera, volcano, tholus, lobate ejecta crater etc) with a type example for each. A well defined hierarchy for landscape types should be defined. The Moon is the best example, since it uses many names that originates from the 17th century, mixed

  5. Europlanet/IDIS: Combining Diverse Planetary Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Capria, Maria Teresa; Chanteur, Gerard

    2013-04-01

    Planetary research involves a diversity of research fields from astrophysics and plasma physics to atmospheric physics, climatology, spectroscopy and surface imaging. Data from all these disciplines are collected from various space-borne platforms or telescopes, supported by modelling teams and laboratory work. In order to interpret one set of data often supporting data from different disciplines and other missions are needed while the scientist does not always have the detailed expertise to access and utilize these observations. The Integrated and Distributed Information System (IDIS) [1], developed in the framework of the Europlanet-RI project, implements a Virtual Observatory approach ([2] and [3]), where different data sets, stored in archives around the world and in different formats, are accessed, re-formatted and combined to meet the user's requirements without the need of familiarizing oneself with the different technical details. While observational astrophysical data from different observatories could already earlier be accessed via Virtual Observatories, this concept is now extended to diverse planetary data and related model data sets, spectral data bases etc. A dedicated XML-based Europlanet Data Model (EPN-DM) [4] was developed based on data models from the planetary science community and the Virtual Observatory approach. A dedicated editor simplifies the registration of new resources. As the EPN-DM is a super-set of existing data models existing archives as well as new spectroscopic or chemical data bases for the interpretation of atmospheric or surface observations, or even modeling facilities at research institutes in Europe or Russia can be easily integrated and accessed via a Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) [5] adapted from the corresponding protocol of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance [6] (IVOA-TAP). EPN-TAP allows to search catalogues, retrieve data and make them available through standard IVOA tools if the access to the archive

  6. Applications of Nanosats to Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone, but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are suggested that could take advantage of these features. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  7. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  8. Recent progress in planetary balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Cutts, James A.

    2001-08-01

    In the last 15 years several balloon mission cencepts have been proposed for Mars and Venus, one of them - Russian-French Mars Aerostat - was extensively developed in 1988-1995 but was terminated before completion. It became clear that a number of critical technologies still needed to be developed prior to committing a costly space mission. In recent years significant progress has been made in two critical fields: aerial deployment and inflation of thin-film balloons for specific planetary applications, and in the development of envelope design for stratospheric applications. This paper describes requirements, proposed concepts, critical elements and trade-offs in planetary balloon missions as well as current results of some of JPL balloon programs.

  9. Evolution of Planetary Ringmoon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1995-01-01

    The last few decades have seen an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of these systems as our intuition (and our computers) catch up with the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is an emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system.

  10. A vision for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John F.; Callaway, Robert K.; Diogu, Mark K.; Grush, Gene R.; Lancaster, E. M.; Morgan, William C.; Petri, David A.; Roberts, Barney B.; Pieniazek, Lester A.; Polette, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    A vision for planetary exploration is proposed which combines historical perspective and current NASA studies with the realities of changing political climates, economic environments, and technological directions. The concepts of Strategic Implementation Architectures (SIA), Open System Infrastructure Standards (OSIS), and Minimum Service Level Infrastructure (MSLI) are presented in order to propose a structure for the SEI which allows the realization of incremental mission objectives, establishes an investment strategy that efficiently uses public resources, and encourages partnerships with the government. The SIA is a hypothetical master plan which will allow the implementation of the complete spectrum of envisioned system capabilities for planetary exploration. OSIS consists of standards for interconnection, interoperability, and administration. MSLI can be defined as the minimum level of services provided by the system that are not justified by profit or parochial motives.

  11. The planetary nebula NGC 6826

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Monochromatic photographs have established the NGC 6826 nebula as the third member of a group of very rare triple-shell planetaries (Feibelman, 1971, 1974). Kaler (1974) also characterized NGC 6826 as a giant halo planetary. Numerous errors and confusing statements regarding its size, structure and stratification are discussed, and the correct dimensions of the nebula are reported: the inner ring is 12.7 arcsec x 8.7 arcsec (Feibelman, 1971); the outer ring is 27 arcsec x 24 arcsec according to Curtis (1918), 25.7 arcsec x 24.4 arcsec according to Feibelman (1971), and 36 arcsec x 36 arcsec according to Coleman et al. (1975). The halo measurements range in diameter from 110 arcsec (Duncan, 1937) to 130 arcsec (Kaler, 1974) to 142 arcsec (Millikan, 1974). Values for the distance of NGC 6826 range from 0.75-1.16 kpc (Cahn and Kaler, 1971) to 2.265 kpc (Cudworth, 1974).

  12. The chemistry of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Present knowledge concerning the chemistry of planetary atmospheres is reviewed along with the theories which attempt to explain observational data. The known gross atmospheric compositions of the terrestrial and giant planets are listed, differences between the atmospheres of earth and Venus are discussed, and the atmospheres of the giant planets are described. The origin and evolution of the atmospheres of earth, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus are outlined, and chemical processes in the atmospheres are examined, particularly cloud formation. The question of organic synthesis and evolution in the reducing atmospheres of the giant planets is considered. It is noted that laboratory work on the individual chemical processes and reactions involved in the evolution of organic compounds in planetary atmospheres, comets, and interstellar space points to the inevitability of organic-compound synthesis in all these situations and to the pervasiveness of organic chemistry throughout the universe.

  13. Integration of Planetary Protection Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    Research and activities under this grant have focused on a systematic examination and analysis of critical questions likely to impact planetary protection (PP) controls and implementation for Mars sample return missions (MSR). Four areas in the non-scientific and social realms were selected for special attention because of their importance to future mission planning and concern about critical timing or possible economic impacts on MSR mission implementation. These include: (1) questions of legal uncertainty and the decision making process, (2) public perception of risks associated with sample return, (3) risk communication and Education/Public Outreach , and (4) planetary protection implications of alternative mission architectures, for both robotic and human sample return missions. In its entirety, NAG 2-986 has encompassed three categories of activity: (1) research and analysis (Race), (2) subcontracted research (MacGregor/Decision Research), and (3) consulting services.

  14. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report of a program that examined the fundamentals of education associated with space activities, promoted educational policy development in appropriate forums, and developed pathfinder products and services to demonstrate the utility of advanced communication technologies for space-based education. Our focus was on space astrophysics and planetary exploration, with a special emphasis on the themes of the Origins Program, with which the Principal Investigator (PI) had been involved from the outset. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration was also the core funding of the Space Telescope Science Institute's (ST ScI) Special Studies Office (SSO), and as such had provided basic support for such important NASA studies as the fix for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spherical aberration, scientific conception of the HST Advanced Camera, specification of the Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the strategic plan for the second decade of the HST science program.

  15. Neutral matter in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.

    1991-01-01

    A review of current studies of neutral envelopes is presented with particular attention given to the use of the envelopes as test cases for understanding the ionization and thermal structure of photodissociation regions. The study of near-IR H2 emission is discussed with detailed spectra given for a few planetary nebulae, and airborne observations of far-IR atomic lines are discussed. These two methods can discern photodissociation regions with warm gas and UV flux is fairly prominent. The use of resonance-absorption-line spectroscopy is also reviewed with respect to the analysis of the Na D lines, and thereby allows the measurement of integrated columns of material through the shell. The methods provide evidence for the notion that planetary nebulae consist of more than just ionized material; large amounts of neutral and molecular material are being confirmed, which has important implications for the mass-loss episode of the nebulae.

  16. Planetary nebulae and stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Newly defined characteristics of planetary nebulae (PN) derived from analysis of a photometric survey of 57 PN are reported. The data were combined with measurements of 27 other PN made since 1918 and were found to indicate core masses ranging from 0.55-1.0 solar mass. N/O elemental abundance ratios observed were correlated with the planetary nuclei masses, and were in direct proportion. IUE data on PN that overlapped a large part of the survey indicated that the PN in the galactic disk are more massive than PN in the halo. It is suggested that PN evolve into white dwarfs, a hypothesis supported by astrometric solutions for three nearby visual binaries featuring white dwarfs with well-determined masses. It is noted, however, that PN with masses exceeding one solar mass have been sighted in the Magellanic Clouds.

