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Sample records for international radioactive material

  1. International radioactive material recycling challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Greeves, John T.; Lieberman, James

    2007-07-01

    The paper explores current examples of successful International radioactive recycling programs and also explores operational regulatory and political challenges that need to be considered for expanding international recycling world-wide. Most countries regulations are fully consistent with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Material and the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. IAEA member States reported on the status of their efforts to control transboundary movement of radioactive material recently during the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management meeting in May 2006. (authors)

  2. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1); Draft Revision Available for Comment AGENCY... International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R... Radioactive Material (TS-R-1), to promote the safe and secure transportation of radioactive material. The IAEA...

  3. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    DOE PAGES

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; ...

    2014-11-15

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA.

  4. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

    2014-11-15

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA.

  5. International policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residues.

    PubMed

    González, Abel J

    2013-05-01

    The paper addresses the international policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residue, its main aim being to describe the misunderstandings, evolution and status of the international paradigms in this area. Thus, the denotation and connotation of the 'remediation' and 'contamination' concepts are explored, including the ambiguity they produce in understanding of the issues by a sceptical public. Then, the international radiation protection approaches for remediation are portrayed. They derive from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which are described including their basic principles and characterization of exposure situations. Prolonged exposure situations, which are typical in cases of contaminated land, are analysed with particular detail. The newer ICRP general recommendations, as well as recent ICRP recommendations for excluding and exempting exposure situations from regulatory control and for living in long-term contaminated territories after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency, are examined. Remediation vis-à-vis environmental protection is discussed and the non-technical factors usually involved in decision-making on remediation are examined. Finally, the international safety standards on remediation, which are being established under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are explored. These include the well established International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, or BSS, as well as the specific international safety requirements for remediation; a brief overview of the current process of revising the BSS is also included. In its outcome the paper suggests that the time is ripe for a simple and clear international agreement on the levels of radioactivity in territorial contamination with radioactive material that may be considered unambiguously safe.

  6. Spatially controlled carbon sponge for targeting internalized radioactive materials in human body.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Yong; Oh, Wan-Kyu; Shin, Keun-Young; Kwon, Oh Seok; Son, Suim; Jang, Jyongsik

    2012-07-01

    Carbon sponge, an adsorbent with spatially controlled structure is demonstrated for targeting internalized radiocesium and other radionuclides in human body. Three dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) carbons derived from inverse opal replicas of colloidal-crystal template exhibit large surface area and high porosity, resulting in highly efficient adsorbents for radionuclides. It is also possible to enhance binding affinity and selectivity to radionuclide targets by decoration of 3DOM carbon surfaces with Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles, and synthesized PB nanoparticles reveal low toxicity toward macrophage cells with potential advantages over oral administration. It is noteworthy that the maximum (133)Cs adsorption capacity of PB-decorated 3DOM carbons is 40.07 mmol g(-1) which is ca. 30 and 200 times higher than that of commercialized medicine Radiogardase(®) and bulk PB, respectively. Further, adsorption kinetics study indicates that the PB-decorated 3DOM carbons have the homogenous surface for (133)Cs ion adsorption and all sites have equal adsorption energies in terms of ion exchange between the cyano groups of the PB-decorated 3DOM carbons and radionuclides. As a concept of the oral-administrable "carbon sponge", the PB-decorated 3DOM carbons offer useful implications in the separation science of radioactive materials and important insight for designing novel materials for treatment of patients or suspected internal contamination with radioactive materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transportation of Radioactive Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-07-01

    measurements of radiation must be made with a Landsverk- Wollan Electrometer Model L-100 or equally efficient standardized meter. Acceptable instruments... Wollan Electrometer Model L-100, or equally efficient standardized meter. 40 146.25-25. Exemptions for radioactive materials: (a) Radioactive materials

  8. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  9. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, Stanley R.

    1985-01-01

    A container for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material and disposed in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload package concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and a sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path.

  10. Radioactive materials in recycled metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lubenau, J.O.; Yusko, J.G.

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap-radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  11. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  12. Container for radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Fields, S.R.

    1984-05-30

    A container is claimed for housing a plurality of canister assemblies containing radioactive material. The several canister assemblies are stacked in a longitudinally spaced relation within a carrier to form a payload concentrically mounted within the container. The payload package includes a spacer for each canister assembly, said spacer comprising a base member longitudinally spacing adjacent canister assemblies from each other and sleeve surrounding the associated canister assembly for centering the same and conducting heat from the radioactive material in a desired flow path. 7 figures.

  13. WRAITH - A Computer Code for Calculating Internal and External Doses Resulting From An Atmospheric Release of Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, R. I.; Borst, F. J.; Hoenes, G. R.

    1980-12-01

    WRAITH is a FORTRAN computer code which calculates the doses received by a standard man exposed to an accidental release of radioactive material. The movement of the released material through the atmosphere is calculated using a bivariate straight-line Gaussian distribution model, with Pasquill values for standard deviations. The quantity of material in the released cloud is modified during its transit time to account for radioactive decay and daughter production. External doses due to exposure to the cloud can be calculated using a semi-infinite cloud approximation. In situations where the semi-infinite cloud approximation is not a good one, the external dose can be calculated by a "finite plume" three-dimensional point-kernel numerical integration technique. Internal doses due to acute inhalation are cal.culated using the ICRP Task Group Lung Model and a four-segmented gastro-intestinal tract model. Translocation of the material between body compartments and retention in the body compartments are calculated using multiple exponential retention functions. Internal doses to each organ are calculated as sums of cross-organ doses, with each target organ irradiated by radioactive material in a number of source organs. All doses are calculated in rads, with separate values determined for high-LET and low-LET radiation.

  14. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  15. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  16. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Newman, Darrell F.; Ross, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another.

  17. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  18. Storage depot for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Szulinski, Milton J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson.

  19. PATRAM '83: 7th international symposium on packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1983-12-01

    Volume 1 contains the papers from the following sessions: Plenary session; international regulations; fracture toughness of ferritic steels; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF/sub 6/ packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; and radiation risk experiences.

  20. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Ron; Rawl, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA)Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

  1. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  2. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  3. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Cassidy, D.A.; Dates, L.R.

    1980-07-31

    A radioactive material storage system is claimed for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together. The plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or inventory. Wall mounts are provided to prevent accidental formation of critical masses during storage.

  4. Storage containers for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Groh, Edward F.; Cassidy, Dale A.; Dates, Leon R.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive material storage system for use in the laboratory having a flat base plate with a groove in one surface thereof and a hollow pedestal extending perpendicularly away from the other surface thereof, a sealing gasket in the groove, a cover having a filter therein and an outwardly extending flange which fits over the plate, the groove and the gasket, and a clamp for maintaining the cover and the plate sealed together, whereby the plate and the cover and the clamp cooperate to provide a storage area for radioactive material readily accessible for use or

  5. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, Philip A.

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  6. Enhanced Radioactive Material Source Security.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Joseph G

    2016-02-01

    Requirements for additional security measures for sealed radioactive sources have evolved since they were first implemented after the terrorist events of 11 September 2001. This paper will describe the sequence of those measures, commencing with the early orders issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the May 2013 adoption of 10 CFR Part 37, Physical Protections of Category 1 and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material. Part 37 requirements will be discussed in detail, as the 37 NRC Agreement States, which regulate approximately 88% of the radioactive material licensees, will be required to enact by 19 March 2016. In addition to the Part 37 requirements, the paper will also highlight some of the other ongoing efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors.

  7. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 148.300 Section 148.300 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.300 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials that may be stowed or transported in bulk are limited to those...

  8. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 148.300 Section 148.300 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.300 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials that may be stowed or transported in bulk are limited to...

  9. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless the...

  10. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless...

  11. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless...

  12. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless...

  13. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless...

  14. Transporting Radioactive Material | Radiation Protection | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Radioactive material can be transported by truck, train, plane or ship. The shipment of radioactive material has been regulated since 1939. Shipping routes for radioactive materials are picked very carefully and shipments are tracked. Markings on containers and vehicles explain the contents of each package using standard terms and codes.

  15. Radioactive material package seal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  17. The reductive effect of an anti-pollinosis mask against internal exposure from radioactive materials dispersed from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro

    2013-02-01

    The reductive effect of an anti-pollinosis mask against internal exposure from radioactive materials dispersed following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster was investigated. A single mask was worn continuously for 18 h from 15:00 JST on 15 March to 09:00 JST on 16 March 2011 at the Hongo campus of the University of Tokyo, Japan. An adult without a mask was exposed during this time to radiation of 6.1 μSv over ambient background in effective dose and 33 μSv in dose equivalent to the thyroid. Radionuclides were dispersed not only in their gaseous and particulate state but also as components that agglomerate to other aerosols and pollens. Wearing a mask for anti-pollinosis could reduce internal exposure from inhalation.

  18. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  19. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Katherine M.; Starenchak, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which mvoes between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place.

  20. Diverter assembly for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, K.M.; Starenchak, R.W.

    1988-04-11

    A diverter assembly for diverting a pneumatically conveyed holder for a radioactive material between a central conveying tube and one of a plurality of radially offset conveying tubes includes an airtight container. A diverter tube having an offset end is suitably mounted in the container for rotation. A rotary seal seals one end of the diverter tube during and after rotation of the diverter tube while a spring biased seal seals the other end of the diverter tube which moves between various offset conveying tubes. An indexing device rotatably indexes the diverter tube and this indexing device is driven by a suitable drive. The indexing mechanism is preferably a geneva-type mechanism to provide a locking of the diverter tube in place. 3 figs.

  1. 46 CFR 148.300 - Radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 148.300 Section 148.300 Shipping... MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.300 Radioactive... surface, when averaged over an area of 300 cm2, does not exceed the following levels: (1) 4.0 Bq/cm2...

  2. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  3. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... meter. photo courtesy of Oak Ridge Associated Universities Granite Countertops Granite can release the radioactive gas radon into the ... released can vary considerably from one type of granite to another, the radon concen- trations in most ...

  4. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air... exposures to airborne radioactive material. (b) The estimation of internal dose shall be based on...

  5. TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The major industrial sectors which generate TENORM are: Mining. Energy production. Water treatment. Consumer products . Learn more ... Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials From Uranium Mining, Volume 1: Mining and Reclamation Background, and Volume ...

  6. Radioactive materials shipping cask anticontamination enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Belmonte, Mark S.; Davis, James H.; Williams, David A.

    1982-01-01

    An anticontamination device for use in storing shipping casks for radioactive materials comprising (1) a seal plate assembly; (2) a double-layer plastic bag; and (3) a water management system or means for water management.

  7. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  8. Computed tomography of radioactive objects and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicka, B. D.; Murphy, R. V.; Tosello, G.; Reynolds, P. W.; Romaniszyn, T.

    1990-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been performed on a number of radioactive objects and materials. Several unique technical problems are associated with CT of radioactive specimens. These include general safety considerations, techniques to reduce background-radiation effects on CT images and selection criteria for the CT source to permit object penetration and to reveal accurate values of material density. In the present paper, three groups of experiments will be described, for objects with low, medium and high levels of radioactivity. CT studies on radioactive specimens will be presented. They include the following: (1) examination of individual ceramic reactor-fuel (uranium dioxide) pellets, (2) examination of fuel samples from the Three Mile Island reactor, (3) examination of a CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uraniun: registered trademark) nuclear-fuel bundle which underwent a simulated loss-of-coolant accident resulting in high-temperature damage and (4) examination of a PWR nuclear-reactor fuel assembly.

  9. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  10. Exposures from environmental radioactivity: international safety standards.

    PubMed

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2008-11-01

    The paper presents the current international system for the protection of the public against environmental radioactivity. The protection system applies to all the three human exposure situations, i.e., planned, emergency and existing exposures. Radiation protection is a developing scientific and practical discipline and some of the areas in public radiation protection and protection of the environment that are in need of further elaboration are identified in the paper.

  11. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83... Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except as... paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, the Corporation may transfer radioactive material: (1) From one...

  12. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83... Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except as... paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, the Corporation may transfer radioactive material: (1) From one...

  13. Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; Decision and Information Sciences; SRL; DOE

    2007-01-01

    The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing upon current US Department of Energy (DOE) storage standards and examples from interim storage of Pu bearing materials in model 9975 transportation packagings. Key issues highlighted during long term storage of Pu bearing materials included gas generation and stability of PuO{sub 2+x}; other operation safety issues highlighted for interim storage of model 9975 transportation packagings included the need to consider a facility design basis fire event and the long term behaviour of packaging components such as Celotex and elastomeric O-ring seals. The principles of aging management are described, and the key attributes and examples of effective aging management programmes are provided based on the guidance documents for license renewal of nuclear power plants. The Packaging Certification Program of DOE Environmental Management, Office of Safety Management and Operations, plans to expand its mission into packaging certification for storage and aging management, as well as application of advanced technology, such as radiofrequency identification, for life cycle management of radioactive materials packagings.

  14. Recycling and Reuse of Radioactive Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dou, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has a Radiation Protection Program that was designed to provide students with the ability to safely work with radioactive materials in quantities that are not available in other academic environments. Requirements for continuous training and supervision make this unique…

  15. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  16. Recycling and Reuse of Radioactive Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dou, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has a Radiation Protection Program that was designed to provide students with the ability to safely work with radioactive materials in quantities that are not available in other academic environments. Requirements for continuous training and supervision make this unique…

  17. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  18. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  19. DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-09-23

    A device is described fur unloading bodies of fissionable material from a neutronic reactor. It is comprised essentially of a wheeled flat car having a receptacle therein containing a liquid coolant fur receiving and cooling the fuel elements as they are discharged from the reactor, and a reciprocating plunger fur supporting the fuel element during discharge thereof prior to its being dropped into the coolant. The flat car is adapted to travel along the face of the reactor adjacent the discharge ends of the coolant tubes.

  20. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; D'Amico, J.; Defelice, J.; Spannagel, G.

    1972-01-01

    The difference between the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in the rocks 12002 and 15555 provides direct measures of the Ar-37 activities produced by the 2 November 1969 flare. Differences between the Ar-37 activities in 14321 and 15555 give Ar-37 activities produced by the 24 January 1971 flare. The intensities of the two flares were determined by making use of measured Ar-37 cross sections in simulated lunar material. The depth dependence of tritium in samples and its temperature-release pattern provides information about the sources of the tritium and about the intensity of solar flares integrated over the past 30 years.

  1. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; D'Amico, J.; Defelice, J.; Spannagel, G.

    1972-01-01

    The difference between the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in the rocks 12002 and 15555 provides direct measures of the Ar-37 activities produced by the 2 November 1969 flare. Differences between the Ar-37 activities in 14321 and 15555 give Ar-37 activities produced by the 24 January 1971 flare. The intensities of the two flares were determined by making use of measured Ar-37 cross sections in simulated lunar material. The depth dependence of tritium in samples and its temperature-release pattern provides information about the sources of the tritium and about the intensity of solar flares integrated over the past 30 years.

  2. Development of synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials.

    PubMed

    Harms, Arvic; Gilligan, Chris

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a novel way of developing synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials via the sol-gel process is described. Two solid reference materials (both having a SiO(2) matrix) were synthesised by hydrolysing a liquid mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), ethanol and standardised mixed radionuclide solutions. The certified values, which were in the Bqg(-1) range, for the radionuclides in the material were determined by NPL and compared with results from measurements made by 36 organisations from 17 countries using a 'consensus' approach. The measurements were made within two wider test exercises (the NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercises 2009 and 2010). Certified activity concentration values were obtained for (60)Co, (133)Ba, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, (154)Eu and (241)Am and indicative values were obtained for (55)Fe and (90)Sr.

  3. Radioactivities in returned lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Ar37, Ar39, and H3 were measured at four depths (from 0 to 19.5 cm) of the deep core from Apollo 16 and in four other Apollo 16 samples. The Ar37 increased steadily from 40 dpm/kg at the top of the core to 68 dpm/kg at 19-cm depth. The comparison of the Ar37 in the core with that in rock 15555 shows that the solar flare at the time of the Apollo 16 mission was approximately an order of magnitude less intense than solar flares of 24 January 1971 and 2 November 1969, which occurred before the Apollo 14 and 12 missions. The Ar39 activities in the top 19 cm of the deep core varied little with depth. Because the Apollo 16 samples have a much higher Ca content and much lower Fe and Ti contents than do the documented rocks from previous missions, the Ar39 in the Fe, Ca, and K can be determined from Ar39 measurements on lunar material if a Ti cross section is assumed.

  4. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  5. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  6. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided.

  7. A review of job-exposure matrix methodology for application to workers exposed to radiation from internally deposited plutonium or other radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanhua; Wakeford, Richard; Riddell, Anthony; O'Hagan, Jacqueline; MacGregor, David; Agius, Raymond; Wilson, Christine; Peace, Mark; de Vocht, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Any potential health effects of radiation emitted from radionuclides deposited in the bodies of workers exposed to radioactive materials can be directly investigated through epidemiological studies. However, estimates of radionuclide exposure and consequent tissue-specific doses, particularly for early workers for whom monitoring was relatively crude but exposures tended to be highest, can be uncertain, limiting the accuracy of risk estimates. We review the use of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in peer-reviewed epidemiological and exposure assessment studies of nuclear industry workers exposed to radioactive materials as a method for addressing gaps in exposure data, and discuss methodology and comparability between studies. We identified nine studies of nuclear worker cohorts in France, Russia, the USA and the UK that had incorporated JEMs in their exposure assessments. All these JEMs were study or cohort-specific, and although broadly comparable methodologies were used in their construction, this is insufficient to enable the transfer of any one JEM to another study. Moreover there was often inadequate detail on whether, or how, JEMs were validated. JEMs have become more detailed and more quantitative, and this trend may eventually enable better comparison across, and the pooling of, studies. We conclude that JEMs have been shown to be a valuable exposure assessment methodology for imputation of missing exposure data for nuclear worker cohorts with data not missing at random. The next step forward for direct comparison or pooled analysis of complete cohorts would be the use of transparent and transferable methods.

