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Sample records for international proposal energy

  1. Proposal for the International Atomic Energy Agency Training Course

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site has hosted similar activities, including both Hanford Summits I and II. The Hanford Summits were two-day televised events to discuss the commitment of the current Presidential administration to the environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. Public involvement and strategic issues established from Hanford Summit I include: Regulatory issues, training and education, economic development and partnership, and technology transfer. Hanford Summit II provided a summary of how Secretary of Energy O`Leary is proceeding on the above strategic issues. The DOE and Westinghouse School for Environmental Excellence frequently offers a six-week course for environmental professionals and workers. Approximately thirty to forty individuals attend the training course, which provides training in environmental regulation compliance. The Hanford Site has hosted two previous International Atomic Energy Agency training courses. The courses lasted two weeks and had approximately eight to ten participants. Nuclear Material Management and Neutron Monitoring were the courses hosted by the Hanford Site.

  2. An International Solar Energy Development Decade. A Proposal for Global Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonier, Tom

    1972-01-01

    Argues that international cooperation in developing solar energy, either by collecting the energy in space stations and transmitting to earth via microwave beams or by terrestrial collection, can lead to peace between nations. (AL)

  3. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  4. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  5. International energy outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  6. International energy outlook, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-08

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The historic political and economic changes occurring in Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union will, no doubt, transform regional markets and world trade. This report pays particular attention to energy markets and resources in those countries that were once a part of the Centrally Planned Economies (CPE's) and how prospective changes in these countries might influence the energy outlook for the rest of the world. Several major EIA estimates determine, in large part, the resulting energy projections presented here. These include estimates of the energy intensity of economic activity; oil and natural gas production capacities; nuclear and hydroelectric generation capacities; international coal trade; and the rate of incremental energy requirements met by alternatives to oil.

  7. International energy outlook, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-08

    This report presents the current Energy Information Administration (EIA) assessment of the long-term outlook for international energy markets. The historic political and economic changes occurring in Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union will, no doubt, transform regional markets and world trade. This report pays particular attention to energy markets and resources in those countries that were once a part of the Centrally Planned Economies (CPE`s) and how prospective changes in these countries might influence the energy outlook for the rest of the world. Several major EIA estimates determine, in large part, the resulting energy projections presented here. These include estimates of the energy intensity of economic activity; oil and natural gas production capacities; nuclear and hydroelectric generation capacities; international coal trade; and the rate of incremental energy requirements met by alternatives to oil.

  8. International energy outlook 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  9. International energy annual, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    This document presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 200 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy includes hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and wind electric power and alcohol for fuel. The data were largely derived from published sources and reports from US Embassy personnel in foreign posts. EIA also used data from reputable secondary sources, industry reports, etc.

  10. International energy outlook 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report presents international energy projections through 2020, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. The outlooks for major energy fuels are discussed, along with electricity, transportation, and environmental issues. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. The historical time frame begins with data from 1970 and extends to 1996, providing readers with a 26-year historical view of energy demand. The IEO99 projections covers a 24-year period. The next part of the report is organized by energy source. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in the five fuel chapters, along with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. The third part of the report looks at energy consumption in the end-use sectors, beginning with a chapter on energy use for electricity generation. New to this year`s outlook are chapters on energy use in the transportation sector and on environmental issues related to energy consumption. 104 figs., 87 tabs.

  11. International energy outlook 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  12. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  13. International energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.

  14. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1981-02-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy on the international scene and for the US. Data included are: world crude oil production, 1975 to date; Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to date; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to date; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to date; USSR crude oil production, 1974 to date; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to date. Data are supplied specifically for the US on US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to date; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US trade in bituminous coal, 1973 to date; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to date; and energy/GNP ratio.

  15. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Data on international energy indicators were tabulated and graphically represented. The following data are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio.

  16. Defining International Human Resource Development: A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gary N.; Wang, Xiaohui

    2007-01-01

    From the beginning of the use of the term, there have been struggles over the meaning of human resource development (HRD). In recent years, there has been increased attention to the field's definition. This paper moves this exploration one more step to an exploration of the dilemma of defining international and cross-national HRD. A beginning…

  17. International Energy Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Summarizes the overall structure of the International Energy Model and its interface with other NEMS modules, mathematical specifications of behavioral relationships, and data sources and estimation methods.

  18. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1980-03-01

    For the international sector, a table of data is first presented followed by corresponding graphs of the data for the following: (1) Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut in, 1974 to February 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia (same as Iran); (3) OPEC (ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shutin, 1974 to January 1980; (4) non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, 1973 to January 1980; (5) oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to 1979; (6) petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to October 1979; (7) USSR crude oil production, 1974 to February 1980; (8) Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to January 1980. For the United States, the same data format is used for the following: US imports of crude oil and products 1973 to January 1980; landed cost of Saudi Arabia crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, 1974 to October 1979; US trade in coal, 1973 to 1979; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to January 1980; and US energy/GNP ratio (in 1972 dollars), 1947 to 1979.

  19. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  20. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  1. A proposed international watershed research network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  2. International energy-investment dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1983-07-01

    The idea of a unified international energy market is dispelled, and the problems that exist in finding stable investors for the uncertain projects are approached. It is shown how the current contracting techniques are inappropriate for the emerging large-scale energy projects, and suggestions are made for new approaches that emphasize clauses for reviews, penalties, supply terms, inflation and oil price escalations, and currency; financing arrangements; government and international agency guarantees; and jurisdiction of national regulatory bodies. The efficiency of the world's human resources will be responsible for establishing investor confidence which will enable major financers to become involved in international energy megaprojects.

  3. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  4. International Energy Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  5. Energy: the international dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.

    1983-03-01

    This report assesses the extent to which oil markets freed of price and allocation controls can and will be successful and to what extent intervention may be desirable. Addressed are the redistribution of wealth resulting from price increases, the effect of those increases on economic activity and prospective economic growth, and the change in the prospective patterns of energy services and uses that have followed. The main source of tension in the market which was identified was the threat posed by uncertain oil. The author concludes that energy did not pose a single crisis which passed with the 1970's, but a series of challenges that remain today and beyond. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosoi, E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented under the following headings: world crude oil production, OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels; and oil consumption in the OECD countries. The USSR crude oil production and exports; free world and US nuclear electricity generation; US domestic oil supply; US gross imports of crude oil and products; landed cost of Saudi crude, current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade; US natural gas trade; summary of US merchandise trade; and energy/GNP ratio data are also included.

  7. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R. M.

    1981-05-01

    Tabulated data and graphic displays are presented for: world crude oil production for each year since 1974; OPEC crude oil production capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory level for each year since 1975; oil consumption in CECD Countries for each year since 1975; USSR crude oil production for each year since 1975; and the free World and US nuclear electricity generation for 1973 and the current capacity. Also, tabulated data and graphic displays are included on: US domestic oil supply for each year since 1977; US gross imports of crude oil and products for each year since 1973; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade for each year since 1975; US natural gas trade for each year since 1975; a summary of US merchandise trade for each year since 1977; and the US energy/GNP ratio in 1972 dollars.

  8. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. K.

    1980-08-01

    Data are compiled in tables and graphs on Iran and Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, June 1974 to July 1980; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shut-in, June 1974 to June 1980; non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, January 1973 to May 1980; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 - 1st quarter 1980; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, January 1973 to February 1980; USSR crude oil production, January 1974 to July 1980; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, January 1973 to June 1980; US import of crude oil and products, January 1973 to July 1980; landed cost of Saudi crude in current and 1974 dollars, April 1974 to May 1980; US trade in coal, January 1973 to June 1980; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to June 1980; and energy/GNP ratio, 1974-1st quarter 1980. The highlight of each is summarized in the table of contents.

  9. International energy indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R. M.

    1981-07-01

    Data are presented in graphs and tables on the following: world crude oil production by area, annually, 1974 through 1980, and monthly, October 1980 through April 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity, installed, maximum sustainable, and available, by country; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 through 1981; oil consumption in OCED countries, 1975 through 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 through April 1981; free world (by country) and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 through 1980 and January to May 1981 and current capacity by country; US domestic oil supply (monthly) 1977 through 1980; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 and 1974 annually, and 1975 through 1980 and monthly from January to June 1981; cost of Saudi crude oil in current and 1974 dollars from December 1974 through March 1981; US coal trade from January 1975 to March 1981; US natural gas trade from January 1975 through April 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, quarterly, from Quarter I, 1977 through Quarter I, 1981; and US energy/GNP ratio, annually, 1974 through 1980, and quarterly from 1974 through March 1981.

  10. International energy indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Data are presented in graphs and tables on the following: Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, monthly, June 1974 to May 1980; Saudi Arabia: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, monthly, March 1974 to May 1980; OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia): capacity, production and shut-in, monthly, June 1974 to April 1980; non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, monthly, January 1973 to March 1980; oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to first quarter 1980; petroleum consumption by industrial countries, monthly, January 1973 to December 1979; USSR crude oil production, monthly, January 1974 to May 1980; Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, monthly, January 1973 to April 1980; world crude oil production by area, annually, 1947 to 1979; estimated proved world reserves of crude oil, annually, January 1, 1948 to 1980; world marketed production of natural gas, annually, 1950 to 1979; estimated proved world reserves of natural gas, annually, January 1, 1967 to 1980; US trade in natural gas, 1955 to 1979; US imports of crude oil and products, monthly, January 1973 to May 1980; landed cast of Saudi crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, monthly, April 1974 to March 1980; US trade in coal, monthly, January 1973 to April 1980; summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to April 1980 and Energy/GNP ratio, annually, 1947 to 1949 and, quarterly, first 1973 to first 1980.

  11. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  12. International energy indicators. [International and US statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.K.

    1980-03-01

    For the international sector, a table of data is first presented followed by corresponding graph of the data for the following: (1) Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to February 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia (same as Iran); (3) OPEC (ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to January 1980; (4) non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, 1973 to January 1980; (5) oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to 1979; (6) petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to October 1979; (7) USSR crude oil production, 1974 to February 1980; (8) Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to January 1980. For the United States, the same data format is used for the following: (a) US imports of crude oil and products 1973 to January 1980; (b) landed cost of Saudi Arabia crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, 1974 to October 1979; (c) US trade in coal, 1973 to 1979; (d) summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to January 1980; and (e) US energy/GNP ratio (in 1972 dollars), 1947 to 1979.

  13. 77 FR 46772 - Public Inquiry on International Mail Proposals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...The Commission is establishing a public inquiry to receive comments addressing the Commission's role in advising the Secretary of State on whether certain international mail proposals are consistent with applicable standards and criteria. This notice provides background information, addresses related administrative matters, and invites public...

  14. A proposed International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 1965- 1985.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Fabiano, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    A set of spherical harmonic models describing the Earth's main magnetic field from 1965 to 1985 has been developed and is proposed as the next revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). A tenth degree and order spherical harmonic model of the main field was derived from Magsat data. A series of eighth degree and order spherical harmonic models of the secular variation of the main field was derived from magnetic observatory annual mean values. Models of the main field at 1965, 1970, 1975, and 1980 were obtained by extrapolating the main-field model using the secular variation models.-Authors spherical harmonic models Earth main magnetic field Magsat data

  15. 75 FR 12532 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 23, 2010, at...

  16. 76 FR 35869 - International Energy Agency meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 28, 2011, at...

  17. 77 FR 61583 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on October 17 and 18,...

  18. 77 FR 69613 - International Energy Agency Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meeting AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: A meeting involving members of the Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA)...

  19. 76 FR 69714 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on November 16-17,...

  20. 77 FR 16826 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 28 and 29,...

  1. 78 FR 36542 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 24, 2013, at...

  2. 78 FR 16665 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 25 and 26,...

  3. 77 FR 36271 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 26, 2012, at...

  4. 76 FR 14003 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 22, 2011, at...

  5. 75 FR 34724 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 29, 2010, at...

  6. 75 FR 67711 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on November 16, 2010,...

  7. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-03-31

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac and AGS to RHIC to CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  8. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D A; Vogt, R

    2005-03-31

    The authors propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, they propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  9. Proposed Department of Energy Budget Increases Support for Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    In the Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014, the Department of Energy (DOE) would get a total of 28.4 billion, up from 26.3 billion in FY 2012, an 8% increase (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  10. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The International Energy Agency: Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations that record and index information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of INIS. Nuclear information prepared for INIS by ETDE member countries is included in the ETDE Energy Database, which contains the online equivalent of the printed INIS Atomindex. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects thscope of international energy research, development, and technological programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as ``Energy Science & Technology`` by DIALOG Information Services, ``Energy`` by STN International and the ``ETDE Energy Database`` by SilverPlatter. It is also the thesaurus for the Integrated Technical Information System (ITIS) online databases of the US Department of Energy.

  11. 75 FR 39206 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Buyer Program Application and Exhibitor Data AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.../or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995....

  12. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  13. Vortex formation in a proposed detonation internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Loth, E.

    1995-05-01

    A possible configuration for taking advantage of detonation combustion in an internal combustion engine is described, which uses a separate detonation combustion chamber that discharges tangentially into a vortex chamber formed by the piston and cylinder at top dead center. The vortex chamber is designed to efficiently store a portion of the kinetic energy produced by the detonation wave in the form of a vortex, which would subsequently be converted into static pressure. By placing this chamber above the piston surface, the detonation and primary shock waves are directed parallel to the piston surface, thus avoiding potentially destructive loads to the piston. The rapid burning followed by mixing with air in the vortex chamber may reduce the formation of NOx and unburned hydrocarbons as compared to conventional combustion. Such a configuration may efficiently take advantage of clean-burning slow-deflagrating fuels such as natural gas to yield constant volume-type efficiencies. Shock wave propagation through the vortex chamber was simulated to qualitatively observe the vortex storage and rapid mixing characteristics. 30 refs.

  14. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.

    PubMed Central

    Román, G.; Sotelo, J.; Del Brutto, O.; Flisser, A.; Dumas, M.; Wadia, N.; Botero, D.; Cruz, M.; Garcia, H.; de Bittencourt, P. R.; Trelles, L.; Arriagada, C.; Lorenzana, P.; Nash, T. E.; Spina-França, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns. PMID:10812740

  15. A proposal to declare neurocysticercosis an international reportable disease.

    PubMed

    Román, G; Sotelo, J; Del Brutto, O; Flisser, A; Dumas, M; Wadia, N; Botero, D; Cruz, M; Garcia, H; de Bittencourt, P R; Trelles, L; Arriagada, C; Lorenzana, P; Nash, T E; Spina-França, A

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the nervous system caused by Taenia solium. It is the most important human parasitic neurological disease and a common cause of epilepsy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, representing enormous costs for anticonvulsants, medical resources and lost production. Neurocysticercosis is a human-to-human infection, acquired by the faecal-enteric route from carriers of intestinal T. solium, most often in areas with deficient sanitation. Intestinal tapeworms cause few symptoms, but adult taeniae carried by humans release large numbers of infective eggs and are extremely contagious. Ingestion of poorly cooked pig meat infested with T. solium larvae results in intestinal taeniosis but not neurocysticercosis. With a view to hastening the control of taeniosis and neurocysticercosis we propose that neurocysticercosis be declared an international reportable disease. New cases of neurocysticercosis should be reported by physicians or hospital administrators to their health ministries. An epidemiological intervention could then be launched to interrupt the chain of transmission by: (1) searching for, treating and reporting the sources of contagion, i.e. human carriers of tapeworms; (2) identifying and treating other exposed contacts; (3) providing health education on parasite transmission and improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions; and (4) enforcing meat inspection policies and limiting the animal reservoir by treatment of pigs. We believe that the first step required to solve the problem of neurocysticercosis is to implement appropriate surveillance mechanisms under the responsibility of ministries of health. Compulsory notification also has the major advantage of providing accurate quantification of the incidence and prevalence of neurocysticercosis at regional level, thus permitting the rational use of resources in eradication campaigns.

  16. A New International Order: Proposals for Making a Better World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Keith D.

    The inability of national governments to solve the world's major problems is examined, and various suggestions for solving the problems through an international government and transnational action are discussed. There are four chapters. Chapter 1 discusses changes in international relations which are resulting in a collapse of the "Old Order," for…

  17. International Energy and Environmental Congress: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information presented at the International Energy and Environmental Congress `93 proceedings. Symposiums included demand-side management strategic directions; federal energy management; corporate energy management; and pollution control technologies. Individual reports from the symposiums are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. Internal medicine residency redesign: proposal of the Internal Medicine Working Group.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Ralph I; Kassirer, Jerome P; Holmboe, Eric S; Humphrey, Holly J; Verghese, Abraham; Croft, Carol; Kwok, Minjung; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    Concerned with the quality of internal medicine training, many leaders in the field assembled to assess the state of the residency, evaluate the decline in interest in the specialty, and create a framework for invigorating the discipline. Although many external factors are responsible, we also found ourselves culpable: allowing senior role models to opt out of important training activities, ignoring a progressive atrophy of bedside skills, and focusing on lock-step curricula, lectures, and compiled diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The group affirmed its commitment to a vision of internal medicine rooted in science and learned with mentors at the bedside. Key factors for new emphasis include patient-centered small group teaching, greater incorporation of clinical epidemiology and health services research, and better schedule control for trainees. Because previous proposals were weakened by lack of evidence, we propose to organize the Cooperative Educational Studies Group, a pool of training programs that will collect a common data set describing their programs, design interventions to be tested rigorously in multi-methodological approaches, and at the same time produce knowledge about high-quality practice. PMID:21854887

  19. 77 FR 38802 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Standex International Corporation AGENCY... a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Trinity... hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning...

  20. International energy efficiency and renewable energy resources on the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Meyer, R.D.

    1996-10-01

    A variety of sources of information on energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies are available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. These resources are sponsored and maintained by a myriad of organizations across the country and world. One expeditious way to access these resources is by using the U.S. Department of Energy`s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN). This network is a user-friendly computer link to Internet based information on energy conservation and renewable energy technologies and techniques. Numerous international sources of information can be accessed through EREN including the International Energy Agency`s Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET) and the Greenhouse Gas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE). CADDET`s Register of demonstrated energy technologies provides an extensive guide to energy efficient and renewable energy technologies, and GREENTIE`s Directory of supplier information helps users access technology providers and experts.

  1. A Proposal for an International Standard Object Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses extand paradigms (ISBN, ISSN, ISMN, and the emerging ISAN). Models a procedure for assigning ISONs (International Standard Object Number) to objects and their surrogates. Describes resources requisite to the construction of the ISON, and outlines the necessarily cooperative work ahead if an ISON is to become a standard for visual…

  2. 78 FR 63433 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-CPI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Receipt (2.9%) International Business Reply TM Cards and Envelopes (2.9%) Customs Clearance and Delivery... * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply service... 20 International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes--CPI AGENCY: Postal Service TM ....

  3. 1985 international symposium on geothermal energy: international volume

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on geothermal electric power and discusses direct uses of geothermal energy. Country update reports are provided and international cooperation reports include topics such as: selected titles for a basic geothermal library, the role of the United Nations in the field of geothermal resources exploration in developing countries, and geothermal training at the International Institute for Geothermal research. International invited papers in this volume include: Hot Dry Rock--A European Perspective; A Summary of Modeling Studies of the East Okkaria Geothermal Field, Kenya; and The Latest Development of the Los Asufres Geothermal Field in Mexico. General papers are presented from Europe, the Western Pacific, Africa, North America, India, China, and Southeast Asia.

  4. International energy annual 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-23

    The International Energy Annual presents current data and trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in more than 190 countries, dependencies, and area of special sovereignty. Also included are prices on crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and coal in selected countries. (VC)

  5. 77 FR 53236 - Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... COMMISSION Proposed International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion... International Isotopes Fluorine Extraction Process and Depleted Uranium Deconversion Plant (INIS) in Lea County... construction, operation, and decommissioning of a fluorine extraction and depleted uranium...

  6. [An international health proposal to harmonize crossborder health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Quirós, Héctor Manuel; Rodríguez González, Hernán; Valderrama Vergara, José Fernando

    2011-08-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study to identify mechanisms and actions to help harmonize cross-border health surveillance and provide a timely and effective response to events that may threaten international health security. The capacities of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru were analyzed in three areas: (a) the legal and administrative framework; (b) the ability to detect, evaluate, and report risk situations and (c) the ability to investigate, intervene in, and communicate international health risk situations. Data were collected through a document review, workshops, group work, and semistructured interviews with key individuals in health surveillance in the three countries. The average national capacity for the trio of countries within "the legal and administrative framework" was 69.4%; 83.3% in "the ability to detect, evaluate and report"; and 78.7% in "the ability to investigate, intervene in, and communicate international health risk situations." More resources should be directed toward coordinated action among the three countries in order to strengthen surveillance and public health monitoring in their border areas. PMID:22159724

  7. [Training in internal medicine and its specialties: universities' proposals].

    PubMed

    Norero, C

    1996-04-01

    Medical School graduates can enter a medicine subspecialty training program upon completion of a 3 year Internal Medicine residency. The Ministry of Health has contributed to postgraduate training by defining the type of physician the country needs, and by financial support of specially (Internal Medicine) training. Before 1995, when applicants began being charged a fee, finding for subspecialty training was provided exclusively by the universities. Currently, 450 training post are available for 550 graduates from all medical schools. Of these, 59 are in Internal Medicine and 58 in its subspecialties. A quantitative analysis of 40 years of training programs in Internal Medicine by the traditional medical schools shows that only the Catholic University of Chile Medical School privileges subspecially training whereas all other schools favor general Internal Medicine training. A high number of Internal Medicine trainees never take final examination. Nevertheless, training through practice, not necessarily in a university setting, accounts for 67% of Autonomous National Corporation for Certification of Medical Specialties. CONACEM accredited subspecialists. About 63% of those who finish an Internal Medicine training program decide to go into subspecialization. It is felt that subspecialization involves technical as well as non-professional aspects, such as a philosophical stance towards the search for truth through research and creativity. An integral education in a subspecialty can only be given by the university. Non-university centers, however, can contribute to subspecialization by allowing trainees to gain access to newer technology or to larger numbers of patients. A critical question is how many subspecialists should exist in relation to the number of generalists and according to the country's health requirements. In my personal view, the proportion of subspecialists is excessive. The decision to subspecialize should not be exclusively a personal choice, but

  8. International energy: Research organizations, 1986 - 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The International Energy: Research Organizations publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE), and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases Energy Science and Technology on DIALOG and Energy on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 34,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1986 to 1990 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  9. International energy: Research organizations, 1986--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S. )

    1991-03-01

    The International Energy: Research Organizations publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases Energy Science Technology'' on DIALOG and Energy'' on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 34,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1986 to 1990 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  10. International Legislation of Shallow Geothermal Energy Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hähnlein, S.; Bayer, P.; Blum, P.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change, energy savings and energy autonomy are frequently discussed topics. Hence, renewable energy resources are currently promoted worldwide. One of these is geothermal energy. Worldwide the number of shallow geothermal installations (< 400 m depth) is continuously rising. One consequence is widespread man-made temperature anomalies in natural aquifer systems. These have to be controlled to guarantee long-term usability of the geothermal reservoirs and to avoid adverse effects on groundwater ecosystems. However, nationally as well as internationally, regulations to achieve these controls are very heterogeneous, sometimes contradictory and scientifically questionable. For example, what is the optimal distance between adjacent, potentially competing ground source heat pump (GSHP) or groundwater heat pump (GWHP) systems? Answers to derive a good code of practice have to balance technical, economic and ecological criteria. The objective of our study is to review the current international legal status of thermal use of groundwater. We present the results of an international survey, which offers comprehensive insight in the worldwide legal situation of closed and open systems of shallow geothermal installations. The focus is on minimum distances of these systems and limits for groundwater temperature changes. We can conclude that there are only few regulations and recommendations for minimum distances of these installations and groundwater temperature changes. Some countries have no regulations and in addition if recommendations are given, these are not legally binding. However, to promote shallow geothermal energy as an economically attractive and sustainable energy source, an international homogeneous legislation is necessary.

  11. Nonlinear Internal Waves - Evolution and Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, M.; Mignerey, P.

    2003-04-01

    Nonlinear internal waves have been observed propagating up the slope of the South China Sea during the recent ONR Asian Seas International Acoustics Experiment. Energy dissipation rates have been extracted. The location of the initiation of the depression to elevation conversion has been identified. Scaling parameters have been extracted and used to initialize a two-layer evolution equation model simulation. Mode1, 2 linear and nonlinear internal waves and instabilities have been observed near the shelf break of the United States of America New Jersey Shelf. Acoustic flow visualization records will be presented. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Ocean Acoustics Program and ONR's NRL base funding.

  12. International energy outlook 1995, May 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1995 (IEO95) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the international energy market outlook through 2010. The report is an extension of the EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95), which was prepared using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). US projections appearing in the IEO95 are consistent with those published in the AEO95. IEO95 is provided as a statistical service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projects are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Department of energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 295(c). The IEO95 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1994. IEO95 displays projections according to six basic country groupings. The regionalization has changed since last year's report. Mexico has been added to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and a more detailed regionalization has been incorporated for the remainder of the world, including the following subgroups: non-OECD Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China is included in non-OECD Asia. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are combined in the EE/FSU subgroup.

  13. International energy outlook 1995, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1995 (IEO95) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the international energy market outlook through 2010. The report is an extension of the EIA`s Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95), which was prepared using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). US projections appearing in the IEO95 are consistent with those published in the AEO95. IEO95 is provided as a statistical service to energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. The projects are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Department of energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 295(c). The IEO95 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1994. IEO95 displays projections according to six basic country groupings. The regionalization has changed since last year`s report. Mexico has been added to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and a more detailed regionalization has been incorporated for the remainder of the world, including the following subgroups: non-OECD Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China is included in non-OECD Asia. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are combined in the EE/FSU subgroup.

  14. Challenges of the surface energy budget and proposed ways forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schuckmann, Karina; Josey, Simon; Gulev, Sergey; Trenberth, Kevin; Clayson, Carol Anne; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To understand how the Earth's climate system balances the energy budget, we have to consider processes occurring at three levels: the surface of the Earth, where most solar heating takes place; the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA), where sunlight enters the system; and the atmosphere in between. At each level, the amount of incoming and outgoing energy, or net flux must, on average, be equal on longer time scales in an unchanging climate. Under the influence of external and/or internal climate forcing energy is not balanced anymore, and can hence, lead to a temporal positive or negative Earth's Energy Imbalance, which is currently estimated of the order of 0.5-1 Wm-2 (IPCC, 2013). Although it is known that the majority of this energy is stored in the global ocean (~93%), an overarching scientific challenge faced by the whole climate science community is related to achieving accuracy in the changes in storage and flows of energy throughout the climate system, hereby raising the question: "How is heat entering the global ocean?" This highlights the vital role of understanding the surface flux budget, though it is currently impossible to detect an imbalance equivalent to 1 Wm-2 via the estimation of the surface energy budget. This presentation is discussing the need of quantifying sea surface heat fluxes to the required level of accuracy needed to support the various climate science applications, which is currently a very challenging task of the surface energy budget community. The current level of uncertainties in global ocean mean and trends of heat and moisture fluxes remain higher than is required by many applications and it is still unclear which of the components of surface net heat flux contributes mostly to our uncertainties and where regionally these contributions are most significant. Using constraints on energy budget considerations, and hence, inter-comparisons to other independent observing systems as well as to re-enforce interdisciplinary collaborations for

  15. 76 FR 65639 - International Mail: Proposed Product Rate and Fee Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Coupons International Business Reply Service The prices and fees proposed in this notice, if adopted... pieces (or fraction thereof) 0.80 Duplicate copy of PS Form 3606 1.15 * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply Service, revise the...

  16. 77 FR 10560 - United States v. International Paper Company et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. International Paper Company et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... Columbia in United States v. International Paper Company et al., Civil Action No. 1:12-cv-00227. On... International Paper Company of Temple-Inland Inc. would violate Section 7 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18....

  17. Internal resonance for nonlinear vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, D. X.; Leadenham, S.; Erturk, A.

    2015-11-01

    The transformation of waste vibration energy into low-power electricity has been heavily researched over the last decade to enable self-sustained wireless electronic components. Monostable and bistable nonlinear oscillators have been explored by several research groups in an effort to enhance the frequency bandwidth of operation. Linear two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) configurations as well as the combination of a nonlinear single-DOF harvester with a linear oscillator to constitute a nonlinear 2-DOF harvester have also been explored to develop broadband energy harvesters. In the present work, the concept of nonlinear internal resonance in a continuous frame structure is explored for broadband energy harvesting. The L-shaped beam-mass structure with quadratic nonlinearity was formerly studied in the nonlinear dynamics literature to demonstrate modal energy exchange and the saturation phenomenon when carefully tuned for two-to-one internal resonance. In the current effort, piezoelectric coupling and an electrical load are introduced, and electromechanical equations of the L-shaped energy harvester are employed to explore primary resonance behaviors around the first and the second linear natural frequencies for bandwidth enhancement. Simulations using approximate analytical frequency response equations as well as numerical solutions reveal significant bandwidth enhancement as compared to a typical linear 2-DOF counterpart. Vibration and voltage responses are explored, and the effects of various system parameters on the overall dynamics of the internal resonance-based energy harvesting system are reported.

  18. Characterization of an Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Proposed International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Merideth; /Wellesley Coll. /SLAC

    2006-09-11

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is part of a new generation of accelerators enabling physicists to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental components of the universe. The proposed ILC will accelerate positrons and electrons towards each other with two facing linear colliders, each twenty kilometers long. Designing and planning for the future accelerator has been undertaken as a global collaboration, with groups working on several possible detectors to be used at the ILC. The following research at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) pertained to the design of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The energy and spatial resolution of the calorimeter was tested by using computer simulations for proposed detectors. In order to optimize this accuracy, different designs of the electromagnetic calorimeter were investigated along with various methods to analyze the data from the simulated detector. A low-cost calorimeter design was found to provide energy resolution comparable to more expensive designs, and new clustering algorithms offered better spatial resolution. Energy distribution and shape characteristics of electromagnetic showers were also identified to differentiate various showers in the calorimeter. With further research, a well-designed detector will enable the ILC to observe new realms of physics.

  19. Energy for development: an international challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J.; Friedmann, E.; Howe, J.W.; Parra, F.R.; Pollock, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    The first phase of the North-South Energy Roundtable provides background information and ideas from the ongoing international dialogue and research. The report begins by reviewing the global energy scene (by fuel) and suggesting that flexibility instead of confrontation couched in zero-sum game terms will be more productive. Areas of convergence and conflict among dialogue participants are defined in terms of their positions as oil-importing developing countries, oil-exporting developing countries, and industrialized countries. The book explores a framework for policies that will allow these countries to manage the transition from oil to other energy sources. 129 references, 16 figures, 28 tables. (DCK)

  20. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  1. Energy use in Denmark: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Andersson, B.; Price, L.

    1992-08-01

    This report analyzes the evolution use in Denmark since the early 1970s in order to shed light on the future path of energy use in Denmark, with particular emphasis on the role of energy efficiency. The authors found that improvements in end-use energy efficiency reduced primary energy requirements in Denmark by 22% between 1972 and 1988. Focusing on developments in six individual sectors of the Danish economy (residential, manufacturing, other industry, service, travel, and freight), they found that the residential, manufacturing, and service sectors have led the improvements in efficiency. Travel showed few significant improvements and the efficiency of freight transportation worsened. The international comparisons showed that the structure of energy use in Denmark is less energy-intensive than that of most high-income OECD countries, with the exception of Japan. Overall, they concluded that most of the energy savings achieved in Denmark were brought about through improvements in technology. They also found that an important stimulus for improved efficiency was higher energy prices, led in no small part by significant taxes imposed on small consumers of heating oil, electricity, and motor fuels. Energy-efficiency programs accelerated energy savings in homes and commercial buildings. The rate of improvement of energy efficiency in Denmark has slowed down significantly since 1984, consistent with trends observed in other major countries. While many of the energy-efficiency goals stated or implied in Denmark`s Energi 2000 are achievable over a very long period, present trends do not point towards achievement of these goals by 2010 or even 2020. Strong measures will have to be developed by both public and private authorities if energy efficiency is to make a key contributions to reducing environmental problems associated with energy use in Denmark.

  2. 75 FR 38587 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... FR 29381 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change ISE proposes to establish... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Fees for the ISE Order Feed June 28, 2010. I. Introduction On May 11, 2010,...

  3. Structural optimization based on internal energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öman, Michael; Nilsson, Larsgunnar

    2013-04-01

    Structural optimization is a valuable tool to improve the performance of products, but it is in general expensive to perform due to the required extensive number of function evaluations. Therefore, an approximate method based on the internal energy distribution, which only requires a small number of function evaluations, is presented here. By this method, structural optimization can be enabled already in the initial steps in the design of new products when fast, but not necessarily precise, results are often desired. However, the accuracy of the approximate solution depends on the structural behaviour. The internal energy based optimization method is here validated for three structures, but it is believed to be applicable to any structure subjected to a single load where the functions considered are related to the displacement of the loaded area and/or the material thicknesses of the structural parts.

  4. The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN): proposal to delete Rule 3.41

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed to delete Rule 3.41 of the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature, which requires the name of a virus taxon to precede the term for the taxonomic unit. PMID:22932924

  5. 78 FR 31578 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: International Terrorism Victim Compensation Program Application ACTION: 30-Day Notice. The Department of...

  6. International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

    2005-11-01

    This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

  7. 77 FR 38766 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Client Life-Cycle Multi-Purpose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... comprehensive information collection will cover all aspects of an international organization's life-cycle with... International Client Life-cycle Multi-Purpose Forms, previously titled Export Assistance Center Internet Web... inclusive and flexible client life-cycle information collection. The proposed categories of questions...

  8. 78 FR 23550 - Department of Energy's (DOE) Participation in Development of the International Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Williams, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Energy's (DOE) Participation in Development of the International Energy Conservation Code AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  9. 78 FR 49726 - International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Finance/Regulatory/Energy Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... International Trade Administration International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation Finance/ Regulatory... International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC)--to organize participation by representatives of... power projects, including national energy planning authorities, nuclear regulatory institutions,...

  10. Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Josyula, Eswar Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash

    2013-12-15

    The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream.

  11. 77 FR 24766 - Call for Proposals for a Micro Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... PEACE Call for Proposals for a Micro Support Program on International Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding For Immediate Release AGENCY: United States Institute of Peace. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Micro... Peace (USIP) requests proposals to develop and manage a new micro support initiative for...

  12. Proposal for the proper gravitational energy-momentum tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsutaro

    2016-08-01

    We propose a gravitational energy-momentum (GEMT) tensor of the general relativity obtained using Noether’s theorem. It transforms as a tensor under general coordinate transformations. One of the two indices of the GEMT labels a local Lorentz frame that satisfies the energy-momentum conservation law. The energies for a gravitational wave, a Schwarzschild black hole and a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe are calculated as examples. The gravitational energy of the Schwarzschild black hole exists only outside the horizon, its value being the negative of the black hole mass.

  13. International energy indicators, October-November 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    Detailed data are presented for energy indicators in tables and graphs. Specific international data are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to July 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 through the first half of 1981; oil consumption in OFCD countries, 1975 through the first half of 1981; USSR crude oil production, 1975 through July 1981; and free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 through September 1981 and current capacity. Data presented for energy indicators in the US are: US domestic oil supply and crude oil production, 1977 through March 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 through August 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude oil in current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 through July 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 through August 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 through the first half of 1981; and the energy/gross national product ratio from 1974 through the first half of 1981.