  17. Gigayear Instabilities in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrycky, Daniel

    One of the biggest modern discoveries about the Solar System is that it is chaotic (Laskar 1989, 1994). On million-year timescales, nearby trajectories exponentially diverge; on billion-year timescales, planets can develop large eccentricities and even collide. This is possible because our planets interact with enough energy and with the right (secular) timescales. This has the potential to put the planet Mercury on an unstable orbit in the future, before the Sun exhausts its fuel. Currently, as a standard step in the analysis, exoplanet observing teams check whether the planetary systems they are discovering are stable. This usually involves a few-Megayear numerical integration, and the system usually passes that test. However, the signatures of continuing instability have not been looked for in the exoplanet population, nor has its implications for planetary formation and evolution been fully recognized. We will study several specific evolutionary scenarios in which instability may manifest only on gigayear timescales, i.e. midway through the lives of the host stars. This is relevant to the solicitation in that it characterizes the dynamics of exoplanetary systems. In the first project, we will compare N-body, numerically-calculated secular, and Fourier-expansion secular theories to determine what essential ingredients go into the conclusion that a general planetary system is chaotic. We will apply these tools to specific realizations of Kepler-discovered close-in planetary systems consisting of three or more Neptunes or super-Earths, which is the most populous known exoplanet population. We will thus find the common ailments afflicting middle-age planetary systems. In the second project, we will consider how planets might get stranded in their Kuiper and Oort clouds during early system evolution, only to destabilize the inner system later on. Various investigators have wondered whether the Solar System is accompanied by a massive planetary companion, including a

  18. Ray tracing planetary radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Planetary ray tracing calculations of free escaping electromagnetic waves are presented, with special attention given to calculations of the earth's auroral kilometric and continuum radiations and of the Jovian decametric and kilometric radiation. The technique is used to study the composition and propagation effects causing multiion resonances and shadow zones. Although results obtained for Jovian broadband kilometric radiation have been used to estimate the location of the source region, no unique solutions are obtained.

  19. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators funded through NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program, Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to provide a document which succinctly summarizes work conducted in this program for 1985. Each report contains a brief statement on the strategy of investigation and lists significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract, plans for future work, and publications.

  20. Discovery Planetary Mission Operations Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, R.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Program of small planetary missions will provide opportunities to continue scientific exploration of the solar system in today's cost-constrained environment. Using a multidisciplinary team, JPL has developed plans to provide mission operations within the financial parameters established by the Discovery Program. This paper describes experiences and methods that show promise of allowing the Discovery Missions to operate within the program cost constraints while maintaining low mission risk, high data quality, and reponsive operations.

  1. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.

    2011-01-01

    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  2. Mars 2020 Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stricker, Moogega; Bernard, Douglas; Benardini, James Nick; Jones, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    The Mars 2020 (M2020) flight system consists of a cruise stage; an entry, descent and landing system (EDL); and a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) powered roving science vehicle that will land on the surface of Mars. The M2020 Mission is designed to investigate key question related to the habitability of Mars and will conduct assessments that set the stage for potential future human exploration of Mars. Per its Program Level Requirements, the project will also acquire and cache samples of rock, regolith, and/or procedural "blank" samples for possible return to Earth by a subsequent mission. NASA has assigned the M2020 Mission as a Category V Restricted Earth Return due to the possible future return of collected samples. As indicated in NPR8020.12D, Section 5.3.3.2, the outbound leg of a Category V mission that could potentially return samples to Earth, Mars 2020 would be expected to meet the requirements of a Category IVb mission. The entire flight system is subject to microbial reduction requirements, with additional specific emphasis on the sample acquisition and caching. A bioburden accounting tool is being used to track the microbial population on the surfaces to ensure that the biological cleanliness requirements are met. Initial bioburden estimates based on MSL heritage allows M2020 to gauge more precisely how the bioburden is allocated throughout each hardware element. Mars 2020 has completed a Planetary Protection Plan with Planetary Implementation Plans at a mature draft form. Planetary protection sampling activities have commenced with the start of flight system fabrication and assembly. The status of the Planetary Protection activities will be reported.

  3. Planetary Data Workshop, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical aspects of the Planetary Data System (PDS) are addressed. Methods and tools for maintaining and accessing large, complex sets of data are discussed. The specific software and applications needed for processing imaging and non-imaging science data are reviewed. The need for specific software that provides users with information on the location and geometry of scientific observations is discussed. Computer networks and user interface to the PDS are covered along with Computer hardware available to this data system.

  4. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators funded through NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program, Office of Space Science and Applications, is presented. The purpose is to provide a document which succinctly summarizes work conducted in this program for 1986. Each report contains a brief statement on the strategy of investigation and lists significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract, plans for future work, and publications.

  5. Northeast Regional Planetary Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Saunders, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In 1980, the Northeast Planetary Data Center (NEPDC) was established with Tim Mutch as its Director. The Center was originally located in the Sciences Library due to space limitations but moved to the Lincoln Field Building in 1983 where it could serve the Planetary Group and outside visitors more effectively. In 1984 Dr. Peter Schultz moved to Brown University and became its Director after serving in a similar capacity at the Lunar and Planetary Institute since 1976. Debbie Glavin has served as the Data Center Coordinator since 1982. Initially the NEPDC was build around Tim Mutch's research collection of Lunar Orbiter and Mariner 9 images with only partial sets of Apollo and Viking materials. Its collection was broadened and deepened as the Director (PHS) searched for materials to fill in gaps. Two important acquisitions included the transfer of a Viking collection from a previous PI in Tucson and the donation of surplused lunar materials (Apollo) from the USGS/Menlo Park prior to its building being torn down. Later additions included the pipeline of distributed materials such as the Viking photomosaic series and certain Magellan products. Not all materials sent to Brown, however, found their way to the Data Center, e.g., Voyager prints and negatives. In addition to the NEPDC, the planetary research collection is separately maintained in conjunction with past and ongoing mission activities. These materials (e.g., Viking, Magellan, Galileo, MGS mission products) are housed elsewhere and maintained independently from the NEPDC. They are unavailable to other researchers, educators, and general public. Consequently, the NEPDC represents the only generally accessible reference collection for use by researchers, students, faculty, educators, and general public in the Northeast corridor.

  6. Planetary Systems Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander

    1997-01-01

    This project was initiated in 1993, about one year after the announcement of two planets around PSR B1257+12. Its goal was to investigate planetary systems around neutron stars using high precision timing of radio pulsars as a tool. A microsecond precision of the pulse timing analysis, which is equivalent to a millimeter-per-second radial velocity resolution, makes it possible to detect asteroid-mass bodies in orbit around pulsars and to study the dynamics of pulsar planetary systems. The project originally consisted of two longterm efforts: (i) routine observations and timing analysis of the millisecond pulsar PSR B1257+12 which was found to be orbited by at least two earth-mass bodies (Wolszczan and Frail, Nature, 355, 145) and (ii) a sensitive all-sky search for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of neutron stars with planetary systems. In the third year of the project, it was expanded to include long-term timing observations of slow pulsars in search for planetary systems around these younger neutron stars. The instrumentation used to conduct these investigations included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM-1), the 100-m Effelsberg telescope with the local pulse timing hardware, and the 32-m paraboloid of the Torun Centre for Astronomy in Torun, Poland (TCFA) with the PSPM-2, the second pulsar machine built at Penn State. The PI's collaborators included pulsar groups led by D. Backer (Berkeley), R. Foster (NRL), S. Kulkarni (Caltech), J. Taylor (Princeton) and R. Wielebinski (Bonn). One postdoc (Stuart Anderson), one graduate student (Brian Cadwell) and several undergraduates have been engaged in various aspects of research related to this project.

  7. Interpretation of two compact planetary nebulae, IC 4997 and NGC 6572, with aid of theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Hyung, S; Aller, L H

    1993-01-15

    Observations of two dense compact planetary nebulae secured with the Hamilton Echelle spectrograph at Lick Observatory combined with previously published UV spectra secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer enable us to probe the electron densities and temperatures (plasma diagnostics) and ionic concentrations in these objects. The diagnostic diagrams show that no homogenous model will work for these nebulae. NGC 6572 may consist of an inner torordal ring of density 25,000 atoms/cm3 and an outer conical shell of density 10,000 atoms/cm3. The simplest model of IC 4997 suggests a thick inner shell with a density of about 107 atoms/cm3 and an outer envelope of density 10,000 atoms/cm3. The abundances of all elements heavier than He appear to be less than the solar values in NGC 6572, whereas He, C, N, and O may be more abundant in IC 4997 than in the sun. IC 4997 presents puzzling problems.