  8. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.

  9. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except...

  10. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except...

  11. 10 CFR 76.83 - Transfer of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer of radioactive material. 76.83 Section 76.83 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.83 Transfer of radioactive material. (a) The Corporation may not transfer radioactive material except...

  12. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 172.403 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.403 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) Unless excepted from labeling by §§ 173.421 through 173.427 of this subchapter, each package of radioactive material must be...

  13. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages of Class 7 (radioactive) materials in any transport vehicle or in any single group in any storage location...

  14. 48 CFR 245.7310-6 - Radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive material. 245... Radioactive material. The following shall be used whenever the property offered for sale is capable of emitting ionized radiation: Radioactive Material Purchasers are warned that the property may be capable of...

  15. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section... UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized by the master or person in charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on...

  16. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76... § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the Corporation shall confine its possession and use of radioactive material to the locations and purposes covered by...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in...

  18. 49 CFR 172.310 - Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 172.310 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.310 Class 7 (radioactive) materials. In addition to any other markings required by this subpart, each package containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials must be marked...

  19. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section... UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized by the master or person in charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on...

  20. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76... § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the Corporation shall confine its possession and use of radioactive material to the locations and purposes covered by...

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in...

  2. Radioactive Material Used In Research | RadTown USA | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-12-09

    Some laboratories use radioactive material to assist their research. Radioactive materials are used in research settings to help researchers create and test new medicines, technologies and procedures for plants, animals and people. Research laboratories must follow strict rules to order, store, use and dispose of radioactive material.

  3. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section... UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized by the master or person in charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on...

  4. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section... UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized by the master or person in charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on...

  5. 46 CFR 109.559 - Explosives and radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives and radioactive materials. 109.559 Section... UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.559 Explosives and radioactive materials. Except as authorized by the master or person in charge, no person may use explosives or radioactive materials and equipment on...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  8. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages of Class 7 (radioactive) materials in any transport vehicle or in any single group in any storage...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.28 - Storage of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of radioactive materials. 50-204.28 Section 50-204.28 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.28 Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored...

  10. Priorities for technology development and policy to reduce the risk from radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2010-06-01

    The Standing Committee on International Security of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials in the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Division conducted its fourth annual workshop in February 2010 on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials. This workshop examined new technologies in real-time tracking of radioactive materials, new risks and policy issues in transportation security, the best practices and challenges found in addressing illicit radioactive materials trafficking, industry leadership in reducing proliferation risk, and verification of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, Article VI. Technology gaps, policy gaps, and prioritization for addressing the identified gaps were discussed. Participants included academia, policy makers, radioactive materials users, physical security and safeguards specialists, and vendors of radioactive sources and transportation services. This paper summarizes the results of this workshop with the recommendations and calls to action for the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) membership community.

  11. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  12. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  13. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Davis, M.S.

    1984-08-30

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating high-level radioactive waste material in a repository is claimed. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between juxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  14. Scrap metals industry perspective on radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ray

    2006-11-01

    With more than 80 reported/confirmed accidental melts worldwide since 1983 and still counting, potential contamination by radioactive materials remains as a major concern among recycled scrap and steel companies. Some of these events were catastrophic and have cost the industry millions of dollars in business and, at the same time, resulted in declining consumer confidence. It is also known that more events with confirmed radioactive contamination have occurred that involve mining of old steel slag and skull dumps. Consequently, the steel industry has since undergone massive changes that incurred unprecedented expenses through the installation of radiation monitoring systems in hopes of preventing another accidental melt. Despite such extraordinary efforts, accidental melts continue to occur and plague the industry. One recent reported/confirmed event occurred in the Republic of China in 2004, causing the usual lengthy shutdown for expensive decontamination efforts before the steel mill could resume operations. With this perspective in mind, the metal industry has a long-standing opposition to the release of radioactive materials of any kind to commerce for fear of contamination and the potential consequences.

  15. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee, in...

  16. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee, in...

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee,...

  18. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee,...

  19. 48 CFR 52.223-7 - Notice of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of radioactive....223-7 Notice of radioactive materials. As prescribed in 23.602, insert the following clause: Notice of Radioactive Materials (JAN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer or designee,...

  20. Over the border--the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders.

    PubMed

    Duftschmid, K E

    2002-03-01

    Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2,300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed.

  1. Natural radioactivity measurements of building materials in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Caifeng; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Natural radioactivity due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the common building materials collected from Baotou city of Inner Mongolia, China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiation hazard of the studied building materials was estimated by the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), internal hazard index (H(in)) and annual effective dose (AED). The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and Ra(eq) in the studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of other countries. The Ra(eq) values of the building materials are below the internationally accepted values (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of H(in) in all studied building materials are less than unity. The AEDs of all measured building materials are at an acceptable level.

  2. Radioactive Material From Fertilizer Production | RadTown ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    An ingredient in some fertilizers is the mineral phosphorous. The most common method for making fertilizer containing phosphorous leaves behind a waste called phosphogypsum, which contains radioactive materials and gives off the radioactive gas, radon.

  3. RECLAMATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2011-06-06

    Radioactive material packages are withdrawn from use for various reasons; loss of mission, decertification, damage, replacement, etc. While the packages themselves may be decertified, various components may still be able to perform to their required standards and find useful service. The Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems group of the Savannah River National Laboratory has been reducing the cost of producing new Type B Packagings by reclaiming, refurbishing, and returning to service the containment vessels from older decertified packagings. The program and its benefits are presented.

  4. Residual radioactive material guidelines: Methodology and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-01-01

    A methodology to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This methodology is coded in a menu-driven computer program, RESRAD, which can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputers. Seven pathways of exposure are considered: external radiation, inhalation, and ingestion of plant foods, meat, milk, aquatic foods, and water. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to calculate soil cleanup guidelines. This experience has shown that the computer code is easy to use and very user-friendly. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Internal exposure from building materials exhaling (222)Rn and (220)Rn as compared to external exposure due to their natural radioactivity content.

    PubMed

    Ujić, Predrag; Celiković, Igor; Kandić, Aleksandar; Vukanac, Ivana; Durasević, Mirjana; Dragosavac, Dusan; Zunić, Zora S

    2010-01-01

    The main scope of this paper is to point out the importance of introducing radon and thoron exhalation measurements from building materials in the regulating frame. Currently (2009), such a regulation of this kind of exposure is not explicitly included in the Serbian regulating network. To this end, this work reports concentration measurements of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and radon and thoron exhalation rates from building materials used in Serbia. Following detailed analysis, it was noticed that both internal exposures to radon and/or thoron exhaling from building materials may exceed external exposures to their precursors contained therein.

  6. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Li, Nan

    2013-08-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings.

  7. Gamma emitting radioactive materials in household dinnerware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Fawzia Ahmad

    A variety of commonly available household and tableware items and some specialty glass materials commonly found in everyday life were examined for their radioactivity content with two different detection and measurement methods. Dinnerware is produced mainly from clay and sand at high temperatures. Therefore, it should be expected to have some degree of radioactivity. It is also stored in confined places, which permits radon accumulation. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K in dinnerware used in houses was measured. Many dinnerware items from various origins that are sold on the open market were studied. Measurements of specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclide for the samples were carried out. The measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry having a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer and a computer system. The average values of specific activities were (6.03 ± 0.54 to 223.67 ± 22.37 for 238U; 2.87 ± 0.14 to 513.85 ± 15.42 for 232Th; 28.67 ± 2.01 to 2726.70 ± 54.53 for 40K; and 0.592 ± 0.037 to 3.549 ± 0.248 for 137Cs) Bq kg-1, respectively. The glazed samples seemed to contribute most of the activity, although also unglazed samples showed some activity. The absorbed dose rates, radium equivalent and external hazard index were also calculated and tabulated. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to measure the radon track density, exhalation rate and effective radium content for the investigated samples. The exhalation rate was found to vary from 4.376 to 8.144 Bq m-2 d-1. It appears that foreign ceramic products, especially Chinese ones with high uranium content, eventually enter the country. The results from the two methods are compared and their combined uncertainties were estimated from the relation of relative combined variance. In Egypt, no special regulations exist concerning radioactivity in glazed earthenware. On the basis of the previous

  8. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  9. Radioactive materials in biosolids : dose modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbarst, A. B.; Chiu, W. A; Yu, C.; Aiello, K.; Bachmaier, J. T.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J. -J.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhartt, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. EPA; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. DOE; U.S. NRC; NE Ohio Regional Sewer District

    2006-01-01

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible transport of radioactivity from sludge into the local environment and the subsequent exposure of humans. A stochastic environmental pathway model was applied separately to seven hypothetical, generic sludge-release scenarios, leading to the creation of seven tables of Dose-to-Source Ratios (DSR), which can be used in translating from specific activity in sludge into dose to an individual. These DSR values were then combined with the results of an ISCORS survey of sludge and ash at more than 300 publicly owned treatment works, to explore the potential for radiation exposure of sludge workers and members of the public. This paper provides a brief overview of the pathway modeling methodology employed in the exposure and dose assessments and discusses technical aspects of the results obtained.

  10. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

    2011-03-24

    Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

  11. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  12. International standards related to the classification and deregulation of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Linsley, Gordon

    2006-11-01

    Although solid radioactive waste management is mainly a national concern, there are some aspects that have international implications. One important example is the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, which results in the release of materials that could be reused and recycled. It is possible that these materials could enter international trade, especially if the material is a metal. It is clearly desirable, therefore, to have appropriate international standards to help regulate trade. This paper describes recent international developments relating to the establishment of radiological criteria for the release of materials from regulatory control (clearance). There have already been some experiences of clearance and the transfer of recycled materials within Europe, and this paper reviews that experience. It also discusses recent developments in relation to the international classification of radioactive waste.

  13. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

  14. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

  15. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.81 Authorized use of radioactive material. Unless otherwise authorized by law, the...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy... Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling...

  17. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  18. Radioactivity in building materials in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kamal K

    2012-02-01

    Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in 45 samples of different building materials used in Iraq were measured using gamma-spectroscopy system based on high-purity germanium detector with an efficiency of 40 %. Radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index due to radon inhalation originating from building materials were measured to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and 40K were found to range from below detection limit (BDL) to 223.7 ± 9, BDL to 93.0 ± 3 and BDL to 343.1 ± 12, respectively. Values of average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, indoor and outdoor annual effective doses, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index ranged from 6.5 to 124.9, 16.2 to 89.5 (nGy h(-1)), 0.08 to 0.44 mSv, 0.02-0.11 mSv, 0.09 to 0.53, 0.13 to 0.69 and 0.03 to 0.62, respectively. These values indicate a low dose. Therefore, the building materials used in the current study are quite safe to be used as building materials.

  19. Transporting radioactive materials: Q & A to your questions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Over 2 million packages of radioactive materials are shipped each year in the United States. These shipments are carried by trucks, trains, ships, and airplanes every day just like other commodities. Compliance with Federal regulations ensures that radioactive materials are transported safely. Proper packaging is the key to safe shipment. Package designs for radioactive materials must protect the public and the environment even in case of an accident. As the level of radioactivity increases, packaging design requirements become more stringent. Radioactive materials have been shipped in this country for more than 40 years. As with other commodities, vehicles carrying these materials have been involved in accidents. However, no deaths or serious injuries have resulted from exposure to the radioactive contents of these shipments. People are concerned about how radioactive shipments might affect them and the environment. This booklet briefly answers some of the commonly asked questions about the transport of radioactive materials. More detailed information is available from the sources listed at the end of this booklet.

  20. Transportation accidents/incidents involving radioactive materials (1971--1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Cashwell, C. E.; McClure, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information on transportation-related accidents and incidents involving radioactive materials that have occurred in the United States. The RMIR was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support its research and development program efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will address the following topics: background information on the regulations and process for reporting a hazardous materials transportation incident, overview data of radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents, and additional information and summary data on how packagings have performed in accident conditions.

  1. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity special issue: international topical conference on Po and radioactive Pb isotopes.

    PubMed

    Holm, Elis; Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    An international conference on polonium (Po) and radioactive isotopes was held in Seville Spain, 26-28 October 2009 at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores. It was attended by 138 participants from 38 different countries. The sessions covered all aspects on Po and lead (Pb) such as radiochemistry, terrestrial and marine radioecology, kinetics, sedimentation rates, atmospheric tracers, NORM industries and dose assessment.

  2. Radioactive material shipping for academic and medical facilities.

    PubMed

    Vernig, Peter G; Tipping, Tracy N; Herrold, Jim; Ward, Paul

    2011-11-01

    This paper is intended as an aid for preparing radioactive material shipments in academic and medical facilities. These facilities may only ship radioactive materials infrequently. As such, ensuring compliance with applicable regulations can be very time consuming. Excepted package shipments (including empty packages) and shipments using Type A packages for a select list of isotopes commonly used by academic and medical facilities are covered. Tables and flowcharts are used to direct one through the process of determining if the material to be shipped meets the definition of radioactive material for transportation purposes and if it qualifies for excepted package or Type A package shipment. The reader is then directed to procedures to properly prepare, document, and ship the radioactive material package.

  3. Radioactive materials in recycled metals--an update.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1998-03-01

    In April 1995, Health Physics published a review paper titled "Radioactive Materials in Recycled Metals." At that time, 35 accidental meltings of radioactive sources in metal mills were reported, including 22 in the U.S., along with 293 other events in the U.S. where radioactive material was found in metals for recycling. Since that date, there have been additional accidental meltings of radioactive sources in metal mills both in the U.S. and elsewhere. There also was an incident in Texas that involved stolen radioactive devices, which resulted in exposures of members of the general public. Also, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission took steps to address the underlying problem of inadequate control and accountability of radioactive materials licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Steel Manufacturers Association made available data collected by its members beginning in 1994 that expanded the database for radioactive materials found by the metal recycling industry in recycled metal scrap to over 2,300 reports as of 30 June 1997.

  4. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. 175.701 Section 175.701... packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in passenger-carrying aircraft. (a) The following table... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and...

  5. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and passengers..., overpacks or freight containers labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III must be separated... individual packages or overpacks. (d) Predesignated areas. A package labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or...

  6. Conversion of radioactive waste materials into solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, T.S.; Pohl, C.S.

    1980-10-28

    Radioactive waste materials are converted into solid form by mixing the radioactive waste with a novel polymeric formulation which, when solidified, forms a solid, substantially rigid matrix that contains and entraps the radioactive waste. The polymeric formulation comprises, in certain significant proportions by weight, urea-formaldehyde; methylated urea-formaldehyde; urea and a plasticizer. A defoaming agent may also be incorporated into the polymeric composition. In the practice of the invention, radioactive waste, in the form of a liquid or slurry, is mixed with the polymeric formulation, with this mixture then being treated with an acidic catalyzing agent, such as sulfuric acid. This mixture is then preferably passed to a disposable container so that, upon solidification, the radioactive waste, entrapped within the matrix formed by the polymeric formulation, may be safely and effectively stored or disposed of.

  7. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  8. Miscellaneous radioactive materials detected during uranium mill tailings surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management directed the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in the conduct of radiological surveys on properties in Monticello, Utah, associated with the Mendaciously millsite National Priority List site. During these surveys, various radioactive materials were detected that were unrelated to the Monticello millsite. The existence and descriptions of these materials were recorded in survey reports and are condensed in this report. The radioactive materials detected are either naturally occurring radioactive material, such as rock and mineral collections, uranium ore, and radioactive coal or manmade radioactive material consisting of tailings from other millsites, mining equipment, radium dials, mill building scraps, building materials, such as brick and cinderblock, and other miscellaneous sources. Awareness of the miscellaneous and naturally occurring material is essential to allow DOE to forecast the additional costs and schedule changes associated with remediation activities. Also, material that may pose a health hazard to the public should be revealed to other regulatory agencies for consideration.

  9. 49 CFR 172.310 - Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 172.310 Section 172.310 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  10. 49 CFR 172.310 - Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 172.310 Section 172.310 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS...

  11. 76 FR 50331 - Hazardous Materials Regulations; Compatibility With the Regulations of the International Atomic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... transportation of Class 7 (radioactive) materials based on recent changes contained in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publication ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2009... Class 7 (radioactive) materials and update, clarify, correct, or provide relief from certain regulatory...