  14. Budget Increases Proposed for NOAA and Energy Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    In addition to the Obama administration's proposed budget increases for NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009, and 90(20), 175, 2009), other federal Earth and space science agencies also would receive boosts in the proposed fiscal year (FY) 2010 budget. The proposed budget comes on top of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's (ARRA) US$18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development that can be apportioned between the FY 2009 and FY 2010 budgets. This news item focuses on the budget proposals for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Next week, Eos will look at the budget proposal for the National Science Foundation.

  15. Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2008).

    PubMed

    Carstens, E B; Ball, L A

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the Statutes of the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the final stage in the process of making changes to the Universal Scheme of Virus Classification is the ratification of taxonomic proposals by ICTV Members. This can occur either at a Plenary meeting of ICTV, held during an International Congress of Virology meeting, or by circulation of proposals by mail followed by a ballot. Therefore, a list of proposals that had been subjected to the full, multi-stage review process was prepared and presented on the ICTVonline web pages in March 2008. This review process involved input from the ICTV Study Groups and Subcommittees, other interested virologists, and the ICTV Executive Committee. For the first time, the ratification process was performed entirely by email. The proposals were sent electronically via email on 18 March 2008 to ICTV Life Members (11), ICTV Subcommittee Members (74), and ICTV National Representatives (53).

  16. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, N.R.

    1992-10-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  17. Fusion energy for space: Feasibility demonstration. A proposal to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1992-01-01

    This proposed program is to initiate a space flight research and development program to develop fusion energy for the space applications of direct space propulsion and direct space power, that is, a Space Fusion Energy (SFE) program. 'Direct propulsion' refers to the use of plasma energy directly for thrust without requiring other energy conversion systems. Further, to provide space missions with large electrical power, 'direct space power' is proposed whereby the direct conversion of charged particles into electricity is used, thereby avoiding thermal conversion system losses. The energy release from nuclear fusion reactions makes these highly efficient, high power space systems possible. The program as presented conducts in an orderly, hierarchical manner the necessary planning, analyses, and testing to demonstrate the practical use of fusion energy for space. There is nothing discussed that is known to be theoretically impossible. Validation of the engineering principles is sought in this program which uses a cost-benefit approach. Upon successful program completion, space will become more accessible and space missions more safely conducted. The country will have taken a giant step toward the commercialization of space. The mission enabling capability provided by fusion energy is well beyond mission planners' current dreams.

  18. Proposal to include the rank of phylum in the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; da Costa, Milton S; Garrity, George M; Rainey, Fred A; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Schink, Bernhard; Sutcliffe, Iain; Trujillo, Martha E; Whitman, William B

    2015-11-01

    The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes covers the nomenclature of prokaryotes up to the rank of class. We propose here modifying the Code to include the rank of phylum so that names of phyla that fulfil the rules of the Code will obtain standing in the nomenclature. PMID:26654112

  19. Proposal to include the rank of phylum in the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon; da Costa, Milton S; Garrity, George M; Rainey, Fred A; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Schink, Bernhard; Sutcliffe, Iain; Trujillo, Martha E; Whitman, William B

    2015-11-01

    The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes covers the nomenclature of prokaryotes up to the rank of class. We propose here modifying the Code to include the rank of phylum so that names of phyla that fulfil the rules of the Code will obtain standing in the nomenclature.

  20. 78 FR 24158 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO International Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO... Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Security Investment Program (NSIP) are only open to firms of member NATO countries. NSIP procedures for international competitive bidding (AC/4-D/2261) require that...

  1. 77 FR 65602 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: INTERNationalConnections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... student engagement prior to, during and following an internship, the Department developed an intern.... Department of State's Student Programs, including internships, Pickerings, Rangels, Stay-in- Schools, Co-ops.... Abstract of proposed collection: The Department's student internship programs provide a key source...

  2. 78 FR 6171 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: INTERNational Connections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... student engagement prior to, during and following an internship, the Department developed an intern...: Alumni of the U.S. Department of State's Student Programs, including internships, Pickerings, Rangels... available for public review. Abstract of proposed collection: The Department's student internship...

  3. Evaluation of proposed ASHRAE energy audit form and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, J.C.; Sud, I. |

    1997-12-31

    The proposed energy audit form and procedures developed by ASHRAE SP-56 were tested, evaluated, and improved in ASHRAE Research Project RP-669. A trial database of building characteristics and energy use, based on the SP-56 form and procedures, was developed, tested, and revised. The goal was to establish forms and procedures to be used by experienced auditors in the auditing of a variety of buildings in the field and to develop a means of collecting, normalizing, and distributing information on commercial and institutional building energy consumption to the industry. Energy audit data from 100 buildings were transferred to the form. The form was modified based on input from the auditors and project monitors. Concurrent with the revision and testing of the form, a trial database was developed. The database uses the form as an input form and contains primarily the building, energy, and space function data from the form. Use of the form and database on a widespread basis would permit the collection and analysis of information for building owners, utilities, agencies, and energy analysis, including comparison of energy use of any individual building to the entire stock of buildings with similar size, space functions, climate, energy sources, and fuel costs.

  4. Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2016).

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; King, Andrew M Q; Harrach, Balázs; Harrison, Robert L; Knowles, Nick J; Kropinski, Andrew M; Krupovic, Mart; Kuhn, Jens H; Mushegian, Arcady R; Nibert, Max; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Siddell, Stuart G; Simmonds, Peter; Varsani, Arvind; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Davison, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    This article lists the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in April 2016.Changes to virus taxonomy (the Universal Scheme of Virus Classification of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses [ICTV]) now take place annually and are the result of a multi-stage process. In accordance with the ICTV Statutes ( http://www.ictvonline.org/statutes.asp ), proposals submitted to the ICTV Executive Committee (EC) undergo a review process that involves input from the ICTV Study Groups (SGs) and Subcommittees (SCs), other interested virologists, and the EC. After final approval by the EC, proposals are then presented for ratification to the full ICTV membership by publication on an ICTV web site ( http://www.ictvonline.org/ ) followed by an electronic vote. The latest set of proposals approved by the EC was made available on the ICTV website by January 2016 ( https://talk.ictvonline.org/files/proposals/ ). A list of these proposals was then emailed on 28 March 2016 to the 148 members of ICTV, namely the EC Members, Life Members, ICTV Subcommittee Members (including the SG chairs) and ICTV National Representatives. Members were then requested to vote on whether to ratify the taxonomic proposals (voting closed on 29 April 2016).

  5. Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2016).

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; King, Andrew M Q; Harrach, Balázs; Harrison, Robert L; Knowles, Nick J; Kropinski, Andrew M; Krupovic, Mart; Kuhn, Jens H; Mushegian, Arcady R; Nibert, Max; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Siddell, Stuart G; Simmonds, Peter; Varsani, Arvind; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Davison, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    This article lists the changes to virus taxonomy approved and ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in April 2016.Changes to virus taxonomy (the Universal Scheme of Virus Classification of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses [ICTV]) now take place annually and are the result of a multi-stage process. In accordance with the ICTV Statutes ( http://www.ictvonline.org/statutes.asp ), proposals submitted to the ICTV Executive Committee (EC) undergo a review process that involves input from the ICTV Study Groups (SGs) and Subcommittees (SCs), other interested virologists, and the EC. After final approval by the EC, proposals are then presented for ratification to the full ICTV membership by publication on an ICTV web site ( http://www.ictvonline.org/ ) followed by an electronic vote. The latest set of proposals approved by the EC was made available on the ICTV website by January 2016 ( https://talk.ictvonline.org/files/proposals/ ). A list of these proposals was then emailed on 28 March 2016 to the 148 members of ICTV, namely the EC Members, Life Members, ICTV Subcommittee Members (including the SG chairs) and ICTV National Representatives. Members were then requested to vote on whether to ratify the taxonomic proposals (voting closed on 29 April 2016). PMID:27424026

  6. The international transfer of medical technology--an analysis and a proposal for effective monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bader, M B

    1977-01-01

    The international transfer of medical technology to the developing countries occurs at four levels--medical education, research, and missions; multinational corporate transactions; technical assistance projects sponsored by the World Health Organization; and bilateral foreign aid programs. In this article, a proposal is made for effective monitoring of international medical technology transfer through political and legal means, including a specific code of conduct for corporations engaged in medical technology transfer. The development of "intermediate health technologies" along the lines suggested by E. F. Schumacher, and the advantages of such an innovation in terms of population issues and economic development are also discussed.

  7. Internal energy distribution of peptides in electrospray ionization : ESI and collision-induced dissociation spectra calculation.

    PubMed

    Pak, Alireza; Lesage, Denis; Gimbert, Yves; Vékey, Károly; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-01

    The internal energy of ions and the timescale play fundamental roles in mass spectrometry. The main objective of this study is to estimate and compare the internal energy distributions of different ions (different nature, degree of freedom 'DOF' and fragmentations) produced in an electrospray source (ESI) of a triple-quadrupole instrument (Quattro I Micromass). These measurements were performed using both the Survival Yield method (as proposed by De Pauw) and the MassKinetics software (kinetic model introduced by Vékey). The internal energy calibration is the preliminary step for ESI and collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra calculation. meta-Methyl-benzylpyridinium ion and four protonated peptides (YGGFL, LDIFSDF, LDIFSDFR and RLDIFSDF) were produced using an electrospray source. These ions were used as thermometer probe compounds. Cone voltages (V(c)) were linearly correlated with the mean internal energy values () carried by desolvated ions. These mean internal energy values seem to be slightly dependent on the size of the studied ion. ESI mass spectra and CID spectra were then simulated using the MassKinetics software to propose an empirical equation for the mean internal energy () versus cone voltage (V(c)) for different source temperatures (T): < E(int) > = [405 x 10(-6) - 480 x 10(-9) (DOF)] V(c)T + E(therm)(T). In this equation, the E(therm)(T) parameter is the mean internal energy due to the source temperature at 0 V(c).

  8. Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim

    2015-10-14

    We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  9. Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well. PMID:26473879

  10. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well. PMID:26473879

  11. International energy indicators. [Statistical tables and graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.K.

    1980-05-01

    International statistical tables and graphs are given for the following: (1) Iran - Crude Oil Capacity, Production and Shut-in, June 1974-April 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia - Crude Oil Capacity, Production, and Shut-in, March 1974-Apr 1980; (3) OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia) - Capacity, Production and Shut-in, June 1974-March 1980; (4) Non-OPEC Free World and US Production of Crude Oil, January 1973-February 1980; (5) Oil Stocks - Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (Landed, 1973-1st Quarter, 1980); (6) Petroleum Consumption by Industrial Countries, January 1973-December 1979; (7) USSR Crude Oil Production and Exports, January 1974-April 1980; and (8) Free World and US Nuclear Generation Capacity, January 1973-March 1980. Similar statistical tables and graphs included for the United States include: (1) Imports of Crude Oil and Products, January 1973-April 1980; (2) Landed Cost of Saudi Oil in Current and 1974 Dollars, April 1974-January 1980; (3) US Trade in Coal, January 1973-March 1980; (4) Summary of US Merchandise Trade, 1976-March 1980; and (5) US Energy/GNP Ratio, 1947 to 1979.

  12. 76 FR 5580 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project and Notice of Public...

  13. 77 FR 49476 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed New International Trade Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed New International Trade Crossing (NITC... comment period for the New International Trade Crossing (NITC) Presidential Permit application....

  14. INTERNATIONAL NEWS: CPEM 2006 round table discussion 'Proposed changes to the SI'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Michael; Witt, Thomas J.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes a round table session held last July at the CPEM 2006 to discuss recently proposed redefinitions of some base units of the International System of Units (SI) based on defined values of some fundamental constants. The aim of the session was to inform CPEM delegates of the various proposals and to promote a wide discussion of the issues arising from them. An interdisciplinary panel of six experts from national metrology institutes, the academic community and the industrial metrology community briefly presented their views and their concerns. The presentations were followed by a session in which the panel answered questions and heard comments from the audience.

  15. Internal energy of molecules ejected due to energetic C60 bombardment

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Barbara J.; Postawa, Zbigniew; Ryan, Kathleen E.; Vickerman, John C.; Webb, Roger P.; Winograd, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The early stages of C60 bombardment of octane and octatetraene crystals are modeled using molecular dynamics simulations with incident energies of 5-20 keV. Using the AIREBO potential, which allows for chemical reactions in hydrocarbon molecules, we are able to investigate how the projectile energy is partitioned into changes in potential and kinetic energy as well as how much energy flows into reacted molecules and internal energy. Several animations have been included to illustrate the bombardment process. The results show that the material near the edge of the crater can be ejected with low internal energies and that ejected molecules maintain their internal energies in the plume, in contrast to a collisional cooling mechanism previously proposed. In addition, a single C60 bombardment was able to create many free and reacted H atoms which may aid in the ionization of molecules upon subsequent bombardment events. PMID:19228010

  16. Evaluation of models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) comprises a definitive main-field model for 1985.0, a main-field model for 1990.0, and a forecast secular-variation model for the period 1990-1995. The five 1985.0 main-field models and five 1990.0 main-field models that were proposed have been evaluated by comparing them with one another, with magnetic observatory data, and with Project MAGNET aerial survey data. The comparisons indicate that the main-field models proposed by IZMIRAN, and the secular-variation model proposed jointly by the British Geological Survey and the US Naval Oceanographic Office, should be assigned relatively lower weight in the derivation of the new IGRF models. -Author

  17. An international carbon tax to combat global warming: An economic and political analysis of the European union proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Herber, B.P.; Raga, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    An international carbon tax has been the subject of considerable recent discussion as an economic incentive instrument to combat the perceived threat of global warming resulting, primarily, from the use of the carbon-emitting fossils - coal, oil, and natural gas - in the production of energy. During 1991, the European Union proposed the adoption of such a tax to be imposed by each member nation. The economic merits as well as the problems associated with the proposed European carbon tax are discussed along with the political prospects for its adoption. It is concluded that even though early adoption of the tax is unlikely, the economic merits of this tax instrument for the alleviation of global warming accompanied by changing political parameters may lead to its adoption in the long run.

  18. International research laboratory on the moon: a proposal for a national commitment

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Gelfand, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    To demonstrate its leadership in space, the US could focus its space program on an exciting and achievable goal: to establish a self-sustaining international research laboratory on the Moon before the year 2000. Scientists from all over the world would use the laboratory for basic and applied programs in natural and social sciences. The knowledge gained would benefit everyone. The lunar research facility would be built with a broadly based infrastructure of stations, vehicles, and programs that can be envisioned as a pyramid resting on the Earth and reaching to the Moon. The first element of the infrastructure is the reusable Space Shuttle; the second is a manned low-Earth-orbit platform. Next is an orbital transfer vehicle for hauling cargoes between low Earth orbit and low lunar orbit. The final element is the manned self-sustaining international research laboratory. A key feature of this proposal is that each element can be economically useful at the same time as it is promoting international cooperation on Earth. A vigorous civilian program like that proposed here is our best guarantee that outer space will be used to strengthen our economy and address basic problems on Earth.

  19. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L. |; Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L.; Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. |

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  20. International Oral Care: a proposed model for the humanitarian dental missions.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Massimo; Panaia, Vincenzo; Marrelli, Doriana; Tatullo, Marco

    2014-09-01

    The creation of a good "field hospital" operating in the humanitarian missions has ever been the main aim to reach in any humanitarian missions. The Authors want to propose a model for all the humanitarian dental missions, so to standardize the activities and to make the results predictable in all the missions: this model has been named "International Oral Care" project. In the light of the experiences in the previous humanitarian missions, we have developed and standardized a protocol that provides a complex organizational planning for each phase of the mission. Our strengths are the "Dental-Marquee", the"Dental-Ambulance", the "Dental-Roulotte" and a well-tested operative workflow. In the last 3 years of activity on the field, International Oral Care has achieved an increase of treated patients, certainly consequential to the increase of operators on the field, but also due to the optimization of internal processes and the improvement of organizational structures. IOC has achieved in recent years an organization optimized and highly predictable: this makes it a model for humanitarian missions in the field of dentistry, a model that could be adopted also by international NGOs operating in war zones, or in the major natural disasters.

  1. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  2. Proposal of the Next Incarnation of Accelerator Test Facility at KEK for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Hayano, H.; Higashi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Kanazawa, K.; Kubo, K.; Kume, T.; Kuriki, M.; Kuroda, S.; Masuzawa, M.; Naito, T.; Okugi, T.; Sugahara, R.; Takahashi, T.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Toge, N.; Urakawa, J.; Vogel, V.; Yamaoka, H.; Yokoya, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Daresbury /CERN /Hiroshima U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oxford U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /DESY /SLAC /University Coll. London /Oregon U. /Tokyo U.

    2005-05-27

    To reach design luminosity, the International Linear Collider (ILC) must be able to create and reliably maintain nanometer size beams. The ATF damping ring is the unique facility where ILC emittances are possible. In this paper we present and evaluate the proposal to create a final focus facility at the ATF which, using compact final focus optics and an ILC-like bunch train, would be capable of achieving 37 nm beam size. Such a facility would enable the development of beam diagnostics and tuning methods, as well as the training of young accelerator physicists.

  3. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  4. Aquifer thermal energy storage. International symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to supply process cooling, space cooling, space heating, and ventilation air preheating, and can be used with or without heat pumps. Aquifers are used as energy sinks and sources when supply and demand for energy do not coincide. Aquifer thermal energy storage may be used on a short-term or long-term basis; as the sole source of energy or as a partial storage; at a temperature useful for direct application or needing upgrade. The sources of energy used for aquifer storage are ambient air, usually cold winter air; waste or by-product energy; and renewable energy such as solar. The present technical, financial and environmental status of ATES is promising. Numerous projects are operating and under development in several countries. These projects are listed and results from Canada and elsewhere are used to illustrate the present status of ATES. Technical obstacles have been addressed and have largely been overcome. Cold storage in aquifers can be seen as a standard design option in the near future as it presently is in some countries. The cost-effectiveness of aquifer thermal energy storage is based on the capital cost avoidance of conventional chilling equipment and energy savings. ATES is one of many developments in energy efficient building technology and its success depends on relating it to important building market and environmental trends. This paper attempts to provide guidance for the future implementation of ATES. Individual projects have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  5. International cooperation for renewable energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that in considering the potential of major renewable energy resources in relation to their remoteness from demand centers, it is necessary to take a global view of the implications of their utilization. The present concerns regarding global warming and environmental degradation from fossil fuel combustion could be given active direction if the positive benefits of renewable energy could be realized on a meaningful scale. The dire prospect of global warming looms large in the scientific consciousness, but strategies to counter the effects of increased release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are just beginning to emerge along with remedial measures to address other environmental threats. One of the ways to achieve this is to place more reliance on renewable energy. As the impact of small-scale dispersed sources of renewable energy is minimal in comparison with fossil fuel usage, a meaningful impact could only be made by drawing upon major sources of renewable energy, mainly hydropower, tidal, and solar, in large capacity installations concentrated at sites relatively far from demand centers. There are sites that warrant serious consideration in the face of the growing environmental impact of fossil fuel usage. However, to realize this objective, an environmental imperative should be adopted that would place the importance of global environmental security on a par with present concerns for national security.

  6. 77 FR 73334 - Adding International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Certificate to List of Certificates a Recognized...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Homeland Security EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register IEE International Energy... (77 FR 60096). We received one written submission on the proposed rule. No public meeting was..., 74 FR 21554, May 8, 2009; and 76 FR 76896, December 9, 2011. The United States currently...

  7. On the lower bound of the internal energy of the one-component-plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, S. A.; Khrapak, A. G.

    2015-04-15

    A new simple yet accurate analytical estimate for the internal energy of the classical one-component-plasma is proposed. In the limit of weak coupling, it reduces to the Debye-Hückel result. In the opposite limit of strong coupling, the ion sphere approximation is recovered. The agreement with the accurate numerical results in the intermediate coupling regime is fairly good.

  8. Energy Efficiency of the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2006-12-01

    This report estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2003 International Code Council’s 2003 International Energy Conservation Code (as the mandatory residential energy efficiency code in the state of West Virginia. The state currently allows a less stringent replacement option. This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  9. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  10. Proposed Standards for Medical Education Submissions to the Journal of General Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Judith L.; Gerrity, Martha S.; Kalet, Adina L.; Kogan, Jennifer R.; Spickard, Anderson; Wayne, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    To help authors design rigorous studies and prepare clear and informative manuscripts, improve the transparency of editorial decisions, and raise the bar on educational scholarship, the Deputy Editors of the Journal of General Internal Medicine articulate standards for medical education submissions to the Journal. General standards include: (1) quality questions, (2) quality methods to match the questions, (3) insightful interpretation of findings, (4) transparent, unbiased reporting, and (5) attention to human subjects’ protection and ethical research conduct. Additional standards for specific study types are described. We hope these proposed standards will generate discussion that will foster their continued evolution. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0676-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18612716

  11. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    PubMed Central

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414

  12. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  13. Classification of premenstrual disorders as proposed by the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kadian, Suman; O'Brien, Shaughn

    2012-06-01

    Premenstrual disorders have been recognized as affecting innumerable women for decades but unlike most other medical conditions universally accepted criteria for definition and diagnosis are not established. Although premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs throughout reproductive life, there are some women who become particularly troubled. Those approaching the menopause may also have a mixture of PMS and menopause symptoms, not to mention heavy periods. Furthermore, some of the symptoms are similar in nature and so it is a challenge to identify which set of symptoms belongs to which spectrum. This is an area that has not been explored well. Various classifications have been proposed over the last few decades. A further effort towards the classification was made by an international multidisciplinary group of experts established as the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders (ISPMD) in Montreal in September 2008. Their deliberations resulted in a unified diagnosis, classification of premenstrual disorders (PMD) along with their quantification and guidelines on clinical trial design. This classification of PMS is far more comprehensive and inclusive than previous attempts. PMD in the ISPMD Montreal consensus are divided into two categories: Core and Variant PMD. Core PMD are typical, pure or reference disorders associated with spontaneous ovulatory menstrual cycles while Variant PMD exist where more complex features are present. Further, the consensus group considered that PMD may be subdivided into three subgroups predominantly physical, predominantly psychological and mixed. Variant PMD encompass primarily four different types; premenstrual exacerbation, PMD with anovulatory ovarian activity, PMD with absent menstruation and progestogen-induced PMD. PMID:22611220

  14. Proposed continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    J. Sekutowicz; S. A. Bogacz; D. Douglas; P. Kneisel; G. P. Williams; M. Ferrario; L. Serafini; I. Ben-Zvi; J. Rose; J. Smedley; T. Srinivasan-Rao; W.-D. Moeller; B. Petersen; D. Proch; S. Simrock; P. Colestock; J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-05-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R&D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions.

  15. 76 FR 51943 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; International Dolphin Conservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...; International Dolphin Conservation Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... (NOAA) collects information to implement the International Dolphin Conservation Program Act (Act). The... ] nations in the International Dolphin Conservation Program that would otherwise be under embargo. The...

  16. Internal wave energy radiated from a turbulent mixed layer

    SciTech Connect

    Munroe, James R.; Sutherland, Bruce R.

    2014-09-15

    We examine mixed-layer deepening and the generation of internal waves in stratified fluid resulting from turbulence that develops in response to an applied surface stress. In laboratory experiments the stress is applied over the breadth of a finite-length tank by a moving roughened conveyor belt. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy density. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine their amplitudes, frequencies, and energy density. We also perform fully nonlinear numerical simulations restricted to two dimensions but in a horizontally periodic domain. These clearly demonstrate that internal waves are generated by transient eddies at the integral length scale of turbulence and which translate with the background shear along the base of the mixed layer. In both experiments and simulations we find that the energy density of the generated waves is 1%–3% of the turbulent kinetic energy density of the turbulent layer.

  17. Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model for internal energy excitation and dissociation in hypersonic flows.

    PubMed

    Munafò, A; Panesi, M; Magin, T E

    2014-02-01

    A Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model is proposed to reduce a detailed kinetic mechanism database developed at NASA Ames Research Center for internal energy transfer and dissociation in N(2)-N interactions. The coarse-grained model is constructed by lumping the rovibrational energy levels of the N(2) molecule into energy bins. The population of the levels within each bin is assumed to follow a Boltzmann distribution at the local translational temperature. Excitation and dissociation rate coefficients for the energy bins are obtained by averaging the elementary rate coefficients. The energy bins are treated as separate species, thus allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. The proposed coarse-grained model is applied to the study of nonequilibrium flows behind normal shock waves and within converging-diverging nozzles. In both cases, the flow is assumed inviscid and steady. Computational results are compared with those obtained by direct solution of the master equation for the rovibrational collisional model and a more conventional multitemperature model. It is found that the proposed coarse-grained model is able to accurately resolve the nonequilibrium dynamics of internal energy excitation and dissociation-recombination processes with only 20 energy bins. Furthermore, the proposed coarse-grained model provides a superior description of the nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in shock heated and nozzle flows when compared with the conventional multitemperature models.

  18. International energy indicators, February - March 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, E., Jr.

    Data are compiled and graphs are presented for: world crude oil production, 1974 to 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels; 1975 to 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973-currrent capacity; US domestic oil supply, 1977 to 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 to 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 to 1981; and energy/gross national product ratio.

  19. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an "all of the above" energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE 27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget "reflects some tough choices," Chu said. The proposed budget would cut 4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  20. International energy: Research organizations, 1988--1992. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, P.; Jordan, S.

    1993-06-01

    This publication contains the standardized names of energy research organizations used in energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the US DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear organization names recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries are also included in the ETDE Energy Database. Therefore, these organization names are cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This publication identifies current organizations doing research in all energy fields, standardizes the format for recording these organization names in bibliographic citations, assigns a numeric code to facilitate data entry, and identifies report number prefixes assigned by these organizations. These research organization names may be used in searching the databases ``Energy Science & Technology`` on DIALOG and ``Energy`` on STN International. These organization names are also used in USDOE databases on the Integrated Technical Information System. Research organizations active in the past five years, as indicated by database records, were identified to form this publication. This directory includes approximately 31,000 organizations that reported energy-related literature from 1988 to 1992 and updates the DOE Energy Data Base: Corporate Author Entries.

  1. The proposed high-energy telescope (HET) for EXIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Allen, B.; Skinner, G.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Cook, W.; Harrison, F.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.

    2010-07-01

    The hard X-ray sky now being studied by INTEGRAL and Swift and soon by NuSTAR is rich with energetic phenomena and highly variable non-thermal phenomena on a broad range of timescales. The High Energy Telescope (HET) on the proposed Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission will repeatedly survey the full sky for rare and luminous hard X-ray phenomena at unprecedented sensitivities. It will detect and localize (<20", at 5σ threshold) X-ray sources quickly for immediate followup identification by two other onboard telescopes - the Soft X-ray imager (SXI) and Optical/Infrared Telescope (IRT). The large array (4.5 m2) of imaging (0.6 mm pixel) CZT detectors in the HET, a coded-aperture telescope, will provide unprecedented high sensitivity (~0.06 mCrab Full Sky in a 2 year continuous scanning survey) in the 5 - 600 keV band. The large field of view (90° × 70°) and zenith scanning with alternating-orbital nodding motion planned for the first 2 years of the mission will enable nearly continuous monitoring of the full sky. A 3y followup pointed mission phase provides deep UV-Optical-IR-Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopy for thousands of sources discovered in the Survey. We review the HET design concept and report the recent progress of the CZT detector development, which is underway through a series of balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope experiments, ProtoEXIST. We carried out a successful flight of the first generation of fine pixel large area CZT detectors (ProtoEXIST1) on Oct 9, 2009. We also summarize our future plan (ProtoEXIST2 & 3) for the technology development needed for the HET.

  2. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Canadian Energy Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The residential sector is one of the main end-use sectors in Canada accounting for 16.7% of total end-use site energy consumption in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012. pp, 4-5). In this year, the residential sector accounted for 54.5% of buildings total site energy consumption. Between 1990 and 2009, Canadian household energy consumption grew by less than 11%. Nonetheless, households contributed to 14.6% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada in 2009 (computed from NRCan 2012). This is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s second study to help provide a better understanding of the factors impacting residential energy consumption and intensity in North America (mainly the United States and Canada) by using similar methodology for analyses in both countries.

  3. Proposals to clarify and enhance the naming of fungi under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, David L

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three proposals to modify the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants adopted in 2011 with respect to the provisions for fungi are made, in accordance with the wishes of mycologists expressed at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in 2014, and with the support of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), the votes of which are presented here. The proposals relate to: conditions for epitypification, registration of later typifications, protected lists of names, removal of exemptions for lichen-forming fungi, provision of a diagnosis when describing a new taxon, citation of sanctioned names, avoiding homonyms in other kingdoms, ending preference for sexually typified names, and treatment of conspecific names with the same epithet. These proposals are also being published in Taxon, will be considered by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and General Committee on Nomenclature, and voted on at the 19(th) International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in 2017. PMID:26203423

  4. XXII International Baldin Seminar on High Energy Physics Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The XXII International Baldin Seminar on High Energy Physics Problems "Relativistic Nuclear Physics and Quantum Chromodynamics", organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research was held from September 15 to 20, 2014 in Dubna, Russia. The Seminar continues the series of traditional meetings and was established by an outstanding scientist Academician A.M. Baldin(1926-2001). Among conferences that were organized by Alexander Mikhailovich Baldin of special importance is just this series of the International Seminars on High-Energy Physics Problems started in 1969 with support of M.A. Markov (1908-1994). They have been given an inofficial, somewhat witty, name "Baldin autumn".

  5. 78 FR 59049 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and Utility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and...: Public Housing Energy Audits and Utility Allowances. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0062. Type of Request... for the information and proposed use: 24 CFR 965.301, Subpart C, Energy Audit and Energy...

  6. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial...

  7. 75 FR 10504 - Division of Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation...' Compensation Programs is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection: Energy Employees Occupational... administration of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000, as amended...

  8. The ICRF-3: Proposed Roadmap to the Next Generation International Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Arias, F.; Boboltz, D.; Boehm, J.; Bolotin, S.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; de Witt, A.; Fey, A.; Gaume, R.; Gordon, D.; Heinkelmann, R.; Lambert, S.; Ma, C.; Malkin, Z.; Nothnagel, A.; Seitz, M.; Skurikhina, E.; Souchay, J.; Titov, O.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a 3rd generation radio-based International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF- 3) to improve upon the highly successful ICRF-2. Our goals are to improve the precision, spatial and frequency coverages relative to the ICRF-2 by 2018. This date is driven by the desire to create radio frames early enough to test the Gaia optical frame during its construction. Several specific actions are underway. A collaboration has been started to improve S/X-band precision of the 2000+ VLBA Calibrator Survey sources which are typically 5 times less precise than the rest of the ICRF-2. S/X-band southern precision improvements are planned from observations with southern antennas such as the AuScope and HartRAO, S. Africa. We seek to improve radio frequency coverage with X/Ka and K- band work. An X/Ka frame of 631 sources now has full sky coverage from the addition of a 2nd southern station in Argentina which should strengthen the southern hemisphere in general. A K-band collaboration has formed with similar coverage and southern precision goals. On the analysis front, special attention will be given to combination techniques both of VLBI catalogs and of multiple data types (e.g. VLBI+GPS). Finally, work is underway to identify and pinpoint sources bright enough in both radio and optical to allow for a robust frame tie between VLBI and Gaia optical frames.

  9. Microbe space exposure experiment at International Space Station (ISS) proposed in "Tanpopo" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yang, Yinjie; Sugino, Tomohiro; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Narumi, Issay; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    Microbes have been collected from high altitude using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets since 1936. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci (probably Deinococci) have been isolated in these experiments. These spores and Deinococci are known by their extremely high resistance against UV, gamma ray, and other radiation. We have also collected microorganisms at high altitude by using an aircraft and balloons. We collected two novel species of the genus Deinococcus, one from top of troposphere (D. aerius) and the other from bottom of stratosphere (D. aetherius). These two species showed high resistance comparable with D. radiodurans R1 to the UV and radiation such as gamma ray. If microbes could be found present even at the higher altitude of low earth orbit (400km), the fact would endorse the possible interplanetary migration of terrestrial life. Indeed, to explain how organisms on the Earth were originated at the quite early stage of the history of Earth, panspermia hypothesis was proposed. Recent findings of the Martian meteorite suggested possible existence of extraterrestrial life, and interplanetary migration of life as well. We proposed the "Tanpopo" mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes, and organic compounds on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Two of six subthemes in Tanpopo are on the possible interplanetary migration of microbes — capture experiment of microbes at the ISS orbit and space exposure experiment of microbes. In this paper, we focus on the space exposure experiment of microbes. In our proposal, microbes will be exposed to the space environment with/without model-clay materials that might protect microbes from vacuum UV and cosmic rays. Spore of Bacillus sp., and vegetative cells of D. radiodurans and our novel deinococcal species isolated from high altitude are candidates for the exposure experiment. In preliminary experiments, clay-materials tend to increase

  10. International energy options: an agenda for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1981-01-01

    The 1980 Annual Conference of the International Association of Energy Economists was attended by 248 energy economists representing 16 countries and a wide spread of government, industry, finance and academic viewpoints. This collection of distinguished contributions to the energy debate was selected from the papers given by the 54 invited speakers and attempt to pin-point those areas where the conventional wisdom concerning energy supply and demand is beginning to change, where some major breakthroughs in energy supply and energy efficiency can be expected, and where centres of excellence can be identified for support and development to maximise their impact. The papers have been arranged to provide a thread from a basic diagnosis of current energy problems, through an analysis of governmental and commercial response, to the constraints and opportunities for capital and labour. Contingency planning for supply shortages and prospects for increased efficiency are then examined in some detail and lead to the conclusion that our current energy problems are quite soluble, even within our current technological competence. In the long-term, the break-through to stable energy supply and price, as a prerequisite for investment and economic growth, is already clearly within our reach, provided adequate action on an international scale can be mobilised and harnessed in time.

  11. 78 FR 63434 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Price Changes-Exigent

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...%) International Business Reply TM Cards and Envelopes (2.8%) ] Customs Clearance and Delivery Fee (4.3%) Although... Duplicate copy of PS Form 3606 1.30 * * * * * International Business Reply Service (382) [For each country that offers International Business Reply service, revise the fees to read as follows:] Fee:...

  12. 78 FR 31428 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Columbus, Rickenbacker International Airport, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... International Airport, OH, Class C airspace area. Issued in Fort Worth, TX on May 3, 2013. David P. Medina... Airspace; Columbus, Rickenbacker International Airport, OH AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airspace at Rickenbacker International Airport, Columbus, OH. Changes to the airspace description...

  13. 78 FR 15047 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...: International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Application ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department...) The title of the form/collection: International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP.... Government employees who are victims of acts of international terrorism that occur(red) outside of the...

  14. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 13, Internal Energy, Heat, and Temperature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the thirteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to internal energy, heat, and temperature. The topics are concerned with collisions, thermometers, friction forces, degrees Centigrade and Fahrenheit, calories, Brownian motion, and state changes. The…

  15. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, A. J.

    This trip was undertaken to participate in and represent the United States Industry at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) Task 14 Workshop. The meeting took place at the A1 Bani Hotel in Rome Italy.

  16. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, [mu]-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  17. 78 FR 33838 - DOE Participation in Development of the International Energy Conservation Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy DOE Participation in Development of the International Energy Conservation Code AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of...