  8. The Planetary Nebula System of M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Durrell, Patrick R.; Laychak, Mary Beth; Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Moody, Kenneth; Jacoby, George H.; Feldmeier, John J.

    2004-10-01

    We report the results of a photometric and spectroscopic survey for planetary nebulae (PNs) over the entire body of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. We use our sample of 152 PNs to show that the bright end of the galaxy's [O III] λ5007 planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) has the same sharp cutoff seen in other galaxies. The apparent magnitude of this cutoff, along with the IRAS DIRBE foreground extinction estimate of E(B-V)=0.041, implies a distance modulus for the galaxy of (m-M)0=24.86+0.07-0.11 (0.94+0.03-0.05 Mpc). Although this value is ~15% larger than the galaxy's Cepheid distance, the discrepancy likely arises from differing assumptions about the system's internal extinction. Our photometry, which extends more than 3 mag down the PNLF, also reveals that the faint end of M33's PNLF is nonmonotonic, with an inflection point ~2 mag below the PNLF's bright limit. We argue that this feature is due to the galaxy's large population of high core mass planetaries and that its amplitude may eventually be a useful diagnostic for studies of stellar populations. Fiber-coupled spectroscopy of 140 of the PN candidates confirms that M33's PN population rotates along with the old disk, with a small asymmetric drift of ~10 km s-1. Remarkably, the population's line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies little over ~4 optical disk scale lengths, with σrad~20 km s-1. We show that this is due to a combination of factors, including a decline in the radial component of the velocity ellipsoid at small galactocentric radii and a gradient in the ratio of the vertical to radial velocity dispersion. We use our data to derive the dynamical scale length of M33's disk and the disk's mass-to-light ratio. Our most likely solution suggests that the surface mass density of M33's disk decreases exponentially, but with a scale length that is ~2.3 times larger than that of the system's IR luminosity. The large scale length also implies that the disk's V-band mass-to-light ratio changes

  9. An enhanced Planetary Radar Operating Centre (PROC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catallo, C.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using GPRs is an important role of Italy and numerous scientific international space programs are carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry) provided by ASI within a NASA/ESA/ASI joint venture framework are successfully operating: MARSIS on-board MEX, SHARAD on-board MRO and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft: the missions have been further extended . Three dedicated operational centers, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD are operating from the missions beginning to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution and even if they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). In order to harmonize operations either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view PROC is designed and developed for offering improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. PROC is, therefore, conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs, such as Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) The paper describes how the new PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation aiding scientists to increase their knowledge in the field of surface

  10. PROC: a new Planetary Radars Operating Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catallo, C.; Alberti, G.; Flamini, E.; Olivieri, A.; Orosei, R.

    2009-12-01

    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR) is an important role of Italy and numerous scientific international space programs are carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Actually three important experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry) provided by ASI within a NASA/ESA/ASI joint venture framework are operating in the frame of an extended missions : MARSIS on-board Mars Express, SHARAD on-board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft. Three dedicated operational centers, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD are operating from the starting of the missions in order In order to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution and even if they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). In order to harmonize operations either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view PROC is designed and developed for offering improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. PROC is, therefore, conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs, such as Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) The paper describes how PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and

  11. Planetary Atmospheres and Evolution of Complex Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catling, D.

    2014-04-01

    Let us define "complex life" as actively mobile organisms exceeding tens of centimeter size scale with specialized, differentiated anatomy comparable to advanced metazoans. Such organisms on any planet will need considerable energy for growth and metabolism, and an atmosphere is likely to play a key role. The history of life on Earth suggests that there were at least two major hurdles to overcome before complex life developed. The first was biological. Large, three-dimensional multicellular animals and plants are made only of eukaryotic cells, which are the only type that can develop into a large, diverse range of cell types unlike the cells of microbes. Exactly how eukaryotes allow 3D multicellularity and how they originated are matters of debate. But the internal structure and bigger and more modular genomes of eukaryotes are important factors. The second obstacle for complex life was having sufficient free, diatomic oxygen (O2). Aerobic metabolism provides about an order of magnitude more energy for a given intake of food than anaerobic metabolism, so anaerobes don't grow multicellular beyond filaments because of prohibitive growth efficiencies. A precursor to a 2.4 Ga rise of oxygen was the evolution of water-splitting, oxygen-producing photosynthesis. But although the atmosphere became oxidizing at 2.4 Ga, sufficient atmospheric O2 did not occur until about 0.6 Ga. Earth-system factors were involved including planetary outgassing (as affected by size and composition), hydrogen escape, and processing of organic carbon. An atmosphere rich in O2 provides the largest feasible energy source per electron transfer in the Periodic Table, which suggests that O2 would be important for complex life on exoplanets. But plentiful O2 is unusual in a planetary atmosphere because O2 is easily consumed in chemical reactions with reducing gases or surface materials. Even with aerobic metabolism, the partial pressure of O2 (pO2) must exceed 10^3 Pa to allow organisms that rely on

  12. Planetary Exploration in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slivan, S. M.; Binzel, R. P.

    1997-07-01

    We have developed educational materials to seed a series of undergraduate level exercises on "Planetary Exploration in the Classroom." The goals of the series are to teach modern methods of planetary exploration and discovery to students having both science and non-science backgrounds. Using personal computers in a "hands-on" approach with images recorded by planetary spacecraft, students working through the exercises learn that modern scientific images are digital objects that can be examined and manipulated in quantitative detail. The initial exercises we've developed utilize NIH Image in conjunction with images from the Voyager spacecraft CDs. Current exercises are titled "Using 'NIH IMAGE' to View Voyager Images", "Resolving Surface Features on Io", "Discovery of Volcanoes on Io", and "Topography of Canyons on Ariel." We expect these exercises will be released during Fall 1997 and will be available via 'anonymous ftp'; detailed information about obtaining the exercises will be on the Web at "http://web.mit.edu/12s23/www/pec.html." This curriculum development was sponsored by NSF Grant DUE-9455329.

  13. Public Outreach Program of the Planetary society of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyori, Tasuku

    2002-01-01

    The Planetary Society of Japan, TPS/J, was founded on October 6, 1999 as the first international wing of The Planetary Society. The Society's objectives are to support exploration of the solar system and search for extraterrestrial life at the grass-roots level in terms of enhancing Japanese people's concern and interest in them. With close-knit relationships with the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, ISAS, and The Planetary Society, TPS/J has been trying to fulfil its goal. Introduced below are major public outreach programs. Planetary Report in Japanese The key vehicle that reaches members. The publication is offered to members together with the English issue every two months. Reprint of Major Texts from The Planetary Report for Science Magazine Major texts from The Planetary Report are reprinted in Nature Science, the science magazine with monthly circulation of 20,000. The science monthly has been published with an aim to provide an easier access to science. Website: http://www.planetary.or.jp A mainstay of the vehicle to reach science-minded people. It covers planetary news on a weekly basis, basics of the solar system and space exploring missions. In order to obtain support of many more people, the weekly email magazine is also provided. It has been enjoying outstanding popularity among subscribers thanks to inspiring commentaries by Dr. Yasunori Matogawa, the professor of ISAS. Public Outreach Events TPS/J's first activity of this kind was its participation in the renowned open-house event at ISAS last August. The one-day event has attracted 20,000 visitors every summer. TPS/J joined the one-day event with the Red Rover, Red Rover project for children, exhibition of winning entries of the international space art contest and introduction of SETI@home. TPS/J also participated in a couple of other planetary events, sponsored by local authorities. TPS/J will continue to have an opportunity to get involved in these public events Tie-up with the

  14. In situ Probe Science at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Mousis, O.; Lunine, J. I.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Atreya, S. K.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Colaprete, A.; Coustenis, A.; Fletcher, L. N.; Guillot, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Mahaffy, P.; Orton, G. S.; Reh, K.; Spilker, L. J.; Spilker, T. R.; Webster, C.