  12. Radioactive waste management in France and international cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Marque, Y. )

    1991-01-01

    Long-term industrial management of radioactive waste in France is carried out by the Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs. (ANDRA), which is a public body responsible mainly for siting, design, construction, and operation of the disposal facilities for every kind of radioactive waste produced in the country. Furthermore, ANDRA has to define and control the required quality of waste packages delivered for disposal. As far as disposal is concerned, it is customary in France to classify waste in two main categories. The first category includes all the so-called short-lived low-level waste (LLW) containing mainly radioactive substances have < 30-yr half-lives (beta-gamma emitters) and, in a few cases, a very small amount of long-half-life substances. The second category includes waste that contains a significant amount of long-lived substances such as transuranic nuclides. Throughout the world, public acceptance is at present the main issue in the siting of a disposal facility. Development of international cooperation is desirable in order to present a consistent international policy, whatever technical options may be chosen according to local considerations and possibilities. It can also be very fruitful to have bilateral collaboration where approaches in the two countries seem to be similar. International cooperation is already a matter of fact within the framework of international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Commission of European Communities.

  13. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  14. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. ); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  15. Potential of pottery materials in manufacturing radioactive waste containers.

    PubMed

    Helal, A A; Alian, A M; Aly, H M; Khalifa, S M

    2003-07-01

    Various pottery materials were evaluated for possible use in manufacturing containers for radioactive waste. Their potential was examined from the viewpoints of the effectiveness of disposal and the changes induced in them by gamma rays. Samples of these materials were irradiated with high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in a reactor near its core. the physical and mechanical properties of the materials before and after gamma irradiation (in a 60Co gamma cell) were compared. The study showed that pottery materials are resistant to radiation. Therefore, they were proposed for manufacturing drums for disposal of radioactive waste of high gamma activity.

  16. Radioactive materials packaging standards and regulations: Making sense of it all

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous regulations and standards, both national and international, apply to the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. These are legal and technical prerequisites to practically every action that a designer or user of a radioactive material transportation package will perform. The identity and applicability of these requirements and the bodies that formulate them are also not readily understood. This paper addresses the roles that various international bodies play in developing and implementing the various regulations and standards. It uses the US regulatory and standards-making bodies to illustrate how international requirements feed the domestic control of packaging and transport. It explains the scope and interactions between domestic and international regulatory and standards agencies and summarizes the status and major standards activities at the international level. The overview provided by this paper will be valuable to designers and users of radioactive material packages for better understanding and use of both standards and regulations, and for complying with regulatory requirements in the radioactive materials transportation field. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  18. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under the...

  19. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under the...

  20. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  1. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  2. 49 CFR 173.422 - Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.422 Section 173.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.422 Additional requirements for excepted packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is prepared for shipment under...

  3. Natural radioactivity of granites used as building materials.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, S; Koroneos, A; Papastefanou, C; Christofides, G; Stoulos, S; Vavelides, M

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen kinds of different granites, used as building materials, imported to Greece mainly from Spain and Brazil, were sampled and their natural radioactivity was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K of granites are presented and compared to those of other building materials as well as other granite types used all over the world. In order to assess the radiological impact from the granites investigated, the absorbed and the effective doses were determined. Although the annual effective dose is higher than the limit of 1mSvy(-1) for some studied granites, they could be used safely as building materials, considering that their contribution in most of the house constructions is very low. An attempt to correlate the relatively high level of natural radioactivity, shown by some of the granites, with their constituent radioactive minerals and their chemical composition, was also made.

  4. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive...

  5. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.469 Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials...

  6. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7 (radioactive...

  7. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.469 Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials...

  8. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive...

  9. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7 (radioactive...

  10. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  11. Behavior of radioactive materials and safety stock of contaminated sludge.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo

    2017-01-28

    The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster in 2011 has flowed into and accumulated in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via sewer systems; this has had a negative impact on WWTPs in eastern Japan. The behavior of radioactive materials was analyzed at four WWTPs in the Tohoku and Kanto regions to elucidate the mechanism by which radioactive materials are concentrated during the sludge treatment process from July 2011 to March 2013. Furthermore, numerical simulations were conducted to study the safe handling of contaminated sewage sludge stocked temporally in WWTPs. Finally, a dissolution test was conducted by using contaminated incinerated ash and melted slag derived from sewage sludge to better understand the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills. Measurements indicate that a large amount of radioactive material accumulates in aeration tanks and is becoming trapped in the concentrated sludge during the sludge condensation process. The numerical simulation indicates that a worker's exposure around contaminated sludge is less than 1 µSv/h when maintaining an isolation distance of more than 10 m, or when shielding with more than 20-cm-thick concrete. The radioactivity level of the eluate was undetectable in 9 out of 12 samples; in the remaining three samples, the dissolution rates were 0.5-2.7%.

  12. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  13. Shipment of radioactive materials by the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This brochure provides notification of, and information on, the general types of radioactive material shipments being transported for or on behalf of DOE in commerce across state and other jurisdictional boundaries. This brochure addresses: packaging and material types, shipment identification, modes of transport/materials shipped, DOE policy for routing and oversize/overweight shipments, DOE policy for notification and cargo security, training, emergency assistance, compensation for nuclear accidents, safety record, and principal DOE contact.

  14. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOEpatents

    Tranter, Troy J.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Todd, Terry A.; Burchfield, Larry A.; Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  15. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  16. Natural radioactivity in Algerian building materials.

    PubMed

    Amrani, D; Tahtat, M

    2001-04-01

    Samples of natural and manufactured building materials collected from Algiers have been analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using a high-resolution HPGe gamma-spectrometry system. The specific concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, from the selected building materials, ranged from (12-65 Bq kg(-1)), (7-51 B qkg(-1)) and (36-675 Bq kg(-1)), respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the world average activity of soil. Radium-equivalent activities were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. All building materials showed Ra(eq) activities lower than the limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg(-1)), equivalent to external gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv yr(-1).

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory shipping containers for radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The types of containers used at ORNL for the transport of radioactive materials are described. Both returnable and non-returnable types are included. Containers for solids, liquids and gases are discussed. Casks for the shipment of uranium, irradiated fuel elements, and non-irradiated fuel elements are also described. Specifications are provided. (DC)

  18. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  19. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed.

  20. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  1. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    A container for storage of radioactive material comprises a container body and a closure member. The closure member is coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open).

  2. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.E.

    1984-10-16

    A container is described for storage of radioactive material comprising a container body and a closure member. The closure member being coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open). 1 fig.

  3. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    A container for storage of radioactive material comprising a container body nd a closure member. The closure member being coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open).

  4. RELATIVE DISSOLUTION RATES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS USED AT AWE.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J; Bingham, D; Cockerill, R; Waldren, S; Moth, N

    2016-09-01

    A simple in vitro dissolution test was used to provide a semi-quantitative comparison of the relative dissolution rates of samples of radioactive materials used at Atomic Weapons Establishment in a lung fluid surrogate (Ringer's solution). A wide range of dissolution rates were observed for aged legacy actinides, freshly produced actinide alloys and actinides from waste management operations. © Crown copyright 2015.

  5. Understanding the Radioactive Ingrowth and Decay of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in the Environment: An Analysis of Produced Fluids from the Marcellus Shale.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew W; Eitrheim, Eric S; Knight, Andrew W; May, Dustin; Mehrhoff, Marinea A; Shannon, Robert; Litman, Robert; Burnett, William C; Forbes, Tori Z; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-07-01

    The economic value of unconventional natural gas resources has stimulated rapid globalization of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. However, natural radioactivity found in the large volumes of "produced fluids" generated by these technologies is emerging as an international environmental health concern. Current assessments of the radioactivity concentration in liquid wastes focus on a single element-radium. However, the use of radium alone to predict radioactivity concentrations can greatly underestimate total levels. We investigated the contribution to radioactivity concentrations from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), including uranium, thorium, actinium, radium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes, to the total radioactivity of hydraulic fracturing wastes. For this study we used established methods and developed new methods designed to quantitate NORM of public health concern that may be enriched in complex brines from hydraulic fracturing wastes. Specifically, we examined the use of high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry and isotope dilution alpha spectrometry to quantitate NORM. We observed that radium decay products were initially absent from produced fluids due to differences in solubility. However, in systems closed to the release of gaseous radon, our model predicted that decay products will begin to ingrow immediately and (under these closed-system conditions) can contribute to an increase in the total radioactivity for more than 100 years. Accurate predictions of radioactivity concentrations are critical for estimating doses to potentially exposed individuals and the surrounding environment. These predictions must include an understanding of the geochemistry, decay properties, and ingrowth kinetics of radium and its decay product radionuclides.

  6. 10 CFR 71.75 - Qualification of special form radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.75 Qualification of special form radioactive material. (a) Special form radioactive materials must meet the test requirements of paragraph (b) of this... material to be transported and the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must...

  7. 10 CFR 71.75 - Qualification of special form radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.75 Qualification of special form radioactive material. (a) Special form radioactive materials must meet the test requirements of paragraph (b) of this... material to be transported and the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must...

  8. Tools for modeling radioactive contaminants in chip materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, F.; Kaouache, A.; Saigné, F.; Touboul, A. D.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Warot, G.; Bruguier, O.

    2017-03-01

    Radioactive pollutants are naturally present in microelectronic device materials and can be an issue for the reliability of devices. The main concern is alpha emitters that produce high-energy particles (a few MeV) that ionize the semiconductor and then trigger soft errors. The question is to know what kinds of radionuclides are present in the device, their location in the device and the abundance of each species. In this paper we describe tools that are required to address the issue of radioactive pollutants in electronic devices.

  9. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  10. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive...

  11. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive...

  12. Advance assessment for movement of Haz Cat 3 radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Vosburg, Susan K.

    2010-04-01

    The current packaging of most HC-3 radioactive materials at SNL/NM do not meet DOT requirements for offsite shipment. SNL/NM is transporting HC-3 quantities of radioactive materials from their storage locations in the Manzano Nuclear Facilities bunkers to facilities in TA-5 to be repackaged for offsite shipment. All transportation of HC-3 rad material by SNL/NM is onsite (performed within the confines of KAFB). Transport is performed only by the Regulated Waste/Nuclear Material Disposition Department. Part of the HC3T process is to provide the CAT with the following information at least three days prior to the move: (1) RFt-Request for transfer; (2) HC3T movement report; (3) Radiological survey; and (4) Transportation Route Map.

  13. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  14. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R; Kruichar, Jessica Nicole

    2015-04-07

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  15. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R.; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole

    2015-11-17

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  16. Understanding the Radioactive Ingrowth and Decay of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in the Environment: An Analysis of Produced Fluids from the Marcellus Shale

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew W.; Eitrheim, Eric S.; Knight, Andrew W.; May, Dustin; Mehrhoff, Marinea A.; Shannon, Robert; Litman, Robert; Burnett, William C.; Forbes, Tori Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background The economic value of unconventional natural gas resources has stimulated rapid globalization of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. However, natural radioactivity found in the large volumes of “produced fluids” generated by these technologies is emerging as an international environmental health concern. Current assessments of the radioactivity concentration in liquid wastes focus on a single element—radium. However, the use of radium alone to predict radioactivity concentrations can greatly underestimate total levels. Objective We investigated the contribution to radioactivity concentrations from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), including uranium, thorium, actinium, radium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes, to the total radioactivity of hydraulic fracturing wastes. Methods For this study we used established methods and developed new methods designed to quantitate NORM of public health concern that may be enriched in complex brines from hydraulic fracturing wastes. Specifically, we examined the use of high-purity germanium gamma spectrometry and isotope dilution alpha spectrometry to quantitate NORM. Results We observed that radium decay products were initially absent from produced fluids due to differences in solubility. However, in systems closed to the release of gaseous radon, our model predicted that decay products will begin to ingrow immediately and (under these closed-system conditions) can contribute to an increase in the total radioactivity for more than 100 years. Conclusions Accurate predictions of radioactivity concentrations are critical for estimating doses to potentially exposed individuals and the surrounding environment. These predictions must include an understanding of the geochemistry, decay properties, and ingrowth kinetics of radium and its decay product radionuclides. Citation Nelson AW, Eitrheim ES, Knight AW, May D, Mehrhoff MA, Shannon R, Litman R, Burnett WC, Forbes TZ, Schultz MK. 2015

  17. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) material bearing “RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II” or “RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III” labels may... (2) 0.9 (3) 1.2 (4) 1.5 (5) 0.3 (1) 1.1 to 5.0 0.9 (3) 1.2 (4) 1.8 (6) 2.4 (8) 3.4 (11) 0.6 (2) 5.1 to 10.0 1.2 (4) 1.8 (6) 2.7 (9) 3.4 (11) 4.6 (15) 0.9 (3) 10.1 to 20.0 1.5 (5) 2.4 (8) 3.7 (12)...

  18. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) material bearing “RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II” or “RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III” labels may... (2) 0.9 (3) 1.2 (4) 1.5 (5) 0.3 (1) 1.1 to 5.0 0.9 (3) 1.2 (4) 1.8 (6) 2.4 (8) 3.4 (11) 0.6 (2) 5.1 to 10.0 1.2 (4) 1.8 (6) 2.7 (9) 3.4 (11) 4.6 (15) 0.9 (3) 10.1 to 20.0 1.5 (5) 2.4 (8) 3.7 (12)...

  19. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) material bearing “RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II” or “RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III” labels may... (2) 0.9 (3) 1.2 (4) 1.5 (5) 0.3 (1) 1.1 to 5.0 0.9 (3) 1.2 (4) 1.8 (6) 2.4 (8) 3.4 (11) 0.6 (2) 5.1 to 10.0 1.2 (4) 1.8 (6) 2.7 (9) 3.4 (11) 4.6 (15) 0.9 (3) 10.1 to 20.0 1.5 (5) 2.4 (8) 3.7 (12)...

  20. Scrap metal management issues associated with naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.

    1995-08-01

    Certain industrial processes sometimes generate waste by-products that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at elevated concentrations. Some industries, including the water treatment, geothermal energy, and petroleum industries, generate scrap metal that may be contaminated with NORM wastes. Of these three industries, the petroleum industry probably generates the largest quantity of NORM-contaminated equipment, conservatively estimated at 170,000 tons per year. Equipment may become contaminated when NORM-containing scale or sludge accumulates inside water-handling equipment. The primary radionuclides of concern in these NORM wastes are radium-226 and radium-228. NORM-contaminated equipment generated by the petroleum industry currently is managed several ways. Some equipment is routinely decontaminated for reuse; other equipment becomes scrap metal and may be disposed of by burial at a licensed landfill, encapsulation inside the wellbore of an abandoned well, or shipment overseas for smelting. In view of the increased regulatory activities addressing NORM, the economic burden of managing NORM-contaminated wastes, including radioactive scrap metal, is likely to continue to grow. Efforts to develop a cost-effective strategy for managing radioactive scrap metal should focus on identifying the least expensive disposition options that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. Specifically, efforts should focus on better characterizing the quantity of radioactive scrap available for recycle or reuse, the radioactivity concentration levels, and the potential risks associated with different disposal options.

  1. Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan

    SciTech Connect

    Cantut, L; Dougan, A; Hemberger, P; Kravenchenko, Gromov, A; Martin, D; Pohl, B; Richardson, J H; Williams, H; York, R; Zaitsev, E

    1999-07-01

    Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program.

  2. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, Jason; Pope, Chad

    2015-09-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  3. Zeolite vitrification demonstration program: characterization of radioactive vitrified zeolite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, J O; Daniel, J L; Marshall, R K

    1984-01-01

    The leach behavior of radioactive vitrified zeolite material was studied as part of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Zeolite Vitrification Program conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experimental procedures, test results, and discussions of the results are presented. The leach behavior of material from three canisters of vitrified zeolite is discussed in terms of the normalized weight loss of the glass-formers and the normalized activity loss of the fission products cesium and strontium. The leach behavior of the radioactive vitrified zeolite material is also compared to the leach behavior of MCC 76-68 reference glass. The effects of changes in the surface microstructure of the vitrified zeolite that occurred during leaching are also presented. 3 references, 23 figures, 10 tables.

  4. Use of inelastic design for radioactive material transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Heinstein, M.W.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    There is much interest within the radioactive material transportation container design community in the use of inelastic analysis. In other industries where inelastic analysis is used in design there is typically an improved knowledge of the capacity of the structure and a more efficient use of material. This report describes the results of a program in which the incentives for inelastic analysis for radioactive material transport container design were investigated to determine if there are similar benefits. Detailed are the elastic and inelastic analyses of two containers subjected to impacts onto a rigid target following a thirty-foot free fall in end-on, side-on, and center-of-gravity- over-corner orientations.

  5. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luce, C.E.; Clover, J.C.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1994-10-01

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic{trademark} programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix P to Part 110 - Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Material

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Material P Appendix P to Part... MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. P Appendix P to Part 110—Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Material Table 1—Import and Export Threshold Limits Radioactive material Category 1 Terabequerels(TBq) Curies(Ci) 1 Category 2...

  7. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A Class...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix P to Part 110 - Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Material

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Material P Appendix P to Part... MATERIAL Pt. 110, App. P Appendix P to Part 110—Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Material Table 1—Import and Export Threshold Limits Radioactive material Category 1 Terabequerels(TBq) Curies(Ci) 1 Category 2...

  9. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a...

  10. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A Class...

  11. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a...

  12. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  13. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  14. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. A Class...

  15. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A...

  16. 49 CFR 173.421 - Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.421 Section 173.421 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.421 Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) A...