  18. Energy management study: A proposed case of government building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Mohd Faizal

    2015-05-01

    Align with the current needs of the sustainable and green technology in Malaysian construction industry, this research is conducted to seek and identify opportunities to better manage energy use including the process of understand when, where, and how energy is used in a building. The purpose of this research is to provide a best practice guideline as a practical tool to assist construction industry in Malaysia to improve the energy efficiency of the office building during the post-production by reviewing the current practice of the building operation and maintenance in order to optimum the usage and reduce the amount of energy input into the building. Therefore, this paper will review the concept of maintenance management, current issue in energy management, and on how the research process will be conducted. There are several process involves and focuses on technical and management techniques such as energy metering, tracing, harvesting, and auditing based on the case study that will be accomplish soon. Accordingly, a case study is appropriate to be selected as a strategic research approach in which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence for the data collection process. A Government office building will be selected as an appropriate case study for this research. In the end of this research, it will recommend a strategic approach or model in a specific guideline for enabling energy-efficient operation and maintenance in the office building.

  19. Energy management study: A proposed case of government building

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Mohd Faizal

    2015-05-15

    Align with the current needs of the sustainable and green technology in Malaysian construction industry, this research is conducted to seek and identify opportunities to better manage energy use including the process of understand when, where, and how energy is used in a building. The purpose of this research is to provide a best practice guideline as a practical tool to assist construction industry in Malaysia to improve the energy efficiency of the office building during the post-production by reviewing the current practice of the building operation and maintenance in order to optimum the usage and reduce the amount of energy input into the building. Therefore, this paper will review the concept of maintenance management, current issue in energy management, and on how the research process will be conducted. There are several process involves and focuses on technical and management techniques such as energy metering, tracing, harvesting, and auditing based on the case study that will be accomplish soon. Accordingly, a case study is appropriate to be selected as a strategic research approach in which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence for the data collection process. A Government office building will be selected as an appropriate case study for this research. In the end of this research, it will recommend a strategic approach or model in a specific guideline for enabling energy-efficient operation and maintenance in the office building.

  20. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  1. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal: diagnostic approach to epilepsy in dogs.

    PubMed

    De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen; Penderis, Jacques; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Berendt, Mette; Farqhuar, Robyn; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Mandigers, Paul J J; Matiasek, Kaspar; Packer, Rowena M A; Pakozdy, Akos; Patterson, Ned; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Batlle, Martí Pumarola; Rusbridge, Clare; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient presenting with a history of suspected epileptic seizures incorporates two fundamental steps: to establish if the events the animal is demonstrating truly represent epileptic seizures and if so, to identify their underlying cause. Differentiation of epileptic seizures from other non-epileptic episodic paroxysmal events can be challenging. Criteria that can be used to make this differentiation are presented in detail and discussed. Criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) are described in a three-tier system. Tier I confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on a history of two or more unprovoked epileptic seizures occurring at least 24 h apart, age at epileptic seizure onset of between six months and six years, unremarkable inter-ictal physical and neurological examination, and no significant abnormalities on minimum data base blood tests and urinalysis. Tier II confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on the factors listed in tier I and unremarkable fasting and post-prandial bile acids, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain (based on an epilepsy-specific brain MRI protocol) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Tier III confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on the factors listed in tier I and II and identification of electroencephalographic abnormalities characteristic for seizure disorders. The authors recommend performing MRI of the brain and routine CSF analysis, after exclusion of reactive seizures, in dogs with age at epileptic seizure onset <6 months or >6 years, inter-ictal neurological abnormalities consistent with intracranial neurolocalisation, status epilepticus or cluster seizure at epileptic seizure onset

  2. Yuzhnoye SDO Technologies, Proposed for Using in International Programs on Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyukhov, S.; Degtyarev, A.; Kushnarev, A.; Berdnyk, A.; Lyzikova, N.

    Yuzhnoye SDO possesses a lot of technologies and has obtained great experience of development of the space transportation systems which can be used in international programs on Moon exploration begin enumerate item Liquid-propellant booster made on the basis of the first stage of Zenit LV possesses high specific parameters and is convenient in operation together with high reliability which has been confirmed in two launches of Energia LV and in more than 50 launches of Zenit LV Ecologically clean fuel components minimize negative influence on the environment Because of identity of the booster construction with regular first stage of Zenit LV it retains the high reliability of the last one and can be developed with the minimum costs and in short terms It is proposed to use such booster as the first stage in heavy and super heavy launch vehicles Thanks to the decisions which are put into its construction it could be a part of LV for manned launches and has the real potential for multiple usages item Rocket module block E of the soviet lunar vehicle is designed for the astronaut soft landing on the Moon surface and further return to the circumlunar orbit Block E consists of the major and backup main engines fuel tanks with support facilities for the entirety and heat conditions of the fuel components as well as interfaces with lunar vehicle cabin and landing device High reliability of the Block E is proved by great volume of ground testing and successful testing in space during three launches to the near-earth orbit Block E even now can be used for

  3. Proposed bell experiment with genuine energy-time entanglement.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Adán; Rossi, Alessandro; Vallone, Giuseppe; De Martini, Francesco; Mataloni, Paolo

    2009-01-30

    Franson's Bell experiment with energy-time entanglement [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205 (1989)10.1103/PhysRevLett.62.2205] does not rule out all local hidden variable models. This defect can be exploited to compromise the security of Bell inequality-based quantum cryptography. We introduce a novel Bell experiment using genuine energy-time entanglement, based on a novel interferometer, which rules out all local hidden variable models. The scheme is feasible with actual technology. PMID:19257405

  4. International Building Energy eXchange (IBEX) Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    This site will help you find information on current, international projects or other activities (e.g., strategic dialogs or initiatives) related to energy efficiency and renewable energy in buildings. The database includes collaborative international projects/activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, other U.S. federal agencies, development banks, and selected foundations and non-governmental organizations. The IBEX database enables you to learn about specific buildings-related projects of interest and who is working on them, understand the distribution of projects (e.g., geographic distribution and types of projects going forward), discover potential markets, and understand where there are research gaps and opportunities for collaboration.

  5. CALET: High energy cosmic ray observatory on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masaki; CALET Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CALorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a Japanese-led international mission being developed as part of the utilization plan for the International Space Station (ISS). CALET will be launched by an H-II B rocket utilizing the Japanese developed HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle) in 2014. The instrument will be robotically emplaced upon the Exposed Facility attached to the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF). CALET is a calorimeter based instrument which will have superior energy resolution and excellent separation between hadrons and electrons and between charged particles and gamma rays in the GeV to trans-TeV energy range. CALET will address many questions in high energy astrophysics, including (1) the nature of the sources of high energy particles and photons, through the high energy electron spectrum, (2) signatures of dark matter, in either the high energy electron or gamma ray spectrum, (3) the details of particle propagation in the Galaxy, by a combination of energy spectrum measurements of electrons, protons and highercharged nuclei. In this paper the outline and current status of CALET are summarized.

  6. Energy Efficiency of the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2004-11-30

    The West Virginia State Building Code contains two options for energy efficiency requirements in one- and two-family dwellings. One is the International Code Council?s (ICC) 2000 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) (ICC 1999a,b) (87-4-4.1.6). The second is an exception (replacement) for Chapter 11 of the ICC International Residential Code (IRC) (87-4-4.1.7). The West Virginia Energy Efficiency Program, West Virginia Development Office, has asked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to compare the energy use resulting from the application of the 2000 IECC code and the IRC code, as amended by West Virginia. The Department's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compared the energy use from compliance with the 2000 IECC to the exception to Chapter 11 of the IRC known as the ''Alternate Energy Code''.

  7. 75 FR 10500 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in... review and comment of an EA and Draft FONNSI prepared by MMS for the Cape Wind Energy Project proposed... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cape Wind Energy Project. The FEIS assessed the...

  8. 77 FR 19683 - Proposed Information Collection; Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines AGENCY..., on an emergency basis, our request to collect information associated with the Land- Based Wind Energy... proposed wind energy facilities may have on wildlife and their habitat. OMB approved our request...

  9. 78 FR 75366 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and Utility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and... Audits and Utility Allowances. OMB Approval Number: 2577-062. Type of Request: Reinstatement, with change... information and proposed use: 24 CFR 965.301, Subpart C, Energy Audit and Energy Conservation...

  10. 75 FR 23798 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in...), announces the availability of an EA and FONNSI for the Cape Wind Energy Project proposed for Nantucket Sound... Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cape Wind Energy Project. The FEIS assessed the physical, biological,...

  11. XTE Proposal #20102--"SS 433's High Energy Spectrum"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Kawai, N.; Kotani, T.; Oka, T.; Wagner, R. M.; Hjellming, R.; Rupen, M.; Brinkmann, W.

    1999-01-01

    We observed the jet-producing compact binary system SS 433 with RXTE during three multiwavelength campaigns, the first in conjunction with ASCA observations, the second simultaneous with a VLA-VLBA-MERLIN campaign, and the third associated with a Nobeyama millimeter-band campaign. All these campaigns included optical observations. Occurring at different jet precession and binary phases, the observations also monitored the system during a radio flare. The data provide SS 433's X-ray spectrum over more than an energy decade, and track the spectral variations as the X-ray source was partially eclipsed. The continuum can be modeled as a power law with an exponential cutoff, which can be detected to approximately 50 keV. Strong line emission is evident in the 5-10 keV range which can be modeled as a broad line whose energy is precession independent and a narrow line whose energy does vary with jet precession phase; this line model is clearly an over simplification since the PCA does not have sufficient energy resolution to detect the lines ASCA observed. The eclipses are deeper at high energy and at jet precession phases when the jets are more inclined towards and away from us. A large radio flare occurred between two sets of X-ray monitoring observations; an X-ray observation at the peak of the flare found a softer spectrum with a flux approximately 1/3 that of the quiescent level.

  12. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  13. Proposed Bell Experiment with Genuine Energy-Time Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, Adán; Rossi, Alessandro; Vallone, Giuseppe; de Martini, Francesco; Mataloni, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Franson’s Bell experiment with energy-time entanglement [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205 (1989)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.62.2205] does not rule out all local hidden variable models. This defect can be exploited to compromise the security of Bell inequality-based quantum cryptography. We introduce a novel Bell experiment using genuine energy-time entanglement, based on a novel interferometer, which rules out all local hidden variable models. The scheme is feasible with actual technology.

  14. 78 FR 77621 - Forum To Discuss Proposed Changes To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Designs, 78 FR 71870 (Nov. 29, 2013). Public comments will not be solicited for the forum. However... To Implement the Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial Designs AGENCY... International Registration of Industrial Designs (``Hague Agreement'') and is to take effect on the entry...

  15. Analyses of Selected Provisions of Proposed Energy Legislation: 2003

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This study responds to a July 31, 2003 request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan. The study is based primarily on analyses the Energy Information Administration has previously done for studies requested by Congress. It includes analysis of the Renewable Portfolio Standard, Renewable Fuels Standard, production in the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge, the construction of an Alaskan Natural Gas pipeline, and various tax provisions.

  16. 76 FR 47605 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEMs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Energy Efficient Mortgages... information collection requirement described below will be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Department is submitting the proposed information collection to OMB for...

  17. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  18. Effect of internal resistance of a Helmholtz resonator on acoustic energy reduction in enclosures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ganghua; Li, Deyu; Cheng, Li

    2008-12-01

    The effect of internal resistance of a Helmholtz resonator on acoustic energy reduction in an enclosure and the multimodal coupling-based Helmholtz resonator design are investigated. Using the analytical solution of a resonator-enclosure interaction model, an energy reduction index is defined in a frequency band to optimize the resonator resistance. The dual process of energy dissipation and radiation of the resonator is quantified. Optimal resistance of the resonator and its physical effect on the resonator-enclosure interaction are numerically evaluated and categorized in terms of frequency bandwidths. Predictions on the resonator performance are confirmed by experiments. Comparisons with existing models based on different optimization criteria are also performed. It is shown that the proposed model serves as an effective design tool to determine the internal resistance of the resonator in order to achieve sound reduction in the frequency band enclosing acoustic resonances.

  19. A role for NGOs in international renewable energy project development

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholf, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    An NGO is an international term for non-government organizations, often it is used in connection with non-profit, community-based and/or voluntary business activities. To be successful in supporting energy projects, these organizations generally exhibit certain characteristics: they are familiar with the end-use requirements; they are typically neutral to the technology; they emphasize training; they do not carry a large bureacratic structure, at home or in the field; they typically can adapt to do numerous functions; they can often attract other support. The author discusses several examples of such organizations who have been highly successful. The author sees a continuing role for such groups in developing renewable energy sources in the rural setting to include: continued development of new activity in rural areas; development of institutional framework for future market activity; an increased role in managing international development activities; more direct involvement with for-profit technical and financial organizations.

  20. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2014-06-30

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  1. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, R.; Ancona, D.

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  2. 76 FR 16464 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... 25, 2011), 76 FR 5412 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal The Exchange proposed to amend..., supra note 3, 76 FR at 5412. An IXMM license, by itself, would not allow the holder thereof to trade in...\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 55575 (April 3, 2007), 72 FR 17963, 17964 (April 10, 2007)...

  3. 75 FR 2915 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...), 74 FR 64783 (``Notice''). II. Description of Proposal The Exchange proposes to amend its Schedule of... No. 56254 (August 15, 2007), 72 FR 47104 (August 22, 2007) (approving SR-ISE-2007-70). \\5\\ The... Act Release Nos. 53212 (February 2, 2006), 71 FR 6803 (February 9, 2006) (Notice of Filing...

  4. A Proposed Anatomic Typing of the Right Internal Spermatic Vein: Importance for Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of Varicocele

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Yoel Gat, Yigal; Bacher, Gil N.; Gornish, Michael

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To classify the anatomic types of the right internal spermatic vein (ISV). Methods. We evaluated venograms obtained in 150 consecutive patients with idiopathic varicocele referred for transfemoral sclerotherapy .Results. Six anatomic types of the right internal spermatic vein (ISV) were recognized. These were classified by the location of their orifices and the tributary venous patterns. In roughly half the patients (53%), the ISV appeared as a simple vein with no remarkable retroperitoneal interconnections. In the remainder, complex retroperitoneal anastomoses were encountered. Conclusion. By understanding these anatomic variations, the angiographer can approach treatment of right-sided varicocele with foreknowledge of the nature of these types and the presence of valves and collaterals.

  5. 77 FR 8273 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Capture Energy Efficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. HUD is creating the Capture Energy Efficiency Measures for PIH (CEEMP) data system to track the amount and types of Energy Conservation......

  6. Internal-control weaknesses at Department of Energy research laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-15

    Two requests were made by Chairman, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, that GAO review the vulnerability of selected Department of Energy (DOE) research facilities to fraud, waste, and abuse. The review examined internal controls over payroll, procurement, and property management at six government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) research laboratories (Sandia, Hanford, Argonne, Oak Ridge, Fermi, and Brookhaven) and four government-owned, government-operated energy technology centers (Bartlesville, Laramie, Morgantown, and Pittsburgh). In fiscal 1982, DOE budgeted over $3 billion for its GOCO facilities and over $230 million for its energy technology centers. GAO noted specific problems at a number of the laboratories in each of the areas covered. In many instances, DOE has acknowledged the problems and corrective action is underway or is planned.

  7. 75 FR 39475 - International Mail: Proposed Changes in Prices and Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Mexico, and all other countries. Canada and Mexico, previously priced individually, now share the same... Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM) * * * * * 2 Conditions for Mailing * * * * * 240 First... * * * * * 243.13 Destinating Countries and Price Groups * * * * * Exhibit 243.13 First-Class Mail...

  8. 76 FR 58243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of International Air Travelers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... to Richard Champley or Ron Erdmann, ITA's Office of Travel & Tourism Industries (OTTI), Phone: (202..., ] administered by the Office of Travel and Tourism Industries (OTTI) of the International Trade Administration... 1961, 1981, and 1996 travel and tourism related acts to collect and publish comprehensive...

  9. 76 FR 36014 - Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Beach International Airport, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  10. 76 FR 25748 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals; International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Leadership Program Assistance Award Announcement Type: New Cooperative Agreement. Funding Opportunity Number... Leadership Program (IVLP). The IVLP is the U.S. Department of State's premier professional exchange program... program above is provided through legislation. Purpose: The International Visitor Leadership Program...

  11. Female Genital Mutilation: Proposals for Change. Minority Rights Group International Report. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorkenoo, Efua; Elworthy, Scilla

    In Africa today, women's voices are being raised against female genital mutilation. Inspired by the United Nations Decade for Women, this report seeks to present information in a logical, coherent manner to stimulate support for eradication of the practice. It describes steps African governments, Western states, and international agencies can take…

  12. 75 FR 5132 - United States v. Cameron International Corp., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ..., Suite 100, Houston, TX 77041, Defendants. Case No.: Case: 1:09-cv-02165. Assigned To: Bates, John D...: November 17, 2009. Judge: Bates, John D. Proposed Final Judgment Whereas, Plaintiff, United States...

  13. The role of nonuniform internal heating in Triton's energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Brown, R. H.

    1991-06-01

    Triton's large heliocentric distance and high albedo, combined with its unusually large silicate mass fraction, make internal heating more important in its energy budget than in that of any other icy satellite. Brown et al. have recently estimated that the average radiogenic heat flux (which is probably between 3.3 and 6.6 mW/sq m depending on core size and composition) may equal 5 to 20 pct. of the average absorbed insolation. On a global scale, this additional energy input appreciably increases the thermal emissivity required to be consistent with the observed surface temperature. Brown et al. also speculated that spatial variations of the internal flux may change the local sublimation deposition balance enough to lead to observable modifications of the distribution of volatiles on Triton's surface. An attempt is made to estimate the magnitude of internal heat flux variations due to the insulating effect of the polar caps, to mantle convection, and to cryovolcanism; the importance is evaluated of these variations in modifying the volatile distribution.

  14. The role of nonuniform internal heating in Triton's energy budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. L.; Brown, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    Triton's large heliocentric distance and high albedo, combined with its unusually large silicate mass fraction, make internal heating more important in its energy budget than in that of any other icy satellite. Brown et al. have recently estimated that the average radiogenic heat flux (which is probably between 3.3 and 6.6 mW/sq m depending on core size and composition) may equal 5 to 20 pct. of the average absorbed insolation. On a global scale, this additional energy input appreciably increases the thermal emissivity required to be consistent with the observed surface temperature. Brown et al. also speculated that spatial variations of the internal flux may change the local sublimation deposition balance enough to lead to observable modifications of the distribution of volatiles on Triton's surface. An attempt is made to estimate the magnitude of internal heat flux variations due to the insulating effect of the polar caps, to mantle convection, and to cryovolcanism; the importance is evaluated of these variations in modifying the volatile distribution.

  15. 75 FR 27768 - Office of International Regimes and Agreements; Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... States of America and the Government of India Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (``the 123... Agreement for Cooperation Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy (``the Arrangements and Procedures... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. Domestic energy security in an age of international uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews a topic of international interest, the oil industry and its intricacies of geopolitics. He gives a brief review of the problems faced by petrochemical industries in past years and attempts to give an idea of future possible trends. In the author's opinion, oil industry is a cyclical business, heavily influenced by external factors over which one frequently can exercise little or no control. In the last few years, as a result of international events, industry faced a little bit of everything-Embargo, shortages, a quadrupling and then later a tripling of oil prices. Now, as one moves through eighties, the industry is faced by surplus world oil capacity and economic uncertainty. The author expresses hope for a brighter future for the energy industry.

  17. Assessment of models proposed for the 1985 revision of the international geomagnetic reference field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.; Zunde, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Geomagnetic measurements from land, marine and aerial surveys conducted in the years 1945-1964 were used to test the 14 models proposed as additions, for that period, to the series of definitive geomagnetic reference field (DGRF) models. Overall, NASA's 'SFAS' models and the BGS (British Geological Survey) models agree best with these data. Comparisons of the two proposed definitive main-field models for 1980.0, with each other and with the existing IGRF 1980 main-field model, show mostly close agreement, with the greatest absolute differences (several tens of nanotesla) occurring in the region of Antarctica. Comparison of the the three proposed forecast secular-variation models for 1985-1990 with estimates of recent rates of change at 148 magnetic observatories shows that the IZMIRAN (U.S.S.R.) and USGS models are in closest agreement with these data. ?? 1987.

  18. Spatial decay of energy density of tidal internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovatsky, Iossif D.; Morozov, Eugene G.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2003-06-01

    The spatial decay of energy density of tidal internal waves (TIW) was studied using field data taken in the Indian Ocean near the Mascarene Ridge and in the Canary Basin of the eastern Atlantic near the Heyres-Irving-Cruiser chain of seamounts. Several moorings were deployed at distances between 90 and 1745 km east of these topographic features, with instruments located in the depth range 500-2500 m. The energy densities of TIW averaged over the spring-neap cycle were calculated using semidiurnal tidal components of current and temperature time series as well as local vertical gradients of temperature and density. It was found that the horizontal component of TIW, EH, is less depth-dependent compared to the vertical component, Eζ, although both components showed a general decrease of magnitude with the distance from topography. The decrease of total energy density ETW = EH + Eζ with distance from the topography is more rapid than that assumed in the work of [1995], and followed an inverse power law. At a distance of about x ≈ 10λ from the topography (where λ is the wavelength of the first mode), ETW in the main thermocline becomes equal to the energy density of the forcing barotropic tide, whereas for x/λ < 2, ETW exceeds the energy of the entire range of internal waves of the Garrett-Munk spectrum. A nonhydrostatic, nonlinear, two-dimensional numerical model shows a reasonable agreement with the observations for x/λ < 2-3, but in the far field it predicts a faster spatial decay of ETW than observed, possibly because of topographic generation of TIW along the measurement swath. The turbulent diffusivity estimates based on the [1981] model exceeded 10-4 m2/s within the main pycnocline at x = 100 km and suggest mixing enhancements due to TIW up to distances of 1000 km from the topography.

  19. International Clean Energy Analysis Gateway: Assisting Developing Countries with Clean Energy Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The International Clean Energy Analysis Gateway seeks to enhance developing country access to energy efficiency and renewable energy analysis tools, databases, methods, and other technical resources in a dynamic user interaction environment. In addition to providing information on available tools, the gateway also is a platform for Web seminars, online training, peer networks, and expert assistance. The gateway is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Further cooperation is desired with organizations that can help expand the information presented in the portal and assist with outreach and training.

  20. 75 FR 7457 - Notice of Public Hearing on Stone Energy Corporation Proposed Surface Water Withdrawal and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Hearing on Stone Energy Corporation Proposed Surface Water Withdrawal and Natural... (DRBC or ``Commission'') will hold a special public hearing on two projects sponsored by the Stone Energy Corporation (hereinafter, ``Stone Energy'') to support natural gas exploration and...

  1. ROSAT: An international mission exploring the high energy universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    ROSAT was designed specifically to detect high energy radiation, by using its telescopes to study x ray and ultraviolet emissions, regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that cannot be seen and that cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. ROSAT is an international astronomical observatory project. ROSAT's science mission is divided into two phases. With its in-orbit checkout period complete, ROSAT has begun phase one of its mission, an all sky survey to map the heavens. When the 6 month mapping survey is complete, the satellite will begin phase two and be pointed at selected objects, studying individual targets, for the remainder of its mission.

  2. Validation of International Atomic Energy Agency Equipment Performance Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro, PJ

    2004-02-17

    Performance requirements and testing protocols are needed to ensure that equipment used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is reliable. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the US Support Program, tested equipment to validate performance requirements protocols used by the IAEA for the subject equipment categories. Performance protocol validation tests were performed in the Environmental Effects Laboratory in the categories for battery, DC power supply, and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Specific test results for each piece of equipment used in the validation process are included in this report.

  3. Internal wave pressure, velocity, and energy flux from density perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allshouse, Michael R.; Lee, Frank M.; Morrison, Philip J.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2016-05-01

    Determination of energy transport is crucial for understanding the energy budget and fluid circulation in density varying fluids such as the ocean and the atmosphere. However, it is rarely possible to determine the energy flux field J =p u , which requires simultaneous measurements of the pressure and velocity perturbation fields p and u , respectively. We present a method for obtaining the instantaneous J (x ,z ,t ) from density perturbations alone: A Green's function-based calculation yields p ; u is obtained by integrating the continuity equation and the incompressibility condition. We validate our method with results from Navier-Stokes simulations: The Green's function method is applied to the density perturbation field from the simulations and the result for J is found to agree typically to within 1% with J computed directly using p and u from the Navier-Stokes simulation. We also apply the Green's function method to density perturbation data from laboratory schlieren measurements of internal waves in a stratified fluid and the result for J agrees to within 6 % with results from Navier-Stokes simulations. Our method for determining the instantaneous velocity, pressure, and energy flux fields applies to any system described by a linear approximation of the density perturbation field, e.g., to small-amplitude lee waves and propagating vertical modes. The method can be applied using our matlab graphical user interface EnergyFlux.

  4. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, Puru

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  5. 75 FR 3950 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61024 (November 18, 2009), 74 FR 61395 (November 24, 2009). II. Description of the Proposal ISE Rule 2205 governs the opening for trading of series... trading FX options on April 17, 2007. See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 55575 (April 3, 2007), 72...

  6. Public inspection of exempt organization returns--Internal Revenue Service. Notice of proposed rulemaking.

    PubMed

    1983-03-01

    This document contains proposed regulations relating to the public inspection of returns of certain tax exempt organizations. The regulations clarify the rules relating to the disclosure of certain information of exempt organizations. Additionally, the regulations reflect changes made by Pub. L. 96-603 and Pub. L. 95-488. PMID:10259814

  7. 75 FR 13636 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61458 (February 1, 2010), 75 FR 6237. II. Description of the Proposal The...), 68 FR 28309 (May 23, 2003) (SR-Amex-2001-92); 48505 (September 17, 2003), 68 FR 55680 (September 26, 2003) (SR-ISE-2003- 20); 48640 (October 16, 2003), 68 FR 60757 (October 23, 2003) (SR-...

  8. 77 FR 64768 - International Mailing Services: Proposed Product and Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In October 2012, the Postal Service filed a notice of mailing services... offering of the Global Forever stamp will feature a picture of a globe. Finally, as with the domestic... side of the coupon shows the text relating to its use in German, English, Arabic, Chinese, Spanish,...

  9. 76 FR 40758 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ..., 2011); 76 FR 31385 (``Notice''). II. Description The ISE proposes to amend ISE Rule 723, ``Price... Act Release No. 63117 (October 15, 2010), 75 FR 65042 (October 21, 2010) (notice of filing and..., 2011), 76 FR 21087 (April 14, 2011) (notice of filing and immediate effectiveness of File No....

  10. 78 FR 6257 - Proposed Amendment of Class C Airspace; Nashville International Airport, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Amendment of Class C...

  11. 77 FR 4852 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ...\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65900 (December 6, 2011), 76 FR 77275...). \\10\\ See Notice, 76 FR at 77276. The proposal limits the circumstances under which a legging order may... in a series.\\12\\ \\11\\ See ISE Rule 715(k) and (k)(1). \\12\\ See Notice, 76 FR at 77276. In addition...

  12. 78 FR 17727 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...-election, would allow the Exchange to align its Board structure in accordance with corporate governance... Accountable Corporate Governance, the TIAA-CREF Policy Statement on Corporate Governance, and the AFI-CIO... No. 68740 (January 28, 2013), 78 FR 7470 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal As...

  13. 78 FR 9973 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... exposed to all market participants for one second, giving them an opportunity to enter additional trading... (December 20, 2012), 77 FR 76336 (``Notice''). ] II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change ISE Rule 716... ISE members that includes the series, price, size and side of the market.\\6\\ Further, responses...

  14. 75 FR 41242 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Isotopes Uranium Processing Facility AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Intent... and depleted uranium de- conversion facility to be located near Hobbs in Lea County, New Mexico. The U... construct, operate, and decommission a proposed fluorine extraction process and depleted uranium...

  15. Development of a proposed international standard for certification of aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    1993-01-01

    Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against high intensity radiated fields (HIRF). This paper addresses both the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard as well as the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.

  16. On the internal energy source of the large planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-zhang

    1990-12-01

    Based on spacecraft observations of the giant planets we call attention to an apparent regular mass-luminosity relation for the large planets (giant planets plus Earth). It can provide important clues and constraints on the question of their energy source, including various relevant theories and their difficulties. We describe in some detail a new thermonuclear reaction mechanism, valid for plasma fusions at both super—high and low temperatures, and including the original thermonuclear mechanism as a particular case. It can explain not only the internal energy souce of the large planets, but also many anomalous fusion phenomena observed in the laboratory and in astronomical bodies. Although these appear in various guises, their basic principle is the same, that is, they can all be understood in terms of the new mechanism.

  17. On the internal energy source of the large planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Zhang

    1990-12-01

    Based on spacecraft observations of the giant planets, attention is called to an apparent regular mass-luminosity relation for the large planets (giant planets plus earth). It can provide important clues and constraints on the question of their energy source, including various relevant theories and their difficulties. A new thermonuclear reaction mechanism is described in some detail, valid for plasma fusions at both superhigh and low temperatures, and including the original thermonuclear mechanism as a particular case. It can explain not only the internal energy source of the large planets, but also many anomalous fusion phenomena observed in the laboratory and in astronomical bodies. Although these appear in various guises, they can all be understood in terms of the new mechanism.

  18. 77 FR 26590 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... market for execution. \\5\\ See Notice, 77 FR at 16107. ISE is not able to execute the stock leg(s) of a...-dealer to which the stock leg(s) are routed. See Notice, 77 FR at footnote 3. The proposal would allow...\\ See Notice, 77 FR at 16107. As is the case currently, after ISE routes the stock leg(s) of a...

  19. The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

  20. Internal waves as a proposed mechanism for increasing ambient noise in an increasingly acidic ocean.

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Daniel; Tang, Dajun

    2010-06-01

    The effect on the ambient noise level in shallow water of the ocean growing more acidic is modeled. Because most noise sources are near the surface, high-order acoustic modes are preferentially excited. Linear internal waves, however, can scatter the noise into the low-order, low-loss modes most affected by the changes in acidity. The model uses transport theory to couple the modes and assumes an isotropic distribution for the noise sources. For a scenario typical of the East China Sea, the noise at 3 kHz is predicted to increase by 30%, about one decibel, as the pH decreases from 8.0 to 7.4.

  1. Incentives for Organ Donation: Proposed Standards for an Internationally Acceptable System

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Incentives for organ donation, currently prohibited in most countries, may increase donation and save lives. Discussion of incentives has focused on two areas: (1) whether or not there are ethical principles that justify the current prohibition and (2) whether incentives would do more good than harm. We herein address the second concern and propose for discussion standards and guidelines for an acceptable system of incentives for donation. We believe that if systems based on these guidelines were developed, harms would be no greater than those to today’s conventional donors. Ultimately, until there are trials of incentives, the question of benefits and harms cannot be satisfactorily answered. PMID:22176925

  2. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus proposal: outcome of therapeutic interventions in canine and feline epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Potschka, Heidrun; Fischer, Andrea; Löscher, Wolfgang; Patterson, Ned; Bhatti, Sofie; Berendt, Mette; De Risio, Luisa; Farquhar, Robyn; Long, Sam; Mandigers, Paul; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Common criteria for the diagnosis of drug resistance and the assessment of outcome are needed urgently as a prerequisite for standardized evaluation and reporting of individual therapeutic responses in canine epilepsy. Thus, we provide a proposal for the definition of drug resistance and partial therapeutic success in canine patients with epilepsy. This consensus statement also suggests a list of factors and aspects of outcome, which should be considered in addition to the impact on seizures. Moreover, these expert recommendations discuss criteria which determine the validity and informative value of a therapeutic trial in an individual patient and also suggest the application of individual outcome criteria. Agreement on common guidelines does not only render a basis for future optimization of individual patient management, but is also a presupposition for the design and implementation of clinical studies with highly standardized inclusion and exclusion criteria. Respective standardization will improve the comparability of findings from different studies and renders an improved basis for multicenter studies. Therefore, this proposal provides an in-depth discussion of the implications of outcome criteria for clinical studies. In particular ethical aspects and the different options for study design and application of individual patient-centered outcome criteria are considered. PMID:26314300

  3. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal: medical treatment of canine epilepsy in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen; Penderis, Jacques; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Löscher, Wolfgang; Mandigers, Paul J J; Matiasek, Kaspar; Pakozdy, Akos; Patterson, Edward E; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Rusbridge, Clare; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) licensed for dogs has grown considerably over the last years. Nevertheless, the same questions remain, which include, 1) when to start treatment, 2) which drug is best used initially, 3) which adjunctive AED can be advised if treatment with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus for the management of canine idiopathic epilepsy. Furthermore, for the management of structural epilepsy AEDs are inevitable in addition to treating the underlying cause, if possible.

  4. XXIst International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EPS-HEP is one of the major international conferences that review every second year the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. Approximately 750 physicists from all continents gathered in 2011 to present and discuss their latest findings. For a full week, results obtained in terrestrial laboratories or through observations of the Universe were confronted with the most recent theoretical developments. Advances in particle detection and in acceleration techniques were also presented. EPS-HEP 2011 was the first major world conference after extensive operation of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at an energy of 7 TeV, and one of the last scientific events before the final shutdown of the Tevatron collider scheduled in September 2011. Reports of new and potentially exciting observations made at LHC, at other international laboratories and from programs in astroparticle physics and cosmology were made. With eleven parallel sessions and an extended poster display, almost five hundred oral and written contributions were given. On July 23rd, the conference also hosted the traditional joint ECFA-EPS open session that served as the kick-off meeting for the update of the European Strategy in High Energy Physics. The conference was held in Grenoble, France, in the Rhône-Alpes region. This region is the home of several major research centers in fundamental and applied scientific research as well as a large and active high-energy physics community. Seven regional laboratories (LPSC, IPAG, ILL, IPNL , LAPP, LAPTh, Institut Néel) carried out the local organization of the conference.

  5. Stepwise Internal Energy Control for Protonated Methanol Clusters by Using the Inert Gas Tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamori, Takuto; Kuo, Jer-Lai; Fujii, Asuka

    2016-06-01

    Preferred isomer structures of hydrogen-bonded clusters should depend on their temperature because of the entropy term in the free energy. To observe such temperature dependence, we propose a new approach to control the internal energy (vibrational temperature) of protonated clusters in the gas phase. We performed IR spectroscopy of protonated methanol clusters, H+ (CH{_3}OH) {_n}, n= 5 and 7, with the tagging by various inert gas species (Ar, CO{_2}, CO, CS{_2}, C{_2}H{_2}, and C{_6}H{_6}). We found that vibrational temperature of the tagged clusters raises with increase of the interaction energy with the tag species, and the observed cluster structures follow the theoretical prediction of the temperature dependence of the isomer population.

  6. Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2009-09-26

    Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

  7. Planning for future provision of dental services in prison: an international proposal of two systems.

    PubMed

    Heidari, E; Bedi, R; Makrides, N S; Dickinson, C; Newton, T

    2014-08-01

    This article describes a proposal for the future organisation of the delivery of dental and oral health services for prisoners. This vision is based on an analysis of the existing prison dental programmes in England and the United States (Federal Bureau of Prisons, [FBOP]), together with discussions from two key individuals from both countries who championed changes to prison dental services and have published in the field of prison dental services. Both countries have similar visions. Some of the suggested work has already been addressed in the past (for example, introduction of state of the art dental facilities in the UK prison setting), some are in process (for example, electronic patients' records) and some may be addressed in the near future (for example, prisoners' involvement with the services provided for them). Some of the expressed visions for the future in this article are driven by evidence-based literature and dental workforce policy. PMID:25146804

  8. [Proposed recommendations for the practical use of internal quality controls (IQC) in a medical biology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Giannoli, Jean-Marc; Szymanowicz, Anton

    2011-01-01

    We propose a set of recommendations and practices to optimize the use of quality control of medical biology examinations. The fundamentals are reviewed: definition of a series of analysis, IQC at one or more level, Westgard alert rules and rejection, practical remedial actions to take for the technician, corrective and preventive actions to be implemented by the biologist. We have also formalized three flowcharts to guide the technician in their daily practice to ensure analytical quality of investigations carried out. These decision trees are the result of the experience submitted by an accredited and professional laboratory attentive to the ongoing improvement of IQC. This article can provide useful assistance to biologists for accreditation but also aims to foster collaboration reliable medical biology laboratory at the appropriate management of patients.