    2014-04-01

    A fundamental goal of solar system exploration is to understand the origin of the solar system, the initial stages, conditions, and processes by which the solar system formed, how the formation process was initiated, and the nature of the interstellar seed material from which the solar system was born. Key to understanding solar system formation and subsequent dynamical and chemical evolution is the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Several theories have been put forward to explain the process of solar system formation, and the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Each theory offers quantifiable predictions of the abundances of noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and abundances of key isotopic ratios 4He/3He, D/H, 15N/14N, 18O/16O, and 13C/12C. Detection of certain disequilibrium species, diagnostic of deeper internal processes and dynamics of the atmosphere, would also help discriminate between competing theories. Measurements of the critical abundance profiles of these key constituents into the deeper well-mixed atmosphere must be complemented by measurements of the profiles of atmospheric structure and dynamics at high vertical resolution and also require in situ exploration. The atmospheres of the giant planets can also serve as laboratories to better understand the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, processes, and climates on all planets including Earth, and offer a context and provide a ground truth for exoplanets and exoplanetary systems. Additionally, Giant planets have long been thought to play a critical role in the development of potentially habitable planetary systems. In the context of giant planet science provided by the Galileo, Juno, and Cassini missions to Jupiter and Saturn, a small, relatively shallow Saturn probe capable of measuring abundances and isotopic ratios of key atmospheric constituents, and atmospheric structure including pressures, temperatures, dynamics, and cloud locations

  15. Spice Tools Supporting Planetary Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's "SPICE"* ancillary information system has gradually become the de facto international standard for providing scientists the fundamental observation geometry needed to perform photogrammetry, map making and other kinds of planetary science data analysis. SPICE provides position and orientation ephemerides of both the robotic spacecraft and the target body; target body size and shape data; instrument mounting alignment and field-of-view geometry; reference frame specifications; and underlying time system conversions. SPICE comprises not only data, but also a large suite of software, known as the SPICE Toolkit, used to access those data and subsequently compute derived quantities-items such as instrument viewing latitude/longitude, lighting angles, altitude, etc. In existence since the days of the Magellan mission to Venus, the SPICE system has continuously grown to better meet the needs of scientists and engineers. For example, originally the SPICE Toolkit was offered only in Fortran 77, but is now available in C, IDL, MATLAB, and Java Native Interface. SPICE calculations were originally available only using APIs (subroutines), but can now be executed using a client-server interface to a geometry engine. Originally SPICE "products" were only available in numeric form, but now SPICE data visualization is also available. The SPICE components are free of cost, license and export restrictions. Substantial tutorials and programming lessons help new users learn to employ SPICE calculations in their own programs. The SPICE system is implemented and maintained by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF)-a component of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). * Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, Events

  16. Online Planetary Science Courses at Athabasca University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Munyikwa, Ken; Bredeson, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Athabasca University offers distance education courses in science, at freshman and higher levels. It has a number of geology and astronomy courses, and recently opened a planetary science course as the first upper division astronomy course after many years of offering freshman astronomy. Astronomy 310, Planetary Science, focuses on process in the Solar System on bodies other than Earth. This process-oriented course uses W. F. Hartmann's "Moons and Planets" as its textbook. It primarily approaches the subject from an astronomy and physics perspective. Geology 415, Earth's Origin and Early Evolution, is based on the same textbook, but explores the evidence for the various processes, events, and materials involved in the formation and evolution of Earth. The course provides an overview of objects in the Solar System, including the Sun, the planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. Earth's place in the solar system is examined and physical laws that govern the motion of objects in the universe are looked at. Various geochemical tools and techniques used by geologists to reveal and interpret the evidence for the formation and evolution of bodies in the solar system as well as the age of earth are also explored. After looking at lines of evidence used to reconstruct the evolution of the solar system, processes involved in the formation of planets and stars are examined. The course concludes with a look at the origin and nature of Earth's internal structure. GEOL415 is a senior undergraduate course and enrols about 15-30 students annually. The courses are delivered online via Moodle and student evaluation is conducted through assignments and invigilated examinations.

  17. Gold Nanoparticle Internal Structure and Symmetry Probed by Unified Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and X-ray Diffraction Coupled with Molecular Dynamics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Blaise; Cortes-Huerto, Robinson; Taché, Olivier; Testard, Fabienne; Menguy, Nicolas; Spalla, Olivier

    2015-09-09

    Shape and size are known to determine a nanoparticle's properties. Hardly ever studied in synthesis, the internal crystal structure (i.e., particle defects, crystallinity, and symmetry) is just as critical as shape and size since it directly impacts catalytic efficiency, plasmon resonance, and orients anisotropic growth of metallic nanoparticles. Hence, its control cannot be ignored any longer in today's research and applications in nanotechnology. This study implemented an unprecedented reliable measurement combining these three structural aspects. The unified small-angle X-ray scattering and diffraction measurement (SAXS/XRD) was coupled with molecular dynamics to allow simultaneous determination of nanoparticles' shape, size, and crystallinity at the atomic scale. Symmetry distribution (icosahedra-Ih, decahedra-Dh, and truncated octahedra-TOh) of 2-6 nm colloidal gold nanoparticles synthesized in organic solvents was quantified. Nanoparticle number density showed the predominance of Ih, followed by Dh, and little, if any, TOh. This result contradicts some theoretical predictions and highlights the strong effect of the synthesis environment on structure stability. We foresee that this unified SAXS/XRD analysis, yielding both statistical and quantitative counts of nanoparticles' symmetry distribution, will provide new insights into nanoparticle formation, growth, and assembly.

  18. Rapid detection of Cronobacter sakazakii by real-time PCR based on the cgcA gene and TaqMan probe with internal amplification control.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuangfang; Yu, Yigang; Li, Rong; Wu, Xinwei; Xiao, Xinglong; Wu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a severe virulent strain that is frequently detected in powdered infant formula (PIF). Therefore, it is necessary to develop a fast and specific detection method. The specificity of our newly developed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was validated with DNA from 46 strains. Among them, 12 C. sakazakii strains were correctly amplified, whereas no positive florescent signal was observed from 34 nontarget controls. The detection limit of C. sakazakii was about 110 CFU/mL in broth and 1100 CFU/g in PIF. After enrichment in buffered peptone water for 6 h, our developed qRT-PCR assay could reliably detect C. sakazakii when the inoculation level was as low as 2 CFU/25 g (0.08 CFU/g) in PIF. The growth of C. sakazakii could be inhibited by the presence of Lactobacillus pentosus and Bacillus cereus, which used a longer enrichment period before the isolation was accomplished. However, at 5 and 50 CFU/25 g inoculation levels of C. sakazakii in the presence of 4 × 10(6) CFU L. pentosus/25 g or of 2 × 10(4) CFU B. cereus/25 g, the qRT-PCR assay could detect the presence of Cronobacter even though these artificially spiked samples were negative in culture. Therefore, our results indicated that the qRT-PCR assay could detect samples containing inhibitors and could avoid false negatives by using an internal amplification control.

  19. Planetary gear train for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, K.

    1987-04-28

    A planetary gear train is described for an automatic transmission, the planetary gear train having gear ratios including a first forward gear ratio and a reverse, the planetary gear train comprising: an input shaft; a basic planetary gearing including a first rotary element which is to be held stationary when the first gear ratio is established and also when the reverse is established, and a second rotary element which is to serve as an output member of the basic planetary gearing; an output planetary gear set including a ring gear, a sun gear and a pinion carrier; change speed means for establishing any desired one of the gear ratios; a clutch means for establishing a connection between the other one of the ring gear and the sun gear of the output planetary gear set and the first rotary element of the basic planetary gearing during operation with the first gear ratio and also during operation with the reverse, and a brake means for anchoring the other one of the ring gear and the sun gear of the output planetary gear set during operation with the reverse; and an output shaft connected to the pinion carrier of the output planetary gear set.