  17. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  18. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in northeastern United States during 1952

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKeown, Francis A.; Klemic, Harry

    1953-01-01

    Reconnaissance for radioactive materials was made in parts of Maine, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The primary objective was to examine the iron ore deposits and associated rocks in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the Highlands of New Jersey. In addition, several deposits known or reported to contain radioactive minerals were examined to delimit their extent. Most of the deposits examined are not significant as possible sources of radioactive elements and the data pertaining to them are summarized in table form. Deposits that do warrant more description than can be given in table form are: Benson Mines, St. Lawrence County, N. Y.; Rutgers mine, Clinton County, N. Y.; Mineville Mines, Essex County, N. Y.l Canfield phosphate mine, Morris County, N. J.; Mullgan quarry, Hunterdon County, N. J.; and the Chestnut Hill-Marble Mountain area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The Old Bed in the Mineville district is the only deposit that may be economically significant. Apatite from Old Bed ore contains as much as 4.9 percent total rare earth. 0.04 percent thorium, and 0.018 percent uranium. Magnetite ore at the Rutgers mine contains radioactive zircon and apatite. Radioactivity measurements of outcrops and dump material show that the ore contains from 0.005 to 0.010 percent equivalent uranium. One sample of lean magnetite ore contains 0.006 percent equivalent uranium. Garnet-rich zones in the Benson Mines magnetite deposit contain as much as 0.017 equivalent uranium. Most of the rock and ore, however, contains about 0.005 percent equivalent uranium. Available data indicate that the garnet-rich zones are enriched in radioactive allanite. A shear zone in the Kittatinny limestone of Cambrian age at the Mulligan quarry contains uraniferous material. Radioactivity anomalies elsewhere in the quarry and in adjacent fields indicate that there may be other uraniferous shear zones. Assays of samples and measurements of outcrop radioactivity indicate that the uranium

  19. Consensus evaluation of radioactivity-in-soil reference materials in the context of an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julian; Collins, Sean; Garcia Miranda, Maria; Ivanov, Peter; Larijani, Cyrus; Woods, Selina

    2017-01-25

    The development of two radioactivity-in-soil reference materials is described - one for peat and one for soil with high sand content. Each bulk material was processed, subdivided and measured before being sent to participants in an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in each material were determined by 'consensus' evaluations of participants' results using two weighted mean methods. The project demonstrated the use of such exercises in delivering reference materials to the user community.

  20. IAEA-447: a new certified reference material for environmental radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Tarjan, S; Ceccatelli, A; Kis-Benedek, G; Betti, M

    2012-08-01

    The environment program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) includes activities to produce and certify reference materials for environmental radioactivity measurements. This paper describes methodologies applied in preparation and certification of the new IAEA-447 moss-soil certified reference material. In this work, the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties of (40)K, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (212)Pb, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu and (241)Am were established. Details of the analytical methods including radiochemical procedures were reported. Analytical challenges and lessons learned from the reported results in the worldwide IAEA proficiency test using this material was summarized and best analytical practices to improve the performance for environmental radioactivity determinations were recommended. IAEA-447 is an important reference material for quality control and method validation of gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analytical procedures.

  1. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  2. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  3. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  4. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  5. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Lee Roy; Bates, J. Lambert

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation.

  6. Protective action guide for radioactive material transportation accidents.

    PubMed

    Dodd, B; Humphries, L L

    1988-12-01

    This paper briefly describes a report which has been developed to enable protective action guidance to be determined for transportation accidents involving radioactive material. The protective action guide uses data from on-scene observations as input to a series of simple flow charts leading to protective action recommendations. Where the necessary data is unavailable or unknown, the guide uses the assumptions and results found in the authors' worst case hazards analysis report.

  7. Study of gel materials as radioactive 222Rn gas detectors.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, G; Golzarri, J I; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    2006-01-01

    Commercial hair gel material (polyvinyl pyrolydone triethanolamine carbopol in water) and bacteriological agar (phycocolloid extracted from a group of red-purple algae, usually Gelidium sp.) have been studied as radioactive radon gas detectors. The detection method is based on the diffusion of the radioactive gas in the gel material, and the subsequent measurement of trapped products of the natural decay of radon by gamma spectrometry. From the several radon daughters with gamma radiation emission (214Pb, 214Bi, 214Po, 210Pb, 210Po), two elements, 214Pb (0.352 MeV) and 214Bi (0.609 MeV), were chosen for the analysis in this work; in order to determine the best sensitivity, corrections were made for the short half-life of the analysed isotopes. For the gamma spectrometry analysis, a hyperpure germanium solid state detector was used, associated with a PC multichannel analyser card with Maestro and Microsoft Excel software. The results show the viability of the method: a linear response in a wide radon concentration range (450-10,000 Bq m(-3)), reproducibility of data, easy handling and low cost of the gel material. This detection methodology opens new possibilities for measurements of radon and other radioactive gases.

  8. Over-the-road testing of radioactive materials packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R. E.; Gwinn, K. W.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has an ongoing program to characterize the environments encountered during normal surface transport of radioactive materials. This effort consists of obtaining experimental data from both road simulator and over-the-road tests and of analyzing the dam to obtain numerical models to simulate those environments. These data and models have been used to define the design basis for resistance to shock and vibration and the requirements for tiedowns of truck-transported radioactive materials. This work is in conjunction with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards development for radioactive materials transport. This paper summarizes the data from a series of over-the-road tests performed with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. equipment near Barnwell, South Carolina. The data include packaging responses to driving over various road types as well as measurements of packaging and trailer responses to hard braking and turning events. The data also include the responses of both flexible and rigid tiedown systems. The results indicate that the tiedown forces for these tests were less than 0.06 g based on packaging weight.

  9. Risks of radioactive material transportation accidents in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Humphries, L L; Dodd, B

    1989-07-01

    As a continuation of previous research on worst case transportation accidents involving radioactive material (Dodd and Humphries 1988a), and protective action guidance for radioactive material transportation accidents (Dodd and Humphries 1988b), this paper describes the risks from such accidents in Oregon. Radioactive material transportation risks are defined in terms of accident consequences multiplied by the accident probabilities and are expressed as latent cancer fatalities (LCFs). For each of 17 different shipment types, five dose contributions are summed and multiplied by the population density and accident probability. The five dose contributors considered are: inhalation, resuspension, cloudshine, groundshine and direct exposure. The variables over which each of these dose contributors are integrated include seven accident severity categories, three population density zones, five regions of the state, as well as many isopleth areas and radionuclides. Allowance is also made for the possible distribution of meteorological conditions in each area. The dose to the public, emergency responders, pedestrians and personnel in other traffic are all considered. It is concluded that the current level of risk is 1.2 X 10(-5) latent cancer fatalities per year in Oregon. This is equivalent to one LCF every 83,000 y. This compares to 1.2 non-radiological fatalities associated from the same shipments.

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.22 Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (a) No employer shall possess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to cause any...

  11. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receipt of packages containing radioactive material. 835... Individuals and Areas § 835.405 Receipt of packages containing radioactive material. (a) If packages containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are...

  12. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with regulations...

  13. 77 FR 24746 - Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... COMMISSION Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other..., ``Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees other than Power... on airborne emissions of radioactive material to the environment. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket...

  14. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiological areas and radioactive material areas. 835.603....603 Radiological areas and radioactive material areas. Each access point to radiological areas and radioactive material areas (as defined at § 835.2) shall be posted with conspicuous signs bearing the wording...

  15. Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help users of radioactive materials to handle the radioactive material without exposing themselves or others to radiation doses in excess of maximum permissible limits. The discussion of radiation levels is in terms of readings from dosimeters and survey instruments. Safety in the handling of radioactive materials in…

  16. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Receipt of packages containing radioactive material. 835... Individuals and Areas § 835.405 Receipt of packages containing radioactive material. (a) If packages containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) are...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with regulations...

  18. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills... § 170.906 Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? The carrier is typically responsible for cleanup of a radioactive or hazardous material spill with assistance from the shipper using...

  19. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiological areas and radioactive material areas. 835.603....603 Radiological areas and radioactive material areas. Each access point to radiological areas and radioactive material areas (as defined at § 835.2) shall be posted with conspicuous signs bearing the wording...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.22 Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (a) No employer shall possess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to cause any employee...

  1. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills... § 170.906 Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? The carrier is typically responsible for cleanup of a radioactive or hazardous material spill with assistance from the shipper using...

  2. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 174.700 Section 174.700 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Detailed Requirements for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 174.700 Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each rail shipment of low specific activity...

  3. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.469 Tests... the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must be taken into account in... (radioactive) material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to— (1) The impact test and...

  4. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.469 Tests... the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must be taken into account in... (radioactive) material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to— (1) The impact test and...

  5. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.469 Tests... the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must be taken into account in... (radioactive) material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to— (1) The impact test and...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  7. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  9. 10 CFR 37.77 - Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of radioactive material. 37.77 Section 37.77 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit § 37.77 Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material. As specified...

  10. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  11. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  12. 41 CFR 50-204.26 - Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radioactive materials packaged for shipment. 50-204.26 Section 50-204.26 Public Contracts and Property... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.26 Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactive materials packaged and labeled in accordance with...

  13. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  14. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials. 173.418 Section 173.418 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.418 Authorized packages—pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Pyrophoric Class 7...

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.22 Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (a) No employer shall possess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to cause any...

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.22 Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (a) No employer shall possess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to cause any...

  17. 78 FR 29016 - Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in Transport of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. The NRC is issuing for public...), that would amend its regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material in Part... requirements for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. III. Draft Regulatory Guide The NRC...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. E Appendix E to Part 835—Values for... Requirements The data presented in appendix E are to be used for identifying accountable sealed radioactive...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting and Labeling Requirements E Appendix E to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. E Appendix E to Part 835—Values for... Requirements The data presented in appendix E are to be used for identifying accountable sealed radioactive...

  20. Natural Radioactivity of Quarry raw Material in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haquin, G.; Gazit-Yaari, N.; Yungreis, Z.; Braun, M.; Margaliot, M.

    2004-12-01

    During the past decade Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) has been receiving growing attention by radiation protection agencies, including chronic exposure to radon and radiation from building materials. A new Israeli standard (5098) which limit the radionuclide concentration in building material entered into force in 2003. Building materials are often made of natural raw materials which contain natural radionuclides from the 238U-226Ra, 232Th decay series and 40K that occur naturally in the Earth's crust. The radionuclide concentration in the building material depends on the source of the raw material, manufacturing process and the addition of technically enhanced NORM (Te NORM) like fly ash, phospho-gypsum, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial variation of the natural radioactivity in quarries in Israel, the dependency on the type of quarried substance and to asses the raw materials by radiation protection criteria. The study covered a total of 25 quarries all over Israel that manufacture different types of quarried substances (Limestone, Dolomite, Basalt, Gypsum etc.). Each of the quarries was sampled for three different aggregate sizes. The quarries were selected according to geological-geographical criteria such that all types of quarried materials throughout Israel will be investigated. The radionuclide measurement was performed by Gamma spectrometry according to standard procedures. A simulation was carried out on different concrete mixtures to asses the individual effective dose from the building materials. Results indicate large variations in the radionuclide concentration of raw materials in Israel. An optimization based on radiation protection criteria is proposed to minimize radiation exposure from building material.

  1. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  2. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  3. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  4. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Richard G.; Blasewitz, Albert G.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  5. Conceptual framework and technical basis for clearance of materials with residual radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    The primary impediment to the release of materials containing residual radioactivity from a controlled environment is the lack of a suitable framework within which release standards can be developed. Recently, the `risk-based` approach has been proposed as an appropriate means of setting standards. The term `clearance` has been introduced by the International Atomic Energy Commission as a regulatory process for releasing radioactive materials posing trivial risks. A `trivial` risk level has been determined to be on the order of 10[sup -6] to 10[sup -7] annual risk to an exposed individual, and a population risk of no more than 0.1 annually. Under these strict constraints, exposure scenarios may account for processing, disposal, and product end-use of materials. This paper discusses these scenarios and also describes the technical basis for deriving release levels under the suggested risk (or dose) constraints.

  6. Romanian Experience for Enhancing Safety and Security in Transport of Radioactive Material - 12223

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2012-07-01

    The transport of Dangerous Goods-Class no.7 Radioactive Material (RAM), is an important part of the Romanian Radioactive Material Management. The overall aim of this activity is for enhancing operational safety and security measures during the transport of the radioactive materials, in order to ensure the protection of the people and the environment. The paper will present an overall of the safety and security measures recommended and implemented during transportation of RAM in Romania. Some aspects on the potential threat environment will be also approached with special referring to the low level radioactive material (waste) and NORM transportation either by road or by rail. A special attention is given to the assessment and evaluation of the possible radiological consequences due to RAM transportation. The paper is a part of the IAEA's Vienna Scientific Research Contract on the State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework) concluded with the Institute for Nuclear Research, Romania, where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). The transport of RAM in Romania is a very sensible and complex problem taking into consideration the importance and the need of the security and safety for such activities. The Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body set up strictly regulation and procedures according to the Recommendation of the IAEA Vienna and other international organizations. There were implemented the adequate regulation and procedures in order to keep the environmental impacts and the radiological consequences at the lower possible level and to assure the effectiveness of state nuclear security regime due to possible malicious acts in carrying out these activities including transport and the disposal site at the acceptable international levels. The levels of the estimated doses and risk expectation values for transport and disposal are within the acceptable limits provided by national and international regulations and recommendations but can increase

  7. Processing and disposal of scales containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.G.; Woods, S.E.; Abernathy, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Since the discovery that many drill cuttings, scales, sludges, and platings contain elevated amounts of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), many companies and regulating authorities have wondered what is the best method for disposing of this material. This paper covers a process which grinds and slurries this material to a form acceptable for injection to a well. The process consists of (1) classification of material, (2) bulk breakdown, and (3) grinding and slurrying to a consistency which keeps the particles suspended in solution until time for well injection. Well injection takes the form of encapsulation by cementing the well casing below and above the injected NORM during a plug and abandonment operation. In conclusion, the philosophy of the process is to take the NORM generated through the exploration and production of oil and gas and place it back into the reservoir from which it came. This technique is one which protects the environment from the possible hazards associated with mismanaged NORM.

  8. 77 FR 14445 - Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment of Radioactive Material AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide 7.4, ``Leakage Tests on Packages for Radioactive... Standard N14.5-1997, ``Radioactive Materials--Leakage Tests on Packages for Shipment'' approved February...

  9. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include the...

  10. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials. (a) In case of fire, collision, or breakage involving any shipment of...

  11. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.476 Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each offeror of special form Class 7...

  12. 10 CFR 71.75 - Qualification of special form radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification of special form radioactive material. 71.75 Section 71.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.75 Qualification of special form radioactive...

  13. 10 CFR 71.75 - Qualification of special form radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification of special form radioactive material. 71.75 Section 71.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package, Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.75 Qualification of special form radioactive...

  14. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.476 Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each offeror of special form Class 7...

  15. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials. (a) In case of fire, collision, or breakage involving any shipment of...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include the...

  17. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.476 Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each offeror of special form Class...

  18. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  19. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  20. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials. (a) In case of fire, collision, or breakage involving any shipment...

  1. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials. (a) In case of fire, collision, or breakage involving any shipment...

  2. 49 CFR 176.710 - Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.710 Care following leakage or sifting of radioactive materials. (a) In case of fire, collision, or breakage involving any shipment...

  3. 49 CFR 173.419 - Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized packages-oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.419 Authorized packages—oxidizing Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) An oxidizing Class 7...

  4. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exposure to the radioactive cloud (see appendix B to part 20, footnotes 1 and 2). Note: Airborne... cloud of airborne radioactive material is not relatively uniform. The determination of the deep-dose...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exposure to the radioactive cloud (see appendix B to part 20, footnotes 1 and 2). Note: Airborne... cloud of airborne radioactive material is not relatively uniform. The determination of the deep-dose...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exposure to the radioactive cloud (see appendix B to part 20, footnotes 1 and 2). Note: Airborne... cloud of airborne radioactive material is not relatively uniform. The determination of the deep-dose...

  7. Investigation of Shielding Material in Radioactive Waste Management - 13009

    SciTech Connect

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal

    2013-07-01

    In this study, various waste packages have been prepared by using different materials. Experimental work has been performed on radiation shielding for gamma and neutron radiation. Various materials were evaluated (e.g. concrete, boron, etc.) related to different application areas in radioactive waste management. Effects of addition boric compound mixtures on shielding properties of concrete have been investigated for neutron radiation. The effect of the mixture addition on the shielding properties of concrete was investigated. The results show that negative effects of boric compounds on the strength of concrete decreasing by increasing boric amounts. Shielding efficiency of prepared mixture added concrete up to 80% better than ordinary concretes for neutron radiation. The attenuation was determined theoretically by calculation and practically by using neutron dose rate measurements. In addition of dose rate measurements, strength tests were applied on test shielding materials. (authors)

  8. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass

  9. Method of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, contained in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Knieper, J.; May, K.; Printz, H.

    1984-07-24

    A method is disclosed of solidifying waste materials, such as radioactive or toxic materials, which are contained in aqueous solutions. To accomplish this solidification, an inorganic, non-metallic binding agent such as gypsum is intermixed with the aqueous solution and a substance such as pumice or ceramic tile which promotes the intermixing of the binding agent and the aqueous solution.

  10. Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia`s facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns.