  9. Flywheel Energy Storage System Designed for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delventhal, Rex A.

    2002-01-01

    Following successful operation of a developmental flywheel energy storage system in fiscal year 2000, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center began developing a flight design of a flywheel system for the International Space Station (ISS). In such an application, a two-flywheel system can replace one of the nickel-hydrogen battery strings in the ISS power system. The development unit, sized at approximately one-eighth the size needed for ISS was run at 60,000 rpm. The design point for the flight unit is a larger composite flywheel, approximately 17 in. long and 13 in. in diameter, running at 53,000 rpm when fully charged. A single flywheel system stores 2.8 kW-hr of useable energy, enough to light a 100-W light bulb for over 24 hr. When housed in an ISS orbital replacement unit, the flywheel would provide energy storage with approximately 3 times the service life of the nickel-hydrogen battery currently in use.

  10. A proposal to organize i2-EPR (International Institute for Exploring Physics with Reality)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2007-06-01

    Research: Our objective is to discover, visualize, understand and some times gainfully emulate (to advance our technologies) the real physical processes behind diverse interactions that are at the root of incessant cosmic and biospheric evolutions. Our focus is on discovering actual realities in nature driven by cosmic logic rather than inventing the ones that are aesthetically pleasing to our human logic. Our responsibility is to facilitate continuous evolution in our epistemology of modeling natural phenomena simultaneously exploiting the current tools of reductionism and emergence-ism that are helping us to discover rules of interactions between stable but simple (some times irreducible) entities and between complex assemblies that emerge from simpler entities. Education: Promote an educational philosophy that encourages the students to persistently enquire to visualize and understand the processes behind all interactions in nature while being conscious of their scientific epistemology. Everything that we "see" is nothing but a creative interpretation of the chain of transformations experienced by the sensor (or assemblies of sensors) that we use to observe nature. Science has so far formulated an array of working rules to model nature none of which can be declared as inviolable laws as yet. We have generated several "solved" jig-saw-puzzles which are not yet unifiable into one coherent puzzle to map the indivisible cosmic system. Outreach: Organize local and international seminars and conferences disseminating (i) the results of research, and (ii) the evolving & effective model of research (scientific epistemology) Economic wellbeing: Disseminate new technology innovation potentials to attract enhanced economic support through proper local channels.

  11. Solar Energy Directory: A Directory of Domestic and International Firms Involved in Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centerline Co., Phoenix, AZ.

    This directory is intended to provide a link between suppliers of solar energy technology and information and potential users of these products. Included are over 1400 national and international entries. These listings include architects, associations, education sources, wind power technology and information sources, solar research organizations,…

  12. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to

  13. Silicosis and tuberculosis: a proposed radiographic classification of tuberculosis to accompany the ILO international classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses.

    PubMed

    Solomon, A; Rees, D; Felix, M; Venter, E

    2000-01-01

    A significant proportion of workers exposed to silica dust are at risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). The higher the International Labor Organization (ILO) category of silicosis, the greater the TB risk. Subtle radiographic presentations of TB may be the initial manifestation of TB, particularly in the absence of sputum identification of TB bacilli. A proposed TB x-ray-reading form in addition to the ILO categorization of silicosis is offered. The implementation of a standardized TB x-ray-reading approach should alert the clinician to indolent TB lesions.

  14. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  15. The international conference on solar energy storage and applied photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    A bibliography of the international conference on solar energy storage and applied photochemistry is presented. Study areas dicussed include: Nanocrystalline solar cells; scientific principles and economic perspectives; Solar synthesis of hydrogen peroxide; Dye molecules in zeolites as artificial antenna systems; Mechanism of the early steps in photosynthesis; Novel vacuum-uv-(vuv) and uv excimer flow through photorectors for waste water treatment and for wavelengths selective photochemistry; Heterosupramolecular chemistry: an approach to modulating function in molecular devices; Excited state characteristics and new unactivated C-H bond functionalization photocatalysis by W10O32 (4-); Time-resolved photothermal measurements on biological photoreceptors; Photoinduced proton transfer in substituted pyridines; Photochromic materials: a comprehensive kinetic thermodynamic and photochemical study; Photolysis and thermolysis of acid amides and sulphonamides; mechanistic studies; Studies of photochemical reactions by nuclear spin polarization detected ESR spectroscopy; A non-silver dry processed photographic arts film.

  16. Internal Conversion and Vibrational Energy Redistribution in Chlorophyll A.

    PubMed

    Shenai, Prathamesh M; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Bricker, William P; Tretiak, Sergei; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-14

    We have computationally investigated the role of intramolecular vibrational modes in determining nonradiative relaxation pathways of photoexcited electronic states in isolated chlorophyll A (ChlA) molecules. To simulate the excited state relaxation from the initially excited Soret state to the lowest excited state Qy, the approach of nonadiabatic excited state molecular dynamics has been adopted. The intramolecular vibrational energy relaxation and redistribution that accompany the electronic internal conversion process is followed by analyzing the excited state trajectories in terms of the ground state equilibrium normal modes. The time dependence of the normal mode velocities is determined by projecting instantaneous Cartesian velocities onto the normal mode vectors. Our analysis of the time evolution of the average mode energies uncovers that only a small subset of the medium-to-high frequency normal modes actively participate in the electronic relaxation processes. These active modes are characterized by the highest overlap with the nonadiabatic coupling vectors (NACRs) during the electronic transitions. Further statistical analysis of the nonadiabatic transitions reveals that the electronic and vibrational energy relaxation occurs via two distinct pathways with significantly different time scales on which the hopping from Soret to Qx occurs thereby dictating the overall dynamics. Furthermore, the NACRs corresponding to each of the transitions have been consistently found to be predominantly similar to a set of normal modes that vary depending upon the transition and the identified categories. Each pathway exhibits a differential time scale of energy transfer and also a differential set of predominant active modes. Our present analysis can be considered as a general approach allowing identification of a reduced subset of specific vibrational coordinates associated with nonradiative relaxation pathways. Therefore, it represents an adequate prior strategy that

  17. International Conference on Harmonisation; proposed change to rodent carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals; request for comments. Notice; request for comments.

    PubMed

    2013-03-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is considering a proposed change to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Sl guidance on rodent carcinogenicity testing. The goal of this potential change is to introduce a more comprehensive and integrated approach to address the risk of human carcinogenicity of small molecule pharmaceuticals, and to define conditions under which 2-year rodent carcinogenicity studies add value to that assessment. The basis of this proposed change is the retrospective analyses of several datasets that reflect three decades of experience with such studies. The datasets suggest that knowledge of certain pharmacologic and toxicologic data can sometimes provide sufficient information to anticipate the outcome of 2-year rodent studies and their potential value in predicting the risk of human carcinogenicity of a given pharmaceutical. FDA is requesting public comment regarding a proposed change in approach to carcinogenicity assessment, on the prospective evaluation period intended to test this new approach, and on the proposed weight-of-evidence factors for carcinogenicity assessment. PMID:23530289

  18. Proposal for determining the energy content of gravitational waves by using approximate symmetries of differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Ibrar; Qadir, Asghar; Mahomed, F. M.

    2009-06-15

    Since gravitational wave spacetimes are time-varying vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations, there is no unambiguous means to define their energy content. However, Weber and Wheeler had demonstrated that they do impart energy to test particles. There have been various proposals to define the energy content, but they have not met with great success. Here we propose a definition using 'slightly broken' Noether symmetries. We check whether this definition is physically acceptable. The procedure adopted is to appeal to 'approximate symmetries' as defined in Lie analysis and use them in the limit of the exact symmetry holding. A problem is noted with the use of the proposal for plane-fronted gravitational waves. To attain a better understanding of the implications of this proposal we also use an artificially constructed time-varying nonvacuum metric and evaluate its Weyl and stress-energy tensors so as to obtain the gravitational and matter components separately and compare them with the energy content obtained by our proposal. The procedure is also used for cylindrical gravitational wave solutions. The usefulness of the definition is demonstrated by the fact that it leads to a result on whether gravitational waves suffer self-damping.

  19. Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

  20. Energy crises and cooperation: Do international institutions matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarova, Vessela P.

    The risk of an oil supply disruption still exists. Oil reserves are increasingly concentrated in a handful of unreliable regimes, plagued by piracy and terrorism. Natural disasters and chokepoint incidents have increased in frequency. In addition, oil is expected to remain a significant part of the energy mix up until 2030. By that time Europe will be importing 90% of its oil. Thus, oil supply security will become an increasingly important feature of European politics. One way to counter the noxious consequences of an oil disruption is to cooperate. International cooperation is a critical factor in any type of crisis, however, it is especially important when it comes to a finite, highly concentrated and critical commodity like oil. The lack of coordination might lead to scrambling and oil hoarding, which dramatically exacerbate the crisis. Yet cooperation in the oil issue-area has been the subject of only a few studies, none of which provides a systematic and comprehensive analysis. They are also limited in their scope and findings. This dissertation aims to partially fill this lacuna. It employs a structured focused comparison to study European consumer countries' cooperation in times of oil supply shortages. There have been fifteen such crises since the Second World War, three of which with dramatic consequences for the world economy. The analysis evaluates European cooperative efforts in seven of these cases, starting with the Abadan crisis in 1951. The cases are selected on the basis of their magnitude and economic impact. In particular, I look at intergovernmental negotiations within existing international bodies prior to, during and immediately after the crisis. The findings suggest that institutions are more likely to facilitate interstate cooperation in the presence of a strong leader (a hegemon) - a role, which in the case of the oil issue-area was assumed by the US until the early 1970s.

  1. Renewable energy for America's cities: Advanced Community Energy Systems Proposed Research, Development and Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe ACES technologies and their potential impact on the environment, the US energy supply system and economy. The second purpose is to recommend an R,D D program to the US Department of Energy which has as its goal the rapid development of the most promising of the new technologies. ACES supply thermal energy to groups of buildings, communities and cities in the form of hot or chilled water for building space heating, domestic hot water or air conditioning. The energy is supplied via a network of insulated, underground pipes linking central sources of supply with buildings. ACES, by definition, employ very high energy efficiency conversion technologies such as cogeneration, heat pumps, and heat activated chillers. These systems also use renewable energy sources such as solar energy, winter cold, wind, and surface and subsurface warm and cold waters. ACES compose a new generation of community-scale building heating and air conditioning supply technologies. These new systems can effect a rapid and economical conversion of existing cities to energy supply by very efficient energy conversion systems and renewable energy systems. ACES technologies are the most promising near term means by which cities can make the transition from our present damaging dependence on fossil fuel supply systems to an economically and environmentally sustainable reliance on very high efficiency and renewable energy supply systems. When fully developed to serve an urban area, ACES will constitute a new utility system which can attain a level of energy efficiency, economy and reliance on renewable energy sources not possible with currently available energy supply systems.

  2. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; La Bounty, Paul; Taylor, Lem; Nelson, Mike T; Greenwood, Mike; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Schmitz, Stephen; Collins, Rick; Kalman, Doug S; Antonio, Jose; Kreider, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  3. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  4. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; La Bounty, Paul; Taylor, Lem; Nelson, Mike T; Greenwood, Mike; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Schmitz, Stephen; Collins, Rick; Kalman, Doug S; Antonio, Jose; Kreider, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the safety and efficacy of the use of energy drinks (ED) or energy shots (ES). The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. Although ED and ES contain a number of nutrients that are purported to affect mental and/or physical performance, the primary ergogenic nutrients in most ED and ES appear to be carbohydrate and/or caffeine. 2. The ergogenic value of caffeine on mental and physical performance has been well-established but the potential additive benefits of other nutrients contained in ED and ES remains to be determined. 3. Consuming ED 10-60 minutes before exercise can improve mental focus, alertness, anaerobic performance, and/or endurance performance. 4. Many ED and ES contain numerous ingredients; these products in particular merit further study to demonstrate their safety and potential effects on physical and mental performance. 5. There is some limited evidence that consumption of low-calorie ED during training and/or weight loss trials may provide ergogenic benefit and/or promote a small amount of additional fat loss. However, ingestion of higher calorie ED may promote weight gain if the energy intake from consumption of ED is not carefully considered as part of the total daily energy intake. 6. Athletes should consider the impact of ingesting high glycemic load carbohydrates on metabolic health, blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the effects of caffeine and other stimulants on motor skill performance. 7. Children and adolescents should only consider use of ED or ES with parental approval after consideration of the amount of carbohydrate, caffeine, and other nutrients contained in the ED or ES and a thorough understanding of the potential side effects. 8. Indiscriminant use of ED or ES, especially if more than one serving per day is consumed, may lead to adverse events and harmful side effects. 9

  5. Increases Proposed for U.S. Energy Department, But EPA Funding Would Be Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-03-01

    The Bush administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2009 budget request would cut the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) funding to US$7.14 billion, a decrease of $330 million, or 4.4%, from the 2008 funding level. However, the administration's proposed budget request for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) would boost that agency's funding to $25 billion, an increase of $1.07 billion over 2008.

  6. Brittle fracture in a periodic structure with internal potential energy

    PubMed Central

    Mishuris, Gennady S.; Slepyan, Leonid I.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a brittle fracture taking account of self-equilibrated distributed stresses existing at microlevel in the absence of external forces. To determine how the latter can affect the crack equilibrium and growth, a model of a structured linearly elastic body is introduced, consisting of two equal symmetrically arranged layers (or half-planes) connected by an interface as a prospective crack path. The interface comprises a discrete set of elastic bonds. In the initial state, the bonds are assumed to be stressed in such a way that tensile and compressive forces of the same value alternate. In the general considerations, the layers are assumed to be of an unspecified periodic structure, where such self-equilibrated stresses may also exist. A two-line chain and a lattice are examined as the specified structure. We consider the states of the body-with-a-crack under such microlevel stresses (MS) and under a combined action of the remote forces and MS. Analytical solutions to the considered problems are presented based on the introduction of a selective discrete transform. We demonstrate that MS can increase as well as decrease the crack resistance depending on the internal energy level. We also discuss different scenarios of the crack growth. PMID:24808756

  7. An international consortium proposal of uniform response criteria for myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) in adults

    PubMed Central

    Malcovati, Luca; Komrokji, Rami; Tiu, Ramon V.; Mughal, Tariq I.; Orazi, Attilio; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Padron, Eric; Solary, Eric; Tibes, Raoul; Itzykson, Raphael; Cazzola, Mario; Mesa, Ruben; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Fenaux, Pierre; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Gerds, Aaron; Sanz, Guillermo; Niemeyer, Charlotte M.; Cervantes, Francisco; Germing, Ulrich; Cross, Nicholas C. P.; List, Alan F.

    2015-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are hematologically diverse stem cell malignancies sharing phenotypic features of both myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. There are currently no standard treatment recommendations for most adult patients with MDS/MPN. To optimize efforts to improve the management and disease outcomes, it is essential to identify meaningful clinical and biologic end points and standardized response criteria for clinical trials. The dual dysplastic and proliferative features in these stem cell malignancies define their uniqueness and challenges. We propose response assessment guidelines to harmonize future clinical trials with the principal objective of establishing suitable treatment algorithms. An international panel comprising laboratory and clinical experts in MDS/MPN was established involving 3 independent academic MDS/MPN workshops (March 2013, December 2013, and June 2014). These recommendations are the result of this collaborative project sponsored by the MDS Foundation. PMID:25624319

  8. 77 FR 58828 - Alaska Energy Authority; Notice of Extension of Time To File Comments on the Proposed Study and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alaska Energy Authority; Notice of Extension of Time To File Comments on the Proposed Study and Revised Study Plan On July 16, 2012, Alaska Energy Authority (AEA) filed its proposed study plan for the...

  9. Three Problems: Nuclear Energy, National Defense and International Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1999-09-06

    A little more than half a century into the Nuclear Age, we cannot look back on a peaceful period, but we can say that the second (nuclear) half of the century has seen much less violence than the first half with its two violent wars. Also the second half of the century has seen the fortunate ending of the Cold War. But as to the future, we are left with three great questions. (1) How can the world be provided with ample energy? (2) How can we avoid the potentially devastating sudden applications of new destructive technologies? And finally, (3) How can we preserve the development of the world's new potentialities without producing a continuation of violent conflicts? The development of nuclear reactors appears to provide a most interesting new initiative to make energy available to every one. The reality of this promise is at least indicated by progress in France where electricity now is 80% ''nuclear.'' Unfortunately, fear of radioactivity and fear of weapons proliferation has turned public opinion in many parts of the world against nuclear energy. The fear of radioactivity seems to be exaggerated, as indicated, for instance, in the recent international conference in Vienna on the consequences of Chernobyl. The conference concluded that most of the anticipated difficulties (cancer and congenital malformation) have been grossly exaggerated. In my opinion, both the worry about radioactivity and the worry about massive military use of reactor products can be solved. There remain further real difficulties connected with expense and the availability of expertise that may be needed to handle nuclear reactors that may be absent in many parts of the world. I believe that all these problems can be solved. The three major accidents, Windscale in England in 1957, Three-Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979, and Chernobyl in Russia in 1986, could have been avoided by proper handling of reactors. The obvious answer seems to be more strict education of the reactor operators. In

  10. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  11. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  12. Proposed Molecular Beam Determination of Energy Partition in the Photodissociation of Polyatomic Molecules

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zare, P. N.; Herschbach, D. R.

    1964-01-29

    Conventional photochemical experiments give no information about the partitioning of energy between translational recoil and internal excitation of the fragment molecules formed in photodissociation of a polyatomic molecule. In a molecular beam experiment, it becomes possible to determine the energy partition from the form of the laboratory angular distribution of one of the photodissociation products. A general kinematic analysis is worked out in detail, and the uncertainty introduced by the finite angular resolution of the apparatus and the velocity spread in the parent beam is examined. The experimental requirements are evaluated for he photolysis of methyl iodide by the 2537 angstrom Hg line.

  13. 78 FR 75368 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Multifamily Energy Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Multifamily Energy Assessment...; telephone 202-402-3400 (this is not a toll-free number) or email at Colette.Pollard@hud.gov for a copy of... access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. ]...

  14. 76 FR 67470 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Energy Innovation Fund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Energy Innovation Fund... Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is...) and should be sent to: HUD Desk Officer, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive...

  15. 77 FR 12586 - Serious Energy, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Serious Energy, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... The attached Analysis To Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and... Commission, has been placed on the public record for a period of thirty (30) days. The following Analysis...

  16. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U{sub o}-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for ``group R`` residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  17. Technical support document for proposed revision of the model energy code thermal envelope requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    This report documents the development of the proposed revision of the council of American Building Officials' (CABO) 1993 supplement to the 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (referred to as the 1993 MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. The goal of this analysis was to develop revised guidelines based on an objective methodology that determined the most cost-effective (least total life-cycle cost [LCC]) combination of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for residences in different locations. The ECMs with the lowest LCC were used as a basis for proposing revised MEC maximum U[sub o]-value (thermal transmittance) curves in the MEC format. The changes proposed here affect the requirements for group R'' residences. The group R residences are detached one- and two-family dwellings (referred to as single-family) and all other residential buildings three stories or less (referred to as multifamily).

  18. Impact of the proposed energy tax on nuclear electric generating technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunds, T.A.; Lamont, A.D.; Pasternak, A.D.; Rousseau, W.F.; Walter, C.E.

    1993-05-01

    The President`s new economic initiatives include an energy tax that will affect the costs of power from most electric generating technologies. The tax on nuclear power could be applied in a number of different ways at several different points in the fuel cycle. These different approaches could have different effects on the generation costs and benefits of advanced reactors. The Office of Nuclear Energy has developed models for assessing the costs and benefits of advanced reactor cycles which must be updated to take into account the impacts of the proposed tax. This report has been prepared to assess the spectrum of impacts of the energy tax on nuclear power and can be used in updating the Office`s economic models. This study was conducted in the following steps. First, the most authoritative statement of the proposed tax available at this time was obtained. Then the impacts of the proposed tax on the costs of nuclear and fossil fueled generation were compared. Finally several other possible approaches to taxing nuclear energy were evaluated. The cost impact on several advanced nuclear technologies and a current light water technology were computed. Finally, the rationale for the energy tax as applied to various electric generating methods was examined.

  19. Review of International Experience with Renewable Energy Obligation Support Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.

    2005-06-01

    The main policy instruments currently used in the EU Member States to achieve the targets set for electricity produced from renewable energy sources are: (1) the quota obligation system; (2) the feed-in tariff system; and (3) the tendering system. The current study aims to review the experience gained with the quota obligation system. The report provides an overview of the regions where obligation systems have been implemented and contains a detailed evaluation of the performance of the obligation systems in the USA, the UK and in Sweden. The obligation systems in these countries have been evaluated based on the following criteria: Effectiveness; Market efficiency; Certainty for the renewable energy industry; Cost effectiveness; Stakeholder support for the obligation system; and Equity. The evaluation of international experiences with the obligation system gives rise to a mixed picture. Although an obligation in theory is effective and cost effective, it seems too early to conclude that the system delivers these promises in practice. On the one hand this is due to the limited period of implementation that makes it hard to distinguish between the direct effect of the system and some teething problems that will be solved in due time. On the other hand, the conclusion can be drawn that the obligation is a complex system, which will only function well if designed carefully. It does seem worthwhile, however, to continue monitoring the experiences with the obligation system abroad, because this will further reveal whether the system is indeed effective and cost effective in practice. In the longer term, e.g. beyond 2010, the introduction of an obligation system in the Netherlands could be considered. Finally, as the design of support schemes is being improved, it appears that the basic concepts of both the obligation system and the feed in system have been refined in such a way that the two systems are gradually converging. An important difference between the two systems

  20. PREFACE: XIV International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifang

    2011-03-01

    The International Conferences on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (also known as the Calor Conference series, started in October 1990 at Fermilab) address all aspects of calorimetric particle detection and measurement, with an emphasis on high energy physics experiments. The XIV International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (Calor 2010) was held at the campus of the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China, from May 10-14, 2010. This conference brought together more than 110 participants from 20 countries, including senior scientists and young physicists. During the five days of the conference, 98 presentations were given in seven plenary sessions. The attendees had in-depth discussions on the latest developments and innovations in calorimetry, including the exciting new LHC results. From the presentations, 83 papers were published in this proceedings. The success of the conference was due to the participants' enthusiasm and the excellent talks given by the speakers, and to the conveners for organizing the individual sessions. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for giving us the opportunity to host this Conference in Beijing. Finally we would like to thank all the people involved in the organization of the Conference, who have provided valuable local support. Yifang WangChair of Local Organizing Committee International Advisory Committee M DanilovITEP Moscow M DiemozINFN Roma I A EreditatoBern F L FabbriINFN Frascati T KobayashiICEPP Tokyo M LivanPavia University & INFN P LubranoINFN Perugia S MagillANL Argonne A MaioLIPP Lisbon H OberlackMPI Munich A ParaFermilab R WigmansTTU Lubbock R YoshidaANL Argonne R ZhuCaltech Local Organizing Committee Y WangIHEP (Chair) Y GaoTshinghua University T HuIHEP (Scientific secretary) C LiUSTC W LiIHEP J LuIHEP P WangIHEP T XuIHEP L ZhouIHEP Session Conveners 1) Materials and detectors - Junguang Lu (IHEP), Francesca Nessi (CERN) 2) Algorithm and simulation - Nural Akchurin

  1. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  2. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  3. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  4. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  5. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  6. Statistical simulation of internal energy exchange in shock waves using explicit transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Erik; Magin, Thierry

    2012-11-01

    A statistical model originally developed for electronic-translational energy transfer in atoms having multiple electronic states (Anderson et al, RGD15, 1986) is applied to the study of internal energy exchange in a polyatomic gas. The model is well-suited for gas kinetic simulations, because it provides an explicit expression for the transition probabilities between internal energy levels. All molecules possessing a given internal energy level are treated as a separate chemical species and all collisions involving exchange of internal energy thus become pseudo-chemical reactions. Post-collision energy levels of the two partners are determined by conserving the total energy of the collision pair and taking into account detailed balance. In the present work, DSMC simulations of relaxation in a stationary gas are performed and compared to those obtained by Anderson et al. Additionally, we apply the model to the simulation of rotational relaxation behind a normal shock wave.

  7. Assessment of Impacts from Adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    The state of Wyoming currently does not have a statewide building energy efficiency code for residential buildings. The U.S. Department of Energy has requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  8. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-06-15

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  9. Internal carbonic anhydrase activity in the tissue of scleractinian corals is sufficient to support proposed roles in photosynthesis and calcification.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Brian M; Tansik, Anna L; Fitt, William K

    2015-07-01

    Reef-building corals import inorganic carbon (Ci) to build their calcium carbonate skeletons and to support photosynthesis by the symbiotic algae that reside in their tissue. The internal pathways that deliver Ci for both photosynthesis and calcification are known to involve the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which interconverts CO2 and HCO3 (-). We have developed a method for absolute quantification of internal CA (iCA) activity in coral tissue based on the rate of (18)O-removal from labeled Ci. The method was applied to three Caribbean corals (Orbicella faveolata, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea radians) and showed that these species have similar iCA activities per unit surface area, but that S. radians has ∼10-fold higher iCA activity per unit tissue volume. A model of coral Ci processing shows that the measured iCA activity is sufficient to support the proposed roles for iCA in Ci transport for photosynthesis and calcification. This is the case even when iCA activity is homogeneously distributed throughout the coral, but the model indicates that it would be advantageous to concentrate iCA in the spaces where calcification (the calcifying fluid) and photosynthesis (the oral endoderm) take place. We argue that because the rates of photosynthesis and calcification per unit surface area are similar among the corals studied here, the areal iCA activity used to deliver Ci for these reactions should also be similar. The elevated iCA activity per unit volume of S. radians compared with that of the other species is probably due to the thinner effective tissue thickness in this species.

  10. A proposal for field-level medical assistance in an international humanitarian response to chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear events.

    PubMed

    Malich, Gregor; Coupland, Robin; Donnelly, Steve; Baker, David

    2013-10-01

    A capacity for field-level medical assistance for people exposed to chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) agents or medical support for people potentially exposed to these agents is intrinsically linked to the overall risk management approach adopted by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) for an international humanitarian response to a CBRN event. This medical assistance articulates: ▸the characteristics of the agent concerned (if known) ▸the need for immediate care particularly for people exposed to agents with high toxicity and short latency ▸the imperative for those responding to be protected from exposure to the same agents. This article proposes two distinct capacities for medical assistance--CBRN field medical care and CBRN first aid--that take the above into account and the realities of a CBRN event including the likelihood that qualified medical staff may not be present with the right equipment. These capacities are equally pertinent whether in support of ICRC staff or for assistance of victims of a CBRN event. Training of those who will undertake CBRN field medical care and CBRN first aid must include: ▸knowledge of CBRN agents, their impact on health and the corresponding toxidromes ▸skills to use appropriate equipment ▸use of appropriate means of self-protection ▸an understanding of the additional complexities brought by the need for and interaction of triage, transfer and decontamination. The development of CBRN field medical care and CBRN first aid continues within the ICRC while acknowledging that the opportunities for learning in real situations are extremely limited. Comments from others who work in this domain are welcome.

  11. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included.

  12. Proposal for continuously-variable neutrino beam energy for the NuMI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, Mikhail; Kopp, Sacha; Messier, Mark; Harris, Deborah A.; Hylen, Jim; Para, Adam; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The NuMI Facility was intended to be flexibly changed between 3 energies of beams, LE, ME, and HE. However, the changeover requires extensive downtime to move and realign horns and the target. We propose to implement a flexible arrangement where the target can be remotely moved in the beamline direction to change the beam energy and the horns remain fixed. In addition to having the attractive feature of keeping the horn optics fixed, the motion of the target can be performed more quickly and hence on a more frequent basis. We discuss potential increases in statistics in the high energy region, systematic cross-checks available, and the improved beam monitoring capabilities with such variable energy beams.

  13. Technical support document for the proposed Federal Commercial Building energy code

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, S.; Halverson, M.A.; Jones, C.C.; Hadley, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the justification and technical documentation for all changes and updates made (since 1993) to the Energy Code for Commercial and High-Rise Residential Buildings, the codified version of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989, ``Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.`` These changes and updates, which were subject to the ASHRAE addenda approval process, include Addenda b, c, d, e, g, and i. A seventh addenda, Addenda f, which has not been officially approved by ASHRAE, has been included into the proposed rule. Also included in the changes was technical work conducted to justify revisions to the 1993 DOE lighting power densities. The updated text will be reviewed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and issued as the new Federal Commercial Building Energy Code (10 CFR 434); Mandatory for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings.

  14. Proposed applications with implementation techniques of the upcoming renewable energy resource, The Tesla Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman Saeed Khan, M.; Maqsood, M. Irfan; Ali, Ehsan; Jamal, Shah; Javed, M.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that tesla turbine can be one of the future efficient sources of renewable energy. Modern techniques used for designing of tesla turbine have given optimum results regarding efficiency and applications. In this paper we have suggested fully coordinated applications of tesla turbine in different fields particularly in power generation at both low level and high level generation. In Energy deficient countries the tesla turbine has wide range of applications and it can play an important role in energy management system. Our proposed applications includes, the use of tesla turbine as renewable energy resource using tesla turbine in distributed generation system use of tesla turbine at home for power generation use of tesla turbine in irrigation channels using tesla turbine in hybrid electric vehicles All applications are explained with the help of flow charts and block diagrams and their implementation techniques are also explained in details. The results of physical experiments and simulations are also included for some applications.

  15. 76 FR 30326 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY... Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take... Nonproliferation and International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of...

  16. Real-Time PCR in faecal samples of Triatoma infestans obtained by xenodiagnosis: proposal for an exogenous internal control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proved to be a sensitive technique to detect Trypanosoma cruzi in the chronic phase of Chagas disease, which is characterized by low and fluctuating parasitemia. Another technique proposed for parasitological diagnosis in this phase of infection combines a microscopic search for motile trypomastigote forms in faecal samples (FS) obtained by xenodiagnosis (XD) with conventional PCR (XD-PCR). In this study we evaluate the use of human blood DNA as an exogenous internal control (EIC) for real time PCR (qPCR) combined with XD (XD-qPCR) using chromosome 12 (X12) detection. Findings None of the FS-XD evaluated by qPCR amplified for X12. Nevertheless, all the EIC-FS-XD mixtures amplified for X12. Conclusions We determined that X12 is useful as an EIC for XD-qPCR because we showed that the FS-XD does not contain human DNA after 30 or more days of XD incubation. This information is relevant for research on T. cruzi by XD-qPCR since it allows ruling out inhibition and false negative results due to DNA loss during the process of extraction and purification. PMID:22448961

  17. Proceedings of the second international symposium on nonconventional energy technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on emerging energy systems. Topics considered at the symposium included a quantum ramjet for interstellar flight, oil and gas exploration, advanced propulsion technology, motional field generators, electromagnetics, the fundamental properties of matter, magnetic monopoles, controlled fusion, ball lighting, homopolar faraday generator, free energy, fundamental ac energy and power measurement techniques in non-conventional energy, advanced alternators, ambient temperature superconducting filaments, and geometrical models of field wave forms.

  18. Classical trajectory study of internal energy distributions in unimolecular processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, J. D.; Marcus, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Energy flow in a molecular system such as CD3Cl or CD3H representing a chemical activation experiment is studied by the method of classical trajectories. A correlation function method is used to obtain energy distributions before and after the breakup of the activated molecule. The energy distribution in the final product is found to be randomly distributed for a surface with no exit channel barrier or strong intermode couplings. Nonrandom energy distributions result when these special forces are present. Product channel barriers result in an excess of translational energy and exit channel intermode couplings result in nonrandom vibrational distributions.

  19. Measuring internal energy deposition in collisional activation using hydrated ion nanocalorimetry to obtain peptide dissociation energies and entropies.

    PubMed

    Demireva, Maria; Williams, Evan R

    2010-07-01

    The internal energy deposited in both on- and off-resonance collisional activation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is measured with ion nanocalorimetry and is used to obtain information about the dissociation energy and entropy of a protonated peptide. Activation of Na(+)(H(2)O)(30) results in sequential loss of water molecules, and the internal energy of the activated ion can be obtained from the abundances of the product ions. Information about internal energy deposition in on-resonance collisional activation of protonated peptides is inferred from dissociation data obtained under identical conditions for hydrated ions that have similar m/z and degrees-of-freedom. From experimental internal energy deposition curves and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, dissociation data as a function of collision energy for protonated leucine enkephalin, which has a comparable m/z and degrees-of-freedom as Na(+)(H(2)O)(30), are modeled. The threshold dissociation energies and entropies are correlated for data acquired at a single time point, resulting in a relatively wide range of threshold dissociation energies (1.1 to 1.7 eV) that can fit these data. However, this range of values could be significantly reduced by fitting data acquired at different dissociation times. By measuring the internal energy of an activated ion, the number of fitting parameters necessary to obtain information about the dissociation parameters by modeling these data is reduced and could result in improved accuracy for such methods.

  20. Strategies for International Cooperation in Support of Energy Development in Pacific Island Nations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Voss, P.; Warren, A.; Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been partnering with island communities around the world to address the technical, policy, social, and economic hurdles to deploying energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies (RETs) on small, islanded systems. The lessons learned from these partnerships are briefly summarized in this document with the goal of supporting the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) in the development of specific near-term and longer-term strategies for island RET deployment.

  1. Effects of internal inductance on the energy confinement time by using the solution of equilibrium problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, dependence of energy confinement time on plasma internal inductance has been studied by using the solution of Grad-Shafranov equation (GSE) for circular cross-section HT-7 tokamak. For this, the Shafranov parameter (asymmetry factor) and poloidal beta were obtained from solution of GSE. Then we can find the dependence of energy confinement time, on plasma internal inductance. It is observed that the maximum energy confinement time is related to the low values of internal inductance (0.7 < li < 0.9).

  2. United States Energy Association Final Report International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Ministerial Conference

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Polen

    2006-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities of the United States Energy Association as it conducted the initial Ministerial Meeting of the International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy in Washington, DC on November 18-21, 2003. The report summarizes the results of the meeting and subsequent support to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in its role as IPHE Secretariat.