  20. Origin and Evolution of Planetary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas

    We propose here to continue our promising investigations into satellite systems in order to elucidate general planetary formation processes. We will investigate the origin and evolution of planetary satellites with both numerical and analytical methods, focusing first on Jupiter's Galilean satellites and then on the large saturnian moons. Our objective is to determine the state of these systems immediately after their formation; these constraints will be useful to researchers who simulate satellite formation and will provide guidance for scientists interested in tidal evolution of exoplanets. There are a number of important parallels between the formation of planetary systems and the subsequent development of planetary satellite systems. Although planetary formation has been studied in much greater detail, there are abundant and perhaps more detailed clues to general formation processes awaiting discovery in the satellite systems of the four giant planets. Thus these systems are important local sources of information that can be mined for insight into critical formation processes. We will use our sophisticated N-Body codes to investigate satellite formation and evolutionary processes with the following key goals: Determine the initial configuration of Jupiter's Galilean satellites by using their current inclinations as fossil clues to past resonance passages Determine the timing of dynamical events affecting the Galilean satellites and put strong constraints on the tidal Q values of Io, Europa, and Jupiter and iii) Investigate the resonant history of the saturnian satellites Mimas through Iapetus, paying particular attention to free inclinations and eccentricities. Andrew Howard/UC Berkeley A Window on Planet Formation from Precise Physical Properties of Kepler Planets and Stars The Kepler mission has detected more than 1200 planets and is transforming our understanding of planet formation, migration, and evolution. From the ensemble of Kepler planets, we have

  1. Origin and Evolution of Planetary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas

    We propose here to continue our promising investigations into satellite systems in order to elucidate general planetary formation processes. We will investigate the origin and evolution of planetary satellites with both numerical and analytical methods, focusing first on Jupiter's Galilean satellites and then on the large saturnian moons. Our objective is to determine the state of these systems immediately after their formation; these constraints will be useful to researchers who simulate satellite formation and will provide guidance for scientists interested in tidal evolution of exoplanets. There are a number of important parallels between the formation of planetary systems and the subsequent development of planetary satellite systems. Although planetary formation has been studied in much greater detail, there are abundant and perhaps more detailed clues to general formation processes awaiting discovery in the satellite systems of the four giant planets. Thus these systems are important local sources of information that can be mined for insight into critical formation processes. We will use our sophisticated N-Body codes to investigate satellite formation and evolutionary processes with the following key goals: Determine the initial configuration of Jupiter's Galilean satellites by using their current inclinations as fossil clues to past resonance passages Determine the timing of dynamical events affecting the Galilean satellites and put strong constraints on the tidal Q values of Io, Europa, and Jupiter and iii) Investigate the resonant history of the saturnian satellites Mimas through Iapetus, paying particular attention to free inclinations and eccentricities. Andrew Howard/UC Berkeley - A Window on Planet Formation from Precise Physical Properties of Kepler Planets and Stars The Kepler mission has detected more than 1200 planets and is transforming our understanding of planet formation, migration, and evolution. From the ensemble of Kepler planets, we have

  2. Common Infrastructure for Neo Scientific and Planetary Defense Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert; Wilks, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    While defending the Earth against collisions with asteroids and comets has garnered increasing attention over the past few decades, our knowledge of the threats and methods of mitigation remain inadequate. There exists a considerable gap in knowledge regarding the size, composition, location, internal structure and formation of near earth asteroids and comets. Although estimates have been made, critical experiments have not yet been conducted on the effectiveness of various proposed mitigation techniques. Closing this knowledge gap is of interest to both the planetary defense and planetary science communities. Increased scientific knowledge of asteroid and comet composition and structure can confirm or advance current theories about the formation of the solar system. This proposal suggests a joint effort between these two communities to provide an economical architecture that supports multiple launches of characterization and mitigation payloads with minimal response time. The science community can use this architecture for characterization missions of opportunity when multiple scientific targets or targets of uncommon scientific value present themselves, while the planetary defense community would be able to fire characterization or mitigation payloads at targets that present a threat to the Earth. Both communities would benefit from testing potential mitigation techniques, which would reveal information on the internal structure of asteroids and comets. In return, the Earth would have the beginnings of a viable response system should an impact threat prove real in the near future.

  3. Planetary systems and real planetary nebulae from planet destruction near white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2015-07-01

    We suggest that tidal destruction of Earth-like and icy planets near a white dwarf (WD) might lead to the formation of one or more low-mass - Earth-like and lighter - planets in tight orbits around the WD. The formation of the new WD planetary system starts with a tidal breakup of the parent planet to planetesimals near the tidal radius of about 1 R⊙. Internal stress forces keep the planetesimal from further tidal breakup when their radius is less than about 100 km. We speculate that the planetesimals then bind together to form new sub-Earth daughter-planets at a few solar radii around the WD. More massive planets that contain hydrogen supply the WD with fresh nuclear fuel to reincarnate its stellar-giant phase. Some of the hydrogen will be inflated in a large envelope. The envelope blows a wind to form a nebula that is later (after the entire envelope is lost) ionized by the hot WD. We term this glowing ionized nebula that originated from a planet a real planetary nebula (RPN). This preliminary study of daughter-planets from a planet and the RPN scenarios are of speculative nature. More detailed studies must follow to establish whether the suggested scenarios can indeed take place.

  4. Considering the Ethical Implications of Space Exploration and Potential Impacts on Planetary Environments and Possible Indigenous Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret

    Since the early days of the Outer Space Treaty, a primary concern of planetary protection policy has been to avoid contamination of planetary environments by terrestrial microbes that could compromise current or subsequent scientific investigations, particularly those searching for indigenous life. Over the past decade robotic missions and astrobiological research have greatly increased our understanding of diverse planetary landscapes and altered our views about the survivability of terrestrial organisms in extreme environments. They have also expanded notions about the prospect for finding evidence of extraterrestrial life. Recently a number of different groups, including the COSPAR Planetary Protection Workshop in Montreal (January 2008), have questioned whether it is advisable to re-examine current biological planetary protection policy in light of the ethical implications and responsibilities to preserve planetary environments and possible indigenous life. This paper discusses the issues and concerns that have led to recent recommendations for convening an international workshop specifically to discuss planetary protection policy and practices within a broader ethical and practical framework, and to consider whether revisions to policy and practices should be made. In addition to including various international scientific and legal organizations and experts in such a workshop, it will be important to find ways to involve the public in these discussions about ethical aspects of planetary exploration.

  5. Study of an Open Web Mapping Service for ESA's Planetary Surface Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Hempen, B.; Heather, D.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.; Frigeri, A.

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study is to understand how open GIS technology and standards can be used to manage, process, and stream the geospatial content of the PSA archive across the Internet into existing mapping applications and software libraries. To support this goal, we will design and develop an OGC-compliant web mapping service prototype providing a specific interface for client applications to search, process, retrieve and visualise the Mars Express/ OMEGA mapping spectrometer data [6] currently available in the PSA. The interface will be designed to accommodate future needs as additional planetary surface data become available or additional functionalities are required. It is anticipated that this web mapping service will provide a practical open framework contributing to the international efforts to define an extension of the PDAP data model for planetary surface data [7][8]. Although it has been demonstrated that OGC web mapping standards can be applied to the planetary science domain, they have limitations that currently prevent the use of their full capability. This study will document such limitations and feed potential recommendations into the Planetary OGC Interoperability Experiment (Planetary IE), an international initiative coordinated by USGS Astrogeology Science Center to ensure that the planetary community will properly leverage future OGC specifications [9].

  6. Summary and abstracts of the Planetary Data Workshop, June 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaddis, Lisa R.; Hare, Trent; Beyer, Ross

    2014-01-01

    The recent boom in the volume of digital data returned by international planetary science missions continues to both delight and confound users of those data. In just the past decade, the Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA’s official archive of scientific results from U.S. planetary missions, has seen a nearly 50-fold increase in the amount of data and now serves nearly half a petabyte. In only a handful of years, this volume is expected to approach 1 petabyte (1,000 terabytes or 1 quadrillion bytes). Although data providers, archivists, users, and developers have done a creditable job of providing search functions, download capabilities, and analysis and visualization tools, the new wealth of data necessitates more frequent and extensive discussion among users and developers about their current capabilities and their needs for improved and new tools. A workshop to address these and other topics, “Planetary Data: A Workshop for Users and Planetary Software Developers,” was held June 25–29, 2012, at Northern Arizona University (NAU) in Flagstaff, Arizona. A goal of the workshop was to present a summary of currently available tools, along with hands-on training and how-to guides, for acquiring, processing and working with a variety of digital planetary data. The meeting emphasized presentations by data users and mission providers during days 1 and 2, and developers had the floor on days 4 and 5 using an “unconference” format for day 5. Day 3 featured keynote talks by Laurence Soderblom (U.S. Geological Survey, USGS) and Dan Crichton (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL) followed by a panel discussion, and then research and technical discussions about tools and capabilities under recent or current development. Software and tool demonstrations were held in break-out sessions in parallel with the oral session. Nearly 150 data users and developers from across the globe attended, and 22 National Aeronautics and space Administration (NASA) and non-NASA data providers

  7. Data Management Techniques for Acoustical Planetary Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, Hans; Prattes, Gustav; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Tokano, T.; Jernej, I.; Stachel, Manfred; Besser, B. P.; Aydogar, Oe.