  11. THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-03-26

    The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

  12. A Retrieval System for Radioactive Target Materials at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, M.; Shibata, K.; Fallica, J.; Henchen, R.; Pogozelski, E.; Padalino, S.; Sangster, T. C.; Suny Collaboration; Laboratory Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Currently, solid radioactive material collection from the NIF target chamber is performed via the DIM. The retrieval process takes several hours to complete. To decrease this time for short lived radioisotopes, the Target Materials Retrieval System (TMRS) is being designed to move a radioactive sample from the target chamber to the counting station in less than 50 seconds, using a closed-loop helium filled RaPToRS system. The TMRS consists of three components: the retrieval apparatus, RaPToRS and the counting station. Starting at 0.5 meters from TCC, the sample will move from the vacuum chamber, travel through 60 meters of 10 centimeter diameter RaPToRS tubes, reaching speeds of 10 m/s. The sample will then arrive at the counting station, where it be robotically placed in front of a gamma ray detector. The use of helium will decrease background gamma radiation produced by activated N2 normally found in a pressurized air system. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy through the LLE.

  13. 49 CFR 173.475 - Quality control requirements prior to each shipment of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shipment of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.475 Section 173.475 Transportation Other Regulations... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.475 Quality control requirements prior to each shipment of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Before each shipment of any Class 7 (radioactive) materials package, the offeror must ensure, by...

  14. 49 CFR 173.475 - Quality control requirements prior to each shipment of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shipment of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.475 Section 173.475 Transportation Other Regulations... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.475 Quality control requirements prior to each shipment of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Before each shipment of any Class 7 (radioactive) materials package, the offeror must ensure, by...

  15. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Individuals and Areas § 835.405 Receipt of packages containing radioactive material. (a) If packages... material transportation, external surfaces of packages known to contain radioactive material shall be... specified at 49 CFR 172.403 and 172.436-440); or (2) Has been transported as low specific activity material...

  16. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Richard W.

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  17. 25 CFR 170.901 - What standards govern transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What standards govern transportation of radioactive and... Transportation § 170.901 What standards govern transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials? DOT, the... Protection Agency have established standards and regulations for the shipment of radioactive and hazardous...

  18. 25 CFR 170.901 - What standards govern transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What standards govern transportation of radioactive and... Transportation § 170.901 What standards govern transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials? DOT, the... Protection Agency have established standards and regulations for the shipment of radioactive and hazardous...

  19. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this subchapter. (c) Each package of Class 7 (radioactive) material bearing RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III labels may not be placed closer than 0.9 m (3 feet) to an area (or dividing partition... more animals, nor closer than 4.5 m (15 feet) to any package containing undeveloped film (if so...

  20. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... this subchapter. (c) Each package of Class 7 (radioactive) material bearing RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III labels may not be placed closer than 0.9 m (3 feet) to an area (or dividing partition... more animals, nor closer than 4.5 m (15 feet) to any package containing undeveloped film (if so...

  1. Natural radioactivity in granite stones used as building materials in Iran.

    PubMed

    Asgharizadeh, F; Abbasi, A; Hochaghani, O; Gooya, E S

    2012-04-01

    Due to increasing concern about environmental radiological protection, specific radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in different types of commonly used granite stone samples collected from the Tehran city of Iran have been determined by means of a high-resolution HPGe gamma-spectroscopy system. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in the selected granite samples ranged from 18 to 178, 6 to 160 and 556 to 1539 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) set by NEA-OECD [Nuclear Energy Agency. Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by NEA Group of Experts. OECD (1979)], except in two samples. The internal hazard indexes have been found well below the acceptable limit in most of the samples. Five samples of investigated commercial granite stones do not satisfy the safety criterion illustrated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Exposure from natural sources of radiation. Report to the General Assembly (1993). Applying dose criteria recently recommended by the EC [European Commission Report on Radiological Protection Principles Concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials. Radiation Protection 112 (1999)] for superficial materials, all investigated samples meet the exemption dose limit of 0.3 mSv y(-1).

  2. NEW APPROACH TO ADDRESSING GAS GENERATION IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Leduc, D; Askew, N

    2009-06-25

    Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP) document why the transportation of radioactive material is safe in Type A(F) and Type B shipping containers. The content evaluation of certain actinide materials require that the gas generation characteristics be addressed. Most packages used to transport actinides impose extremely restrictive limits on moisture content and oxide stabilization to control or prevent flammable gas generation. These requirements prevent some users from using a shipping container even though the material to be shipped is fully compliant with the remaining content envelope including isotopic distribution. To avoid these restrictions, gas generation issues have to be addressed on a case by case basis rather than a one size fits all approach. In addition, SARP applicants and review groups may not have the knowledge and experience with actinide chemistry and other factors affecting gas generation, which facility experts in actinide material processing have obtained in the last sixty years. This paper will address a proposal to create a Gas Generation Evaluation Committee to evaluate gas generation issues associated with Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging material contents. The committee charter could include reviews of both SARP approved contents and new contents not previously evaluated in a SARP.

  3. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to; Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7; Windows installer

  4. International guidance on the establishment of quality assurance programmes for radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, B E; Herbst, C; Norenberg, J P; Woods, M J

    2006-01-01

    A new guidance document for the implementation of quality assurance (QA) programmes for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurement, produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is described. The proposed programme is based on the principles of ISO 17025 and will enable laboratories, particularly in developing countries, to provide consistent, safe and effective radioactivity measurement services to the nuclear medicine community.

  5. Numerical estimation on free electrons generated by shielded radioactive materials under various gaseous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D. S.; Lee, W. S.; So, J. H.; Choi, E. M.

    2013-06-15

    We report simulation results on generation of free electrons due to the presence of radioactive materials under controlled pressure and gases using a general Monte Carlo transport code (MCNPX). A radioactive material decays to lower atomic number, simultaneously producing high energy gamma rays that can generate free electrons via various scattering mechanisms. This paper shows detailed simulation works for answering how many free electrons can be generated under the existence of shielded radioactive materials as a function of pressure and types of gases.

  6. Compliance testing of reusable containers for transport of type A packages of radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Landsworth, R; Gross, G

    1991-05-01

    Transporting radioactive materials within a medical complex comes under jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Transportation when public highways are used. A strong, reusable container to safely transport radioactive material was developed and tested at Mayo Medical Center to satisfy the requirements of the U.S. Department of Transportation and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The container successfully completed water spray, free drop, compression, and penetration tests. It has been in use for 3 y without any loss of radioactive materials.

  7. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  8. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  9. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.; Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H.; Naghiyev, Jalal A.; Mehdiyeva, Afat A.

    2013-07-01

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  10. Spoken commands control robot that handles radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, P.F.; Keddy, C.; Beugelsdojk. T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Several robotic systems have been developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to handle radioactive material. Because of safety considerations, the robotic system must be under direct human supervision and interactive control continuously. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that permits this control, yet allows the robot to perform complex preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. To provide better interactive control, we connected to the robot's control computer, a speech synthesis unit, which provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus upon completion of a task or if an emergency arises, an appropriate spoken message can be reported by the control computer. The training programming and operation of this commercially available system are discussed, as are the practical problems encountered during operations.

  11. Regulations for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials. USSR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-10-19

    AD"’A284 487 1.9 Oz.tobr .9G 11 DTIC ( E LECTE L A&UG (2 1994 U JMGU~~lnS oRffa. FM W "SPO1MAZIO11 OF ?&kDlCTMY KAMUL8 -Ussit- Thsdoauaent haw beta...xoscow,19617 Intro c,’ction 1 I# General RuF1. e 2 II. Classification of $hipments of Radioactive Materials 3 III, Categories of Shipping Containers 4 I1...Committee of the (...un, it 26 December, 1960 No. 349-60 of Ministers of the USSR• on th,- Uses of Atomic Energ’ V. Levsha 27 Deceribi• E - ".L

  12. Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 73 - Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Materials I Appendix I to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. I Appendix I to Part 73—Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Materials Table I-1—Quantities of...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 73 - Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Materials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Materials I Appendix I to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. I Appendix I to Part 73—Category 1 and 2 Radioactive Materials Table I-1—Quantities of...

  15. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., including complete engineering drawings and schedules of material, and methods of construction; (3) A... Material, Type A Package, Special Form” or as “Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Fissile.” ...

  16. THE USE OF DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGING PERFORMANCE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    May, C; Lawrence Gelder, L; Boyd Howard, B

    2007-03-22

    New designs of radioactive material shipping packages are required to be evaluated in accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, ''Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material''. This paper will discuss the use of digital radiography to evaluate the effects of the tests required by 10 CFR 71.71, Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT), and 10 CFR 71.73, Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). One acceptable means of evaluating packaging performance is to subject packagings to the series of NCT and HAC tests. The evaluation includes a determination of the effect on the packaging by the conditions and tests. That determination has required that packagings be cut and sectioned to learn the actual effects on internal components. Digital radiography permits the examination of internal packaging components without sectioning a package. This allows a single package to be subjected to a series of tests. After each test, the package is digitally radiographed and the effects of particular tests evaluated. Radiography reduces the number of packages required for testing and also reduces labor and materials required to section and evaluate numerous packages. This paper will include a description of the digital radiography equipment used in the testing and evaluation of the 9977 and 9978 packages at SRNL. The equipment is capable of making a single radiograph of a full-sized package in one exposure. Radiographs will be compared to sectioned packages that show actual conditions compared to radiographic images.

  17. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for

  18. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and passengers... 3.1 to 4.0 85 34 4.1 to 5.0 100 40 5.1 to 6.0 115 46 6.1 to 7.0 130 52 7.1 to 8.0 145 57 8.1 to 9.0..., overpacks or freight containers labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III must be...

  19. 49 CFR 175.701 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III and passengers... 3.1 to 4.0 85 34 4.1 to 5.0 100 40 5.1 to 6.0 115 46 6.1 to 7.0 130 52 7.1 to 8.0 145 57 8.1 to 9.0..., overpacks or freight containers labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III must be...

  20. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than 1 Greater than 0.005 mSv/h (0.5 mrem/h) but less than or equal to 0.5 mSv/h (50 mrem/h) YELLOW-II.... RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I is the lowest category and RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III is the highest. For example, a package...) per hour must bear a RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (c) Category of label to be applied to Class...

  1. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than 1 Greater than 0.005 mSv/h (0.5 mrem/h) but less than or equal to 0.5 mSv/h (50 mrem/h) YELLOW-II.... RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I is the lowest category and RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III is the highest. For example, a package...) per hour must bear a RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (c) Category of label to be applied to Class...

  2. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... than 1 Greater than 0.005 mSv/h (0.5 mrem/h) but less than or equal to 0.5 mSv/h (50 mrem/h) YELLOW-II.... RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I is the lowest category and RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III is the highest. For example, a package...) per hour must bear a RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III label. (c) Category of label to be applied to Class...

  3. Characterization of radioactive wastes with respect to harmful materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, Karin; Steyer, Stefan; Brennecke, Peter; Gruendler, Detlef; Boetsch, Wilma; Haider, Claudia

    2013-07-01

    In addendum 4 to the license of the German KONRAD repository, which considers mainly radiological aspects, a water law permit was issued in order to prevent the pollution of the near-surface groundwater. The water law permit stipulates limitations for 10 radionuclides and 2 groups of radionuclides as well as mass limitations for 94 substances and materials relevant for water protection issues. Two collateral clauses, i.e. additional requirements imposed by the licensing authority, include demands on the monitoring, registering and balancing of non-radioactive harmful substances and materials /1/. In order to fulfill the requirements of the water law permit the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) being the operator of the KONRAD repository has developed a concept, which ensures the compliance with all requirements of the water law permit and which provides standardized easy manageable guidance for the waste producers to describe their wastes. On 15 March 2011 the competent water authority, the 'Niedersaechsischer Landesbetrieb fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Kuesten- und Naturschutz' (NLWKN) issued the approval for this concept. Being the most essential part of this concept the procedural method and the developed description of nonradioactive waste package constituents by use of standardized lists of materials and containers is addressed and presented in this paper. The waste producer has to describe his waste package in a standardized way on the base of the lists of materials and containers. For each material in the list a comprehensive description is given comprising the composition, scope of application, quality control measures, thresholds and other data. Each entry in the list has to be approved by NLWKN. The scope of the lists is defined by the waste producers' needs. Using some particular materials as examples, the approval procedure for including materials in the list is described. The procedure of describing the material composition has to be

  4. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  5. Illicit Trafficking in Radiological and Nuclear Materials. Lack of Regulations and Attainable Disposal for Radioactive Materials Make Them More Vulnerable than Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, G.I.; Severe, W.R.; Leonard, L.

    2007-07-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials is far from a new issue. Reports of nuclear materials offered for sale as well as mythical materials such as red mercury date back to the 1960's. While such reports were primarily scams, it illustrates the fact that from an early date there were criminal elements willing to sell nuclear materials, albeit mythical ones, to turn a quick profit. In that same time frame, information related to lost and abandoned radioactive sources began to be reported. Unlike reports on nuclear material of that era, these reports on abandoned sources were based in fact - occasionally associated with resulting injury and death. With the collapse of the Former Soviet Union, illicit trafficking turned from a relatively unnoticed issue to one of global concern. Reports of unsecured nuclear and radiological material in the states of the Former Soviet Union, along with actual seizures of such material in transit, gave the clear message that illicit trafficking was now a real and urgent problem. In 1995, the IAEA established an Illicit Trafficking Data Base to keep track of confirmed instances. Illicit Trafficking is deemed to include not only radioactive materials that have been offered for sale or crossed international boarders, but also such materials that are no longer under appropriate regulatory control. As an outcome of 9/11, the United States took a closer look at illicit nuclear trafficking as well as a reassessment of the safety and security of nuclear and other radioactive materials both in the United States and Globally. This reassessment launched heightened controls and security domestically and increased our efforts internationally to prevent illicit nuclear trafficking. This reassessment also brought about the Global Threat Reduction Initiative which aims to further reduce the threats of weapons usable nuclear materials as well those of radioactive sealed sources. This paper will focus on the issues related to a subset

  6. International Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The OECD consultation and surveillance mechanism is discussed in detail in this article. Four phases are identified and examined: (1) Notification, (2) Consultation, (3) Supervision, (4) Post-operation. This system is designed to provide the safest possible conditions for sea dumping of radioactive wastes. (MA)

  7. International Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The OECD consultation and surveillance mechanism is discussed in detail in this article. Four phases are identified and examined: (1) Notification, (2) Consultation, (3) Supervision, (4) Post-operation. This system is designed to provide the safest possible conditions for sea dumping of radioactive wastes. (MA)

  8. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  9. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. 175.702 Section 175.702 Transportation Other... (radioactive) materials in cargo aircraft. (a) No person may carry in a cargo aircraft any package required by § 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled Radioactive Yellow-II or Radioactive Yellow-III unless:...

  10. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... § 170.906 Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? The carrier is typically...

  11. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... § 170.906 Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? The carrier is typically...

  12. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of...

  13. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of...

  14. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of...

  15. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air concentration (DAC) values given in appendices A and C of this part shall be used in the control of...

  16. 49 CFR 174.700 - Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a) Each rail shipment of low specific activity materials or surface contaminated objects as defined in § 173.403 of this subchapter must be loaded so as to... RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III labels may not be placed closer than 0.9 m (3 feet) to an area (or dividing partition...

  17. ELUCIDATING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONSITE AND OFFSITE SHIPMENT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B.; Watkins, R.

    2013-06-19

    Federal regulations stipulate how radioactive materials are transported within the United States. However, the Department of Energy, under Department of Energy Order, has the authority to operate, within the boundaries of their physical site, to other stipulations. In many cases the DOE sites have internal reviews for onsite transfers that rival reviews performed by the regulatory authorities for offsite shipments. Most of the differences are in the level or type of packaging that is required, but in some cases it may be in the amount and type of material that is allowed to be transferred. This paper will describe and discuss those differences and it will discuss ways to effectively align the onsite rules for transferring materials with those for offsite shipment.

  18. Automated technologies needed to prevent radioactive materials from reentering the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David; Angelo, Joseph A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion Nuclear) has been created to identify and evaluate the technologies and operational strategies needed to rendezvous with and capture aerospace radioactive materials (e.g., a distressed or spent space reactor core) before such materials can reenter the terrestrial atmosphere and then to safely move these captured materials to an acceptable space destination for proper disposal. A major component of the current Project SIREN effort is the development of an interactive technology model (including a computerized data base) that explores in building block fashion the interaction of the technologies and procedures needed to successfully accomplish a SIREN mission. This SIREN model will include appropriate national and international technology elements-both contemporary and projected into the next century. To permit maximum flexibility and use, the SIREN technology data base is being programmed for use on 386-class PC's.