  3. Overcoming potential energy distortions in constrained internal coordinate molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Saugat; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Larsen, Adrien B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2016-01-01

    The Internal Coordinate Molecular Dynamics (ICMD) method is an attractive molecular dynamics (MD) method for studying the dynamics of bonded systems such as proteins and polymers. It offers a simple venue for coarsening the dynamics model of a system at multiple hierarchical levels. For example, large scale protein dynamics can be studied using torsional dynamics, where large domains or helical structures can be treated as rigid bodies and the loops connecting them as flexible torsions. ICMD with such a dynamic model of the protein, combined with enhanced conformational sampling method such as temperature replica exchange, allows the sampling of large scale domain motion involving high energy barrier transitions. Once these large scale conformational transitions are sampled, all-torsion, or even all-atom, MD simulations can be carried out for the low energy conformations sampled via coarse grained ICMD to calculate the energetics of distinct conformations. Such hierarchical MD simulations can be carried out with standard all-atom forcefields without the need for compromising on the accuracy of the forces. Using constraints to treat bond lengths and bond angles as rigid can, however, distort the potential energy landscape of the system and reduce the number of dihedral transitions as well as conformational sampling. We present here a two-part solution to overcome such distortions of the potential energy landscape with ICMD models. To alleviate the intrinsic distortion that stems from the reduced phase space in torsional MD, we use the Fixman compensating potential. To additionally alleviate the extrinsic distortion that arises from the coupling between the dihedral angles and bond angles within a force field, we propose a hybrid ICMD method that allows the selective relaxing of bond angles. This hybrid ICMD method bridges the gap between all-atom MD and torsional MD. We demonstrate with examples that these methods together offer a solution to eliminate the potential

  4. Overcoming potential energy distortions in constrained internal coordinate molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Saugat; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Larsen, Adrien B; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2016-01-28

    The Internal Coordinate Molecular Dynamics (ICMD) method is an attractive molecular dynamics (MD) method for studying the dynamics of bonded systems such as proteins and polymers. It offers a simple venue for coarsening the dynamics model of a system at multiple hierarchical levels. For example, large scale protein dynamics can be studied using torsional dynamics, where large domains or helical structures can be treated as rigid bodies and the loops connecting them as flexible torsions. ICMD with such a dynamic model of the protein, combined with enhanced conformational sampling method such as temperature replica exchange, allows the sampling of large scale domain motion involving high energy barrier transitions. Once these large scale conformational transitions are sampled, all-torsion, or even all-atom, MD simulations can be carried out for the low energy conformations sampled via coarse grained ICMD to calculate the energetics of distinct conformations. Such hierarchical MD simulations can be carried out with standard all-atom forcefields without the need for compromising on the accuracy of the forces. Using constraints to treat bond lengths and bond angles as rigid can, however, distort the potential energy landscape of the system and reduce the number of dihedral transitions as well as conformational sampling. We present here a two-part solution to overcome such distortions of the potential energy landscape with ICMD models. To alleviate the intrinsic distortion that stems from the reduced phase space in torsional MD, we use the Fixman compensating potential. To additionally alleviate the extrinsic distortion that arises from the coupling between the dihedral angles and bond angles within a force field, we propose a hybrid ICMD method that allows the selective relaxing of bond angles. This hybrid ICMD method bridges the gap between all-atom MD and torsional MD. We demonstrate with examples that these methods together offer a solution to eliminate the potential

  5. Overcoming potential energy distortions in constrained internal coordinate molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Saugat; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Larsen, Adrien B; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan

    2016-01-28

    The Internal Coordinate Molecular Dynamics (ICMD) method is an attractive molecular dynamics (MD) method for studying the dynamics of bonded systems such as proteins and polymers. It offers a simple venue for coarsening the dynamics model of a system at multiple hierarchical levels. For example, large scale protein dynamics can be studied using torsional dynamics, where large domains or helical structures can be treated as rigid bodies and the loops connecting them as flexible torsions. ICMD with such a dynamic model of the protein, combined with enhanced conformational sampling method such as temperature replica exchange, allows the sampling of large scale domain motion involving high energy barrier transitions. Once these large scale conformational transitions are sampled, all-torsion, or even all-atom, MD simulations can be carried out for the low energy conformations sampled via coarse grained ICMD to calculate the energetics of distinct conformations. Such hierarchical MD simulations can be carried out with standard all-atom forcefields without the need for compromising on the accuracy of the forces. Using constraints to treat bond lengths and bond angles as rigid can, however, distort the potential energy landscape of the system and reduce the number of dihedral transitions as well as conformational sampling. We present here a two-part solution to overcome such distortions of the potential energy landscape with ICMD models. To alleviate the intrinsic distortion that stems from the reduced phase space in torsional MD, we use the Fixman compensating potential. To additionally alleviate the extrinsic distortion that arises from the coupling between the dihedral angles and bond angles within a force field, we propose a hybrid ICMD method that allows the selective relaxing of bond angles. This hybrid ICMD method bridges the gap between all-atom MD and torsional MD. We demonstrate with examples that these methods together offer a solution to eliminate the potential

  6. New proposals for naming lower-ranked taxa within the frame of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Alain

    2006-10-01

    The recent multiplication of cladistic hypotheses for many zoological groups poses a challenge to zoological nomenclature following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: in order to account for these hypotheses, we will need many more ranks than currently allowed in this system, especially in lower taxonomy (around the ranks genus and species). The current Code allows the use of as many ranks as necessary in the family-series of nomina (except above superfamily), but forbids the use of more than a few ranks in the genus and species-series. It is here argued that this limitation has no theoretical background, does not respect the freedom of taxonomic thoughts or actions, and is harmful to zoological taxonomy in two respects at least: (1) it does not allow to express in detail hypothesized cladistic relationships among taxa at lower taxonomic levels (genus and species); (2) it does not allow to point taxonomically to low-level differentiation between populations of the same species, although this would be useful in some cases for conservation biology purposes. It is here proposed to modify the rules of the Code in order to allow use by taxonomists of an indeterminate number of ranks in all nominal-series. Such an 'expanded nomenclatural system' would be highly flexible and likely to be easily adapted to any new finding or hypothesis regarding cladistic relationships between taxa, at genus and species level and below. This system could be useful for phylogeographic analysis and in conservation biology. In zoological nomenclature, whereas robustness of nomina is necessary, the same does not hold for nomenclatural ranks, as the latter are arbitrary and carry no special biological, evolutionary or other information, except concerning the mutual relationships between taxa in the taxonomic hierarchy. Compared to the Phylocode project, the new system is equally unambiguous within the frame of a given taxonomic frame, but it provides more explicit and

  7. 76 FR 16765 - Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Leader One Gas Storage Project The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission) has prepared...

  8. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  9. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  10. Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Adams, Jennifer K.; Chan, Farrah T.; Drake, D. Andrew R.; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  11. Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project. Phase II: Internal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundmark, Dana

    This report is based on the Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project - Phase II. The project was a follow-up to an earlier study, extending from June 1980 to June 1983, in which government funding and engineering manpower were used to conduct an energy management program in 52 selected pilot schools in 5 areas of the province. The report…

  12. DOE-EDER international energy exercise March, 2009 event outline

    SciTech Connect

    Toole, Loren G

    2009-01-01

    The goals are to test and explore the DOE National Labs ability to quickly map, characterize and analyze an event involving Mexico's energy infrastructure system in the wake of a major disruption of energy supplies from Mexico to the US. Focus on the economic impacts and system interdependencies as well as analysis related to restoration and recovery issues.

  13. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  14. International energy outlook. Volume 3. North and South America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum, coal, and hydropower resources are found, in varying degrees, throughout the Americas. Struggling to maintain or achieve energy self-sufficiency, many North and South American countries are undertaking major projects to develop these, and other, energy sources. This volume, Volume 3 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the development projects and energy trends in 12 countries of North and South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States and Venezuela. The range and detail of country coverage varies, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations and provides some historical background, its main emphasis is on estimates of future consumption and production, and descriptions of energy programs and plans. Plans in the Americas call for exploiting oil and gas where possible, and making major efforts to develop sources such as coal and hydropower that can be alternatives to imported petroleum. 33 references, 1 figure, 73 tables.

  15. Electrode radius predicts lesion radius during radiofrequency energy heating. Validation of a proposed thermodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, D.E.; Watson, D.D.; Verow, A.F. )

    1990-07-01

    Myocardial heating by transcatheter delivery of radiofrequency (RF) energy has been proposed as an effective means of arrhythmia ablation. A thermodynamic model describing the radial temperature gradient at steady state during RF-induced heating is proposed. If one assumes that RF power output is adjusted to maintain a constant electrode-tissue interface temperature at all times, then this thermodynamic model predicts that the radius of the RF-induced lesion will be directly proportional to the electrode radius. A total of 76 RF-induced lesions were created in a model of isolated canine right ventricular free wall perfused and superfused with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Electrode radius was varied between 0.75 and 2.25 mm. RF energy (500 kHz) was delivered for 90 seconds, and the power output was adjusted to maintain a constant electrode-tissue interface temperature of 60 degrees C. A strong linear correlation was observed between electrode radius and lesion radius in two dimensions: transverse (p = 0.0001, r = 0.85) and transmural (p = 0.0001, r = 0.89). With these data, the temperature correlation with irreversible myocardial injury in this model was calculated at 46.6-48.8 degrees C. Therefore, the proposed thermodynamic model closely predicts the observed relation between electrode radius and lesion size during RF myocardial heating.

  16. Rules and regulations as potential moderator on the relationship between organizational internal and external factors with effective construction risk management in Nigerian construction companies: A proposed framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeleke, A. Q.; Bahaudin, A. Y.; Kamaruddeen, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Certain organizational internal and external factors have been found to influence effective construction risk management within the construction company which has contributed to massive risk occurrence on the projects. Yet, the influence of the organizational factors such as effective communication, team competency with skills, active leadership, political factor, organizational culture, technology factor and economic factor on effective construction risk management among the construction companies operating in Abuja and Lagos state Nigeria have not received considerable attention. More so, a moderating variable is proposed. This paper proposes rules and regulations as the potential moderator on the relationship between organisational internal factors, external factors and effective construction risk management.

  17. International energy outlook. Volume 1. Mideast, Far East, and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The developing nations of the Mideast, Far East, and Africa face a bleaker - and more-complicated - energy picture than that of the West. Rapid industrial and agricultural expansion in the region severely drains already-inadequate energy systems. Energy-importing countries find they must diversify and develop indigenous resources, but often lack the technical known-how to do so. Volume 1 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the way 22 countries in the Mideast, Far East, and Africa are responding to the energy problems. The countries covered are: Algeria, Australia, Burma, China, Egypt, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan, Taiwan, Tunisia and Turkey. The range and detail of country reports vary, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations, its main emphasis is on the future, including estimates of future production and consumption, and descriptions of energy development plans. Some of the countries in this region are fortunate to have petrochemical resources, while electric energy expansion is crucial to national development in all. Coal will be filling the gap left by diminishing oil supplies. 61 tables.

  18. 76 FR 13101 - Building Energy Codes Program: Presenting and Receiving Comments to DOE Proposed Changes to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... the International Green Construction Code (IgCC) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... the draft International Green Construction Code (IgCC). The first edition of the IgCC is currently... Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585- 0121. Tel.: (202) 287-1534....

  19. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-06-28

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  20. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-06-01

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  1. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) 2008 Pledges. Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Babiuch, Bill; Bilello, Daniel E.; Cowlin, Shannon C.; Mann, Margaret; Wise, Alison

    2008-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions resulting from more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy.

  2. 75 FR 47627 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree With Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree With Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc. Under The Clean Air Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that on July 23, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America et al. v. Hoosier Energy Rural Electric Cooperative, Inc.,...

  3. 76 FR 76432 - Notice of Proposed Information for Public Comment for: Capture Energy Efficiency Measures for PIH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...The proposed information collection requirement described below will be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. HUD is creating the Capture Energy Efficiency Measures for PIH (CEEMP) data system to track the amount and types of Energy Conservation......

  4. Energy and pseudoenergy flux in the internal wave field generated by tidal flow over topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Kevin G.

    2007-05-01

    The mechanical energy and pseudoenergy budgets in the internal wave field generated by tidal flow over topography is considered using a nonlinear, two-dimensional numerical model. The Boussinesq and rigid lid approximations are made, viscosity and diffusion are ignored and the flow is treated as incompressible. Both ridge and bank edge topographies are considered. The nonlinear energy equation and an equation for pseudoenergy (kinetic energy plus available potential energy) are satisfied to within less than 1%. For a uniform stratification (constant buoyancy frequency N) the available potential energy density is identical to the linear potential energy density {1}/{2}(g2/N2)ρ˜d2 where ρ is the density perturbation. For weak tidal flow over a ridge in the deep ocean, using a uniform stratification, the generated waves are small, approximately 2% of the water depth, and the traditional expression for the energy flux, accurately gives the pseudoenergy flux. For a case with strong tidal flow across a bank edge, using a non-uniform stratification, large internal solitary waves are generated. In this case, the linear form of the potential energy is very different from the available potential energy and the traditional energy flux term accounts for only half of the pseudoenergy flux. Fluxes of kinetic and available potential energy are comparable to the traditional energy flux term and hence must be included when estimating energy fluxes in the internal wave field.

  5. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Some International Comparisons

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    Presents energy use and carbon emissions patterns in a world context. The report contrasts trends in economically developed and developing areas of the world since 1970, presents a disaggregated view of the "Group of Seven" (G7) key industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and examines sectoral energy use patterns within each of the G7 countries.

  6. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  7. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  8. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  9. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  10. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  11. 22 CFR 9a.1 - Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... related to the International Energy Program. 9a.1 Section 9a.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.1 Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy...

  12. The fourth international energy agency international workshop on beryllium technology for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Longhurst, G.R.

    2000-05-01

    The main objective of the workshop was to support the advancement of the international development of fusion power through communication and dissemination of information on progress made in beryllium technology. This has been accomplished through presentation of original research on issues of current interest to the fusion beryllium community. The workshop was divided into ten technical sessions that addressed the following general topics: production and characterization, health and safety, forming and joining, chemical compatibility, thermal-mechanical properties, pebble bed behavior, high-heat-flux performance, irradiation effects, plasma-tritium interaction, and molten beryllium-bearing salts.

  13. Energy conservation in meat, poultry, and dairy processing. Final report: development of a proposed conference series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-31

    A seminar series is proposed to target seven technologies for promotion to the meat, poultry, and dairy industries. Hog skinning, continuous rendering, whole blood processing, and electrical stimulation/hot deboning were selected as the most promotable technologies within the Meat Processing Industry. In Dairy Processing, multistage drying and mechanical vapor recompression are the targeted technologies. Waste heat recovery is a generic technology. The logistics of the seminar series is presented. The activities of the meat, poultry and dairy industries in energy conservation are reported. (MHR)

  14. Research in experimental elementary particle physics. A proposal to the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew P. White; Kaushik De; Paul A. Draper; Ransom Stephens

    1995-04-13

    We report on the activities of the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington for the period 1994-95. We propose the continuation of the research program for 1996-98 with strong participation in the detector upgrade and physics analysis work for the D0 Experiment at Fermilab, prototyping and pre-production studies for the muon and calorimeter systems for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN, and detector development and simulation studies for the PP2PP Experiment at Brookhaven.

  15. MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanankos, G.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; Patterson, R.B.; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

    2011-05-01

    This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

  16. International solar terrestrial energy programme and the UK participation

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, M. ); Coates, A.J. ); Harrison, A. ); Rees, D. ); Roederer, J.G. ); Rycroft, M.J. ); Saunders, M.A. )

    1993-11-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Energy Programme (STEP) aims to improve our general understanding of how mass, energy and momentum are transformed between the various regions that form the Solar Terrestrial environment. STEP began in 1990 and will continue until 1997, during which time a number of major new spacecraft and ground-based projects will become operational. Six Working Groups form the basis of STEP, covering topics such as the Sun as a source of energy and disturbance, energy and mass transfer through the interplanetary medium and the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and response to energy and momentum inputs, middle atmosphere responses to forcing from above and below, solar variability effects in the human environment, and informatics. A Royal Astronomical Society Geophysics Discussion meeting took place in March 1992 to draw to the attention of UK scientists the diverse nature of STEP and the opportunities offered by STEP. This paper consists of individual sections prepared by the speakers at the meeting and which cover most of the STEP Working Group topics. The main aims of each section are to provide a benchmark' for the present status of the research area and to look ahead to the possible contributions that UK scientists can make during STEP.

  17. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    PubMed

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given.

  18. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Variale, V.; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D- beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D- and D+), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H- each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.

  19. Analysis of superconducting magnetic energy storage applications at a proposed wind farm site near Browning, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaustad, K. L.; Desteese, J. G.

    1993-07-01

    A computer program was developed to analyze the viability of integrating superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) with proposed wind farm scenarios at a site near Browning, Montana. The program simulated an hour-by-hour account of the charge/discharge history of a SMES unit for a representative wind-speed year. Effects of power output, storage capacity, and power conditioning capability on SMES performance characteristics were analyzed on a seasonal, diurnal, and hourly basis. The SMES unit was assumed to be charged during periods when power output of the wind resource exceeded its average value. Energy was discharged from the SMES unit into the grid during periods of low wind speed to compensate for below-average output of the wind resource. The option of using SMES to provide power continuity for a wind farm supplemented by combustion turbines was also investigated. Levelizing the annual output of large wind energy systems operating in the Blackfeet area of Montana was found to require a storage capacity too large to be economically viable. However, it appears that intermediate-sized SMES economically levelize the wind energy output on a seasonal basis.

  20. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1.

    PubMed

    Variale, V; Cavenago, M; Agostinetti, P; Sonato, P; Zanotto, L

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D(-) beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D(-) and D(+)), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H(-) each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed. PMID:26932033

  1. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRASHORT HIGH-ENERGY RADIATION AND MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A J

    2004-01-15

    The workshop is intended as a forum to discuss the latest experimental, theoretical and computational results related to the interaction of high energy radiation with matter. High energy is intended to mean soft x-ray and beyond, but important new results from visible systems will be incorporated. The workshop will be interdisciplinary amongst scientists from many fields, including: plasma physics; x-ray physics and optics; solid state physics and material science; biology ; quantum optics. Topics will include, among other subjects: understanding damage thresholds for x-ray interactions with matter developing {approx} 5 keV x-ray sources to investigate damage; developing {approx} 100 keV Thomsom sources for material studies; developing short pulse (100 fs and less) x-ray diagnostics; developing novel X-ray optics; and developing models for the response of biological samples to ultra intense, sub ps x-rays high-energy radiation.

  2. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  3. International Space Station Attitude Motion Associated With Flywheel Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1999-01-01

    Flywheels can exert torque that alters the Station's attitude motion, either intentionally or unintentionally. A design is presented for a once planned experiment to contribute torque for Station attitude control, while storing or discharging energy. Two contingencies are studied: the abrupt stop of one rotor while another rotor continues to spin at high speed, and energy storage performed with one rotor instead of a counter rotating pair. Finally, the possible advantages to attitude control offered by a system of ninety-six flywheels are discussed.

  4. 36th International Conference on High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Australian particle physics community was honoured to host the 36th ICHEP conference in 2012 in Melbourne. This conference has long been the reference event for our international community. The announcement of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC was a major highlight, with huge international press coverage. ICHEP2012 was described by CERN Director-General, Professor Rolf Heuer, as a landmark conference for our field. In additional to the Higgs announcement, important results from neutrino physics, from flavour physics, and from physics beyond the standard model also provided great interest. There were also updates on key accelerator developments such as the new B-factories, plans for the LHC upgrade, neutrino facilities and associated detector developments. ICHEP2012 exceeded the promise expected of the key conference for our field, and really did provide a reference point for the future. Many thanks to the contribution reviewers: Andy Bakich, Csaba Balazs, Nicole Bell, Catherine Buchanan, Will Crump, Cameron Cuthbert, Ben Farmer, Sudhir Gupta, Elliot Hutchison, Paul Jackson, Geng-Yuan Jeng, Archil Kobakhidze, Doyoun Kim, Tong Li, Antonio Limosani (Head Editor), Kristian McDonald, Nikhul Patel, Aldo Saavedra, Mark Scarcella, Geoff Taylor, Ian Watson, Graham White, Tony Williams and Bruce Yabsley.

  5. Do a Field List of Internationally Visible Journals and their Journal Impact Factors Depend on the Initial Set of Journals? A Research Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald; Spinak, Ernesto

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a research model to test the dependence of a field list of internationally visible journals on the initial set. Outlines applications of the experiment and hypothesizes on the validity of the Institute of Scientific Information's (ISI) impact factors. Suggests that in some cases lists of journals selected by linguistic or geographic…

  6. On the interpretation of energy and energy fluxes of nonlinear internal waves: An example from Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.; Butman, B.

    2006-01-01

    A self-consistent formalism to estimate baroclinic energy densities and fluxes resulting from the propagation of internal waves of arbitrary amplitude is derived using the concept of available potential energy. The method can be applied to numerical, laboratory or field data. The total energy flux is shown to be the sum of the linear energy flux ??? u??? p??? dz (primes denote baroclinic quantities), plus contributions from the non-hydrostatic pressure anomaly and the self-advection of kinetic and available potential energy. Using highly resolved observations in Massachusetts Bay, it is shown that due to the presence of nonlinear internal waves periodically propagating in the area, ??? u??? p??? dz accounts for only half of the total flux. The same data show that equipartition of available potential and kinetic energy can be violated, especially when the nonlinear waves begin to interact with the bottom. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  7. Estimates of Internal Tide Energy Fluxes from Topex/Poseidon Altimetry: Central North Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Cartwright, David E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy fluxes for first-mode M(sub 2) internal tides are deduced throughout the central North Pacific Ocean from Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. Temporally coherent internal tide signals in the altimetry, combined with climatological hydrographic data, determine the tidal displacements, pressures, and currents at depth, which yield power transmission rates. For a variety of reasons the deduced rates should be considered lower bounds. Internal tides were found to emanate from several large bathymetric structures, especially the Hawaiian Ridge, where the integrated flux amounts to about six gigawatts. Internal tides are generated at the Aleutian Trench near 172 deg west and propagate southwards nearly 2000 km.

  8. A Proposal for Energy-Efficient Cellular Neural Network Based on Spintronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chenyun; Naeemi, Azad

    2016-09-01

    Due to the massive parallel computing capability and outstanding image and signal processing performance, cellular neural network (CNN) is one promising type of non-Boolean computing system that can outperform the traditional digital logic computation and mitigate the physical scaling limit of the conventional CMOS technology. The CNN was originally implemented by VLSI analog technologies with operational amplifiers and operational transconductance amplifiers as neurons and synapses, respectively, which are power and area consuming. In this paper, we propose a hybrid structure to implement the CNN with magnetic components and CMOS peripherals with a complete driving and sensing circuitry. In addition, we propose a digitally programmable magnetic synapse that can achieve both positive and negative values of the templates. After rigorous performance analyses and comparisons, optimal energy is achieved based on various design parameters, including the driving voltage and the CMOS driving size. At a comparable footprint area and operation speed, a spintronic CNN is projected to achieve more than one order of magnitude energy reduction per operation compared to its CMOS counterpart.

  9. Energy harvesting by dynamic unstability and internal resonance for piezoelectric beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Chunbo; Qin, Weiyang Deng, Wangzheng

    2015-08-31

    We investigated the energy harvesting of a vertical beam with tip mass under vertical excitations. We applied dynamic unstability and internal resonance to improve the efficiency of harvesting. The experiments of harmonic excitation were carried out. Results show that for the beam there exist internal resonances in the dynamically unstable and the buckling bistable cases. The dynamic unstability is a determinant for strong internal resonance or mode coupling, which can be used to create a large output from piezoelectric patches. Then, the experiments of stochastic excitation were carried out. Results prove that the internal resonance or mode coupling can transfer the excitation energy to the low order modes, mainly the first and the second one. This can bring about a large output voltage. For a stochastic excitation, it is proved that there is an optimal weight of tip mass for realizing internal resonance and producing large outputs.

  10. International Data Base for the U.S. Renewable Energy Industry

    SciTech Connect

    1986-05-01

    The International Data Base for the US Renewable Energy Industry was developed to provide the US renewable energy industry with background data for identifying and analyzing promising foreign market opportunities for their products and services. Specifically, the data base provides the following information for 161 developed and developing countries: (1) General Country Data--consisting of general energy indicators; (2) Energy Demand Data--covering commercial primary energy consumption; (3) Energy Resource Data--identifying annual average insolation, wind power, and river flow data; (4) Power System Data--indicating a wide range of electrical parameters; and (5) Business Data--including currency and credit worthiness data.

  11. 75 FR 8047 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Duke Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... for the Proposed Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, Offshore Wind Demonstration Project Within the Pamlico... relating to the development of future offshore wind energy projects. This project is located within a 3..., entitled Coastal Wind, Energy for North Carolina's Future, dated June 2009. The report includes a...

  12. Assessing Foundation Insulation Strategies for the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code in Cold Climate New Home Construction

    SciTech Connect

    VonThoma, E.; Ojczyk, C.; Mosiman, G.

    2013-04-01

    While the International Energy Conservation Code 2012 (IECC 2012) has been adopted at a national level, only two cold climate states have adopted it as their new home energy code. Understanding the resistance to adoption is important in assisting more states accept the code and engage deep energy strategies nationwide. This three-part assessment by the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership was focused on foundation insulation R-values for cold climates and the design, construction, and performance implications. In Part 1 a literature review and attendance at stakeholder meetings held in Minnesota were used to assess general stakeholder interest and concerns regarding proposed code changes. Part 2 includes drawings of robust foundation insulation systems that were presented at one Minnesota stakeholder meeting to address critical issues and concerns for adopting best practice strategies. In Part 3 a sampling of builders participated in a telephone interview to gain baseline knowledge on insulation systems used to meet the current energy code and how the same builders propose to meet the new proposed code.

  13. Eighty-seventh annual conference of the International District Energy Association

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The proceedings of the 87th Annual Conference of the International District Energy Association are presented. Thirty pages were presented at the Conference which was held on June 8-12, 1996 in Washington, D.C. A separate abstract and indexing have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Proceedings: International Ex-Students' Conference on Energy (Austin, Texas, April 26-30, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, Charles, Ed.

    This document contains the speeches, and subsequent discussion, presented at the International Ex-Student Conference on Energy held at the University of Texas at Austin, April 26-30, 1976. Speakers included technical experts and representatives from an oil exporting country and from developed and developing oil importing countries. Energy sources,…

  15. Measurement of the total energy of an isolated system by an internal observer

    SciTech Connect

    Massar, S.; Popescu, S.

    2005-04-01

    We consider the situation in which an observer internal to an isolated system wants to measure the total energy of the isolated system (this includes his own energy, that of the measuring device and clocks used, etc.). We show that he can do this in an arbitrarily short time, as measured by his own clock. This measurement is not subjected to a time-energy uncertainty relation. The properties of such measurements are discussed in detail with particular emphasis on the relation between the duration of the measurement as measured by internal clocks versus external clocks.

  16. 78 FR 27982 - U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE) Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard U.S. Flag Compliance With MARPOL Annex VI International Energy Efficiency (IEE... issuance of an International Energy Efficiency Certificate and the preparation of a Ship Energy Efficiency... Energy Efficiency Design Index. These requirements apply to all U.S. flag ships 400 gross tonnage...

  17. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference 2008 Pledges: Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Babiuch, B.; Bilello, D. E.; Cowlin, S. C.; Mann, M.; Wise, A.

    2008-08-01

    The 2008 Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) was held in Washington, D.C., from March 4-6, 2008, and involved nearly 9,000 people from 125 countries. The event brought together worldwide leaders in renewable energy (RE) from governments, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to discuss the role that renewables can play in alleviating poverty, growing economies, and passing on a healthy planet to future generations. The conference concluded with more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy. The U.S. government authorized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the carbon dioxide (CO2) savings that would result from the pledges made at the 2008 conference. This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions derived from those pledges.

  18. Redistribution of energy available for ocean mixing by long-range propagation of internal waves.

    PubMed

    Alford, Matthew H

    2003-05-01

    Ocean mixing, which affects pollutant dispersal, marine productivity and global climate, largely results from the breaking of internal gravity waves--disturbances propagating along the ocean's internal stratification. A global map of internal-wave dissipation would be useful in improving climate models, but would require knowledge of the sources of internal gravity waves and their propagation. Towards this goal, I present here computations of horizontal internal-wave propagation from 60 historical moorings and relate them to the source terms of internal waves as computed previously. Analysis of the two most energetic frequency ranges--near-inertial frequencies and semidiurnal tidal frequencies--reveals that the fluxes in both frequency bands are of the order of 1 kW x m(-1) (that is, 15-50% of the energy input) and are directed away from their respective source regions. However, the energy flux due to near-inertial waves is stronger in winter, whereas the tidal fluxes are uniform throughout the year. Both varieties of internal waves can thus significantly affect the space-time distribution of energy available for global mixing.

  19. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  20. The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN): proposal for text changes for improved differentiation of viral taxa and viruses.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B

    2013-07-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is responsible for the classification of viruses into taxa. Importantly, the ICTV is currently not responsible for the nomenclature of viruses or their subclassification into strains, lineages, or genotypes. ICTV rules for classification of viruses and nomenclature of taxa are laid out in a code, the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). The most recent version of the Code makes it difficult for the unfamiliar reader to distinguish between viruses and taxa, thereby often giving the impression that certain Rules apply to viruses. Here, Code text changes are proposed to address this problem.

  1. THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF VIRUS CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE (ICVCN): PROPOSAL FOR TEXT CHANGES FOR IMPROVED DIFFERENTIATION OF VIRAL TAXA AND VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is responsible for the classification of viruses into taxa. Importantly, the ICTV is currently not responsible for the nomenclature of viruses or their subclassification into strains, lineages, or genotypes. ICTV virus classification into taxa and taxa nomenclature rules are laid out in a code, the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). The most recent version of the Code makes it difficult for the unfamiliar reader to distinguish between viruses and taxa, thereby often giving the impression that certain Rules apply to viruses. Here, Code text changes are proposed to address this problem. PMID:23417351

  2. International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC): Guidelines for Technical Issues in Request for Proposal (RFP) Requirements and Contract Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Libraries and Microcomputers, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents guidelines developed by the ICOLC (International Coalition of Library Consortia) regarding vendor contracts and negotiations that involve electronic information resources. Highlights include content issues, including HTML, use of printers, and use of multimedia; and platform issues, including system architecture, access control, security…

  3. Factors Influencing the Satisfaction of International Postgraduate Students in the Malaysian Context--A Literature Review and a Proposed Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memon, Mumtaz Ali; Salleh, Rohani; Baharom, Mohamed Noor Rosli; Harun, Haryaani

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian government is continuously striving to develop the country to become a regional education hub. Hence, higher learning institutions, especially universities, are becoming the centre of attention in order for Malaysia to achieve its desired status. Although the number of international postgraduate students in Malaysia has progressively…

  4. An International Centre for Standards Documentation: Proposals for Standardization of UDC Usage and the Mechanized Documentation of Information on Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellisch, Hans

    At present, there are several obstacles to efficient information retrieval regarding the world's standards. There is no uniformity in subject classification, although most standards are classified by the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC); there are no international indexes to the subjects covered; foreign standards and superseded standards…

  5. 77 FR 11136 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; a Multi-Center International Hospital-Based Case-Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to... enrolled at treating hospitals. The annual reporting burden is estimated at 5,302 hours (see Table...

  6. Future directions in intermediate energy heavy ion physics. A proposed expansion of the Holifield Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    A proposal is presented for a major accelerator addition to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. The expanded facility will provide ion beams of mass 1 to 238 amu with a combination of energy, intensity, momentum resolution, and beam quality not currently available at any other facility in North America. The physics motivation for such an addition is discussed, and involves physics dominated by meson-exchange forces, Coulomb-force dominated physics, and possibly a regime where the quark and gluon degrees of freedom are significant. The physics research would include topics in atomic and interdisciplinary areas as well as nuclear physics. Some remarks are made on the merits of Oak Ridge as a site for this facility, placing the proposal in some historical perspective. The accelerator system is then described, giving the required beam properties, and the parameters of the synchrotron ring components, injection, ring magnets, RF systems, vacuum system, and electron cooling system and stochastic cooling system requirements. Also described are such facilities as buildings, beam transport and shielding, and experimental facilities, including target areas. (LEW)

  7. A proposal for fs-electron microscopy experiments on high-energy excitations in solids.

    PubMed

    Piazza, L; Musumeci, P; Luiten, O J; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in ultrafast technology enable both the study and the control of materials properties thanks to the ability to record high temporal resolution movies of their transformations, or the ability to generate new states of matter by selecting ad hoc an excitation to drive the system out of equilibrium. The holy grail of this type of experiments is to combine a high tuneability of the excitation with a wide observation window. For example, this is achieved in multidimensional optical spectroscopy where the response to several excitation energies is monitored in a broad energy range by a large bandwidth optical pulse. In this article, the possibility to combine the chemical sensitivity of intense tuneable X-rays pulses from a free electron laser, with the wide range of observables available in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope is discussed. The requirements for such experiments are quantified via estimates based on state of the art experiments and simulations, and it is proposed that ultrafast electron imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy experiments can be performed in combination with a chemically selective X-ray excitation of materials. PMID:24631423

  8. Three dimensional imaging technique suitable for the measurements of the internal energies of asymmetrical diatomic molecular ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauza, J. B.; Panchenko, D. I.; Duot, A. C.; Strom, R. A.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a three dimensional imaging technique that could be used to measure the internal energy of asymmetrical diatomic molecular ions such as HeH+ and CO+. The detection scheme is similar to the one used for symmetrical diatomic molecular ions, which accesses the internal energy of the ion through the kinetic energy release in a resonant dissociative charge transfer (see for instance). In that technique, the fragments hit two detectors which send the positions of the impacts along with the difference between the times of impacts to a computer. The computed kinetic energy release is related to the vibrational excitation level of the initial molecular ion. In the case of an asymmetrical ion, the lighter fragment has a higher recoil velocity and goes further away transversally from the center of mass direction. The heavier fragment would not hit the first detector if the beam is judiciously misaligned. Therefore, we make distinction between the two particles. Details of the technique will be presented. Authors wish to give special thanks to Pacific Union College Student Senate for their financial support.

  9. Analysis of international efforts in energy research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaiyan, A.J.; Gill, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    Research and experimental development comprise innovative and creative work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge of science, engineering, and society. This knowledge reserve is used to improve living conditions and standards, including economic growth. Research and development (R&D) expenditures are useful measures of the scale and direction of technological innovation within a country, industry, or scientific field. Administrators concerned with economic growth and performance rely on R&D statistics as one possible type of indicator of technological change. R&D statistics are an essential tool in many government programs and evaluations (OECD 1993). The objective of the analysis was to identify and evaluate R&D funding sources, levels, and trends in the energy sectors of selected industrialized countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States) and the European Union (EU). Fossil fuel technologies, particularly fuel cells and advanced gas turbines, were the focus of the analysis, whose results are presented in this report.

  10. Piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum for multi-directional energy harvesting with internal resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Tang, J.

    2015-04-01

    Piezoelectric transducers are widely employed in vibration-based energy harvesting schemes. Simple piezoelectric cantilever for energy harvesting is uni-directional and has bandwidth limitation. In this research we explore utilizing internal resonances to harvest vibratory energy due to excitations from an arbitrary direction with the usage of a single piezoelectric cantilever. Specifically, it is identified that by attaching a pendulum to the piezoelectric cantilever, 1:2 internal resonances can be induced based on the nonlinear coupling. The nonlinear effect induces modal energy exchange between beam bending motion and pendulum motions in 3-dimensional space, which ultimately yield multidirectional energy harvesting by a single cantilever. Systematic analysis and experimental investigation are carried out to demonstrate this new concept.

  11. Inventory of U.S.-led International Activities on Building Energy Efficiency Initial Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, Alison; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    Several U.S. Government agencies promote energy efficiency in buildings internationally. The types and scope of activities vary by agency. Those with the largest role include the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of State and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Both USAID and the Department of State have a substantial presence overseas, which may present some complementarities with the Department of Energy’s efforts to reach out to other countries. Generally speaking, USAID focuses on capacity building and policy issues; the Department of State focuses on broad diplomatic efforts and some targeted grants in support of these efforts, and EPA has more targeted roles linked to ENERGY STAR appliances and a few other activities. Several additional agencies are also involved in trade-related efforts to promote energy efficiency in buildings. These include the Department of Commerce, the Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the Trade and Development Agency (TDA). This initial synthesis report is designed to summarize broad trends and activities relating to international cooperation on energy efficiency in buildings, which can help the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in developing its own strategy in this area. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will develop a more complete synthesis report later in 2010 as it populates a database on international projects on building energy efficiency.