    We discuss data management techniques for acoustical data obtained from future atmospheric planetary in-situ probes with the aim of event oriented scientific analysis. The immediate objec-tive is the localisation (acoustic wave telescope) and characterisation of acoustic phenomena of atmospheres and surfaces, e.g. in the frame of the proposed NASA/ESA Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) with the Acoustic Sensor Package (ACU) multi-microphone array. Contrary to huge amounts of source data obtained through the electromagnetic windows, acoustical sig-nals are seldom recorded and few files exist. One example is pressure sensor data from the instrument HASI/PWA during Huygens descent, mission Cassini-Huygens. Nevertheless, a lot of acoustic point and noise sources, e.g. caused by rain, drizzle or wind abound in Titan's atmosphere. In almost all cases, due to limitations in telemetry rate, a careful strategy for onboard event handling and data reduction -the first step in data management -has to be selected, e.g. sampling rates in kHz range or averaging in the frequency domain. This pre-processing together with complementary investigations at the space segment directly influences the scientific data return in terms of long-term continuous or short-term event based studies. The database at the ground segment with science data and metadata entries after final calibra-tion has to support the combined investigations with other instruments. This second step in data management fully explores the acoustic environment of planetary atmospheres in terms of background noise and spacecraft generated disturbances, location and characterisation of source regions and correlation between the experiments. Currently we're running databases for magnetic field data from various ground-based and satellite related experiments, historical balloon data included. Comparisons of data between experiments are possible. This framework based on dependability considerations with several different

  8. Voyager 1 assessment of Jupiter's planetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    An estimate of Jupiter's planetary magnetic field is obtained from the Voyager 1 observations of the Jovian magnetosphere. An explicit model for the magnetodisc current system is combined with a spherical harmonic model of the planetary field with both sets of parameters determined simultaneously using a nonlinear generalized inverse methodology. The resulting model fits the observations extremely well throughout the analysis interval (r 20 Jovian radii). The Jovian internal field model obtained from the Voyager 1 data is very similar to the octopole Pioneer 11 models. The best fitting magnetodisc lies in the centrifugal equator, 2/3 of the way between the rotational and magnetic equators, as appropriate for centrifugal loading of the magnetosphere by a cold plasma.

  9. Planetary science: Huygens rediscovers Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Tobias

    2005-12-01

    The first analyses of data sent by the Huygens probe from Saturn's largest moon Titan are flooding in. They paint a picture of a `Peter Pan' world - potentially like Earth, but with its development frozen at an early stage.

  10. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine Planetary Gears Using an Extended Harmonic Balance Approach: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Parker, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    The dynamics of wind turbine planetary gears with gravity effects are investigated using an extended harmonic balance method that extends established harmonic balance formulations to include simultaneous internal and external excitations. The extended harmonic balance method with arc-length continuation and Floquet theory is applied to a lumped-parameter planetary gear model including gravity, fluctuating mesh stiffness, bearing clearance, and nonlinear tooth contact to obtain the planetary gear dynamic response. The calculated responses compare well with time domain integrated mathematical models and experimental results. Gravity is a fundamental vibration source in wind turbine planetary gears and plays an important role in system dynamics, causing hardening effects induced by tooth wedging and bearing-raceway contacts. Bearing clearance significantly reduces the lowest resonant frequencies of translational modes. Gravity and bearing clearance together lowers the speed at which tooth wedging occurs lower than the resonant frequency.

  11. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  12. Study of entry and landing probes for exploration of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is a totally unique planetary body which is certain to yield exciting new phenomena. Current information is lacking in detail to distinguish between a thin methane rich atmosphere and a thick nitrogen rich atmosphere. Therefore, both the thin and thick atmospheric models were used for the study of various Titan probe classes described in this report. The technical requirements, conceptual design, science return, schedule, cost and mission implications of three probe classes that could be used for exploration of Titan are defined. The three probe classes were based on a wide range of exploration mission possibilities.

  13. The Planetary Data System— Archiving Planetary Data for the use of the Planetary Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Stephanie A.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Vilas, Faith; Knopf, William P.; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, curates, and distributes digital data from NASA’s planetary missions. PDS provides the planetary science community convenient online access to data from NASA’s missions so that they can continue to mine these rich data sets for new discoveries. The PDS is a federated system consisting of nodes for specific discipline areas ranging from planetary geology to space physics. Our federation includes an engineering node that provides systems engineering support to the entire PDS.In order to adequately capture complete mission data sets containing not only raw and reduced instrument data, but also calibration and documentation and geometry data required to interpret and use these data sets both singly and together (data from multiple instruments, or from multiple missions), PDS personnel work with NASA missions from the initial AO through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. PDS makes the data in PDS easily searchable so that members of the planetary community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. To ensure long-term preservation of data and to make data sets more easily searchable with the new capabilities in Information Technology now available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), the PDS (together with the COSPAR sponsored IPDA) developed and deployed a new data archiving system known as PDS4, released in 2013. The LADEE, MAVEN, OSIRIS REx, InSight, and Mars2020 missions are using PDS4. ESA has adopted PDS4 for the upcoming BepiColumbo mission. The PDS is actively migrating existing data records into PDS4 and developing tools to aid data providers and users. The PDS is also incorporating challenge

  14. Mars Technology Program Planetary Protection Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the NASA Planetary Protection program are to preserve biological and organic conditions of solar-system bodies for future scientific exploration and to protect the Earth from potential hazardous extraterrestrial contamination. As the exploration of solar system continues, NASA remains committed to the implementation of planetary protection policy and regulations. To fulfill this commitment, the Mars Technology Program (MTP) has invested in a portfolio of tasks for developing necessary technologies to meet planetary protection requirements for the next decade missions.

  15. The probabilistic structure of planetary contamination models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. M.; North, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The analytical basis for planetary quarantine standards and procedures is presented. The heirarchy of planetary quarantine decisions is explained and emphasis is placed on the determination of mission specifications to include sterilization. The influence of the Sagan-Coleman probabilistic model of planetary contamination on current standards and procedures is analyzed. A classical problem in probability theory which provides a close conceptual parallel to the type of dependence present in the contamination problem is presented.

  16. Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute for the period July to December 1984 are discussed. Functions of its departments and projects are summarized. These include: planetary image center; library information center; computer center; production services; scientific staff; visitors program; scientific projects; conferences; workshops; seminars; publications and communications; panels, teams, committees and working groups; NASA-AMES vertical gun range (AVGR); and lunar and planetary science council.

  17. Planetary Science Training for NASA's Astronauts: Preparing for Future Human Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Young, K. E.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-02-01

    Astronauts selected in 2017 and in future years will carry out in situ planetary science research during exploration of the solar system. Training to enable this goal is underway and is flexible to accommodate an evolving planetary science vision.

  18. Twenty-Second Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Some of the topics covered include: planetary evolution, planetary satellites, planetary composition, planetary surfaces, planetary geology, volcanology, meteorite impacts and composition, and cosmic dust. Particular emphasis is placed on Mars and the Moon.

  19. Analytic theory of orbit contraction and ballistic entry into planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, J. M.; Vinh, N. X.

    1980-01-01

    A space object traveling through an atmosphere is governed by two forces: aerodynamic and gravitational. On this premise, equations of motion are derived to provide a set of universal entry equations applicable to all regimes of atmospheric flight from orbital motion under the dissipate force of drag through the dynamic phase of reentry, and finally to the point of contact with the planetary surface. Rigorous mathematical techniques such as averaging, Poincare's method of small parameters, and Lagrange's expansion, applied to obtain a highly accurate, purely analytic theory for orbit contraction and ballistic entry into planetary atmospheres. The theory has a wide range of applications to modern problems including orbit decay of artificial satellites, atmospheric capture of planetary probes, atmospheric grazing, and ballistic reentry of manned and unmanned space vehicles.

  20. Planetary sample rapid recovery and handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Methods for recovering and cost effectively handling planetary samples following return to the vicinity of Earth were designed for planetary mission planners. Three topics are addressed: (1) a rough cost estimate was produced for each of a series of options for the handling of planetary samples following their return to the vicinity of Earth; (2) the difficulty of quickly retrieving planetary samples from low circular and high elliptical Earth orbit is assessed; and (3) a conceptual design for a biological isolation and thermal control system for the returned sample and spacecraft is developed.

  1. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  2. Deprojection of planetary nebula images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Kevin; Leahy, Denis A.