  19. A Compton imaging device for radioactive material detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, A. S.; Baird, W.; Kippen, R. Marc; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Sullivan, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    The most serious terrorist threat we face today may come from radiological dispersion devices and unsecured nuclear weapons. It is imperative for national security that we develop and implement radiation detection technology capable of locating and tracking nuclear material moving across and within our borders. Many radionuclides emit gamma rays in the 0.2-3 MeV range. Unfortunately, current gamma ray detection technology is inadequate for providing precise and efficient measurements of localized radioactive sources. Common detectors available today suffer from large background rates and have only minimal ability to localize the position of the source without the use of mechanical collimators, which reduces efficiency. Imaging detectors using the Compton scattering process have the potential to provide greatly improved sensitivity through their ability to reject off-source background. We are developing a prototype device to demonstrate the Compton imaging technology. The detector consists of several layers of pixelated silicon detectors followed by an array of CsI crystals coupled to photodiodes. Here we present the concept of our detector design and results from Monte Carlo simulations of our prototype detector. Development of technologies for detecting and characterizing radiation from various nuclear materials is important for many fields, including homeland security, astrophysics, and medical imaging. Unfortunately, in many cases we now largely use detection technologies that were developed in the 1960s. While sufficient for some purposes, these technologies have proved inadequate for remote sensing of radioactive nuclear materials - a crucial capability required for enhanced homeland security. Passive gamma ray detection is the most direct means of providing this capability, but current detectors are severely limited in sensitivity and detection range due to confusion from off-source backgrounds, and they cannot precisely localize sources when they are

  20. Guide to sampling airborne radioactive materials in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    The ANSI N13.1-1969 Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities is currently being revised. The revision is being drafted by a working group under the auspices of the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. The main differences between the original standard and the proposed revision are a narrowed scope, a greater emphasis on the design process, and the verification of meeting performance criteria. Compliance with the revised standard will present new challenges, especially in the area of performance validation. The progress made in the revision and key portions of the standard are discussed. The DOE has recently petitioned EPA for alternate approaches to complying with air-sampling regulations. Dealing with compliance issues until the revised standard is adopted will be a challenge for both designers and regulators. The objective of this paper is to briefly describe the content of the proposed revision in order to point out significant differences from the old standard and to describe the new challenges that the proposed revision will present.

  1. Urban risks of truck transport of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1998-12-01

    Truck transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), normally maximizes use of Interstate highways, which are safer and more efficient for truck transport in general. In the estimation of transportation risks, population bordering a route is a direct factor in determining consequences and an indirect factor in determining exposure times, accident probabilities and severities, and other parameters. Proposals to transport RAM may draw intense resistance from stakeholders based on concern for population concentrations along urban segments but the length of a route segment is also a determinative factor in estimating the transport risks. To quantify the relative importance of these two factors, a potential route for transport of SNF (strict use of Interstate highways) was selected and compared with a modified version that bypassed urban areas. The RADTRAN 4 code for transportation risk assessment, which was developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used in the present study to assess the relative risks of SNF transportation for alternative routes. The results suggest that emphasis on Interstate highways minimizes total route and urban segment risks.

  2. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  3. Source holder collimator for encapsulating radioactive material and collimating the emanations from the material

    DOEpatents

    Laurer, G.R.

    1974-01-22

    This invention provides a transportable device capable of detecting normal levels of a trace element, such as lead in a doughnutshaped blood sample by x-ray fluorescence with a minimum of sample preparation in a relatively short analyzing time. In one embodiment, the blood is molded into a doughnut-shaped sample around an annular array of low-energy radioactive material that is at the center of the doughnut-shaped sample but encapsulated in a collimator, the latter shielding a detector that is close to the sample and facing the same so that the detector receives secondary emissions from the sample while the collimator collimates ths primary emissions from the radioactive material to direct these emissions toward the sample around 360 deg and away from the detector. (Official Gazette)

  4. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria.

    PubMed

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-06-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material.

  5. A reassessment of radioactive material security in health care and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Leidholdt, Edwin M; William, Gary E; McGuire, Lynn E

    2003-08-01

    The medical facilities of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) use radioactive material for health care and biomedical research. In the past, a single level of security for all radioactive material was generally deemed to be adequate. The events of 11 September 2001 prompted a reassessment of security. Based on site visits to VA facilities possessing a range of radioactive material typically used in health care and biomedical research, the VA National Health Physics Program has compiled recommendations for the security of radioactive material. A primary recommendation is to evaluate radioactive material from a risk perspective and use security measures commensurate with risk. The risk evaluation should consider activity, half-life, exposure rate constant, ALI, ease of removal/portability, and dispersibility. We concluded that current security measures are likely adequate for the risks associated with most nuclear medicine departments and biomedical research laboratories. However, for radioactive material of higher risk, particularly multicurie sources of long half-life, the radiation safety staff should consult with police/security experts to determine if additional security measures are warranted. This focus on risk should help optimize resource allocation. We also recommend that security evaluations consider both physical security and personnel security, training of staff with unescorted access to higher-risk radioactive material emphasize security issues, and disposal of higher-risk material not likely to be used. Finally, we note that the goals of security can be in conflict with hazard awareness and hazard communication.

  6. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  7. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  8. The cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: Whose jurisdiction?

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, C.

    1994-12-31

    There exists an overlap between the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act ({open_quotes}CERCLA{close_quotes}) and the Atomic Energy Act ({open_quotes}AEA{close_quotes}) regarding the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste sites. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission ({open_quotes}NRC{close_quotes}) and Agreement States have jurisdiction under the AEA, and the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) has jurisdiction pursuant to CERCLA. This overlapping jurisdiction has the effect of imposing CERCLA liability on parties who have complied with AEA regulations. However, CERCLA was not intended to preempt existing legislation. This is evidenced by the federally permitted release exemption, which explicitly exempts releases from CERCLA liability pursuant to an AEA license. With little guidance as to the applicability of this exemption, it is uncertain whether CERCLA`s liability is broad enough to supersede the Atomic Energy Act. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the overlapping jurisdiction for the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with particular emphasis on the cleanup at the Maxey Flats, West Valley and Sheffield sites.

  9. Radioactive materials in biosolids : national survey, dose modeling, and publicly owned treatment works (POTW) guidance.

    SciTech Connect

    Bastian, R. K.; Bachmaier, J. T.; Schmidt, D. W.; Salomon, S. N.; Jones, A.; Chiu, W. A.; Setlow, L. W.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Yu, C.; Goodman, J.; Lenhart, T.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. EPA; U.S. DOE; U.S. NRC; NJ Dept of Environmental Radiation; NE Ohio Regional Sewer District

    2005-01-01

    Received for publication March 1, 2004. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) announced the availability of three new documents concerning radioactive materials in sewage sludge and ash from publicly owned treatment works (POTW). One of the documents is a report presenting the results of a volunteer survey of sewage sludge and ash samples provided by 313 POTWs. The second document is a dose modeling document, using multiple exposure pathway modeling focused on a series of generic scenarios, to track possible exposure of POTW workers and members of the general public to radioactivity from the sewage sludge or ash. The third document is a guidance report providing recommendations on the management of radioactivity in sewage sludge and ash for POTW owners and operators. This paper explains how radioactive materials enter POTWs, provides criteria for evaluating levels of radioactive material in sludge and ash, and gives a summary of the results of the survey and dose modeling efforts.

  10. Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report of the General Referee was presented at the 109th AOAC International Annual Meeting, September 17-21, 1995 in Nashville, Tennessee. The author reports the standing of the review process for six methods concerned with the analysis of radionuclides in foods or the environment.

  11. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  12. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  13. Analytics of Radioactive Materials Released in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Coble, Jamie B.; Miller, Laurence F.

    2015-07-01

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere, the nearby sea, and the surrounding land. Following the accident, several meteorological models were used to predict the transport of the radioactive materials to other continents such as North America and Europe. Also of high importance is the dispersion of radioactive materials locally and within Japan. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Convention on Early Notification of a nuclear accident, several radiological data sets were collected on the accident by the Japanese authorities. Among the radioactive materials monitored, are I-131 and Cs-137 which form the major contributions to the contamination of drinking water. The radiation dose in the atmosphere was also measured. It is impractical to measure contamination and radiation dose in every place of interest. Therefore, modeling helps to predict contamination and radiation dose. Some modeling studies that have been reported in the literature include the simulation of transport and deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 from the accident, Cs-137 deposition and contamination of Japanese soils, and preliminary estimates of I-131 and Cs-137 discharged from the plant into the atmosphere. In this paper, we present statistical analytics of I-131 and Cs-137 with the goal of predicting gamma dose from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. The data sets used in our study were collected from the IAEA Fukushima Monitoring Database. As part of this study, we investigated several regression models to find the best algorithm for modeling the gamma dose. The modeling techniques used in our study include linear regression, principal component regression (PCR), partial least square (PLS) regression, and ridge regression. Our preliminary results on the first set of data showed that the linear regression model with one variable was the best with a root mean square error of 0.0133 μSv/h, compared

  14. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... equipment to be installed to maintain control over radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents...

  15. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  16. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  17. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). 173.427 Section 173.427... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). (a) In addition to...

  18. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). 173.427 Section 173.427... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). (a) In addition to...

  19. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials are...

  20. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials are...

  1. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material... EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or... dispersal of radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite...

  2. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... equipment to be installed to maintain control over radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents...

  3. 10 CFR 30.72 - Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring... § 30.72 Schedule C—Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an emergency plan for responding to a release. Radioactive material 1 Release fraction Quantity (curies...

  4. 10 CFR 30.72 - Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule C-Quantities of radioactive materials requiring... § 30.72 Schedule C—Quantities of radioactive materials requiring consideration of the need for an emergency plan for responding to a release. Radioactive material 1 Release fraction Quantity (curies...

  5. 77 FR 36017 - Regulatory Guide 7.3, Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive Material

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Packaging Requirements for Shipment and Receipt of Radioactive Material'' which was issued in March 2012 and... Compliance with Packaging Requirements for Shipment and Receipt of Radioactive Material.'' Revision 1 of RG 7... COMMISSION Regulatory Guide 7.3, Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive Material...

  6. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released to...

  7. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released to...

  8. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL`s extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed.

  9. Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials

  10. Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report of the General Referee was presented at the 100th AOAC Annual International Meeting, Sept. 15-18, 1986, at Scottsdale, AZ. The method for determining cesium-137 and iodine-131 in milk and other foods by gamma-ray spectroscopy has been adopted official first action. Results have been received from 5 collaborators. A sixth collaborator was found and is in the process of analyzing the sample. When all results are in, the Associate Referee will perform a statistical analysis of the data. Other topics of interest include; plutonium; radium-228; and strontium-89 and -90. Recommendations are included which were reviewed by the Committee on Residues.

  11. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  12. Transportation of radioactive materials is environmentally benign-let`s quit analyzing it to death

    SciTech Connect

    Blalock, L.G.; Harmon, L.H.

    1996-07-01

    This article reviews the excellent safety record of transportation of radioactive materials and the extensive analyses of the safety of this transportation, concluding that further NEPA analysis is unwarranted.

  13. 15. BUILDING 227B. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL STORAGE. ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT. November 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 227B. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL STORAGE. ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT. November 20, 1970 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 227, South side of Hagner Road between Ripley & Mellon Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. EPA Actions in Response to Release of Radioactive Material from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides information about the actions EPA is taking to support and provide oversight of the WIPP release of radioactive material response effort, and provide information for the public.

  15. 46 CFR 148.04-1 - Radioactive material, Low Specific Activity (LSA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) Uranium or thorium ores and physical or chemical concentrates of such ores; (2) Uranium metal, natural thorium metal and alloys of these metals; and (3) Material of low radioactive concentration,...

  16. Induced Radioactivity in Recovered Skylab Materials. [gamma ray spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four radioactive isotopes found in aluminum and stainless steel samples from Skylab debris were recovered in Australia. The low-level activity was induced by high-energy protons and neutrons in the space environment. Measurements of the specific activities are given.

  17. Search for and analysis of radioactive halos in lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The lunar halo search was conducted because halos in terrestrial minerals serve as pointers to localized radioactivity, and make possible analytical studies on the problems of isotopic dating and mode of crystallization of the host mineral. Ancillary studies were conducted on terrestrial halos and on certain samples of special origin such as tektites and meteorites.

  18. Scanning electron microscope facility for examination of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.R.; Braski, D.N.

    1985-02-01

    An AMRAY model 1200B scanning electron microscope was modified to permit remote examination of radioactive specimens. Features of the modification include pneumatic vibration isolation of the column, motorized stage controls, improvements for monitoring vacuum, and a system for changing filaments without entering the hot cell.

  19. Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-10-31

    A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

  20. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Brun, S; Byrde, F; Chen, J; Duda, J-M; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Fronka, A; Haug, T; Herranz, M; Husain, A; Jerome, S; Jiranek, M; Judge, S; Kim, S B; Kwakman, P; Loyen, J; LLaurado, M; Michel, R; Porterfield, D; Ratsirahonana, A; Richards, A; Rovenska, K; Sanada, T; Schuler, C; Thomas, L; Tokonami, S; Tsapalov, A; Yamada, T

    2017-04-01

    Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Demonstration of a computer model for residual radioactive material guidelines, RESRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Wallo, A. III; USDOE, Washington, DC )

    1989-01-01

    A computer model was developed to calculate residual radioactive material guidelines for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This model, called RESRAD, can be run on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputer. Seven potential exposure pathways from contaminated soil are analyzed, including external radiation exposure and internal radiation exposure from inhalation and food digestion. The RESRAD code has been applied to several DOE sites to derive soil cleanup guidelines. The experience gained indicates that a comprehensive set of site-specific hydrogeologic and geochemical input parameters must be used for a realistic pathway analysis. The RESRAD code is a useful tool; it is easy to run and very user-friendly. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  2. 75 FR 36445 - Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-4018, “Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials To the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-4018, ``Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials To the... of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other than Power Reactors.'' This....resource@nrc.gov . The Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-4018, ``Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive...

  3. Is it necessary to raise awareness about technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials?

    PubMed

    Michalik, Bogusław

    2009-10-01

    Since radiation risks are usually considered to be related to nuclear energy, the majority of research on radiation protection has focused on artificial radionuclides in radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel or global fallout caused by A-bomb tests and nuclear power plant failures. Far less attention has been paid to the radiation risk caused by exposure to ionizing radiation originating from natural radioactivity enhanced due to human activity, despite the fact that technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in many branches of the non-nuclear industry. They differ significantly from "classical" nuclear materials and usually look like other industrial waste. The derived radiation risk is usually associated with risk caused by other pollutants and can not be controlled by applying rules designed for pure radioactive waste. Existing data have pointed out a strong need to take into account the non-nuclear industry where materials containing enhanced natural radioactivity occur as a special case of radiation risk and enclose them in the frame of the formal control. But up to now there are no reasonable and clear regulations in this matter. As a result, the non-nuclear industries of concern are not aware of problems connected with natural radioactivity or they would expect negative consequences in the case of implementing radiation protection measures. The modification of widely comprehended environmental legislation with requirements taken from radiation protection seems to be the first step to solve this problem and raise awareness about enhanced natural radioactivity for all stakeholders of concern.

  4. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-05-09

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  5. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-01-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material. PMID:28486438

  6. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

    1957-01-01

    During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

  8. Prediction of Radioactive Material Proliferation in Abukuma Basin using USLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the nuclear-power plant accident after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, the residents who had resided within 20 km from the Daiichi Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant had forced to leave their hometown. The impacts by the radioactive contamination extended to numerous social elements, such as food, economy, civil engineering, community rebuilding, etc. Japanese government agencies have measured the level of radioactive contamination in urban, agricultural area, forest, riverine and ocean. The research found that the concentration level of cesium-137 (137Cs) is higher in the forest than an open area such as paddy field or rural town. Litter layers and surface layers, especially, are found to be significantly contaminated. The study calculated the estimation of contaminated soil erosion using the USLE which the idea is based on scenario that addresses a question, what if 137Cs would carry out from the forest after intensive rainfall. Predicting radioactively contaminated areas after intense rainfall is a critical matter for the future watershed risk management.

  9. Instrumentation, Equipment and Methods for the In Vivo Measurement of Radioactive Material in the Body

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.

    2005-07-01

    The current applications for the in vivo measurement of radioactive material can be divided into three broad categories: (1) occupational exposure monitoring, (2) monitoring of the public, and (3) medical monitoring. The focus of this chapter is on occupational exposure monitoring that is part of an internal dosimetry program for monitoring workers for intakes and assessing the dose consequences of an intake. In the 1920's when electroscopes were first used to measure radium in the body of dial painters issues affecting the measurement accuracy were identified related to external contamination interferences, properly measuring the instrument background, need for measurement QC, microphonic interferences, shielding and others. The sophistication of the radiation detection instrumentation has evolved to the point where most systems today employ one or more detectors primarily either sodium iodide or germanium. Many different styles of detectors and cryostat designs are used at different facilities. However, the same issues identified in the 1920's are still issues today. The in vivo measurement systems are calibrated with anthropometric phantoms that simulate the body or parts of the body. Whole body phantoms, torso phantoms, lung phantoms, thyroid phantoms and skeletal phantoms are just some of the different types used.The systems are typically shielded with low background materials such as pre-World War II steel from battleships. Interferences can come from naturally occurring radioactive material, medically administered radiopharmaceuticals, equipment instability, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and other sources. These contribute to the uncertainties in measurement results that can range from 10% to 1000% or more depending on the measurement system, the energy of the radiation associated with the radionuclide to be measured, the accuracy of the phantom versus the person especially how well the distributions of activity match.

  10. International aspects of the management of low-level dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: international regulations governing radioactive waste disposal; radiological principles as applied to disposal to the environment; historical dumping practices; assessment of the North East Atlantic dump site; IAEA generic studies; and national and international implications. A recent analysis of international issues associated with ocean disposal of low-level radioactive wastes indicated a number of points which impact on US needs and policies and need resolution. The first is that the development of adequate international criteria and standards will assist the US in evaluating the option of using the oceans for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Secondly, it is essential that international cooperation in research and radiological surveillance be expanded. Thirdly, the delays in the agreements on international mechanisms, criteria and standards, sometimes as a direct result of a lack of coordinated US policies makes the implementation of the intent of the London Dumping Convention and the NEA mechanism more difficult. Last of all in the unresolved question of how the US should apply the London Convention to the 200 mile exclusive economic zone. (ATT)

  11. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    SciTech Connect

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  12. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  13. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    1999-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous- asbestos mixed-waste-stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles involve bore sampling, and is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started on 10/1/98 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  14. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2000-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous-asbestos mixed-waste stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles in based solely on bore sampling, which is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started 1998 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  15. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, J.D. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance.