  12. Government`s role in energy technology R&D: A proposed model for strategic guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Shelton, R.B.

    1996-04-01

    There is very little argument that the federal government has a role in the funding of basic research. There is also consensus that the federal government should not fund research that the private sector would do on its own volition. In this paper, we examine the role of government in the ``grey`` area between these extremes. This area includes generic, crosscutting, and applied technology development and deployment. We first present some general trends in US R&D investment and make international comparisons. These trends clearly show that the amount the US spends on R&D has fallen precipitously since the 1980s. The R&D expenditure data also reveal striking differences in the shares of government R&D allocated to different social objectives between the US and other major industrialized countries. We then review the linear model--the model that characterizes much of the postwar paradigm for US technology policy-- and evaluate alternatives to it. These alternative models allow for different types of innovation and explicitly account for feedback from the marketplace and linkages to the private sector, universities, national laboratories. Based on the nonlinear model of innovation, we outline a structure for an R&D technology council that would provide guidance to DOE on energy technology R&D. The energy technology R&D council would advise DOE on funding priorities for different types of research. Basic research would be conducted at universities and national laboratories as appropriate. Generic technology development would be conducted by teams consisting of national laboratories, the private sector, and universities. The private sector would participate directly in the generic technology development by supplying information and funding. For those activities requiring the development of applied technology, the private sector would cost share in much the same way as is done in the current system with cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs).

  13. The proposed changes for DSM-5 for SLD and ADHD: international perspectives--Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and United States.

    PubMed

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Cavendish, Wendy; Cornoldi, Cesare; Fawcett, Angela J; Grünke, Matthias; Hung, Li-Yu; Jiménez, Juan E; Karande, Sunil; van Kraayenoord, Christina E; Lucangeli, Daniela; Margalit, Malka; Montague, Marjorie; Sholapurwala, Rukhshana; Sideridis, Georgios; Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Vio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an international perspective of the proposed changes to the DSM-5 for learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) across ten countries: Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We provide perspectives of the present situation for youth with LD and youth with ADHD and describe the legislation, prevalence rates, and educational systems that serve students with disabilities in the respective countries. We also present a discussion of the expected impact of the proposed changes for the diagnosis of LD and ADHD in each country.

  14. The proposed changes for DSM-5 for SLD and ADHD: international perspectives--Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and United States.

    PubMed

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Cavendish, Wendy; Cornoldi, Cesare; Fawcett, Angela J; Grünke, Matthias; Hung, Li-Yu; Jiménez, Juan E; Karande, Sunil; van Kraayenoord, Christina E; Lucangeli, Daniela; Margalit, Malka; Montague, Marjorie; Sholapurwala, Rukhshana; Sideridis, Georgios; Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Vio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an international perspective of the proposed changes to the DSM-5 for learning disabilities (LD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) across ten countries: Australia, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We provide perspectives of the present situation for youth with LD and youth with ADHD and describe the legislation, prevalence rates, and educational systems that serve students with disabilities in the respective countries. We also present a discussion of the expected impact of the proposed changes for the diagnosis of LD and ADHD in each country. PMID:23197670

  15. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  16. 76 FR 2903 - Interconnection of the Proposed Hyde County Wind Energy Center Project (DOE/EIS-0461), and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Intent were published in the Federal Register for both proposed projects on November 30, 2010 (75 FR 74040 for Hyde County and 75 FR 74042 for Crowned Ridge). Scoping meetings were held on December 14... Area Power Administration Interconnection of the Proposed Hyde County Wind Energy Center Project...

  17. The impact of u.s. Energy policy on international health: alternate paths into the future.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J W; Merrill, J C

    1982-01-01

    Historical, sociological, and epidemiological research shows that international health and mortality levels are determined primarily not by health sector policies but, instead, by national and international policies that shape the broader sociopolitical and economic systems within which health sectors are embedded. Such policies have traditionally been considered to lie outside the domain of the health sector and, therefore, not of concern to health educators. One such national policy with the potential to powerfully influence international health and mortality levels is the looming choice between alternate American energy paths: the capital-intensive, large-scale, and centralized "hard" path of non-renewable energy resources; and the labor-intensive, small-scale, and decentralized "soft" path of renewable energy sources. Substantial effort has been directed to projecting the physical environmental impacts in the United States for both paths. But the social environmental impacts of each path and their implications for international health have been ignored. This article reviews links between alternate U.S. energy paths and alternate international health futures, and their implications for health educators around the world. PMID:20841098

  18. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  19. Internal Energy Deposition for Low Energy, Femtosecond Laser Vaporization and Nanospray Post-ionization Mass Spectrometry using Thermometer Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, Paul M.; Shi, Fengjian; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    The internal energy of p-substituted benzylpyridinium ions after laser vaporization using low energy, femtosecond duration laser pulses of wavelengths 800 and 1042 nm was determined using the survival yield method. Laser vaporization of dried benzylpyridinium ions from metal slides into a buffered nanospray with 75 μJ, 800 nm laser pulses resulted in a higher extent of fragmentation than conventional nanospray due to the presence of a two-photon resonance fragmentation pathway. Using higher energy 800 nm laser pulses (280 and 505 μJ) led to decreased survival yields for the four different dried benzylpyridinium ions. Analyzing dried thermometer ions with 46.5 μJ, 1042 nm pulse-bursts resulted in little fragmentation and mean internal energy distributions equivalent to nanospray, which is attributable to the absence of a two-photon resonance that occurs with higher energy, 800 nm laser pulses. Vaporization of thermometer ions from solution with either 800 nm or 1042 nm laser pulses resulted in comparable internal energy distributions to nanospray ionization.

  20. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  1. 77 FR 31037 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... sales laws, for a period of up to 2 years. This is for the purpose of processing one solar energy right... Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in Maricopa County, Arizona. DATES: Effective Date: This segregation... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley...

  2. Impacts of a 25% Renewable Electricity Standard as Proposed in the American Clean Energy and Security Act Discussion Draft

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report responds to requests from Chairman Edward Markey, for an analysis of a 25% federal renewable electricity standard (RES). The RES proposal analyzed in this report is included in the discussion draft of broader legislation, the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACESA) of 2009, issued on the Energy and Commerce Committee website at the end of March 2009.

  3. International energy policy: the conflict of investment needs and market signals

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1985-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a neglected opportunity and Western Europe a neglected risk on resource and production cost grounds, but the greatest danger to energy security lies in the US imposing its highly market-oriented energy logic on the rest of the world. Speaking for the International Association of Energy Economists, the author points out that energy prospects look different to Europeans than to Americans. Europe needs to develop a balancing factor to Soviet gas, but is ahead of the US in its concern for energy security and the impact of energy development on the environment and society. The US message that free markets provide the best solutions tends to be ignored because the US message persists in its claim that the price of oil drives the entire energy machine. Natural gas offers the most hope as an alternative, but it is necessary to develop committed markets.

  4. Evaluation of Proposed Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2008-12-01

    This study reviews and ranks major proposed solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy security while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, wildlife, resource availability, thermal pollution, water chemical pollution, nuclear proliferation, and undernutrition. Nine electric power sources and two liquid fuel options are considered. The electricity sources include solar-photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP), wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, tidal, nuclear, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The liquid fuel options include corn-E85 and cellulosic E85. To place the electric and liquid fuel sources on an equal footing, we examine their comparative abilities to address the problems mentioned by powering new-technology vehicles, including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs), hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs), and flex-fuel vehicles run on E85. Twelve combinations of energy source-vehicle type are considered. Upon ranking and weighting each combination with respect to each of 11 impact categories, four clear divisions of ranking, or tiers, emerge. Tier 1 (highest-ranked) includes wind-BEVs and wind-HFCVs. Tier 2 includes CSP-BEVs, geothermal-BEVs, PV-BEVs, tidal-BEVs, and wave-BEVs. Tier 3 includes hydro-BEVs, nuclear-BEVs, and CCS-BEVs. Tier 4 includes corn- and cellulosic-E85. Wind-BEVs ranked first in six out of 11 categories, including the two most important, mortality and climate damage reduction. Although HFCVs are less efficient than BEVs, wind- HFCVs ranked second among all combinations. Tier 2 options provide significant benefits and are recommended. Tier 3 options are less desirable. However, hydroelectricity, which was ranked ahead of coal- CCS and nuclear with respect to climate and health, is an excellent load balancer, thus strongly recommended. The Tier-4 combinations (cellulosic- and corn-E85) were ranked lowest overall and with respect to

  5. Current internal-dosimetry practices at US Department of Energy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traub, R. J.; Murphy, B. L.; Selby, J. M.; Vallario, B. J.

    1985-04-01

    The internal dosimetry practice at DOE facilities were characterized. The purpose was to determine the size of the facilities' internal dosimetry programs, the uniformity of the programs among the facilities, and the areas of greatest concern to health physicists in providing and reporting accurate estimates of internal radiation dose and in meeting proposed changes in internal dosimetry. The differences among the internal-dosimetry programs are related to the radioelements in use at each facility and, to some extent, the number of workers at each facility. The differences include different frequencies in the use of quality control samples, different minimum detection levels, different methods of recording radionuclides, different amounts of data recorded in the permanent record, and apparent differences in modeling the metabolism of radionuclides within the body. Recommendations for improving internal-dosimetry practices include studying the relationship between air-monitoring/survey readings and bioassay data, establishing uniform methods for recording bioassay results, developing more sensitive direct-bioassay procedures, establishing a mechanism for sharing information on internal-dosimetry procedures among DOE facilities, and developing mathematical models and interactive computer codes that can help quantify the uptake of radioactive materials and predict their distribution in the body.

  6. Equation of state for tungsten over a wide range of densities and internal energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishchenko, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    A caloric model, which describes the pressure-density-internal-energy relationship in a broad region of condensed-phase states, is applied for tungsten. As distinct from previously known caloric equations of state for this material, a new form of the cold-compression curve at T = 0 K is used. Thermodynamic characteristics along the cold curve and shock Hugoniots are calculated for the metal and compared with some theoretical results and experimental data available at high energy densities.

  7. Implications of the ICRP Task Group's proposed lung model for internal dose assessments in the mineral sands industry

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.C. ); Birchall, A. )

    1990-09-01

    The ICRP Task Group on Respiratory Tract Models for Radiological Projection is proposing a model to describe the deposition, clearance, retention and dosimetry of inhaled radionuclides for dose-intake calculations and interpretation of bioassay data. The deposition model takes into account new data on the regional deposition of aerosol particles in human lung and the inhalability of large particles. The clearance model treats clearance as competition between mechanical transport, which moves particles to the gastro-intestinal tract and lymph nodes, and the translocation of material to blood. This provides a realistic estimate of the amount of a given material (such as mineral sand) that is absorbed systemically, and its variation with aerosol size. The proposed dosimetry model takes into account the relative sensitivities of the various tissue components of the respiratory tract. A new treatment of dose received by epithelia in the tracheo-bronchiolar and extrathoracic regions is proposed. This paper outlines the novel features of the task group model, and then examines the impact that adoption of the model may have on the assessment of doses from occupational exposures to mineral sands and thoron progeny. 39 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Comparison of the activation time effects and the internal energy distributions for the CID, PQD and HCD excitation modes.

    PubMed

    Ichou, Farid; Schwarzenberg, Adrian; Lesage, Denis; Alves, Sandra; Junot, Christophe; Machuron-Mandard, Xavier; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2014-06-01

    Reproducibility among different types of excitation modes is a major bottleneck in the field of tandem mass spectrometry library development in metabolomics. In this study, we specifically evaluated the influence of collision voltage and activation time parameters on tandem mass spectrometry spectra for various excitation modes [collision-induced dissociation (CID), pulsed Q dissociation (PQD) and higher-energy collision dissociation (HCD)] of Orbitrap-based instruments. For this purpose, internal energy deposition was probed using an approach based on Rice-Rampserger-Kassel-Marcus modeling with three thermometer compounds of different degree of freedom (69, 228 and 420) and a thermal model. This model treats consecutively the activation and decomposition steps, and the survival precursor ion populations are characterized by truncated Maxwell-Boltzmann internal energy distributions. This study demonstrates that the activation time has a significant impact on MS/MS spectra using the CID and PQD modes. The proposed model seems suitable to describe the multiple collision regime in the PQD and HCD modes. Linear relationships between mean internal energy and collision voltage are shown for the latter modes and the three thermometer molecules. These results suggest that a calibration based on the collision voltage should provide reproducible for PQD, HCD to be compared with CID in tandem in space instruments. However, an important signal loss is observed in PQD excitation mode whatever the mass of the studied compounds, which may affect not only parent ions but also fragment ions depending on the fragmentation parameters. A calibration approach for the CID mode based on the variation of activation time parameter is more appropriate than one based on collision voltage. In fact, the activation time parameter in CID induces a modification of the collisional regime and thus helps control the orientation of the fragmentation pathways (competitive or consecutive dissociations).

  9. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. PMID:22560564

  10. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy.

  11. Broadband performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester based on the internal resonance of buckled beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Liuyang; Tang, Lihua; Ding, Hu; Chen, Liqun; Mace, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Nonlinear internal resonance mechanism is exploited in piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) for the purpose of broadening the resonance band. Conventional linear energy harvester has narrow operating bandwidth. In this research, a buckled piezoelectric beam structure with preload under transverse excitation is investigated to demonstrate the superiority of internal resonance. The condition for 2:1 internal resonance could be established by truncating the continuum beam with geometrical nonlinearity. Integro-partial-differential equations are derived for governing transverse motion measured from a stable equilibrium position. At specific initial axial compressive force, two modes are coupled through the internal resonance interaction. For weak nonlinear perturbations, multiple scales method is used to explore the amplitude-frequency responses of the buckled beam system under primary resonance with 2:1 internal resonance. Numerical examples demonstrate that the resonance bandwidth is broadened thanks to the coexistence of softening and hardening nonlinear characteristics. Moreover, validity of the approximate analytical method is demonstrated by comparing with simulation. Furthermore, the optimal resistance is discussed with a pure resistive load. This research on the internal resonance of buckled beam provides a basis for structure design and optimization in broadband PVEH.

  12. 78 FR 49202 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... would be explored in any future energy conservation standards rulemaking for natural draft commercial..., ``Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use,'' 66 FR... future rulemaking to amend energy conservation standards for natural draft commercial packaged...

  13. Summary report of technical discussion, NASA-ERDA solar energy proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the reduced energy requirements and cooling loads of solar collectors is assessed. Energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption have been implemented. It is indicated that solar chemical dehumidification was more efficient than solar absorption.

  14. Proposed linear energy transfer areal detector for protons using radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Rulon; Lin, Liyong; Fager, Marcus; Douglas, Dan; McDonough, James; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-04-15

    Radiation therapy depends on predictably and reliably delivering dose to tumors and sparing normal tissues. Protons with kinetic energy of a few hundred MeV can selectively deposit dose to deep seated tumors without an exit dose, unlike x-rays. The better dose distribution is attributed to a phenomenon known as the Bragg peak. The Bragg peak is due to relatively high energy deposition within a given distance or high Linear Energy Transfer (LET). In addition, biological response to radiation depends on the dose, dose rate, and localized energy deposition patterns or LET. At present, the LET can only be measured at a given fixed point and the LET spatial distribution can only be inferred from calculations. The goal of this study is to develop and test a method to measure LET over extended areas. Traditionally, radiochromic films are used to measure dose distribution but not for LET distribution. We report the first use of these films for measuring the spatial distribution of the LET deposited by protons. The radiochromic film sensitivity diminishes for large LET. A mathematical model correlating the film sensitivity and LET is presented to justify relating LET and radiochromic film relative sensitivity. Protons were directed parallel to radiochromic film sandwiched between solid water slabs. This study proposes the scaled-normalized difference (SND) between the Treatment Planning system (TPS) and measured dose as the metric describing the LET. The SND is correlated with a Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the LET spatial distribution for a large range of SNDs. A polynomial fit between the SND and MC LET is generated for protons having a single range of 20 cm with narrow Bragg peak. Coefficients from these fitted polynomial fits were applied to measured proton dose distributions with a variety of ranges. An identical procedure was applied to the protons deposited from Spread Out Bragg Peak and modulated by 5 cm. Gamma analysis is a method for comparing the calculated

  15. Proposed linear energy transfer areal detector for protons using radiochromic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon; Lin, Liyong; Fager, Marcus; Douglas, Dan; McDonough, James; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Radiation therapy depends on predictably and reliably delivering dose to tumors and sparing normal tissues. Protons with kinetic energy of a few hundred MeV can selectively deposit dose to deep seated tumors without an exit dose, unlike x-rays. The better dose distribution is attributed to a phenomenon known as the Bragg peak. The Bragg peak is due to relatively high energy deposition within a given distance or high Linear Energy Transfer (LET). In addition, biological response to radiation depends on the dose, dose rate, and localized energy deposition patterns or LET. At present, the LET can only be measured at a given fixed point and the LET spatial distribution can only be inferred from calculations. The goal of this study is to develop and test a method to measure LET over extended areas. Traditionally, radiochromic films are used to measure dose distribution but not for LET distribution. We report the first use of these films for measuring the spatial distribution of the LET deposited by protons. The radiochromic film sensitivity diminishes for large LET. A mathematical model correlating the film sensitivity and LET is presented to justify relating LET and radiochromic film relative sensitivity. Protons were directed parallel to radiochromic film sandwiched between solid water slabs. This study proposes the scaled-normalized difference (SND) between the Treatment Planning system (TPS) and measured dose as the metric describing the LET. The SND is correlated with a Monte Carlo (MC) calculation of the LET spatial distribution for a large range of SNDs. A polynomial fit between the SND and MC LET is generated for protons having a single range of 20 cm with narrow Bragg peak. Coefficients from these fitted polynomial fits were applied to measured proton dose distributions with a variety of ranges. An identical procedure was applied to the protons deposited from Spread Out Bragg Peak and modulated by 5 cm. Gamma analysis is a method for comparing the calculated

  16. Reference States and Relative Values of Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two reference states (pure chemical compounds and pure elements at specified condition of temperature and pressure) and the relation between these reference states for internal energy and enthalpy. Problem 5.11 from Modell and Reid's "Thermodynamics and its Applications" (p. 141) is used to apply the ideas discussed. (JN)

  17. PREFACE: XXX International Conference on Interaction of Intense Energy Fluxes with Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortov, V. E.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Karamurzov, B. S.; Efremov, V. P.; Sultanov, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is a preface to the proceedings of the XXX International Conference on Interaction of Intense Energy Fluxes with Matter, which was held in Elbrus settlement, in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic of the Russian Federation, from March 1-6, 2015.

  18. International Cooperation in Energy Policy: Impacts on Development in Third World Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preda, Michael A.; Hudspeth, Ernest M., Jr.

    Arranged into four parts, the paper discusses the importance of international and institutional cooperation and the appropriate use of technology in the search for new and renewable energy sources. The first part of the paper discusses the inevitable depletion of the world's oil supply, the increasing interdependency of nations, the implications…

  19. 78 FR 56977 - Axcess International, Inc., Gamma Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Innovex, Inc, Knight Energy Corp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Axcess International, Inc., Gamma Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Innovex, Inc, Knight Energy Corp., Komodo... Pharmaceuticals, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended September 30, 2009....

  20. ICENES `91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, {mu}-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Update on Spent Fuel Management Activities with Focus on Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Lovasic, Z.

    2008-07-01

    The IAEA continues to give a high priority to safe and effective implementation of spent fuel management. As the options for spent fuel management may in the long term diversify due to evolving requirements and new priorities in strategic criteria, it is worthwhile identifying viable technical options for spent fuel treatment and their applicability to spent fuel management. The IAEA has issued several publications in the past that provide technical information on the global status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing and associated topics. The latest update of this information, collected from the experts in this field, covers currently available spent fuel reprocessing technologies as well as emerging technologies that are being investigated. The information exchange on advanced nuclear fuel cycles is also achieved through the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiated by IAEA. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. Recent initiatives by (IAEA, USA and Russia) are proposing the internationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle. These proposals imply a need for the development of innovative means for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle as advanced reactors (Generations III and IV) are deployed and as the quantities of material in the fuel cycle are set to increase to levels several times larger than at present. Spent fuel treatment/reprocessing options have evolved significantly since the start of nuclear energy application. There is a large body of industrial experience in fuel cycle technologies complemented by research and development programs in several countries. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced

  2. International Atomic Energy Agency Bulletin, volume 22, no. 5 and 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    The assessment of benefits and risks associated with various energy sources and systems is considered in relation to human needs. Particular emphasis is given to occupational hazards connected with coal mining, the handling of natural and liquified petroleum gases, and the use of nuclear energy for electric power generation. A method of energy risk comparison is examined as well as the approach of a regulatory agency to the concept of risk. Reports of international conferences on the management of alpha contaminated waste and on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research are included.

  3. Biomass Conversion Task IV 1987 program of work: International Energy Agency Bioenergy Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.J.

    1986-12-01

    Biomass is a major, renewable energy resource through out the world, and extensive research is being conducted by many countries on bioenergy technologies. In an effort to improve communications and cooperation in the area of biomass energy, several nations have agreed to a cooperative program of work under the International Energy Agency's Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA). Three areas of major importance have been identified including Short Rotation Forestry, Conventional Forestry, and Biomass Conversion. This document describes the 1987 Program of Work for cooperative activities in the area of Biomass Conversion. The background of the cooperation and descriptions of specific conversion projects are presented. Details of activity funding are also provided. 3 tabs.

  4. Multi-directional energy harvesting by piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum with internal resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Tang, J.

    2015-11-23

    This letter reports a piezoelectric cantilever-pendulum design for multi-directional energy harvesting. A pendulum is attached to the tip of a piezoelectric cantilever-type energy harvester. This design aims at taking advantage of the nonlinear coupling between the pendulum motion in 3-dimensional space and the beam bending vibration at resonances. Experimental studies indicate that, under properly chosen parameters, 1:2 internal resonance can be induced, which enables the multi-directional energy harvesting with a single cantilever. The advantages of the design with respect to traditional piezoelectric cantilever are examined.

  5. Proposal of a socio-cognitive-behavioral structural equation model of internalized stigma in people with severe and persistent mental illness.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Manuel; Sanz, María; Pérez-Santos, Eloísa; Quiroga, María de Los Ángeles

    2011-04-30

    The social stigma of mental illness has received much attention in recent years and its effects on diverse variables such as psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, self-esteem, self-efficacy, quality of life, and social integration are well established. However, internalized stigma in people with severe and persistent mental illness has not received the same attention. The aim of the present work was to study the relationships between the principal variables involved in the functioning of internalized stigma (sociodemographic and clinical variables, social stigma, psychosocial functioning, recovery expectations, empowerment, and discrimination experiences) in a sample of people with severe and persistent mental illness (N=108). The main characteristics of the sample and the differences between groups with high and low internalized stigma were analyzed, a correlation analysis of the variables was performed, and a structural equation model, integrating variables of social, cognitive, and behavioral content, was proposed and tested. The results indicate the relationships among social stigma, discrimination experiences, recovery expectation, and internalized stigma and their role in the psychosocial and behavioral outcomes in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  6. Excited state energies and internal conversion in diphenylpolyenes: from diphenylbutadiene to diphenyltetradecaheptaene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachilo, S. M.; Spangler, C. W.; Gillbro, T.

    1998-02-01

    Time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence investigations on a series of α,ω-diphenylpolyenes have been made. Dual S 1/S 2 fluorescence was observed for polyenes with more than three double bonds in the polyene chain and the intensity and lifetime of the S 1 fluorescence decreased with increasing chain length. The 1B u energy was almost inversely proportional to the square root of the total molecular length. A similar dependence was found for the energy of the 1A g level, but the length without the phenyl rings was used. The logarithm of the S 1→S 0 internal conversion rate in long-chain diphenylpolyenes exhibits a linear dependence on the S 1 energy. The rate in diphenylhexatriene is slightly higher than the value predicted from the linear dependence, while the internal conversion of diphenylbutadiene is much faster due to stronger S 1-S 2 interaction.

  7. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529-40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr-1 from 1992-2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  8. Solar energy conversion via hot electron internal photoemission in metallic nanostructures: Efficiency estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Leenheer, Andrew J.; Narang, Prineha; Atwater, Harry A.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2014-04-07

    Collection of hot electrons generated by the efficient absorption of light in metallic nanostructures, in contact with semiconductor substrates can provide a basis for the construction of solar energy-conversion devices. Herein, we evaluate theoretically the energy-conversion efficiency of systems that rely on internal photoemission processes at metal-semiconductor Schottky-barrier diodes. In this theory, the current-voltage characteristics are given by the internal photoemission yield as well as by the thermionic dark current over a varied-energy barrier height. The Fowler model, in all cases, predicts solar energy-conversion efficiencies of <1% for such systems. However, relaxation of the assumptions regarding constraints on the escape cone and momentum conservation at the interface yields solar energy-conversion efficiencies as high as 1%–10%, under some assumed (albeit optimistic) operating conditions. Under these conditions, the energy-conversion efficiency is mainly limited by the thermionic dark current, the distribution of hot electron energies, and hot-electron momentum considerations.

  9. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529–40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr‑1 from 1992–2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  10. THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY-OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT'S INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J; James Marra, J; David Peeler, D; Jay Roach , J; Bond Calloway, B

    2007-02-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has collaborated with the various international institutes (e.g. Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency--Rosatom and Ukraine government's Chornobyl Center-International Radioecology Laboratory (CC-IRL)) for many years on radioactive waste management challenges of mutual concern. Currently, EM is cooperating with Rosatom and the Ukraine's CC-IRL to explore issues related to high-level waste and to investigate experience and technologies that could support EM site cleanup needs. EM is currently implementing five collaborative projects with other international institutes on nuclear waste issues: (1) Application of the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter to DOE Wastes; SIA Radon, Moscow. (2) Design Improvements to the Cold Crucible Induction Heated Melter; Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg. (3) Improve Retention of Radionuclides in Cement Type Waste Forms; Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg. (4) Improved Solubility and Retention of Troublesome Components in SRS and Hanford HLW Glasses; Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg. (5) Long-term Impacts from Radiation/Contamination within the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone, Chornobyl Center, International Radioecology Laboratory, Ukraine The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of EM's objectives for participating in cooperative activities with various international institutes. Additionally, this paper presents programmatic and technical information on these activities, and outlines specific technical collaborations currently underway and planned to support DOE's cleanup and closure mission.

  11. Line Pilots' Attitudes about and Experience with Flight Deck Automation: Results of an International Survey and Proposed Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    A survey of line pilots' attitudes about flight deck automation was conducted by the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine (RAF IAM, Farnborough, UK) under the sponsorship of the United Kingdom s Civil Aviation Authority and in cooperation with IATA (the International Air Transport Association). Survey freehand comments given by pilots operating 13 types of commercial transports across five manufacturers (Airbus, Boeing, British Aerospace, Lockheed, and McDonnell-Douglas) and 57 air carriers/organizations were analyzed by NASA. These data provide a "lessons learned" knowledge base which may be used for the definition of guidelines for flight deck automation and its associated crew interface within the High Speed Research Program. The aircraft chosen for analysis represented a progression of levels of automation sophistication and complexity, from "Basic" types (e.g., B727, DC9), through "Transition" types (e.g., A300, Concorde), to two levels of glass cockpits (e.g., Glass 1: e.g., A310; Glass 2: e.g., B747-400). This paper reports the results of analyses of comments from pilots flying commercial transport types having the highest level of automation sophistication (B757/B767, B747-400, and A320). Comments were decomposed into five categories relating to: (1) general observations with regard to flight deck automation; comments concerning the (2) design and (3) crew understanding of automation and the crew interface; (4) crew operations with automation; and (5) personal factors affecting crew/automation interaction. The goal of these analyses is to contribute to the definition of guidelines which may be used during design of future aircraft flight decks.

  12. State-to-State Internal Energy Relaxation Following the Quantum-Kinetic Model in DSMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for chemical reactions, the Quantum-Kinetic (Q-K) model of Bird, has recently been introduced that does not depend on macroscopic rate equations or values of local flow field data. Subsequently, the Q-K model has been extended to include reactions involving charged species and electronic energy level transitions. Although this is a phenomenological model, it has been shown to accurately reproduce both equilibrium and non-equilibrium reaction rates. The usefulness of this model becomes clear as local flow conditions either exceed the conditions used to build previous models or when they depart from an equilibrium distribution. Presently, the applicability of the relaxation technique is investigated for the vibrational internal energy mode. The Forced Harmonic Oscillator (FHO) theory for vibrational energy level transitions is combined with the Q-K energy level transition model to accurately reproduce energy level transitions at a reduced computational cost compared to the older FHO models.

  13. Guide to the Changes between the 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, Terry S.; Conover, David R.

    2012-05-31

    The International Code Council (ICC) published the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code{reg_sign} (IECC) in early 2012. The 2012 IECC is based on revisions, additions, and deletions to the 2009 IECC that were considered during the ICC code development process conducted in 2011. Solid vertical lines, arrows, or asterisks printed in the 2012 IECC indicate where revisions, deletions, or relocations of text respectively were made to 2009 IECC. Although these marginal markings indicate where changes have been made to the code, they do not provide any further guidance, leaving the reader to consult and compare the 2009 and 2012 IECC for more detail.

  14. A Hazard Assessment and Proposed Risk Index for Art, Architecture, Archive and Artifact Protection: Case Studies for Assorted International Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Clara J.

    This study proposes a hazard/risk index for environmental, technological, and social hazards that may threaten a museum or other place of cultural storage and accession. This index can be utilized and implemented to measure the risk at the locations of these storage facilities in relationship to their geologic, geographic, environmental, and social settings. A model case study of the 1966 flood of the Arno River and its impact on the city of Florence and the Uffizi Gallery was used as the index focus. From this focus an additional eleven museums and their related risk were assessed. Each index addressed a diverse range of hazards based on past frequency and magnitude. It was found that locations nearest a hazard had exceptionally high levels of risk, however more distant locations could have influences that would increase their risk to levels similar to those locations near the hazard. Locations not normally associated with a given natural hazard can be susceptible should the right conditions be met and this research identified, complied and assessed those factions found to influence natural hazard risk at these research sites.

  15. Analysis of geomagnetic secular variation during 1980-1985 and 1985- 1990, and geomagnetic models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during the periods 1980-1985 and 1985-1990 was analyzed in terms of spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree and order. Data from worldwide magnetic observatories and the Navy's Project MAGNET aerial surveys were used. The resulting pair of secular-variation models was used to update the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model for 1980, resulting in new mainfield models for 1985.0 and 1990.0. These, along with the secular-variation model for 1985-1990, were proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). -Author

  16. Combined Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plus Solar PV Proposal for Rio Rancho High School, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide

    2015-08-25

    This is a proposal to locate a combined Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) Energy Storage plus PV solar facility at Rio Rancho High School, NM. The facility will functionally provide electricity at night derived from renewable solar energy. Additionally the facility will provide STEM related educational opportunities for students and staff of the school, public community outreach, and validation of an energy storage approach applicable for the Nation (up to 1,000,000 kWh per installation). The proposal will summarize the nature of electricity, why energy storage is useful, present the combined MPH and solar PV production design, present how the actual design will be built and operated in a sustainable manner, how the project could be funded, and how the project could be used in STEM related activities.

  17. 78 FR 40513 - Division of Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation; Proposed Extension of Existing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation...: Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act Forms (Forms EE-1, EE-2, EE-3, EE-4, EE-7... agency ] responsible for the administration of the Energy Employees Occupational Illness...

  18. 76 FR 69147 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination To Treat Non-Compressor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... CONTACT: Mr. Lucas Adin, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...: (202) 287-1317. Email: Lucas.Adin@ee.doe.gov . In the Office of General Counsel, contact Mr. Michael... refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers (collectively, refrigeration products). See 76 FR 57516...

  19. Determination of Internal Energy Distributions of Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry using Thermometer Ions and Other Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, Paul M.; Shi, Fengjian; Perez, Johnny J.; Karki, Santosh; Pfeiffer, Conrad; Schafmeister, Christian; Levis, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    The internal energy distributions for dried and liquid samples that were vaporized with femtosecond duration laser pulses centered at 800 nm and postionized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LEMS) were measured and compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The internal energies of the mass spectral techniques were determined by plotting the ratio of the intact parent molecular features to all integrated ion intensities of the fragments as a function of collisional energy using benzylpyridinium salts and peptides. Measurements of dried p-substituted benzylpyridinium salts using LEMS resulted in a greater extent of fragmentation in addition to the benzyl cation. The mean relative internal energies, were determined to be 1.62 ± 0.06, 2.0 ± 0.5, and 1.6 ± 0.3 eV for ESI-MS, dried LEMS, and liquid LEMS studies, respectively. Two-photon resonances with the laser pulses likely caused lower survival yields in LEMS analyses of dried samples but not liquid samples. In studies with larger biomolecules, LEMS analyses of dried samples from glass showed a decrease in survival yield compared with conventional ESI-MS for leucine enkephalin and bradykinin of ~15% and 11%, respectively. The survival yields for liquid LEMS analyses were comparable to or better than ESI-MS for benzylpyridinium salts and large biomolecules.

  20. 22 CFR 9a.1 - Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security of certain information and material related to the International Energy Program. 9a.1 Section 9a.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.1 Security of certain...

  1. PREFACE: International Congress on Energy Fluxes and Radiation Effects (EFRE-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The International Congress on Energy Fluxes and Radiation Effects 2014 (EFRE 2014) was held in Tomsk, Russia, on September 21-26, 2014. The organizers of the Congress were the Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS and Tomsk Polytechnic University. EFRE 2014 combines three international conferences which are regularly held in Tomsk, Russia: the 18th International Symposium on High-Current Electronics (18th SHCE), the 12th International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows (12th CMM) and the 16th International Conference on Radiation Physics and Chemistry of Condensed Matter (16th RPC). The International Conference on Radiation Physics and Chemistry of Condensed Matter is a traditional representative forum devoted to the discussion of the fundamental problems of physical and chemical non-linear processes in condensed matter (mainly inorganic dielectrics) under the action of particle and photon beams of all types including pulsed power laser radiation. The International Symposium on High-Current Electronics is held biannually in Tomsk, Russia. The program of the conferences covers a wide range of scientific and technical areas including pulsed power technology, ion and electron beams, high-power microwaves, plasma and particle beam sources, modification of materials, and pulsed power applications in chemistry, biology and medicine. The 12th International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental and applied issues in the field of modification of materials properties with particle beams and plasma flows. The six-day Congress brought together more than 250 specialists and scientists from different countries and organizations and provided an excellent opportunity to exchange knowledge, make oral contributions and poster presentations, and initiate discussion on the topics of interest. The proceedings were edited by Victor Lisitsyn, Vladimir

  2. 78 FR 54669 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar... to file a draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) for the proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar... Vegas Review Journal and the Moapa Valley Progress and on the following Web site:...