    1993-11-01

    Several optical or radio images of planetary nebulae have been deprojected using the algorithm described in Leahy & Volk (1993). For each image 16 radial cuts from the center of the nebula were independently deprojected assuming either spherical symmetry or a weighting of the emissivity distribution towards the plane of the sky. The deprojection was carried out using the optical line images of Balick (1987) for the Ring Nebula (NGC 6720, PN G063.1+13.9) and NGC 40 (PN G120.0+09.8) and for the 15 GHz radio image of M3-35 (PN G071.6-02.3) from Aaquist & Kwok (1991). These three nebulae were chosen due to their generally ellipsoidal shapes as seen projected on the sky, but in all three cases the deprojection indicates that the nebuale are neither oblate or prolate ellipsoidal shells. Instead, these nebulae have two main regions of emission roughly oppositely positioned around the central star each of which covers a solid angle of approximately pi steradians, and most of the emission is in more or less cylindrical bands with very little emissivity at the 'poles' of the nebulae. The nebulae are therefore more barrel-shaped than ellipsoid-shaped. While the possibility that planetary nebulae are cylindrical in shape has been studied in the past, these results indicate that the body of the nebula is far more patchy than had been postulated which may resolve some of the difficulties that the hypothesis of cylindrical symmetry has had. Such shapes are more complicated than the simplest form of the interacting winds model of planetary nebula formation predicts, but can be explained if the progenitor red giant wind was rather asymmetrical.

  3. Teaching, learning, and planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The progress accomplished in the first five months of the three-year grant period of Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration is presented. The objectives of this project are to discover new education products and services based on space science, particularly planetary exploration. An Exploration in Education is the umbrella name for the education projects as they are seen by teachers and the interested public. As described in the proposal, our approach consists of: (1) increasing practical understanding of the potential role and capabilities of the research community to contribute to basic education using new discoveries; (2) developing an intellectual framework for these contributions by supplying criteria and templates for the teacher's stories; (3) attracting astronomers, engineers, and technical staff to the project and helping them form productive education partnerships for the future, (4) exploring relevant technologies and networks for authoring and communicating the teacher's stories; (5) enlisting the participation of potential user's of the teacher's stories in defining the products; (6) actually producing and delivering many educationally useful teacher's stories; and (7) reporting the pilot study results with critical evaluation. Technical progress was made by assembling our electronic publishing stations, designing electronic publications based on space science, and developing distribution approaches for electronic products. Progress was made addressing critical issues by developing policies and procedures for securing intellectual property rights and assembling a focus group of teachers to test our ideas and assure the quality of our products. The following useful materials are being produced: the TOPS report; three electronic 'PictureBooks'; one 'ElectronicArticle'; three 'ElectronicReports'; ten 'PrinterPosters'; and the 'FaxForum' with an initial complement of printed materials. We have coordinated with planetary scientists and astronomers

  4. An Antarctic research outpost as a model for planetary exploration.

    PubMed

    Andersen, D T; McKay, C P; Wharton, R A; Rummel, J D

    1990-01-01

    During the next 50 years, human civilization may well begin expanding into the solar system. This colonization of extraterrestrial bodies will most likely begin with the establishment of small research outposts on the Moon and/or Mars. In all probability these facilities, designed primarily for conducting exploration and basic science, will have international participation in their crews, logistical support and funding. High fidelity Earth-based simulations of planetary exploration could help prepare for these expensive and complex operations. Antarctica provides one possible venue for such a simulation. The hostile and remote dry valleys of southern Victoria Land offer a valid analog to the Martian environment but are sufficiently accessible to allow routine logistical support and to assure the relative safety of their inhabitants. An Antarctic research outpost designed as a planetary exploration simulation facility would have great potential as a testbed and training site for the operation of future Mars bases and represents a near-term, relatively low-cost alternative to other precursor activities. Antarctica already enjoys an international dimension, an aspect that is more than symbolically appropriate to an international endeavor of unprecedented scientific and social significance--planetary exploration by humans. Potential uses of such a facility include: 1) studying human factors in an isolated environment (including long-term interactions among an international crew); 2) testing emerging technologies (e.g., advanced life support facilities such as a partial bioregenerative life support system, advanced analytical and sample acquisition instrumentation and equipment, etc.); and 3) conducting basic scientific research similar to the research that will be conducted on Mars, while contributing to the planning for human exploration. (Research of this type is already ongoing in Antarctica).

  5. Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our

  6. Planetary magnetism. [emphasizing dynamo theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D.

    1974-01-01

    The origin and maintenance of planetary magnetic fields are discussed. The discussion is not limited to dynamo theories, although these are almost universally favored. Thermoelectric currents are found to be a possible alternative for Jupiter. Two energy sources for dynamos are considered: convection and precessionally induced fluid flow. The earth is the most favorable planet for precessionally driven dynamo, although Neptune is a possibility. Jupiter is likely to have a convectionally driven dynamo, as may Saturn, but the relevant properties of Saturn are not yet well known. Conclusions for each planet are given.

  7. SIRTF - Capabilities for planetary science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Werner, M. W.; Backman, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Major research areas of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are discussed which include Kuiper-belt comets, IR spectroscopy of comets, and circumstellar planetary debris disks. SIRTF instrumentation will include the infrared array camera (IRAC) and multiband imaging photometer (MIP). The IRAC uses large area, 2D infrared array detectors to provide wide-field (7 arcmin) and diffraction-limited imaging over the spectral region from 2 to 30 microns. The MIP will provide background-limited imaging and photometry over the wavelength range from 30 to 200 microns, wide-field, high resolution imaging from 50 to 120 microns, and broad band photometry and mapping from 200 to 700 microns.

  8. Use of PCR primers and probes based on the 23S rRNA and internal transcription spacer (ITS) gene sequence for the detection and enumerization of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum in feed supplements.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Lai, Chieh-Hsien; Yu, Bi; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2010-06-01

    Novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers designed from the 16S-23S internal transcription spacer (ITS) rRNA and 23S rRNA genes, respectively, were used for the specific detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Molecular weights of the PCR products were 221 and 599 bp, respectively. Strains of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum obtained from the culture center, dairy products, infant stool and other samples, could be identified with these PCR primers. DNAs from other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species including strains of Lactobacillus pentosus which was closely related to L. plantarum, and bacteria species other than LAB, would not generate the false positive results. When this PCR primer set was used for the detection of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum in feed supplement or feed starter samples, reliable results were obtained. Furthermore, when these L. acidophilus or L. plantarum specific primers were used as DNA probes for the colony hybridization of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, the viable cells of these LAB species in culture and feed supplements or starter products could be identified and enumerized. The method described here thus offers a rapid and economic way to inspect and assure the quality of the feed supplements or fermentation starters.

  9. Laboratory Evaluation and Application of Microwave Absorption Properties Under Simulated Conditions for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1998-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments, entry probe radio signal absorption measurements, and earth-based radio astronomical observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorbing properties of potential constituents is available. The use of theoretically-derived microwave absorption properties for such atmospheric constituents, or using laboratory measurements of such properties taken under environmental conditions which are significantly different than those of the planetary atmosphere being studied, often leads to significant misinterpretation of available opacity data. For example, laboratory measurements completed recently by Kolodner and Steffes (ICARUS 132, pp. 151-169, March 1998, attached as Appendix A) under this grant (NAGS-4190), have shown that the opacity from gaseous H2SO4 under simulated Venus conditions is best described by a different formalism than was previously used. The recognition of the need to make such laboratory measurements of simulated planetary atmospheres over a range of temperatures and pressures which correspond to the altitudes probed by both spacecraft entry probe and orbiter radio occultation experiments and by radio astronomical observations, and over a range of frequencies which correspond to those used in such experiments, has led to the development of a facility at Georgia Tech which is capable of making such measurements. It has been the goal of this investigation to conduct such measurements and to apply the results to a wide range of planetary observations, both spacecraft and earth-based, in order to determine the identity and abundance profiles of constituents in those planetary atmospheres.