  16. Tracking and Monitoring of Radioactive Materials in the Commercial Hazardous Materials Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Kopsick, Deborah A; Warren, Tracy A; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Hill, David E; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M

    2007-01-01

    One of the main components of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Materials Program is to prevent the loss of radioactive materials through the use of tracking technologies. If a source is inadvertently lost or purposely abandoned or stolen, it is critical that the source be recovered before harm to the public or the environment occurs. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging on radioactive sources is a technology that can be operated in the active or passive mode, has a variety of frequencies available allowing for flexibility in use, is able to transmit detailed data and is discreet. The purpose of the joint DOE and EPA Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project is to evaluate the viability, effectiveness and scalability of RFID technology under a variety of transportation scenarios. The goal of the Phase II was to continue testing integrated RFID tag systems from various vendors for feasibility in tracking radioactive sealed sources which included the following performance objectives: 1. Validate the performance of RFID intelligent systems to monitor express air shipments of medical radioisotopes in the nationwide supply chain, 2. Quantify the reliability of these tracking systems with regards to probability of tag detection and operational reliability, 3. Determine if the implementation of these systems improves manpower effectiveness, and 4. Demonstrate that RFID tracking and monitoring of radioactive materials is ready for large scale deployment at the National level. For purposes of analysis, the test scenario employed in this study utilized the real world commerce supply chain process for radioactive medical isotopes to validate the performance of intelligent RFID tags. Three different RFID systems were assessed from a shipping and packaging perspective, included varied environmental conditions, varied commodities on board vehicles, temporary staging in shipping terminals using various commodities and normal

  17. Automated technologies needed to prevent radioactive materials from reentering the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, David; Angelo, Joseph A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion Nuclear) was created to identify and evaluate the technologies and operational strategies needed to rendezvous with and capture aerospace radioactive materials (e.g., a distressed or spent space reactor core) before such materials can reenter the terrestrial atmosphere and then to safely move these captured materials to an acceptable space destination for proper disposal. A major component of the current project SIREN effort is the development of an interactive technology model (including a computerized data base) that explores, in building-block fashion, the interaction of the technologies and procedures needed to successfully accomplish a SIREN mission. The SIREN model will include appropriate national and international technology elements--both contemporary and projected into the next century. To obtain maximum flexibility and use, the SIREN technology data base is being programmed for use on 286-class PC's. The major technical elements for a successful SIREN mission include: ground and space-based tracking, launch vehicles of needed payload capacity, telerobotic systems, sensors, capture technologies, and space transport and disposal. However, Project SIREN also will impose specialized requirements including the use of dextrous aerospace systems capable of properly functioning in intense radiation and thermal environments.

  18. Sub-Kelvin Thermal Conductivity and Radioactivity of Some Useful Materials in Low Background Cryogenic Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Epland, M.; Pepin, M.; Kamaev, O.; Cushman, P.; Kramer, E.; Sadoulet, B.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Golwala, S.; Runyan, M.

    2014-08-01

    We present measurements of the thermal conductivity between 0.05 and 1 K, and radioactive contamination levels, for some thermally isolating materials. TIMET Ti 15-3-3-3, Mersen grade 2020 graphite, Vespel SP-1, Vespel SP-22, Vespel SCP-5000, Vespel SCP-5050, Graphlite CFRP, and a Kapton/epoxy composite are all investigated. Thermal conductivities were measured using a single-heater longitudinal heat flow method. Material radioactivity was determined for the materials at a low background counting facility using a high-purity gamma detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.104 Criteria for radioactive...

  20. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.104 Criteria for radioactive...

  1. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.476 Section 173.476 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND..., including complete engineering drawings and schedules of material, and methods of construction; (3) A...

  2. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  3. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  4. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling.

  5. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the 4400 Piehl Road Site, Ottawa Lake, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Faillace, E.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1994-12-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the 4400 Piehl Road site in Ottawa Lake, Michigan. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the 4400 Piehl Road site should not exceed 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and plausible future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which applies the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  6. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Ventron site

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, C.; Yu, C.; Jones, L.

    1992-03-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Ventron site in Beverly, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The derivations for the single radionuclides and the total uranium guidelines were based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Ventron site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  7. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  8. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Peng, En-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10-100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: (60)Co≤4.6%, (134)Cs≤4.7%, (137)Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and (3)H≤1.3%.

  9. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents.

  10. Natural radioactivity measurement in pumice samples used raw materials in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turhan, S; Yücel, H; Gündüz, L; Sahin, S; Vural, M; Parmaksiz, A; Demircioglu, B

    2007-03-01

    The activity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K in different pumice samples have been determined by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a 110% HpGe detector. The radium equivalent activities (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), and internal hazard index (Hin) associated with the natural radionuclides and representative level index (Igamma r) are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the pumice samples. The mean values of the measured radioactivity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K for pumice samples from the region of lakes (ROL) are 232.4+/-8.0, 196.9+/-7.8, and 1325.8+/-20.4 Bqkg(-1) and for pumice samples from Cukurova region (CR) 16.3+/-4.0, 16.1+/-4.9, and 479.7+/-170.4 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The calculated Raeq values vary from 435.9+/-12.5 to 883.6+/-41.5 Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 630.9+/-20.2 Bqkg(-1) for the ROL samples and from 49.7+/-3.3 to 101.9+/-7.2 Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 76.3+/-23.7 Bqkg(-1) for the CR samples. For the ROL samples, Raeq are above the limit of 370 Bqkg(-1), equivalent to external gamma dose of 1.5 mSv yr(-1), recommended for the safe use of construction materials by NEA-OECD, while for the CR samples, Raeq values are lower than the limit.

  11. Regulatory Initiatives for Control and Release of Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.V.

    1999-03-02

    Current drafts of proposed standards and suggested State regulations for control and release of technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and standards for release of volumetrically-contaminated material in the US are reviewed. These are compared to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) Safety Series and the European Commission (EC) proposals. Past regulatory efforts with respect to TENORM in the US dealt primarily with oil-field related wastes. Currently, nine states (AK, GA, LA, MS, NM, OH, OR SC, TX) have specific regulations pertaining to TENORM, mostly based on uranium mill tailings cleanup criteria. The new US proposals are dose- or risk-based, as are the IAEA and EC recommendations, and are grounded in the linear no threshold hypothesis (LNT). TENORM wastes involve extremely large volumes, particularly scrap metal and mine wastes. Costs to control and dispose of these wastes can be considerable. The current debate over the validity of LNT at low doses and low dose rates is particularly germane to this discussion. Most standards setting organizations and regulatory agencies base their recommendations on the LNT. The US Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft Federal Guidance Report that recommends calculating health risks from low-level exposure to radionuclides based on the LNT. However, some scientific and professional organizations are openly questioning the validity of LNT and its basis for regulations, practices, and costs to society in general. It is not clear at this time how a non-linear regulatory scheme would be implemented.

  12. Challenges in harmonising controls on the radioactivity of building materials within the European Union.

    PubMed

    Markkanen, M

    2001-05-14

    Possibilities for harmonising controls on the radioactivity of building materials within the European Union are being discussed in a Working Party on Natural Radiation Sources established by the Article 31 Group of Experts (Euratom Treaty). The Working Party is preparing a document to aid the Article 31 Expert Group and the European Commission in considering possible recommendations and technical guidance to the Member States for the implementation of the new Basic Safety Standards Directive concerning the radioactivity of building materials. The discussions in the working party have demonstrated several challenges in the possible harmonisation of controls, many of them arising from some significant differences in national circumstances.

  13. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in structural material of Toshiba Training Reactor 'TTR1'.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Mikio; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Haruguchi, Yoshiko

    2005-01-01

    A decommissioning programme for the Toshiba Training Reactor (TTR1), a swimming pool type reactor used for reactor physics experiments and material irradiation, was started in August 2001. As a part of the programme, induced radioactivity in structural material was evaluated using neutron flux data obtained with the three-dimensional Sn code TORT. Induced activity was calculated with the isotope generation code ORIGEN-79 using activation cross section data created from multi-group library based on JENDL-3. The obtained results for radioactivities such as 60Co, 65Zn, 54Mn and 152Eu were compared with measured ones, and the present calculational method was confirmed to have enough accuracy.

  14. Subthreshold neutron interrogator for detection of radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Michael L.; Menlove, Howard O.; Baker, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    A device for detecting fissionable material such as uranium in low concentrations by interrogating with photoneutrons at energy levels below 500 keV, and typically about 26 keV. Induced fast neutrons having energies above 500 keV by the interrogated fissionable material are detected by a liquid scintillator or recoil proportional counter which is sensitive to the induced fast neutrons. Since the induced fast neutrons are proportional to the concentration of fissionable material, detection of induced fast neutrons indicate concentration of the fissionable material.

  15. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.27 General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and...

  16. 49 CFR 175.702 - Separation distance requirements for packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials in cargo...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT Specific Regulations Applicable According to... separation distance between the surfaces of the radioactive materials packages, overpacks or freight... distances between the radioactive material and any areas occupied by persons that are specified in the...

  17. Improved detection of radioactive material using a series of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jenelle

    The goal of this project is to develop improved algorithms for detection of radioactive sources that have low signal compared to background. The detection of low signal sources is of interest in national security applications where the source may have weak ionizing radiation emissions, is heavily shielded, or the counting time is short (such as portal monitoring). Traditionally to distinguish signal from background the decision threshold (y*) is calculated by taking a long background count and limiting the false negative error (alpha error) to 5%. Some problems with this method include: background is constantly changing due to natural environmental fluctuations and large amounts of data are being taken as the detector continuously scans that are not utilized. Rather than looking at a single measurement, this work investigates looking at a series of N measurements and develops an appropriate decision threshold for exceeding the decision threshold n times in a series of N. This methodology is investigated for a rectangular, triangular, sinusoidal, Poisson, and Gaussian distribution.

  18. Conveyor apparatus for detecting radioactive material in garments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.N.; Humphrey, M.D.

    1989-09-12

    This patent describes an apparatus for detecting radioactive particles in garments. It comprises a conveyor assembly for receiving, moving and discharging garments; and a radiation detector assembly including first and second radiation detector means, each of which includes a face that is primarily sensitive to beta radiation throughout its entire area, a shield means for shielding the first detector means from ambient radiation, and a height adjustable mounting means for mounting the first radiation detector means and the shield means over the conveyor assembly and for adjusting the distance between the detector means and the top side of the garments moved by the conveyor assembly while maintaining the shield means in the same shielding orientation relative to the detector means. The second radiation detector means being disposed under the conveyor assembly so that the first radiation detector means detects beta radiation emitted substantially from the top side of the garments while the second radiation detector means beta radiation emitted substantially from the bottom side of the garments.

  19. Measurements of radioactivity and dose assessments in some building materials in Bitlis, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kayakökü, Halime; Karatepe, Şule; Doğru, Mahmut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, samples of perlite, pumice and Ahlat stones (Ignimbrite) extracted from mines in Bitlis and samples of other building materials produced in facilities in Bitlis were collected and analyzed. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of building materials were measured using NaI detector (NaI(Tl)) with an efficiency of 24%. The radon measurements of building material samples were determined using CR-39 nuclear track detectors. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radioactivity concentrations ranged from (29.6±5.9 to 228.2±38.1Bq/kg), (10.8±5.4 to 95.5±26.1Bq/kg) and (249.3±124.7 to 2580.1±266.9Bq/kg), respectively. Radon concentration, radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate, excess lifetime cancer risk and the values of hazard indices were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. Radon concentration ranged between 89.2±12.0Bq/m(3) and 1141.0±225.0Bq/m(3). It was determined that Raeq values of samples conformed to world standards except for perlite and single samples of brick and Ahlat stone. Calculated values of absorbed dose rate ranged from 81.3±20.5 to 420.6±42.8nGy/h. ELCR values ranged from (1.8±0.3)×10(-3) to (9.0±1.0)×10(-3). All samples had ELCR values higher than the world average. The values of Hin and Hex varied from 0.35±0.11 to 1.78±0.18 and from 0.37±0.09 to 1.17±0.13, respectively. The results were compared with standard radioactivity values determined by international organizations and with similar studies. There would be a radiation risk for people living in buildings made of perlite, Ahlat-1 and Brick-3.

  20. Evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba for contamination with radioactive materials from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomonori; Mori, Yutaro; Takada, Kenta; Sato, Eisuke; Takahashi, Hideki; Sekiguchi, Takao; Yoshimura, Yousuke; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji

    2013-10-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011, and traces of these materials were detected in Tsukuba. Because radioactive materials can adhere to vegetables, the authors made a qualitative evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba, estimated internal exposure dose based on quantitative measurement results, and investigated several decontamination methods. Qualitative analysis of vegetable contamination was done by autoradiography. Quantitative analysis was done using a high-purity germanium detector. To assess decontamination, two methods were tested: one with running water and the other with boiling water. In addition, boiled soup stock was measured. In the qualitative evaluation by autoradiography, radioactive materials were not uniformly distributed but adhered to vegetables in clumps and hot spots. In the quantitative evaluation to measure contamination of outer and inner leaves of sanchu lettuce, it was observed that the concentration of I was 8,031.35 ± 764.79 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 115.28 ± 20.63 Bq kg in the inner leaves. In addition, the concentration of Cs was 1,371.93 ± 366.45 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 9.68 ± 15.03 Bq kg in the inner leaves. This suggests that one can greatly reduce internal exposure dose by removing the outer leaves if one has to eat vegetables just after a nuclear accident. In the decontamination assessment, a decontamination efficiency of up to 70% was achieved by boiling vegetables for 20 min.

  1. Monitor of the concentration of particles of dense radioactive materials in a stream of air

    DOEpatents

    Yule, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    A monitor of the concentration of particles of radioactive materials such as plutonium oxide in diameters as small as 1/2 micron includes in combination a first stage comprising a plurality of virtual impactors, a second stage comprising a further plurality of virtual impactors, a collector for concentrating particulate material, a radiation detector disposed near the collector to respond to radiation from collected material and means for moving a stream of air, possibly containing particulate contaminants, through the apparatus.

  2. The Management of the Radioactive Waste Generated by Cernavoda NPP, Romania, an Example of International Cooperation - 13449

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2013-07-01

    The design criteria and constraints for the development of the management strategy for radioactive waste generated from operating and decommissioning of CANDU Nuclear Units from Cernavoda NPP in Romania, present many specific aspects. The main characteristics of CANDU type waste are its high concentrations of tritium and radiocarbon. Also, the existing management strategy for radioactive waste at Cernavoda NPP provides no treatment or conditioning for radioactive waste disposal. These characteristics embodied a challenging effort, in order to select a proper strategy for radioactive waste management at present, when Romania is an EU member and a signatory country of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The helping of advanced countries in radioactive waste management, directly or into the frame of the international organizations, like IAEA, become solve the aforementioned challenges at adequate level. (authors)

  3. Regulatory compliance in the design of packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.

    1993-06-01

    Shipments of radioactive materials within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) must meet the package design requirements contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, and DOE Order 5480.3. These regulations do not provide design criteria requirements, but only detail the approval standards, structural performance criteria, and package integrity requirements that must be met during transport. The DOE recommended design criterion for high-level Category I radioactive packagings is Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. However, alternative design criteria may be used if all the design requirements are satisfied. The purpose of this paper is to review alternatives to the Code criteria and discuss their applicability to the design of containment vessels in packages for high-level radioactive materials. Issues such as design qualification by physical testing, the use of scale models, and problems encountered using a non-ASME design approach are addressed.

  4. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuo; Wu, Bolin

    2011-12-30

    Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm(3); compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) is obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud.

  5. Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Todoriki, Setsuko; Yunoki, Akira; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-05-01

    We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  7. Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365

    SciTech Connect

    Steyer, S.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C.

    2012-07-01

    In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TYPE A(F)RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    container that met Specification 7A requirements per 49 CFR 178.350. Specification 7A containers were required to withstand Type A packaging tests required by 49CFR173.465 with compliance demonstrated through testing, analysis or similarity to other containers. The maximum weight of the 7A product container, the radioactive content, and any internal packaging was limited to 200 lbs. The total gross weight for the UN1A2 Specification Package was limited to 350 lbs. No additional restrictions were applied. Authorization for use did not require the UN1A2 Specification Package to be tested to the Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) required for performance based, Type A(F) packages certified by the NRC or DOE. The Type A(F) Packaging design discussed in this paper is required to be in compliance with the regulatory safety requirements defined in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71.41 through 71.47 and 10 CFR71.71. Sub-criticality of content must be maintained under the Hypothetical Accident Conditions specified under 10 CFR71.73. These federal regulations, and other applicable DOE Orders and Guides, govern design requirements for a Type A(F) package. Type A(F) packages with less than an A2 quantity of radioactive material are not required to have a leak testable boundary. With this exception a Type A(F) package design is subject to the same test requirements set forth for the design of a performance based Type B packaging.