  3. Renewable energy for America`s cities: Advanced Community Energy Systems Proposed Research, Development and Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to describe ACES technologies and their potential impact on the environment, the US energy supply system and economy. The second purpose is to recommend an R,D&D program to the US Department of Energy which has as its goal the rapid development of the most promising of the new technologies. ACES supply thermal energy to groups of buildings, communities and cities in the form of hot or chilled water for building space heating, domestic hot water or air conditioning. The energy is supplied via a network of insulated, underground pipes linking central sources of supply with buildings. ACES, by definition, employ very high energy efficiency conversion technologies such as cogeneration, heat pumps, and heat activated chillers. These systems also use renewable energy sources such as solar energy, winter cold, wind, and surface and subsurface warm and cold waters. ACES compose a new generation of community-scale building heating and air conditioning supply technologies. These new systems can effect a rapid and economical conversion of existing cities to energy supply by very efficient energy conversion systems and renewable energy systems. ACES technologies are the most promising near term means by which cities can make the transition from our present damaging dependence on fossil fuel supply systems to an economically and environmentally sustainable reliance on very high efficiency and renewable energy supply systems. When fully developed to serve an urban area, ACES will constitute a new utility system which can attain a level of energy efficiency, economy and reliance on renewable energy sources not possible with currently available energy supply systems.

  4. 76 FR 59715 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Energy Innovation Fund-Multifamily...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Energy Innovation Fund... Housing and Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20410; e-mail Colette Pollard at... notice informs the public that the Department of Housing and Urban Development has submitted to OMB...

  5. 76 FR 29261 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Wind Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Campo Wind Energy Project, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION... necessary for preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Campo Shu'luuk Wind Project... San Diego, California. Construction of the Shu'luuk Wind Project within the Campo Reservation...

  6. 78 FR 68107 - Order Exempting Broker-Dealers Participating in the Proposed Global Offering of Meridian Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order Exempting Broker-Dealers Participating in the Proposed Global Offering of Meridian Energy Limited From the Arranging Prohibitions of Section 11(d)(1) of the Exchange Act September 9, 2013. By letter dated September 6, 2013...

  7. The Vredefort structure: estimates of energy for some internal sources and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayly, Brian

    1990-01-01

    The conspicuous features of the Vredefort structure are the concentric arrangement of gneissose core, steeply dipping metasediments and metavolcanics and a peripheral rim syncline; the alkali intrusive suite and its metamorphic aureole; the indicators of fracturing and high pressure (shatter cones, coesite and stishovite, and microscopic deformation textures); and the predominance of CO 2 over H 2O in fluid inclusions in the gneissose core. The cause of the Vredefort structure lies in either external or internal agencies; possible internal agencies and sources of energy are discussed here. In reviewing possibilities, a continuum is recognized between two extremes: at one extreme the major sources of energy are taken to be the density inversion (metasediments overlying granitic gneiss) and the alkali intrusions, whereas at the other extreme the major source of energy is taken to have a deep-seated and explosive character, most of the energy being liberated in one or two short, but very great, bursts. Between the extremes lie scenarios in which violent energy releases form substantial, but not overwhelming contributions to the total. Attention is focused initially on the less explosive end of the range: the hypothesis explored is that the gneiss rose because of buoyancy, while being disturbed and accelerated by the alkali intrusions. The aspect selected for emphasis is the energy budget; quantities of energy are estimated as follows: (1) Gravitational energy available from the density inversion, —10 21 J, (2) thermal energy associated with the alkali intrusions—10 21 J, and (3) energy consumed in forming shatter cones—10 15 J. (By comparison, for Mount St. Helens in April-May 1980 the estimates are: thermal energy associated with magma—10 18 J, and energy released in four major seismic events—10 13 J.) In addition to the energy budget, aspects requiring attention are the apparent compressive stress intensities (8-10 GPa to form stishovite) and the form and

  8. Design of the Proposed Low Energy Ion Collider Ring at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, Edward W.; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong

    2013-06-01

    The polarized Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) envisioned at Jefferson Lab will cover a range of center-of-mass energies up to 65 GeV. The present MEIC design could also allow the accommodation of low energy electron-ion collisions (LEIC) for additional science reach. This paper presents the first design of the low energy ion collider ring which is converted from the large ion booster of MEIC. It can reach up to 25 GeV energy for protons and equivalent ion energies of the same magnetic rigidity. An interaction region and an electron cooler designed for MEIC are integrated into the low energy collider ring, in addition to other required new elements including crab cavities and ion spin rotators, for later reuse in MEIC itself. A pair of vertical chicanes which brings the low energy ion beams to the plane of the electron ring and back to the low energy ion ring are also part of the design.

  9. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2011-09-30

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of about $145 a year for an average new house. Construction cost increases are estimated at $655. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of close to $100 a year because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

  10. International Space Station Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment: Effects of Flywheel Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1999-01-01

    The Attitude Control and Energy Storage Experiment is currently under development for the International Space Station; two counter-rotating flywheels will be levitated with magnetic bearings and placed in vacuum housings. The primary objective of the experiment is to store and discharge energy, in combination with existing batteries, into the electrical power system. The secondary objective is to use the flywheels to exert torque on the Station; a simple torque profile has been designed so that the Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes will be assisted in maintaining torque equilibrium attitude. Two energy storage contingencies could result in the inadvertent application of torque by the flywheels to the Station: an emergency shutdown of one flywheel rotor while the other remains spinning, and energy storage with only one rotor instead of the counterrotating pair. Analysis of these two contingencies shows that attitude control and the microgravity environment will not be adversely affected.

  11. Report of feasibility study on international-cooperation in high efficient energy conversion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    With regard to accelerated introduction of high efficient energy conversion technology to developing countries, the paper investigates the countries' thoughts of the introduction of the technology and the status of the introduction bases. The countries for survey are the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The Philippine government expects to develop cogeneration as well as large power sources and to widen effective use of natural energy. In Indonesia, they largely expect effective use of biomass energy using Stirling engines by international cooperation and the promoted local electrification using standalone distributed fuel cells. In Malaysia, they have great expectations of the introduction of air conditioning facilities using Stirling engines and the use of standalone distributed fuel cells for promotion of local electrification. Thailand hopes for the use of Stirling engines to air conditioning systems, and the development of solar Stirling generators with solar energy as a heat source and electric vehicles.

  12. Formulation of U. S. international energy policies. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-30

    To find out how the United States develops international energy policy, GAO reviewed five major energy issues covering the period from early 1977 through 1979: Vulnerabilities to petroleum supply interruptions; Long term national security strategy on imported oil prices; Export of U.S. oil and gas production equipment and technolgy to the Soviet Union; World Bank initiatives to assist in financing oil and gas exploration and development in oil-importing developing countries; The role of gas imports relative to the Nation's future sources of gas.

  13. Development of three-tier heat, temperature and internal energy diagnostic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-05-01

    Background:Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are effective assessment tools to determine misconceptions in physics. Although a limited number of three-tier tests about heat and temperature are discussed in the literature, no reports discuss three-tier tests that simultaneously consider heat, temperature and internal energy. Purpose:The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable three-tier test to determine students' misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy. Sample:The sample consists of 462 11th-grade Anatolian high school students. Of the participants, 46.8% were female and 53.2% were male. Design and methods:This research takes the form of a survey study. Initially, a multiple-choice test was developed. To each multiple-choice question was added one open-ended question asking the students to explain their answers. This test was then administered to 259 high school students and the data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The students' answers for each open-ended question were analyzed and used to create the choices for the second-tier questions of the test. Depending on those results, a three-tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test (HTIEDT) was developed by adding a second-tier and certainty response index to each item. This three-tier test was administered to the sample of 462 high school students. Results:The Cronbach alpha reliability for the test was estimated for correct and misconception scores as .75 and .68, respectively. The results of the study suggested that HTIEDT could be used as a valid and reliable test in determining misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy concepts.

  14. International Space Station Bus Regulation With NASA Glenn Research Center Flywheel Energy Storage System Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E.; Kenny, Barbara H.; Dever, Timothy P.; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental flywheel energy storage system is described. This system is being used to develop a flywheel based replacement for the batteries on the International Space Station (ISS). Motor control algorithms which allow the flywheel to interface with a simplified model of the ISS power bus, and function similarly to the existing ISS battery system, are described. Results of controller experimental verification on a 300 W-hr flywheel are presented.

  15. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  16. 75 FR 9120 - Energy Conservation Program: Public Meeting and Availability of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... received, please refer to the January 4, 2010 proposed rule. 75 FR 186. The Department welcomes all... meeting of February 11, 2010, was cancelled due to inclement weather, which forced a Federal...

  17. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J

    2008-08-26

    The DOE-EM Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM's international cooperative program. The Office of Engineering and Technology's international efforts are aimed at supporting EM's mission of risk reduction and accelerated cleanup of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To do this, EM pursues collaborations with government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify and develop technologies that can address the site cleanup needs of DOE. The Office of Engineering and Technology has developed a Technology Roadmap and a Multi-year Program Plan to identify technology needs and identify areas for focused research and development to support DOE-EM's environmental cleanup and waste management objectives. The international cooperative program is an important element of the technology development roadmap, leveraging of world-wide expertise in the advancement and deployment of remediation and treatment technologies. Introductory briefings aimed at furthering familiarity with the DOE-EM mission, and the vital role that technology development plays within it, were presented at two international meetings. The Office of Engineering and Technology currently works with the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and SIA Radon Institute in Russia, the International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) in Ukraine and the Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea through cooperative bilateral arrangements to support EM's accelerated cleanup and closure mission.

  18. US Department of Energy investments in natural gas R&D: An analysis of the gas industry proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1992-04-13

    The natural gas industry has proposed an increase in the DOE gas R&D budget from about $100 million to about $250 million per year for each of the next 10 years. The proposal includes four programs: natural gas supplies, fuel cells, natural gas vehicles and stationary combustion systems. This paper is a qualitative assessment of the gas industry proposal and recommends a natural gas R&D strategy for the DOE. The methodology is a conceptual framework based on an analysis of market failures and the energy policy objectives of the DOE`s (1991) National Energy Strategy. This framework would assist the DOE in constructing an R&D portfolio that achieves energy policy objectives. The natural gas supply program is recommended to the extent that it contributes to energy price stability. Stationary combustion programs are supported on grounds of economic efficiency and environmental quality. The fuel cell program is supported on grounds of environmental quality. The natural gas vehicle program may potentially contribute to environmental quality and energy price stability. The R&D programs in natural gas vehicles and in fuel cells should be complemented with policies that encourage the commercialization and use of the technology, not merely its development.

  19. On the rejection of internal and external disturbances in a wind energy conversion system with direct-driven PMSG.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengquan; Zhang, Kezhao; Li, Juan; Liu, Chao

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the critical issue in a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG): the rejection of lumped disturbance, including the system uncertainties in the internal dynamics and unknown external forces. To simultaneously track the motor speed in real time and capture the maximum power, a maximum power point tracking strategy is proposed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) theory. In real application, system inertia, drive torque and some other parameters change in a wide range with the variations of disturbances and wind speeds, which substantially degrade the performance of WECS. The ADRC design must incorporate the available model information into an extended state observer (ESO) to compensate the lumped disturbance efficiently. Based on this principle, a model-compensation ADRC is proposed in this paper. Simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed control strategy. It is shown that the effect of lumped disturbance is compensated in a more effective way compared with the traditional ADRC approach. PMID:26775089

  20. On the rejection of internal and external disturbances in a wind energy conversion system with direct-driven PMSG.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengquan; Zhang, Kezhao; Li, Juan; Liu, Chao

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the critical issue in a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG): the rejection of lumped disturbance, including the system uncertainties in the internal dynamics and unknown external forces. To simultaneously track the motor speed in real time and capture the maximum power, a maximum power point tracking strategy is proposed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) theory. In real application, system inertia, drive torque and some other parameters change in a wide range with the variations of disturbances and wind speeds, which substantially degrade the performance of WECS. The ADRC design must incorporate the available model information into an extended state observer (ESO) to compensate the lumped disturbance efficiently. Based on this principle, a model-compensation ADRC is proposed in this paper. Simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed control strategy. It is shown that the effect of lumped disturbance is compensated in a more effective way compared with the traditional ADRC approach.

  1. Technical Support Document for a Proposed IECC Glazing Orientation Restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a proposed revision to the International Energy Conservation Code that would restrict the amount of west-facing glazing permitted on low-rise residential buildings. The purpose and structure of the proposed change are discussed and its potential impacts on energy consumption and cooling peak load are quantified based on hour-by-hour building energy simulation.

  2. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Bonacorsi, D.; Ueda, I.; Lyon, A.

    2015-12-01

    The International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) is a major series of international conferences intended to attract physicists and computing professionals to discuss on recent developments and trends in software and computing for their research communities. Experts from the high energy and nuclear physics, computer science, and information technology communities attend CHEP events. This conference series provides an international forum to exchange experiences and the needs of a wide community, and to present and discuss recent, ongoing, and future activities. At the beginning of the successful series of CHEP conferences in 1985, the latest developments in embedded systems, networking, vector and parallel processing were presented in Amsterdam. The software and computing ecosystem massively evolved since then, and along this path each CHEP event has marked a step further. A vibrant community of experts on a wide range of different high-energy and nuclear physics experiments, as well as technology explorer and industry contacts, attend and discuss the present and future challenges, and shape the future of an entire community. In such a rapidly evolving area, aiming to capture the state-of-the-art on software and computing through a collection of proceedings papers on a journal is a big challenge. Due to the large attendance, the final papers appear on the journal a few months after the conference is over. Additionally, the contributions often report about studies at very heterogeneous statuses, namely studies that are completed, or are just started, or yet to be done. It is not uncommon that by the time a specific paper appears on the journal some of the work is over a year old, or the investigation actually happened in different directions and with different methodologies than originally presented at the conference just a few months before. And by the time the proceedings appear in journal form, new ideas and explorations have

  3. A proposed concept for the extraction of energy stored in magnetic or electric fields in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papailiou, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that enormous energy resources associated with electric, magnetic, gravitational, and other fields exist in space. It is also known that the major difficulty in 'tapping' this energy arises from the extremely low density level at which this energy exists. An analytical study has been made of a particular scheme that appears promising for an efficient utilization of some of these energy resources in propulsion. The principle involves the exchange of energy between a fluctuating magnetic field and a velocity field of electrically conducting fluid in turbulent motion located onboard a spacecraft. Under certain conditions the total energy of the turbulent flow field onboard the spacecraft can be increased and this increase appears in the form of Joulean heat. The utilization of the fluctuating part of the magnetic field, in the form of Joulean dissipation (because of its random character) does not introduce any drag on the spacecraft. The application appears promising for flights in the vicinity of Jupiter and other planets. The rate at which energy is gained by the conducting fluid is of the order of 100 watts when the rms value of the fluctuating magnetic field strength is about 1 gauss.

  4. Energy transfers in internal tide generation, propagation and dissipation in the deep ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floor, J. W.; Auclair, F.; Marsaleix, P.

    The energy transfers associated with internal tide (IT) generation by a semi-diurnal surface tidal wave impinging on a supercritical meridionally uniform deep ocean ridge on the f-plane, and subsequent IT-propagation are analysed using the Boussinesq, free-surface, terrain-following ocean model Symphonie. The energy diagnostics are explicitly based on the numerical formulation of the governing equations, permitting a globally conservative, high-precision analysis of all physical and numerical/artificial energy transfers in a sub-domain with open lateral boundaries. The net primary energy balances are quantified using a moving average of length two tidal periods in a simplified control simulation using a single time-step, minimal diffusion, and a no-slip sea floor. This provides the basis for analysis of enhanced vertical and horizontal diffusion and a free-slip bottom boundary condition. After a four tidal period spin-up, the tidally averaged (net) primary energy balance in the generation region, extending ±20 km from the ridge crest, shows that the surface tidal wave loses approximately C = 720 W/m or 0.3% of the mean surface tidal energy flux (2.506 × 10 5 W/m) in traversing the ridge. This corresponds mainly to the barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion due to stratified flow interaction with sloping topography. Combined with a normalised net advective flux of baroclinic potential energy of 0.9 × C this causes a net local baroclinic potential energy gain of 0.72 × C and a conversion into baroclinic kinetic energy through the baroclinic buoyancy term of 1.18 × C. Tidally averaged, about 1.14 × C is radiated into the abyssal ocean through the total baroclinic flux of internal pressure associated with the IT- and background density field. This total baroclinic pressure flux is therefore not only determined by the classic linear surface-to-internal tide conversion, but also by the net advection of baroclinic (background) potential energy, indicating the

  5. A proposed design and fabrication of lenses and mirrors from a set of spherical rings that produce desired energy distributions for solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Jorge; Vazquez-Montiel, Sergio; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; Cordero-Davila, Alberto; Castro-Gonzalez, Graciela

    2009-12-15

    The amount of energy contained in the solar aureole affects the performance of solar systems. Solar optical systems are, therefore, dependent on the characteristics of the shape of the sun in a specific geographical location. For this reason, the present study proposes the design of solid lenses and mirrors modelled from a set of concentric spherical rings that give a desired distribution of energy in the focal plane. One hundred spherical rings, whose optimum curvature radius values were calculated by Genetic Algorithms, were employed in the modelling process. The study also proposes a design of a petal tool to polish lens and mirror surfaces. (author)

  6. Commercial fishery data from a proposed ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) site in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, C.J.; Jones, A.T.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the fish resources at a proposed OTEC site based upon commercial fisheries data from Puerto Rico. Records of commercial landings and relative fishing effort are used to examine temporal fluctuations in the abundance of exploited fish stocks at a proposed OTEC site located off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico (PROTEC), 17/sup 0/57'N, 65/sup 0/52'W). Such data are useful as a first approximation of natural fluctuations in the fish populations so that initial potential impacts of plant operations may be considered. The information will provide OTEC plant designers with an idea of the economic value of the fisheries in the vicinity of the proposed site. Detailed data are presented. (WHK)

  7. 76 FR 33329 - Energy Performance Contracting-Request for Comments on Proposed Guidance and Policy Clarifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... other stakeholders? 2. Net Present Value Currently, HUD is considering requiring that the Investment Grade Energy Audit incorporate Net Present Value calculations. Does the industry use a standard rate...

  8. Feasibility survey on international cooperation for high efficiency energy conversion technology in fiscal 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.

  9. Internal Energies of Ion-Sputtered Neutral Tryptophan and Thymine Molecules Determined by Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jia; Takahashi, Lynelle; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-11

    Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled to secondary neutral mass spectrometry (VUV-SNMS) of deposited tryptophan and thymine films are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline. The resulting mass spectra show that while the intensity of the VUV-SNMS signal is lower than the corresponding secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) signal, the mass spectra are significantly simplified in VUV-SNMS. A detailed examination of tryptophan and thymine neutral molecules sputtered by 25 keV Bi3 + indicates that the ion-sputtered parent molecules have ~;;2.5 eV of internal energy. While this internal energy shifts the appearance energy of the photofragment ions for both tryptophan and thymine, it does not change the characteristic photoionizaton efficiency (PIE) curves of thymine versus photon energy. Further analysis of the mass spectral signals indicate that approximately 80 neutral thymine molecules and 400 tryptophan molecules are sputtered per incident Bi3 + ion. The simplified mass spectra and significant characteristic ion contributions to the VUV-SNMS spectra indicate the potential power of the technique for organic molecule surface analysis.

  10. Baroclinic internal wave energy distribution in the Baltic Sea derived from 45 years of circulation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, Artem; Soomere, Tarmo; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2016-04-01

    Internal waves and internal tides are an essential component of the functioning of stratified shelf seas. They carry substantial amounts of energy through the water masses, drive key hydrophysical processes such as mixing and overturning and support the functioning of marine ecosystem in many ways. Their particular impact becomes evident near and at the bottom where they often create substantial loads to engineering structures and exert a wide range of impacts on the bottom sediments and evolution of the seabed. We analyse several properties of spatio-temporal distributions of energy of relatively long-period large-scale internal wave motions in the Baltic Sea. The analysis is based on numerically simulated pycnocline variations that are extracted from the hydrographic data calculated by the Rossby Centre Ocean circulation model (RCO) for the entire Baltic Sea for 1961-2005. This model has a horizontal resolution of 2 nautical miles and uses 41 vertical layers with a thickness between 3 m close to the surface and 12 m in 250 m depth. The model is forced with atmospheric data derived from the ERA-40 re-analysis using a regional atmosphere model with a horizontal resolution of 25 km. It also accounts for river inflow and water exchange through the Danish Straits. See (Meier, H.E.M., Höglund, A., 2013. Studying the Baltic Sea circulation with Eulerian tracers, in Soomere, T., Quak, E., eds., Preventive Methods for Coastal Protection, Springer, Cham, Heidelberg, 101-130) for a detailed description of the model and its forcing. The resolution of the model output used in this study (once in 6 hours) is sufficient for estimates of spectral amplitudes of the displacements of isopycnal surfaces with a typical period of 2-12 days. We provide the analysis of kinetic and potential energy of motions with these periods. The resulting maps of the maxima of energy and spatial distributions of near-bottom velocities have been evaluated for the entire simulation interval of 45

  11. 78 FR 41026 - Request for Proposals for 2013 Statewide Wood Energy Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ..., State and Private Forestry (S&PF), is providing leadership and funding on behalf of a USDA, multi-agency... funded. Multi-state proposals will not be considered at this time. However, regional coordination across... projects already underway. 4. Application Evaluation Applications will be evaluated against the...

  12. 76 FR 50148 - Notice of Intent to Negotiate Proposed Rule on Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... for liquid-immersed and medium-voltage dry-type (MVDT) distribution transformers. 72 FR 58190 (October... removed these transformers from the scope of that rulemaking. 72 FR at 58191 (October 12, 2007). On July... negotiate a proposed rule for liquid- immersed and MVDT distribution transformers (76 FR 45472)....

  13. Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

  14. Summary of the 9th international symposium on high energy spin-physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1990-11-01

    Summarizing an international conference in high energy spin physics is never an easy task, because of the wide-ranging subjects in physics and technology that are involved. I have chosen to organize the topics of this conference into three broad categories relating to spin; intrinsic spin; composite spin; and spin, the experimental tool. In the first category, I will briefly revisit some historical and recent developments to set a background. In the second category, composite spin, I will discuss the status and developments in several areas, including magnetic moments of baryons, hyperon polarization in high energy high p {perpendicular} production, transverse polarization and asymmetries from transversely polarized targets in high p {perpendicular} scattering, spin structure of the proton, and the Bjorken sum rule. In the third category, I will discuss the steady, and at times rapid, progress in spin technology. In this part I include recent progress in high energy facilities, and comment on the highlights of the Workshops.

  15. Review of the thermal energy standards for manufactured housing proposed by the Manufactured Housing Institute Consensus Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.

    1992-02-01

    Congress passed legislation that requires the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise the energy efficiency standards for manufactured housing contained in the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (MHCSS). The Manufactured Housing Institute's Consensus Committee (MHICC) proposed revised standards to HUD based on an analysis contained in a 1989 report by E. Levy. This document is primarily a review of the Levy report, including the methods and inputs to that analysis. The approach to be used in developing the revised standard was specified by Congress as a cost-benefit analysis in which the costs of energy efficiency measures (EEM) were balanced against the benefits of energy savings. The resulting optimum specified an overall level of energy efficiency in terms of a maximum allowable building shell U-value (overall thermal transmittance) that produced the lowest life-cycle cost to the owner of a manufactured home. In his 1989 analysis, this was the general approach used by Levy.

  16. Simulation of the Interaction Between Flywheel Energy Storage and Battery Energy Storage on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederic J.; Dravid, Narayan V.; Li, Ponlee

    2000-01-01

    Replacement of one module of the battery charge discharge unit (BCDU) of the International Space Station (ISS) by a flywheel energy storage unit (FESU) is under consideration. Integration of these two dissimilar systems is likely to surface difficulties in areas of system stability and fault protection. Other issues that need to be addressed include flywheel charge and discharge profiles and their effect on the ISS power system as well as filter sizing for power Ability purposes. This paper describes a SABER based simulation to study these issues.

  17. Fully nonlocal kinetic energy density functionals: a proposal and a general assessment for atomic systems.

    PubMed

    García-Aldea, David; Alvarellos, J E

    2008-08-21

    Following some recent ideas on the construction of kinetic energy density functionals that reproduce the linear response function of the homogeneous electron gas, a family of them with a nonlocal term based on the von Weizsacker functional and with a dependence on the logarithm of the density is presented. As localized systems are the most difficult to study with explicit kinetic functionals, in this paper we apply to atomic systems a number of families of fully nonlocal kinetic functionals. We have put our attention in both the total kinetic energy and the local behavior of the kinetic energy density, and the results clearly show the quality of these fully nonlocal functionals. They make a good description of the local behavior of the kinetic energy density and maintain good results for the total kinetic energies. We must remark that almost all the functionals discussed in the paper, when using an adequate reference density, can be evaluated as a single integral in momentum space, with a quasilinear scaling for the computational cost.

  18. QA role in advanced energy activities: Reductionism, emergence, and functionalism; presuppositions in designing internal QA audits

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1988-06-01

    After a brief overview of the mission of Fermilab, this paper explores some of the problems associated with designing internal QA audits. The paper begins with several examples of how audits should not be designed, then goes on to analyze two types of presuppositions about organizational structure (reductionism and emergence) that can be misleading and skew the data sample if folded too heavily into the checklist. A third type of presupposition (functionalism), is proposed as a viable way of achieving a more well-rounded measure of the performance of an organization, i.e. its effectiveness, not just compliance.

  19. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-05-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  20. The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for high-energy astroparticle physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Akaike, Y.; Asano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Binns, W. R.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Castellini, G.; Cherry, M. L.; Collazuol, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Di Felice, V.; Fuke, H.; Guzik, T. G.; Hams, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hibino, K.; Ichimura, M.; Ioka, K.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kamioka, E.; Kasahara, K.; Kataoka, J.; Kataoka, R.; Katayose, Y.; Kawanaka, N.; Kitamura, H.; Kotani, T.; Krawczynski, H. S.; Krizmanic, J. F.; Kubota, A.; Kuramata, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Maestro, P.; Marcelli, L.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Mitchell, J. W.; Miyake, S.; Mizutani, K.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, K.; Mori, M.; Mori, N.; Motz, H. M.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Nakahira, S.; Nishimura, J.; Okuno, S.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozawa, S.; Palma, F.; Papini, P.; Rauch, B. F.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Shiomi, A.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Takahashi, I.; Takayanagi, M.; Takita, M.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Terasawa, T.; Tomida, H.; Torii, S.; Tunesada, Y.; Uchihori, Y.; Ueno, S.; Vannuccini, E.; Wefel, J. P.; Yamaoka, K.; Yanagita, S.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.; Yuda, T.

    2015-08-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, which will measure the flux of cosmic-ray electrons (and positrons) up to 20 TeV energy, of gamma rays up to 10 TeV, of nuclei with Z from 1 to 40 up to 1 PeV energy, and will detect gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV to 20 MeV energy range during a 5 year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of CALET, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fibre planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch (expected in 2015) to the International Space Station ISS, for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  1. Quightness: A proposed figure of merit for sources of low-energy, high-charge-state ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Robert W.

    1990-03-01

    A variety of ion sources, including the EBIS and ECRIS, are distinguished by their ability to produce low-energy ions of very high charge state. It would be useful to have some figure of merit that is particularly sensitive to this performance. I propose here such a quantity, called ``Quightness,'' which is related to brightness but which enhances the contrast between sources supplying multicharged ions of low energy. The rationale for introducing this quantity, its etymology and relationship to other figures of merit, and some representative values are presented.

  2. Formation of H{sub 2} from internally heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Excitation energy dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T. E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H. E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se; Delaunay, R.; Rousseau, P.; Adoui, L.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2015-04-14

    We have investigated the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) formation from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are internally heated by collisions with keV ions. The present and earlier experimental results are analyzed in view of molecular structure calculations and a simple collision model. We estimate that H{sub 2} formation becomes important for internal PAH temperatures exceeding about 2200 K, regardless of the PAH size and the excitation agent. This suggests that keV ions may effectively induce such reactions, while they are unlikely due to, e.g., absorption of single photons with energies below the Lyman limit. The present analysis also suggests that H{sub 2} emission is correlated with multi-fragmentation processes, which means that the [PAH-2H]{sup +} peak intensities in the mass spectra may not be used for estimating H{sub 2}-formation rates.

  3. Formation of H2 from internally heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: excitation energy dependence.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Gatchell, M; Stockett, M H; Delaunay, R; Domaracka, A; Micelotta, E R; Tielens, A G G M; Rousseau, P; Adoui, L; Huber, B A; Schmidt, H T; Cederquist, H; Zettergren, H

    2015-04-14

    We have investigated the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H2) formation from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are internally heated by collisions with keV ions. The present and earlier experimental results are analyzed in view of molecular structure calculations and a simple collision model. We estimate that H2 formation becomes important for internal PAH temperatures exceeding about 2200 K, regardless of the PAH size and the excitation agent. This suggests that keV ions may effectively induce such reactions, while they are unlikely due to, e.g., absorption of single photons with energies below the Lyman limit. The present analysis also suggests that H2 emission is correlated with multi-fragmentation processes, which means that the [PAH-2H](+) peak intensities in the mass spectra may not be used for estimating H2-formation rates.

  4. A Philosophically Informed Teaching Proposal on the Topic of Energy for Students Aged 11-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nicos; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning about energy is recognized as an important objective of science teaching starting from the elementary school. This creates the need for teaching simplifications that compromise the abstract nature of this concept with students' need for a satisfactory qualitative definition. Conventional teaching approaches have failed to respond to this…

  5. 76 FR 66317 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Energy Efficient Mortgages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public... mortgage to be insured under Section 513 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 (Section 106 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992). DATES: Comments Due Date: November 25, 2011. ADDRESSES:...

  6. Teaching of Energy Issues: A Debate Proposal for a Global Reorientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Josep Lluis; Gil-Perez, Daniel; Gras-Marti, Albert; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martinez-Torregrosa, Joaquin; Salinas, Julia; Trumper, Ricardo; Valdes, Pablo; Vilches, Amparo

    2007-01-01

    The growing awareness of serious difficulties in the learning of energy issues has produced a great deal of research, most of which is focused on specific conceptual aspects. In our opinion, the difficulties pointed out in the literature are interrelated and connected to other aspects (conceptual "as well as" procedural and axiological), which are…

  7. Alternative energy source II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 6 - Nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    This volume examines conventional nuclear energy, breeder reactors, and thermonuclear energy. The particular papers presented consider current developments in nuclear breeder technology, fusion-driven fissile fuel breeder systems, and the fusion fission hybrid reactor. The implications of nuclear energy utilization in the Phillipines and the internationally safeguarded atomic fuel exchanger center for the Asian-Pacific basin are also discussed.

  8. Energy Market and Economic Impacts Proposal to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity with a Cap and Trade System

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), in response to a September 27, 2006, request from Senators Bingaman, Landrieu, Murkowski, Specter, Salazar, and Lugar. The Senators requested that EIA assess the impacts of a proposal that would regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through an allowance cap-and-trade system. The program would set the cap to achieve a reduction in emissions relative to economic output, or greenhouse gas intensity.

  9. Internal variability of Earth’s energy budget simulated by CMIP5 climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M. D.; McNeall, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    We analyse a large number of multi-century pre-industrial control simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to investigate relationships between: net top-of-atmosphere radiation (TOA), globally averaged surface temperature (GST), and globally integrated ocean heat content (OHC) on decadal timescales. Consistent with previous studies, we find that large trends (˜0.3 K dec-1) in GST can arise from internal climate variability and that these trends are generally an unreliable indicator of TOA over the same period. In contrast, trends in total OHC explain 95% or more of the variance in TOA for two-thirds of the models analysed; emphasizing the oceans’ role as Earth’s primary energy store. Correlation of trends in total system energy (TE ≡ time integrated TOA) against trends in OHC suggests that for most models the ocean becomes the dominant term in the planetary energy budget on a timescale of about 12 months. In the context of the recent pause in global surface temperature rise, we investigate the potential importance of internal climate variability in both TOA and ocean heat rearrangement. The model simulations suggest that both factors can account for O (0.1 W m-2) on decadal timescales and may play an important role in the recently observed trends in GST and 0-700 m (and 0-1800 m) ocean heat uptake.

  10. Stereo-selective partitioning of translation-to-internal energy conversion in gas ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffery, Anthony J.

    2014-11-01

    A recent computational study of translation-to-internal energy transfer to H2 (v = 0,j = 0), hereinafter denoted H2 (0;0), in a bath of H atoms [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] revealed an unexpected energy partitioning in which the H2 vibrational temperature greatly exceeds that of rotation. This occurs despite rotation and vibration distributions being close to Boltzmann from early in ensemble evolution. In this work, the study is extended to include H2 (0;0), O2 (0;0), and HF (0;0) in a wide range of atomic bath gases comprising some 22 ensembles in all. Translation-to-internal energy conversion in the systems studied was found to be relatively inefficient, falling approximately with (√μ')-1 as bath gas mass increases, where μ' is the reduced mass of the diatomic-bath gas pair. In all 22 systems studied, Tv exceeds Tr - by a factor > 4 for some pairs. Analysis of the constraints that influence (0;0) → (1;j) excitation for each diatomic-atom pair in momentum-angular momentum space demonstrates that a vibrational preference results from energy constraints that limit permitted collision trajectories to those of low effective impact parameter, i.e., to those that are axial or near axial on impact with the Newton surface. This implies that a steric constraint is an inherent feature of vibration-rotation excitation and arises because momentum and energy barriers must be overcome before rotational states may be populated in the higher vibrational level.

  11. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  12. Stereo-selective partitioning of translation-to-internal energy conversion in gas ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffery, Anthony J.

    2014-11-07

    A recent computational study of translation-to-internal energy transfer to H{sub 2} (v = 0,j = 0), hereinafter denoted H{sub 2} (0;0), in a bath of H atoms [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] revealed an unexpected energy partitioning in which the H{sub 2} vibrational temperature greatly exceeds that of rotation. This occurs despite rotation and vibration distributions being close to Boltzmann from early in ensemble evolution. In this work, the study is extended to include H{sub 2} (0;0), O{sub 2} (0;0), and HF (0;0) in a wide range of atomic bath gases comprising some 22 ensembles in all. Translation-to-internal energy conversion in the systems studied was found to be relatively inefficient, falling approximately with (√μ′){sup −1} as bath gas mass increases, where μ′ is the reduced mass of the diatomic–bath gas pair. In all 22 systems studied, T{sub v} exceeds T{sub r} – by a factor > 4 for some pairs. Analysis of the constraints that influence (0;0) → (1;j) excitation for each diatomic–atom pair in momentum–angular momentum space demonstrates that a vibrational preference results from energy constraints that limit permitted collision trajectories to those of low effective impact parameter, i.e., to those that are axial or near axial on impact with the Newton surface. This implies that a steric constraint is an inherent feature of vibration-rotation excitation and arises because momentum and energy barriers must be overcome before rotational states may be populated in the higher vibrational level.

  13. A rigorous description of the energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule taking into account the internal rotation of hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Using the methods of a group chain, a rigorous algebraic model is constructed to describe the energy spectrum of the isopropanol molecule (CH3)2CHOH with an allowance for the internal rotation of hydroxyl. The model is rigorous in the sense that its correctness is limited only by the correctness of a chosen symmetry of internal dynamics of the molecule.

  14. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  15. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  16. A Low Energy Cosmic Ray Telescope For The International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampa, G.; Altea Collaboration

    The near Earth and interplanetary space is permeated with cosmic radiation coming from the Sun and generated also by galactic and extragalactic sources. We are develop- ing a set of six telescopes, each composed by 12 silicon detectors, to measure the low energy component of this radiation environment in the low Earth orbit. These detectors are part of the ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts) experiment to be flown in the International Space Station in 2003. Along with an ElectroEncephalo- Graph (EEG) system it will study the brain and visual system functional anomalies (light flash, phosphenes perception) and perform dosimetry measurements.