  10. Laboratory Evaluation and Application of Microwave Absorption Properties under Simulated Conditions for Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Radio absorptivity data for planetary atmospheres obtained from spacecraft radio occultation experiments, entry probe radio signal absorption measurements, and earth-based or spacecraft-based radio astronomical (emission) observations can be used to infer abundances of microwave absorbing constituents in those atmospheres, as long as reliable information regarding the microwave absorbing properties of potential constituents is available. The use of theoretically-derived microwave absorption properties for such atmospheric constituents, or the use of laboratory measurements of such properties taken under environmental conditions that are significantly different than those of the planetary atmosphere being studied, often leads to significant misinterpretation of available opacity data. Laboratory measurements have shown that the centimeter-wavelength opacity from gaseous phosphine (PH3) under simulated conditions for the outer planets far exceeds that predicted from theory over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. This fundamentally changed the resulting interpretation of Voyager radio occultation data at Saturn and Neptune. It also directly impacts planning and scientific goals for study of Saturn's atmosphere with the Cassini Radio Science Experiment and the Rossini RADAR instrument. The recognition of the need to make such laboratory measurements of simulated planetary atmospheres over a range of temperatures and pressures which correspond to the altitudes probed by both radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, and over a range of frequencies which correspond to those used in both spacecraft entry probe and orbiter (or flyby) radio occultation experiments and radio astronomical observations, has led to the development of a facility at Georgia Tech which is capable of making such measurements. It has been the goal of this investigation to conduct such measurements and to apply the results to a wide range of planetary observations

  11. Theory of Planetary System Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassen, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Observations and theoretical considerations support the idea that the Solar System formed by the collapse of tenuous interstellar matter to a disk of gas and dust (the primitive solar nebula), from which the Sun and other components separated under the action of dissipative forces and by the coagulation of solid material. Thus, planets are understood to be contemporaneous byproducts of star formation. Because the circumstellar disks of new stars are easier to observe than mature planetary systems, the possibility arises that the nature and variety of planets might be studied from observations of the conditions of their birth. A useful theory of planetary system formation would therefore relate the properties of circumstellar disks both to the initial conditions of star formation and to the consequent properties of planets to those of the disk. Although the broad outlines of such a theory are in place, many aspects are either untested, controversial, or otherwise unresolved; even the degree to which such a comprehensive theory is possible remains unknown.

  12. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jacob; Stewart, G. R.; Esposito, L. W.

    2013-10-01

    Simulations of rings have traditionally been done using N-body methods, granting insight into the interactions of individual ring particles on varying scales. However, due to the scale of a typical ring system and the sheer number of particles involved, a global N-body simulation is too computationally expensive, unless particle collisions are replaced by stochastic forces (Bromley & Kenyon, 2013). Rings are extraordinarily flat systems and therefore are well-suited to existing geophysical shallow-water hydrodynamics models with well-established non-linear advection methods. By adopting a general relationship between pressure and surface density such as a polytropic equation of state, we can modify the shallow-water formula to treat a thin, compressible, self-gravitating, shearing fluid. Previous hydrodynamic simulations of planetary rings have been restricted to axisymmetric flows and therefore have not treated the response to nonaxisymmetric perturbations by moons (Schmidt & Tscharnuter 1999, Latter & Ogilvie 2010). We seek to expand on existing hydrodynamic methods and, by comparing our work with complementary N-body simulations and Cassini observations, confirm the veracity of our results at small scales before eventually moving to a global domain size. We will use non-Newtonian, dynamically variable viscosity to model the viscous transport caused by unresolved self-gravity wakes. Self-gravity will be added to model the dynamics of large-scale structures, such as density waves and edge waves. Support from NASA Outer Planets and Planetary Geology and Geophysics programs is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Interactive investigations into planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, I.

    2015-12-01

    Many processes in Earth science are difficult to observe or visualize due to the large timescales and lengthscales over which they operate. The dynamics of planetary mantles are particularly challenging as we cannot even look at the rocks involved. As a result, much teaching material on mantle dynamics relies on static images and cartoons, many of which are decades old. Recent improvements in computing power and technology (largely driven by game and web development) have allowed for advances in real-time physics simulations and visualizations, but these have been slow to affect Earth science education.Here I demonstrate a teaching tool for mantle convection and seismology which solves the equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in real time, allowing users make changes to the simulation and immediately see the effects. The user can ask and answer questions about what happens when they add heat in one place, or take it away from another place, or increase the temperature at the base of the mantle. They can also pause the simulation, and while it is paused, create and visualize seismic waves traveling through the mantle. These allow for investigations into and discussions about plate tectonics, earthquakes, hot spot volcanism, and planetary cooling.The simulation is rendered to the screen using OpenGL, and is cross-platform. It can be run as a native application for maximum performance, but it can also be embedded in a web browser for easy deployment and portability.

  14. Control technique for planetary rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, Ichiro; Kubota, Takashi; Adachi, Tadashi; Saitou, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Sinya

    1994-01-01

    Beginning next century, several schemes for sending a planetary rover to the moon or Mars are being planned. As part of the development program, autonomous navigation technology is being studied to allow the rover the ability to move autonomously over a long range of unknown planetary surface. In the previous study, we ran the autonomous navigation experiment on an outdoor test terrain by using a rover test-bed that was controlled by a conventional sense-plan-act method. In some cases during the experiment, a problem occurred with the rover moving into untraversable areas. To improve this situation, a new control technique has been developed that gives the rover the ability of reacting to the outputs of the proximity sensors, a reaction behavior if you will. We have developed a new rover test-bed system on which an autonomous navigation experiment was performed using the newly developed control technique. In this outdoor experiment, the new control technique effectively produced the control command for the rover to avoid obstacles and be guided to the goal point safely.

  15. News and Views: Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey complete; Same old galaxies; New faces at UK Planetary Forum; Telescope400; At home with Einstein; Bullerwell lecturer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-06-01

    An international research group has announced that the the Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey, the most detailed map of the nearby universe, is now complete. The discovery of old, large galaxies among the brightest cluster galaxies undermines the hiererchical picture of galactic evolution. The UK Planetary Forum (UKPF), an organization that represents the UK planetary science community, has a new committee.

  16. The Canadian space agency planetary analogue materials suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Applin, Daniel M.; Samson, Claire; Kruzelecky, Roman; Glotch, Timothy D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Mertzman, Karen R.; Haltigin, Timothy W.; Fry, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) recently commissioned the development of a suite of over fifty well-characterized planetary analogue materials. These materials are terrestrial rocks and minerals that are similar to those known or suspected to occur on the lunar or martian surfaces. These include: Mars analogue sedimentary, hydrothermal, igneous and low-temperature alteration rock suites; lunar analogue basaltic and anorthositic rock suites; and a generic impactite rock suite from a variety of terrestrial impact structures. Representative thin sections of the materials have been characterized by optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Reflectance spectra have been collected in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared, covering 0.2-25 μm. Thermal infrared emission spectra were collected from 5 to 50 μm. Raman spectra with 532 nm excitation, and laser-induced fluorescence spectra with 405 nm excitation were also measured. Bulk chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray fluorescence, with Fe valence determined by wet chemistry. Chemical and mineralogical data were collected using a field-portable Terra XRD-XRF instrument similar to CheMin on the MSL Curiosity rover. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data similar to those measured by ChemCam on MSL were collected for powdered samples, cut slab surfaces, and as depth profiles into weathered surfaces where present. Three-dimensional laser camera images of rock textures were collected for selected samples. The CSA intends to make available sample powders (<45 μm and 45-1000 μm grain sizes), thin sections, and bulk rock samples, and all analytical data collected in the initial characterisation study to the broader planetary science community. Aiming to complement existing planetary analogue rock and mineral libraries, the CSA suite represents a new resource for planetary scientists and engineers. We envision many potential applications for these materials in the

  17. Planetary rock corer and drill concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imus, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Several planetary rock corers and drill design concepts have been developed for obtaining subsurface rock samples in future planetary explorations. Tools are designed for unmanned space vehicles. Two devices are rotary impact multiple chisel trepan rock corer and hole drilling tool.

  18. The Formation of a Planetary Nebula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz, Amos

    1991-01-01

    Proposes a scenario to describe the formation of a planetary nebula, a cloud of gas surrounding a very hot compact star. Describes the nature of a planetary nebula, the number observed to date in the Milky Way Galaxy, and the results of research on a specific nebula. (MDH)

  19. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. Volume 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G. (Editor); Binzel, Richard P. (Editor); Gaffey, Michael J. (Editor); Kraehenbuehl, Urs (Editor); Pieters, Carle M. (Editor); Shaw, Denis (Editor); Wieler, Rainer (Editor); Brownlee, Donald E. (Editor); Goldstein, Joseph I. (Editor); Lyon, Ian C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This special supplement of the Meteoritics and Planetary Science Society Journal contains the abstracts of 324 technical presentations, and the presentations of awards during the Annual meeting of the Meteoritical Society. The abstracts review current research on meteors and planetary sciences.

  20. An outline of planetary geoscience. [philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A philosophy for planetary geoscience is presented to aid in addressing a number of major scientific questions; answers to these questions should constitute the basic geoscientific knowledge of the solar system. However, any compilation of major questions or basic knowledge in planetary geoscience involves compromises and somewhat arbitrary boundaries that reflect the prevalent level of understanding at the time.