  17. Energy and frequency dependence of the alpha particle redistribution produced by internal kink modes

    SciTech Connect

    Farengo, R.; Ferrari, H. E.; Garcia-Martinez, P. L.; Firpo, M.-C.; Ettoumi, W.; Lifschitz, A. F.

    2014-08-15

    The redistribution of alpha particles due to internal kink modes is studied. The exact particle trajectories in the total fields, equilibrium plus perturbation, are calculated. The equilibrium has circular cross section and the plasma parameters are similar to those expected in ITER. The alpha particles are initially distributed according to a slowing down distribution function and have energies between 18 keV and 3.5 MeV. The (1, 1), (2, 2), and (2, 1) modes are included and the effect of changing their amplitude and frequency is studied. When only the (1, 1) mode is included, the spreading of high energy (E≳1 MeV) alpha particles increases slowly with the energy and mode frequency. At lower energies, the redistribution is more sensitive to the mode frequency and particle energy. When a (2, 1) mode is added, the spreading increases significantly and particles can reach the edge of the plasma. Trapped particles are the most affected and the redistribution parameter can have maxima above 1 MeV, depending on the mode frequency. These results can have important implications for ash removal.

  18. Analysis of the energy transmission in spatial piping systems with heavy internal fluid loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, S. V.; Olhoff, N.; Ershova, O. A.

    2008-03-01

    The energy transmission in spatial elastic water-filled pipes is considered. A solution of the wave propagation problem in the framework of the general theory of elastic cylindrical shells with internal fluid loading is used as a reference. It is shown that energy transmission phenomena may be adequately described by means of the reduced theory in the frequency range of practical interest. The boundary integral equations method is specialised for this reduced theory and two generic problems of the energy transmission in piping systems are solved. The first one is concerned with analysis of the distribution of the transmitted energy between two branches in a pipeline with a single joint and between alternative transmission paths in each branch. Besides the frequency and the type of excitation, the influence of an angle between connected pipes is studied. The second problem is related to analysis of the energy transmission in a pipe with multiple regularly spaced junctions and attention is focused at formation of frequency band gaps due to periodicity of location of branches.

  19. The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy: An international training and educational program

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Pichumani, J.; Linde, A. van der

    1999-07-01

    High school and college students are getting a global perspective of photovoltaic systems through a hands-on educational and training program. The Renewable Energy and Environmental Protection (REEP) Academy is a college preparatory program conducted by Texas Southern University (TSU), located in Houston, Texas, in partnership with Port Elizabeth Technikon, located in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The program is designed to encourage minority high school students to pursue education in science, engineering and technology through a combination of lectures, laboratory activities, field trips and hands-on system installations. Also included in this program is an international exchange between TSU and Port Elizabeth Technikon that enables college students to study abroad and complete internships involving photovoltaics. Assessments show that the students' knowledge of renewable energy and sustainability increases by approximately 40% following their participation in the program. To date, approximately 60% of the participating students who are currently in college are enrolled in technical fields.

  20. Traumatic thrombosis of internal carotid artery sustained by transfer of kinetic energy.

    PubMed

    Kalcioglu, Mahmut Tayyar; Celbis, Osman; Mizrak, Bulent; Firat, Yezdan; Selimoglu, Erol

    2012-06-01

    A 31-year-old male patient with a fatal thrombosis of the internal carotid artery caused by gun shot injury was presented in this case report. The patient was referred to the hospital with a diffuse edema on his left cheek. On otolaryngologic examination, there was a bullet entrance hole at the left mandibular corpus. No exit hole could be found. The finding from his axial computed tomography of neck and paranasal sinuses was normal. On neurological examination, a dense right hemiparesis was observed. In his cerebral angiogram, left common carotid artery was totally obliterated. Diffuse ischemia was observed in the left cerebral hemisphere. Despite intensive interventions, the patient died 4 days after the accident. In the autopsy, a large thrombosis was obtained in the left common carotid artery. This case emphasizes a fatal kinetic energy effect in vascular structures. It is stressed that a gun shot injury could be fatal with its indirect kinetic energy effects at subacute phase.

  1. International Energy Agency Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Runci, Paul; Meier, Alan

    2008-08-01

    This report presents results from a program evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Buildings Technologies Program (BTP) participation in collaborative international technology implementing agreements. The evaluation was conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the fall of 2007 and winter 2008 and was carried out via interviews with stakeholders in four implementing agreements in which BTP participates, reviews of relevant program reports, websites and other published materials. In addition to these findings, the report includes a variety of supporting materials such that aim to assist BTP managers who currently participate in IEA implementing agreements or who may be considering participation.

  2. Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems study: US Department of Energy Internal Review Panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to uniformly evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the advice and guidance of the DOE Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel, composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994, to review and comment on the ITTS studies, to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low level wastes (MLLW), and to make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies on MLLW.

  3. Thermodynamical properties of triangular quantum wires: entropy, specific heat, and internal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khordad, R.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, thermodynamical properties of a GaAs quantum wire with equilateral triangle cross section are studied. First, the energy levels of the system are obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation. Second, the Tsallis formalism is applied to obtain entropy, internal energy, and specific heat of the system. We have found that the specific heat and entropy have certain physically meaningful values, which mean thermodynamic properties cannot take any continuous value, unlike classical thermodynamics in which they are considered as continuous quantities. Maximum of entropy increases with increasing the wire size. The specific heat is zero at special temperatures. Specific heat decreases with increasing temperature. There are several peaks in specific heat, and these are dependent on quantum wire size.

  4. The spectral energy distribution of compact jets powered by internal shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malzac, Julien

    2014-09-01

    Internal shocks caused by fluctuations of the outflow velocity are likely to power the radio-to-IR emission of the compact jets of X-ray binaries. The dynamics of internal shocks and the resulting spectral energy distribution (SED) of the jet are very sensitive to the time-scales and amplitudes of the velocity fluctuations injected at the base of the jet. I present a new code designed to simulate the synchrotron emission of a compact jet powered by internal shocks. I also develop a semi-analytical formalism allowing one to estimate the observed SED of the jet as a function of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the assumed fluctuations of the Lorentz factor. I discuss the cases of a sine modulation of the Lorentz factor and Lorentz factor fluctuations with a power-law PSD shape. Independently of the details of the model, the observed nearly flat SEDs are obtained for PSDs of Lorentz factor fluctuations that are close to a flicker noise spectrum (i.e. P(f ) ∝ 1/f ). The model also presents a strong wavelength-dependent variability that is similar to that observed in these sources.

  5. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Magiorakos, A-P; Srinivasan, A; Carey, R B; Carmeli, Y; Falagas, M E; Giske, C G; Harbarth, S; Hindler, J F; Kahlmeter, G; Olsson-Liljequist, B; Paterson, D L; Rice, L B; Stelling, J; Struelens, M J; Vatopoulos, A; Weber, J T; Monnet, D L

    2012-03-01

    Many different definitions for multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacteria are being used in the medical literature to characterize the different patterns of resistance found in healthcare-associated, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. A group of international experts came together through a joint initiative by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to create a standardized international terminology with which to describe acquired resistance profiles in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae (other than Salmonella and Shigella), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., all bacteria often responsible for healthcare-associated infections and prone to multidrug resistance. Epidemiologically significant antimicrobial categories were constructed for each bacterium. Lists of antimicrobial categories proposed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were created using documents and breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). MDR was defined as acquired non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories, XDR was defined as non-susceptibility to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories (i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two categories) and PDR was defined as non-susceptibility to all agents in all antimicrobial categories. To ensure correct application of these definitions, bacterial isolates should be tested against all or nearly all of the antimicrobial agents within the antimicrobial categories and selective reporting and suppression of results should be avoided.

  6. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.

  7. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License. PMID:27388038

  8. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices. PMID:27277702

  9. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices. PMID:27277702

  10. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-06-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices.

  11. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  12. The Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) for High Energy Astroparticle Physics on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Shoji

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope, CALET, space experiment, currently under development by Japan in collaboration with Italy and the United States, will measure the flux of Cosmic Ray electrons (and positrons) t o 20 TeV, gamma rays to 10 TeV , nuclei with Z=1 to 40 up to 1,000 TeV, and Gamma-ray bursts in the 7 keV- 10 MeV energy range during a five year mission. These measurements are essential to investigate possible nearby astrophysical sources of high energy electrons, study the details of galactic particle propagation and search for dark matter signatures. The main detector of Calet, the Calorimeter, consists of a module to identify the particle charge, followed by a thin imaging calorimeter (3 radiation lengths) with tungsten plates interleaving scintillating fiber planes, and a thick energy measuring calorimeter (27 radiation lengths) composed of lead tungstate logs. The Calorimeter has the depth, imaging capabilities and energy resolution necessary for excellent separation between hadrons, electrons and gamma rays. The instrument is currently being prepared for launch, during the Japan Fiscal Year (April, 2014- March, 2015) time frame, to the International Space Station (ISS) for installation on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposure Facility (JEM-EF).

  13. Improved Estimates of Temporally Coherent Internal Tides and Energy Fluxes from Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, Benjamin F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Satellite altimetry has opened a surprising new avenue to observing internal tides in the open ocean. The tidal surface signatures are very small, a few cm at most, but in many areas they are robust, owing to averaging over many years. By employing a simplified two dimensional wave fitting to the surface elevations in combination with climatological hydrography to define the relation between the surface height and the current and pressure at depth, we may obtain rough estimates of internal tide energy fluxes. Initial results near Hawaii with Topex/Poseidon (T/P) data show good agreement with detailed 3D (three dimensional) numerical models, but the altimeter picture is somewhat blurred owing to the widely spaced T/P tracks. The resolution may be enhanced somewhat by using data from the ERS-1 (ESA (European Space Agency) Remote Sensing) and ERS-2 satellite altimeters. The ERS satellite tracks are much more closely spaced (0.72 deg longitude vs. 2.83 deg for T/P), but the tidal estimates are less accurate than those for T/P. All altimeter estimates are also severely affected by noise in regions of high mesoscale variability, and we have obtained some success in reducing this contamination by employing a prior correction for mesoscale variability based on ten day detailed sea surface height maps developed by Le Traon and colleagues. These improvements allow us to more clearly define the internal tide surface field and the corresponding energy fluxes. Results from throughout the global ocean will be presented.

  14. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water: validation in humans and proposed calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeller, D.A.; Ravussin, E.; Schutz, Y.; Acheson, K.J.; Baertschi, P.; Jequier, E.

    1986-05-01

    To further validate the doubly labeled water method for measurement of CO/sub 2/ production and energy expenditure in humans, we compared it with near-continuous respiratory gas exchange in nine healthy young adult males. Subjects were housed in a respiratory chamber for 4 days. Each received /sup 2/H/sub 2/(18)O at either a low (n = 6) or a moderate (n = 3) isotope dose. Low and moderate doses produced initial /sup 2/H enrichments of 5 and 10 X 10(-3) atom percent excess, respectively, and initial 18O enrichments of 2 and 2.5 X 10(-2) atom percent excess, respectively. Total body water was calculated from isotope dilution in saliva collected at 4 and 5 h after the dose. CO/sub 2/ production was calculated by the two-point method using the isotopic enrichments of urines collected just before each subject entered and left the chamber. Isotope enrichments relative to predose samples were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. At low isotope dose, doubly labeled water overestimated average daily energy expenditure by 8 +/- 9% (SD) (range -7 to 22%). At moderate dose the difference was reduced to +4 +/- 5% (range 0-9%). The isotope elimination curves for /sup 2/H and 18O from serial urines collected from one of the subjects showed expected diurnal variations but were otherwise quite smooth. The overestimate may be due to approximations in the corrections for isotope fractionation and isotope dilution. An alternative approach to the corrections is presented that reduces the overestimate to 1%.

  15. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  16. MODEL REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS TO PROVIDE ENERGY AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES FROM AN OFFSHORE WIND POWER PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Firestone; Dawn Kurtz Crompton

    2011-10-22

    This document provides a model RFP for new generation. The 'base' RFP is for a single-source offshore wind RFP. Required modifications are noted should a state or utility seek multi-source bids (e.g., all renewables or all sources). The model is premised on proposals meeting threshold requirements (e.g., a MW range of generating capacity and a range in terms of years), RFP issuer preferences (e.g., likelihood of commercial operation by a date certain, price certainty, and reduction in congestion), and evaluation criteria, along with a series of plans (e.g., site, environmental effects, construction, community outreach, interconnection, etc.). The Model RFP places the most weight on project risk (45%), followed by project economics (35%), and environmental and social considerations (20%). However, if a multi-source RFP is put forward, the sponsor would need to either add per-MWh technology-specific, life-cycle climate (CO2), environmental and health impact costs to bid prices under the 'Project Economics' category or it should increase the weight given to the 'Environmental and Social Considerations' category.

  17. Study for a proposed Phase I Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) Synchrotron Light Source at Cornell University

    SciTech Connect

    Sol M. Gruner and Maury Tigner, eds.; Ivan Bazarov; Sergey Belomestnykh; Don Bilderback; Ken Finkelstein; Ernie Fontes; Steve Gray; Sol M. Gruner; Geoff Krafft; Lia Merminga; Hasan Padamsee; Ray Helmke; Qun Shen; Joe Rogers; Charles Sinclair; Richard Talman; Maury Tigner

    2001-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) has become an essential and rapidly growing tool across the sciences and engineering. World-wide, about 70 SR sources are in various stages of operation, construction, or planning, representing a cumulative investment on many billions of dollars and serving a growing research community well in excess of 10,000 scientists. To date, all major SR x-ray facilities are based on electron (or positron) storage rings. Given the expected continued growth, importance and expense of SR sources, it is important to ask if there are alternatives to the storage ring SR source which offer advantages of capability or cost. A step in this direction is being taken by the SR community with the proposed developments of linac-based x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) utilizing the self-amplified spontaneous emission process (SASE). However, the versatility of modern developments in accelerator physics, as applied to synchrotron radiation, is not limited to storage rings or XFELs. New developments in laser driven photoinjectors and superconducting linac technology open new and exciting possibilities for novel SR-generating machines which offer extraordinary capabilities and promise to catalyze whole new areas of SR-based science.

  18. Internal energy selection in vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of ethanol and ethanol dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodi, Andras

    2013-10-01

    Internal energy selected ethanol monomer and ethanol dimer ions were prepared by threshold photoionization of a supersonic molecular beam seeded with ethanol. The dissociative photoionization processes of the monomer, the lowest-energy CH3-loss channel of the dimer, and the fragmentation of larger clusters were found to be disjunct from the ionization onset to about 12 eV, which made it possible to determine the 0 K appearance energy of C-C bond breaking in the H-donor unit of the ethanol dimer cation as 9.719 ± 0.004 eV. This reaction energy is used together with ab initio calculations in a thermochemical cycle to determine the binding energy change from the neutral ethanol dimer to a protonated ethanol-formaldehyde adduct. The cycle also shows general agreement between experiment, theory, and previously published enthalpies of formation. The role of the initial ionization site, or rather the initial photoion state, is also discussed based on the dimer breakdown diagram and excited state calculations. There is no evidence for isolated state behavior, and the ethanol dimer dissociative photoionization processes appear to be governed by statistical theory and the ground electronic state of the ion. In the monomer breakdown diagram, the smoothly changing branching ratio between H and CH3 loss is at odds with rate theory predictions, and shows that none of the currently employed few-parameter rate models, appropriate for experimental rate curve fitting, yields a correct description for this process in the experimental energy range.

  19. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  20. Health impact of a proposed waste-to-energy facility in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1995-03-01

    The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) has given the Robbins Resource Recovery Company (RRRC) a permit to construct a Regional Pollution Control Facility in Robbins, Illinois. Site approval for this waste-to-energy (WTE) combustor has been granted by the Village of Robbins which is located about three miles south of Chicago. The facility is designed to operate continuously for 40-45 years, process 1600 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day, and produce over 50 megawatts of electricity. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) will constitute essentially 100% of the operating fuel. The fuel preparation system is designed to recover 25% (by weight) of the MSW in the form of recyclable materials (ferrous, aluminum cans, glass, and compostables). Also, appliances, electronic equipment, household batteries, and lead-acid vehicle batteries will be removed. The air pollution control system for the two circulating fluidized bed combustors has been characterized by the USEPA and the IEPA as Best Available Control Technology (BACT) based on the following components: selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) to control nitrogen oxide emissions and dry flue gas scrubber (spray dryer absorber) and fabric filter baghouse to control emissions of acid gases (mainly hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide), particulates, and metals. In addition, activated carbon injection will be used to control mercury emissions (RRRC, 1992). 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. 78 FR 47681 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of ECR (ECR) International, Inc. From the Department of Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...This notice announces receipt of and publishes a petition for waiver and application for interim waiver (``petition'') from ECR International, Inc. (ECR) regarding specified portions of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for determining the energy consumption of residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. In its petition, ECR provides an alternate test procedure......

  2. New insights from direct monitoring of turbidity currents; and a proposal for co-ordinating international efforts at a series of global "turbidity current test sites"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talling, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Turbidity currents, and other types of submarine sediment density flow, arguably redistribute more sediment across the surface of the Earth than any other flow process. It is now over 60 years since the seminal publication of Kuenen and Migliorini (1950) in which they made the link between sequences of graded bedding and turbidity currents. The deposits of submarine sediment density flows have been described in numerous locations worldwide, and this might lead to the view that these flows are well understood. However, it is sobering to note quite how few direct measurements we have from these submarine flows in action. Sediment concentration is the critical parameter controlling such flows, yet it has never been measured directly for flows that reach and build submarine fans. How then do we know what type of flow to model in flume tanks, or which assumptions to use to formulate numerical simulations or analytical models? It is proposed here that international efforts are needed for an initiative to monitor active turbidity currents at a series of 'test sites' where flows occur frequently. The flows evolve significantly, such that source to sink data are needed. We also need to directly monitor flows in different settings with variable triggering factors and flow path morphologies because their character can vary significantly. Such work should integrate numerical and physical modelling with the collection of field observations in order to understand the significance of field observations. Such an international initiative also needs to include coring of deposits to link flow processes to deposit character, because in most global locations flow behaviour must be inferred from deposits alone. Collection of seismic datasets is also crucial for understanding the larger-scale evolution and resulting architecture of these systems, and to link with studies of subsurface reservoirs. Test site datasets should thus include a wide range of data types, not just from direct flow

  3. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  4. Current fundamental science challenges in low temperature plasma science that impact energy security and international competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebner, Greg

    2010-11-01

    Products and consumer goods that utilize low temperature plasmas at some point in their creation touch and enrich our lives on almost a continuous basis. Examples are many but include the tremendous advances in microelectronics and the pervasive nature of the internet, advanced material coatings that increase the strength and reliability of products from turbine engines to potato chip bags, and the recent national emphasis on energy efficient lighting and compact fluorescent bulbs. Each of these products owes their contributions to energy security and international competiveness to fundamental research investments. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the great commercial success of these products implies a robust understanding of the complicated interactions inherent in plasma systems. Rather, current development of the next generation of low temperature plasma enabled products and processes is clearly exposing a new set of exciting scientific challenges that require leaps in fundamental understanding and interdisciplinary research teams. Emerging applications such as liquid-plasma systems to improve water quality and remediate hazardous chemicals, plasma-assisted combustion to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions, and medical applications promise to improve our lives and the environment only if difficult science questions are solved. This talk will take a brief look back at the role of low temperature plasma science in enabling entirely new markets and then survey the next generation of emerging plasma applications. The emphasis will be on describing the key science questions and the opportunities for scientific cross cutting collaborations that underscore the need for increased outreach on the part of the plasma science community to improve visibility at the federal program level. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences, and Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

  5. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  6. Shear flow energy redistribution stipulated by the internal-gravity wavy structures in the dissipative ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, K. Z.; Kharshiladze, O. A.

    2013-07-01

    The linear mechanism of generation, intensification and further nonlinear dynamics of internal gravity waves (IGW) in stably stratified dissipative ionosphere with non-uniform zonal wind (shear flow) is studied. In case of the shear flows the operators of linear problem are non-selfadjoint, and the corresponding Eigen functions - nonorthogonal. Thus, canonical - modal approach is of less use studying such motions. Non-modal mathematical analysis becomes more adequate for such problems. On the basis of non-modal approach, the equations of dynamics and the energy transfer of IGW disturbances in the ionosphere with a shear flow is obtained. Exact analytical solutions of the linear as well as the nonlinear dynamic equations of the problem are built. The increment of shear instability of IGW is defined. It is revealed that the transient amplification of IGW disturbances due time does not flow exponentially, but in algebraic - power law manner. The effectiveness of the linear amplification mechanism of IGW at interaction with non-uniform zonal wind is analyzed. It is shown that at initial linear stage of evolution IGW effectively temporarily draws energy from the shear flow significantly increasing (by an order of magnitude) own amplitude and energy. With amplitude growth the nonlinear mechanism turns on and the process ends with self-organization of nonlinear solitary, strongly localized IGW vortex structures (the monopole vortex, the transverse vortex chain or the longitudinal vortex street). Accumulation of these vortices in the ionospheric medium can create the strongly turbulent state.

  7. Dynamics of suspended microchannel resonators conveying opposite internal fluid flow: Stability, frequency shift and energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Yan, Han; Jiang, Hui-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of suspended microchannel resonators which convey internal flows with opposite directions are investigated. The fluid-structure interactions between the laminar fluid flow and oscillating cantilever are analyzed by comprehensively considering the effects of velocity profile, flow viscosity and added flowing particle. A new model is developed to characterize the dynamic behavior of suspended microchannel resonators with the fluid-structure interactions. The stability, frequency shift and energy dissipation of suspended microchannel resonators are analyzed and discussed. The results demonstrate that the frequency shifts induced by the added flowing particle which are obtained from the new model have a good agreement with the experimental data. The steady mean flow can cause the frequency shift and influence the stability of the dynamic system. As the flow velocity reaches the critical value, the coupled-mode flutter occurs via a Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation. The perturbation flow resulted from the vibration of the microcantilever leads to energy dissipation, while the steady flow does not directly cause the damping which increases with the increasing of the flow velocity predicted by the classical model. It can also be found that the steady flow firstly changes the mode shape of the cantilever and consequently affects the energy dissipation.

  8. Quickening nature's pulse: atomic agriculture at the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Jacob Darwin

    2015-01-01

    Mutation breeders in the 1960s seemed poised to use atomic energy to speed up mutation rates in plants in order to develop new crop varieties, for the benefit of all people. Although skepticism had slowed this work in the United States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nurtured the scientific field, its community of experts, and an imagined version of the future that put humans in control of their destiny. The IAEA acted as a center of dissemination and support for experts and ideas even when they had fallen from favor elsewhere. Through the lens of the IAEA, plant breeding bore the appearance of a socially progressive, ultra-modern science destined to alleviate population pressures. Administrators at the IAEA also were desperate for success stories, hoping to highlight mutation plant breeding as a potential solution to the world's ills. The community of mutation plant breeders gained a lifeline from the consistent clarion call from the Vienna-based agency to use atomic energy to understand the natural world and quicken its pulse with radioisotopes.

  9. Quickening nature's pulse: atomic agriculture at the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Jacob Darwin

    2015-01-01

    Mutation breeders in the 1960s seemed poised to use atomic energy to speed up mutation rates in plants in order to develop new crop varieties, for the benefit of all people. Although skepticism had slowed this work in the United States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nurtured the scientific field, its community of experts, and an imagined version of the future that put humans in control of their destiny. The IAEA acted as a center of dissemination and support for experts and ideas even when they had fallen from favor elsewhere. Through the lens of the IAEA, plant breeding bore the appearance of a socially progressive, ultra-modern science destined to alleviate population pressures. Administrators at the IAEA also were desperate for success stories, hoping to highlight mutation plant breeding as a potential solution to the world's ills. The community of mutation plant breeders gained a lifeline from the consistent clarion call from the Vienna-based agency to use atomic energy to understand the natural world and quicken its pulse with radioisotopes. PMID:26775434

  10. Proposal of a New Method for Measuring Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Rapidly, Quantitatively and Non-Destructively

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Paul Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The process of radiationless energy transfer from a chromophore in an excited electronic state (the “donor”) to another chromophore (an “acceptor”), in which the energy released by the donor effects an electronic transition, is known as “Förster Resonance Energy Transfer” (FRET). The rate of energy transfer is dependent on the sixth power of the distance between donor and acceptor. Determining FRET efficiencies is tantamount to measuring distances between molecules. A new method is proposed for determining FRET efficiencies rapidly, quantitatively, and non-destructively on ensembles containing donor acceptor pairs: at wavelengths suitable for mutually exclusive excitations of donors and acceptors, two laser beams are intensity-modulated in rectangular patterns at duty cycle ½ and frequencies f1 and f2 by electro-optic modulators. In an ensemble exposed to these laser beams, the donor excitation is modulated at f1, and the acceptor excitation, and therefore the degree of saturation of the excited electronic state of the acceptors, is modulated at f2. Since the ensemble contains donor acceptor pairs engaged in FRET, the released donor fluorescence is modulated not only at f1 but also at the beat frequency Δf: = |f1 − f2|. The depth of the latter modulation, detectable via a lock-in amplifier, quantitatively indicates the FRET efficiency. PMID:23202903

  11. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Michael; Düllmann, Dirk; Rind, Ofer; Wong, Tony

    2012-12-01

    The International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) was held at New York University on 21- 25 May 2012. CHEP is a major series of international conferences for physicists and computing professionals from the High Energy and Nuclear Physics community and related scientific and technical fields. The CHEP conference provides a forum to exchange information on computing progress and needs for the community, and to review recent, ongoing and future activities. CHEP conferences are held at roughly 18-month intervals, alternating between Europe, Asia, the Americas and other parts of the world. Recent CHEP conferences have been held in Taipei, Taiwan (2010); Prague, Czech Republic (2009); Victoria, Canada (2007); Mumbai, India (2006); Interlaken, Switzerland (2004); San Diego, United States (2003); Beijing, China (2001); Padova, Italy (2000). CHEP 2012 was organized by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and co-sponsored by New York University. The organizational structure for CHEP consists of an International Advisory Committee (IAC) which sets the overall themes of the conference, a Program Organizing Committee (POC) that oversees the program content, and a Local Organizing Committee (LOC) that is responsible for local arrangements (lodging, transportation and social events) and conference logistics (registration, program scheduling, conference site selection and conference proceedings). There were over 500 attendees with a program that included plenary sessions of invited speakers, a number of parallel sessions comprising around 125 oral and 425 poster presentations and industrial exhibitions. We thank all the presenters for the excellent scientific content of their contributions to the conference. Conference tracks covered topics on Online Computing, Event Processing, Distributed Processing and Analysis on Grids and Clouds, Computer Facilities, Production Grids and Networking, Software Engineering, Data Stores and Databases and

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Simon C.; Shen, Stella; Neufeld, Niko; Gutsche, Oliver; Cattaneo, Marco; Fisk, Ian; Panzer-Steindel, Bernd; Di Meglio, Alberto; Lokajicek, Milos

    2011-12-01

    The International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) was held at Academia Sinica in Taipei from 18-22 October 2010. CHEP is a major series of international conferences for physicists and computing professionals from the worldwide High Energy and Nuclear Physics community, Computer Science, and Information Technology. The CHEP conference provides an international forum to exchange information on computing progress and needs for the community, and to review recent, ongoing and future activities. CHEP conferences are held at roughly 18 month intervals, alternating between Europe, Asia, America and other parts of the world. Recent CHEP conferences have been held in Prauge, Czech Republic (2009); Victoria, Canada (2007); Mumbai, India (2006); Interlaken, Switzerland (2004); San Diego, California(2003); Beijing, China (2001); Padova, Italy (2000) CHEP 2010 was organized by Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre. There was an International Advisory Committee (IAC) setting the overall themes of the conference, a Programme Committee (PC) responsible for the content, as well as Conference Secretariat responsible for the conference infrastructure. There were over 500 attendees with a program that included plenary sessions of invited speakers, a number of parallel sessions comprising around 260 oral and 200 poster presentations, and industrial exhibitions. We thank all the presenters, for the excellent scientific content of their contributions to the conference. Conference tracks covered topics on Online Computing, Event Processing, Software Engineering, Data Stores, and Databases, Distributed Processing and Analysis, Computing Fabrics and Networking Technologies, Grid and Cloud Middleware, and Collaborative Tools. The conference included excursions to various attractions in Northern Taiwan, including Sanhsia Tsu Shih Temple, Yingko, Chiufen Village, the Northeast Coast National Scenic Area, Keelung, Yehliu Geopark, and Wulai Aboriginal Village

  13. 75 FR 63526 - In the Matter of: Camera Platforms International, Inc., Castleguard Energy, Inc., CD Warehouse...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ..., Inc., Ceatech USA, Inc., Cedyco Corp., Cell Robotics International, Inc., Cell Wireless Corp., Cellcom... information concerning the securities of Cell Robotics International, Inc. because it has not filed...

  14. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Conclusions Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear

  15. Gamma techniques for IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards at centrifuge enrichment cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Aaldijk, J.K.; de Betue, P.A.C.; van der Meer, K.; Harry, R.J.S.

    1987-01-01

    On February 4, 1983, the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP) concluded that the safeguards approach involving limited frequency unannounced access (LFUA) by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors to cascades areas together with inspection activities outside the cascade areas meets the IAEA safeguards objectives in an effective and efficient way. In this way, the risks of revealing sensitive information were also minimized. The approach has been defined clearly and unambiguously, and it should be applied equally to all technology holders. One of the conclusions of the HSP was that a nondestructive assay go/no-go technique should be used during the LFUA inspections in the cascade areas of centrifuge enrichment plants. The purpose is to verify that the enrichment of the product UF{sub 6} gas is in the range of low-enriched uranium (LEU), i.e., the enrichment is below 20%.

  16. Broad-wing molecular lines without internal energy sources. [in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blitz, Leo; Magnani, Loris; Wandel, Amri

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of broad CO wings in four high-latitude molecular clouds which do not have associated internal energy sources is reported. The velocity width of the wings is as much as five times greater than the width of the cloud cores. Neither visible stars brighter than the background population, optical nebulosity, nor IRAS point sources are found at the position of the wings, except for one case with an IRAS source 3 arcmin from the peak position of the wings. The possibility that the wings are the result of conductive interfaces resulting from cold molecular clouds in a hotter ambient medium is examined, and it is concluded that the expected column density of such gas is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than that observed.

  17. Surviving utopia: Energy, social capital, and international migration in Ixcan, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew John

    Mounting peasant impoverishment in Guatemala comes face to face with growing ecological impoverishment. Abysmal living standards for Guatemala's majority results from highly skewed land distribution, rapid population growth, and a brutal civil war, which lasted almost four decades and laid waste to many rural communities and fields. In the face of such adversity, Guatemalans migrate to remaining forested frontiers and make longer journeys to North America in search of work. In an attempt to understand and improve natural resource use, especially firewood, I uncover how networks of social relations (social capital) and international migration influence livelihoods in agricultural communities along a forested frontier. I used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather information about the lives of residents in four agricultural villages in Ixcan, Guatemala. The results from extended fieldwork illustrate how high levels of social capital can benefit the lives of rural residents. I argue that development programs can take advantage of existing high levels of social capital and take measures to create social capital where it is lacking to ensure the successful implementation of development programs. I also discuss firewood management in each community and demonstrate the disjuncture between local firewood use and national energy plans. Finally, I show how migrants and the money they send home from North America radically alter land use and land distribution in this part of rural Guatemala. My study reveals the need to examine the linkages between large-scale international migration, social capital, and the environment in communities that rely on the land for survival.

  18. An international partnership approach to clean energy technology innovation: Carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoliang

    Is a global research partnership effective in developing, deploying, and diffusing clean energy technologies? Drawing on and extending innovation system studies, this doctoral dissertation elaborates an analytical model for a global technology learning system; examines the rationales, mechanisms, and effectiveness of the United States-- China Clean Energy Research Center Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (CERC-ACTC); and analyzes government's role in developing and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States (U.S.) and China. Studies have shown that successful technology innovation leads to economic prosperity and national competence, and prove that technology innovation does not happen in isolation but rather within interactive systems among stakeholders. However, the innovation process itself remains unclear, particularly with regard to interactive learning among and between major institutional actors, including technology developers, regulators, and financial organizations. This study seeks to advance scholarship on the interactive learning from the angle of global interactive learning. This dissertation research project seeks, as well, to inform policy-makers of how to strengthen international collaboration in clean energy technology development. The U.S.--China CERC-ACTC announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009, provided a unique opportunity to close this scholarly gap. ACTC aimed to "advance the coal technology needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently utilize coal resources including the ability to capture, store, and utilize the emissions from coal use in both nations " through the joint research and development by U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. This dissertation project included one-year field research in the two countries, with in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, a survey of Consortium participants, analysis of available data, and site visits to collaborative research projects from 2013-2014. This

  19. Vertical mixing and internal wave energy fluxes in a sill fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staalstrøm, André; Røed, Lars Petter

    2016-07-01

    We consider the distribution and level of local vertical mixing inside of the Drøbak Sill in the Oslofjord, Norway. The work is motivated by observations of long periods (∼years) of hypoxic or even anoxic conditions in the innermost basin, episodes attributed to weak vertical mixing. In line with earlier work on the subject we assume that the local vertical mixing level inside of the sill is predominantly determined by the loss of energy of propagating, tidally-induced internal waves whose source is the sill region. To investigate possible differences in vertical mixing we estimate the eddy diffusivity in the various basins based on model simulations and observations using three methods whereby the eddy diffusion coefficient is estimated. The model we use is an ultra high-resolution version of the three-dimensional, hydrostatic ocean model ROMS forced solely by barotropic tide well outside of the sill. To evaluate the sensitivity of the model results we perform sensitivity experiments in which the mesh size and various parameters and parameterizations are varied. We find indeed that the internal waves lose most of their energy before they reach the innermost basin, and hence set the scene for long periods of no deep water renewal. The sensitivity experiments reveal that it is important that the model's mesh size is small enough to resolve the dominant wavelengths of the topography. Moreover, we find that the strength of the turbulence production and hence the mixing depends on the initially chosen stratification. The method we use is generic and may be applied to any sill fjord.

  20. EDITORIAL: The Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuji; Toriyama, Toshiyuki

    2005-09-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004). The workshop was held in Kyoto, Japan, on 28-30 November 2004, by The Ritsumeikan Research Institute of Micro System Technology in cooperation with The Global Emerging Technology Institute, The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, The Sensors and Micromachines Society, The Micromachine Center and The Kyoto Nanotech Cluster. Power MEMS is one of the newest categories of MEMS, which encompasses microdevices and microsystems for power generation, energy conversion and propulsion. The first concept of power MEMS was proposed in the late 1990s by Epstein's group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they continue to study MEMS-based gas turbine generators. Since then, the research and development of power MEMS have been promoted by the need for compact power sources with high energy and power density. Since its inception, power MEMS has expanded to include not only various MEMS-based power generators but also small energy machines and microdevices for macro power generators. At the last workshop, various devices and systems, such as portable fuel cells and their peripherals, micro and small turbo machinery, energy harvesting microdevices, and microthrusters, were presented. Their power levels vary from ten nanowatts to hundreds of watts, spanning ten orders of magnitude. The first PowerMEMS workshop was held in 2000 in Sendai, Japan, and consisted of only seven invited presentations. The workshop has grown since then, and in 2004 there were 5 invited, 20 oral and 29 poster presentations. From the 54 papers in the proceedings, 12 papers have been selected for this special issue. I would like to express my appreciation to the members of the Organizing Committee and Technical Program Committee. This special issue was