  9. Characterisation of the IAEA-152 milk powder reference material for radioactivity with assigned values traceable to the SI units.

    PubMed

    Altzitzoglou, T; Bohnstedt, A

    2008-11-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to SI units. The purpose of the work described in this article was to establish traceability to the International System of Units (SI) of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (40)K, and (90)Sr in the IAEA-152 milk powder RM. The choice of the particular RM was based on the concern about radioactivity levels in foodstuff. The sample preparation and the assaying of the activity concentrations in the milk powder, the methods used to achieve instrument calibrations and measurements traceable to the SI units, the data reduction and analysis, and finally, the results obtained are presented.

  10. Remote monostatic detection of radioactive material by laser-induced breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, Joshua; Miao, Chenlong; Sprangle, Phillip

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates a concept for remotely detecting the presence of radioactivity using electromagnetic signatures. The detection concept is based on the use of laser beams and the resulting electromagnetic signatures near the radioactive material. Free electrons, generated from ionizing radiation associated with the radioactive material, cascade down to low energies and attach to molecular oxygen. The resulting ion density depends on the level of radioactivity and can be readily photo-ionized by a low-intensity laser beam. This process provides a controllable source of seed electrons for the further collisional ionization (breakdown) of the air using a high-power, focused, CO2 laser pulse. When the air breakdown process saturates, the ionizing CO2 radiation reflects off the plasma region and can be detected. The time required for this to occur is a function of the level of radioactivity. This monostatic detection arrangement has the advantage that both the photo-ionizing and avalanche laser beams and the detector can be co-located.

  11. Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A.

    1987-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  13. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ``state routing agency``, defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ``lessons learned`` by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  14. 25 CFR 170.906 - Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who cleans up radioactive and hazardous material spills? 170.906 Section 170.906 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... Federal agencies to address all cleanup issues, such as arranging or repackaging of the cargo,...

  15. Radioactive Material in Scrap Metal | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Sometimes radioactive materials are disposed of improperly and end up in scrap metal yards. You will probably never come into contact with contaminated scrap metal. If you think you have found contaminated scrap metal, do not touch it. Immediately contact your state radiation control office.

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exposure to airborne radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS...

  17. Radioactivity induced in apollo 11 lunar surface material by solar flare protons.

    PubMed

    Heydegger, H R; Turkevich, A

    1970-05-01

    Comparison of values of the specific radioactivities reported for lunar surface material from the Apollo 11 mission with analogous data for stone meteorites suggests that energetic particles from the solar flare of 12 April 1969 may have produced most of the cobalt-56 observed.

  18. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 25: Radioactive Material Handling Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Intake of radioactive materials as assessed by the duplicate diet method in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Sato, Osamu; Nonaka, Shunkichi; Tada, Jun Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    A large quantity of radioactive materials was released from Reactor-II of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP). People living in the area affected by the release are concerned about internal exposures from the daily intakes of contaminated foodstuffs. In order to assess whether the people should be concerned, Co-op Fukushima (Consumer Co-operative in Fukushima Prefecture) conducted a broad survey of radiocaesium in daily meals for which local inhabitants voluntarily provided a set of duplicate meals. Analyses by the duplicate diet method were conducted from November 2011 to March 2012 and from June 2012 to September 2012, each covering 100 families throughout the prefecture. Among the 200 meals thus analysed, 12 were found to have (134)Cs and/or (137)Cs concentrations exceeding 1 Bq kg(-1). Even with the largest radiocaesium value in our survey, daily consumption of such meals throughout a year gave an annual committed effective dose that did not exceed 0.1 mSv.

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THE BLANTON CLAMSHELL CLOSUREFOR USE ON RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P

    2007-10-18

    This paper provides a brief history of the U.S. Type B 6M specification container, its introduction into U.S. Code of federal regulations and its scheduled elimination three decades later. The paper also presents development, testing and deployment by the Department of Energy (DOE) of an enhanced drum closure called the 'Blanton Clamshell' (patent pending) that was designed to replace the standard open-head C-ring closure for the 55- and 85-gallon drums described in the 6M specification to extend their safe use. Nuclear Filter Technology has the Exclusive License for Clamshell production. Drum packages utilizing the standard C-ring closure have been a main-stay for over a half of a century in the national and international nuclear industry for shipping radioactive materials and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Drum package use in the U.S. increased heavily in the 1950's with development of the Weapons Complex and subsequently the commercial nuclear reactor industry.

  5. Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juan; Zhu, Kake; Shang, Jianying; Wang, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    Mesoporous silica with covalently bound salicylic acid molecules incorporated in the structure was synthesized with a one-pot, co-condensation reaction at room temperature. The as-synthesized material has a large surface area, uniform particle size, and an ordered pore structure as determined by characterization with transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectra, etc. Using the strong fluorescence and metal coordination capability of salicylic acid, functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) was developed to track and extract radionuclide contaminants, such as uranyl [U(VI)] ions encountered in subsurface environments. Adsorption measurements showed a strong affinity of the FMS toward U(VI) with a Kd value of 105 mL/g, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the adsorption of U(VI) onto most of the sediments in natural environments. The new materials have a potential for synergistic environmental monitoring and remediation of the radionuclide U(VI) from contaminated subsurface environments.

  6. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  7. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  8. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  9. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  10. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  11. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  12. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or substantial radiation levels offsite. 140.84 Section 140.84 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a...

  13. Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Dennis, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture of 30% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. Heat flux, oxygen concentration, air flow, contaminant concentration, and type of ignition were varied in the experiments. The highest release (7.1 wt %) came from burning TBP/kerosene over contaminated nitric acid. Burning cellulose contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate liquid gave the lowest release (0.01 wt %). Rate of release and particle size distribution of airborne radioactive particles were highly dependent on the type of fuel burned.

  14. [Estimation of dietary intake of radioactive materials by total diet methods].

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive contamination in foods is a matter of great concern after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. In order to estimate human intake and annual committed effective dose of radioactive materials, market basket and duplicate diet samples from various areas in Japan were analyzed for cesium-134 ((134)Cs), -137 ((137)Cs), and natural radionuclide potassium-40 ((40)K) by γ-ray spectroscopy. Dietary intake of radioactive cesium around Fukushima area was somewhat higher than in other areas. However, maximum committed effective doses obtained by the market basket and duplicate diet samples were 0.0094 and 0.027 mSv/year, respectively, which are much lower than the maximum permissible dose (1 mSv/year) in foods in Japan.

  15. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E.; Loureiro, C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  16. Low-activity radioactive materials management at the U.S. Department of Energy.

    PubMed

    Marcinowski, Frank; Tonkay, Douglas W

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is making significant progress with the cleanup of its legacy radioactively-contaminated facilities and sites left from research and development and production of nuclear materials and weapons. Sites like Rocky Flats, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Fernald, Mound, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are faced daily with decisions related to disposition of waste and radioactive material. One key to this success is the disposition of waste arising from cleanup. Most of the generated waste volume has very low levels of radioactive contamination. The waste includes contaminated soil, debris from demolition, or scrap metal and equipment. The cost of disposing of large volumes of waste can be prohibitive, so there is incentive to find innovative ways to disposition wastes. This paper describes the current status of policy development in this area, such as development of a draft programmatic environmental impact statement and monitoring of related rulemaking at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper also provides an overview of draft U.S. DOE guidance on control and release of property with residual radioactive material, and site-specific applications of DOE guidance.

  17. Estimation of Internal Radiation Dose from both Immediate Releases and Continued Exposures to Contaminated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-03-26

    A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, is discussed based upon a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from the damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and NPP decommissioning.

  18. Natural radioactivity and radiation hazards in some building materials used in Isparta, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavi, B.; Akkurt, I.

    2010-09-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium can vary from material to material and it should be measured as the radiation is hazardous for human health. Thus first studies have been planned to obtain radioactivity of building material used in the Isparta region of Turkey. The radioactivity of some building materials used in this region has been measured using a γ-ray spectrometry, which contains a NaI(Tl) detector connected to MCA. The specific activity for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, from the selected building materials, were in the range 17.91-58.88, 6.77-19.49 and 65.72-248.76 Bq/kg, respectively. Absorbed dose rate in air ( D), annual effective dose (AED), radium equivalent activities (Ra eq), and external hazard index ( Hex) associated with the natural radionuclide are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials. It was found that none of the results exceeds the recommended limit value.

  19. International Conference on Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    M. Suceska, Brodarski Institute, Zagreb, CROATIA 14. Physics of Nitrozoamine combustion as a monopropellant and as an ingredient of modern...material studied in a high speed piston driven compaction experiment J.F. Moxnes, FFI, Kjeller, N G. Odegardstuen, Nammo Raufoss AS, Raufoss, N A...RUSSIA 26. Ab initio study of mechanism of gas-phase monomolecular destruction of Nitroethylene A.G. Shamov, G.M. Khrapkovskii, Kazan State

  20. AGING PERFORMANCE OF VITON GLT O-RINGS IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E; Kerry Dunn, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Elise Fox, E; Kathryn Counts, K

    2007-05-07

    Radioactive material packages used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials often contain multiple O-ring seals for containment. Packages such as the Model 9975 are also being used for interim storage of Pu-bearing materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the seal materials used in such packages is Viton{reg_sign} GLT fluoroelastomer. The aging behavior of containment vessel O-rings based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT at long-term containment term storage conditions is being characterized to assess its performance in such applications. This paper summarizes the program and test results to date.

  1. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  2. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  3. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  4. Modeling the Behavior of Radioactive Materials in Combined-Phenomenology Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, G. D.; Plansky, G. F.; Allahdadi, F.; Bakhtiyarov, S. I.; Mitchiner, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    The launch of radioactive materials requires special care to minimize the risk to humans and the environment. This paper describes the mechanisms for the release of radioactive material through insults from shock, overpressure, thermal and chemical energy, and fragment and ground impacts during launch accidents. The complex environment during a launch accident may impart many different types and magnitudes of insults on the system in rapid succession or even simultaneously. It is presently computationally impractical to perform detailed first principles simulations for each of these combined accident environments. Hence, it remains to the analyst to weave together the results from single- insult simulations in a way that the essential elements of the combined insult environment are captured for each modeled launch accident. This paper describes methods for estimating material behavior during postulated multiple-insult environments on the basis of single-insult simulations.

  5. Radioactivities of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) materials: Baggage and bonanzas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alan R.; Hurley, Donna L.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactivities in materials onboard the returned Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite were studied by a variety of techniques. Among the most powerful is low-background Ge-semiconductor detector gamma-ray spectrometry, illustrated here by results obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Low Background Facilities. The observed radioactivities are of two origins: those radionuclides produced by nuclear reactions with the radiation field in orbit, and radionuclides present initially as 'contaminants' in materials used for construction of the spacecraft and experimental assemblies. In the first category are experiment-related monitor foils and tomato seeds, and such spacecraft materials as aluminum, stainless steel, and titanium. In the second category are aluminum, beryllium, titanium, vanadium, and some special glasses.

  6. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  7. Shielded field emission EPMA for microanalysis of radioactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restani, R.; Wälchli, A.

    2012-03-01

    A standard Jeol 8500F electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) with field emission gun (FEG) has been installed in a lead shielded cabin of the laboratory and customized for remote control. The wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (WDS) have been additionally shielded against β,γ-radiation with tungsten alloy modules. These measures have proven to be very effective for the examination of specimens with an activity of less than 20 GBq 137Cs. The background intensity is dependent on crystal type, spectrometer and sample position. The efficiency of the spectrometer with Xe-sealed counter is higher but also its sensitivity to the specimen's γ-radiation than the Ar/CH4 flow counter. The possibility of applying high beam currents increases the peak-to-background ratio for the analysis of low concentrations in the active sample. The high electron beam density of the FE-gun allows for the recording of high resolution elemental X-ray maps in the range of a few tenths of a micrometre at even medium acceleration voltage and thus short acquisition time. It is thus a valuable instrument in post irradiation examinations of spent fuel rods and materials irradiated by other sources.

  8. APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-07-11

    This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

  9. Training on Transport Security of Nuclear/Radioactive Materials for Key Audiences

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Ronald; Liu, Yung; Shuler, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Packaging Certification Program (PCP), Office of Packaging and Transportation, Office of Environmental Management has sponsored a series of three training courses on Security of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials during Transport. These courses were developed and hosted by Argonne National Laboratory staff with guest lecturers from both the U.S. and international organizations and agencies including the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE national laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), and the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS). Each of the three courses held to date were one-week in length. The courses delved in detail into the regulatory requirements for transport security, focusing on international and U.S.-domestic requirements and guidance documents. Lectures, in-class discussions and small group exercises, including tabletop (TTX) and field exercises were designed to enhance the learning objectives for the participants. For example, the field exercise used the ARG-US radio frequency identification (RFID) remote surveillance system developed by Argonne for DOE/PCP to track and monitor packages in a mock shipment, following in-class exercises of developing a transport security plan (TSP) for the mock shipment, performing a readiness review and identifying needed corrective actions. Participants were able to follow the mock shipment on the webpage in real time in the ARG-US Command Center at Argonne including “staged” incidents that were designed to illustrate the importance of control, command, communication and coordination in ensuring transport security. Great lessons were learned based on feedback from the participant’s course evaluations with the series of the courses. Since the

  10. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

    2003-07-27

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of

  11. Dumping of radioactive waste in the Artic Seas - The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    The IAEA has initiated the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) to address the widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts of the dumped radioactive wastes in the shallow waters the Arctic seas. The work is being carried out as part of IAEA responsibilities to the London Convention 1972. It is envisaged that the project will last for four years and be run by the IAEA in co-operation with the Norwegian and Russian Governments and with the involvement, through the IAEA, of experts from relevant IAEA member states. The project is aimed at producing an assessment of the potential radiological implications of the dumping and at addressing the question of possible remedial measures. At the same time, it is intended to provide a focus for the reporting of national research and assessment work and a mechanism for encouraging international co-operation and collaboration.

  12. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. Copyright 2004 Oxford University Press

  13. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described.

  14. Study on effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity of betavoltaic nuclear battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badrianto, Muldani Dwi; Riupassa, Robi D.; Basar, Khairul

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear batteries have strategic applications and very high economic potential. One Important problem in application of nuclear betavoltaic battery is its low efficiency. Current efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery reaches only arround 2%. One aspect that can influence the efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery is the geometrical configuration of radioactive source. In this study we discuss the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity in betavoltaic nuclear battery system. received by the detector. By obtaining the optimum configurations, the optimum usage of radioactive materials can be determined. Various geometrical configurations of radioactive source material are simulated. It is obtained that usage of radioactive source will be optimum for circular configuration.

  15. Study on effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity of betavoltaic nuclear battery

    SciTech Connect

    Badrianto, Muldani Dwi; Riupassa, Robi D.; Basar, Khairul

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear batteries have strategic applications and very high economic potential. One Important problem in application of nuclear betavoltaic battery is its low efficiency. Current efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery reaches only arround 2%. One aspect that can influence the efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery is the geometrical configuration of radioactive source. In this study we discuss the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity in betavoltaic nuclear battery system. received by the detector. By obtaining the optimum configurations, the optimum usage of radioactive materials can be determined. Various geometrical configurations of radioactive source material are simulated. It is obtained that usage of radioactive source will be optimum for circular configuration.

  16. Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. O.

    1983-03-01

    This report recommends instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two month measurement methodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1989: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1992-09-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1989 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1970 through 1988 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1989 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1991, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1994-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 13, Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1992 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1973 through 1991 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1992 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  20. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J.

    1993-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  1. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K.

    1995-12-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  2. Radioactivities of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) materials: Baggage and bonanzas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.R.; Hurley, D.L.

    1991-08-01

    Radioactivities in materials onboard the returned Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite have been studied by a variety of techniques. Among the most powerful is low-background Ge-semiconductor detector gamma-ray spectrometry, illustrated here by results obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Low Bakground Facilities, in a multi-laboratory collaboration coordinated by Dr. Thomas Parnell's team at the Marshall Spacecraft Center, Huntsville, Alabama.

  3. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  4. Property Valuation and Radioactive Materials Transportation: A Legal, Economic and Public Perception Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, J. A.; Thrower, A. W.; Widmayer, D. A.; Portner, W.

    2003-02-26

    The shipment of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico raised a serious socioeconomic issue - the potential devaluation of property values due to the transportation of TRU waste from generator sites to the disposal facility. In 1992, the New Mexico Supreme Court held in City of Santa Fe v. Komis that a loss in value from public perception of risk was compensable. This issue has become an extremely important one for the development of the Yucca Mountain repository in Nevada for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much research has been conducted about the potential impacts of transportation of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This paper examines the pertinent studies conducted since the Komis case. It examines how the public debate on radioactive materials transportation continues and is now focused on transportation of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Finally, the paper suggests a path forward DOE can take to address this issue.

  5. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-01-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area. PMID:24844938

  6. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-05-15

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  7. Research on the additives to reduce radioactive pollutants in the building materials containing fly ash.

    PubMed

    He, Deng-liang; Yin, Guang-fu; Dong, Fa-qin; Liu, Lai-bao; Luo, Ya-jun

    2010-05-15

    Several kinds of functional additives such as barite, zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement were introduced to prepare a low-radiation cement-based composite to reduce radioactive pollutants contained in fly ash. The effect of content and granularity of the functional additives on the release of radioactive pollutants were investigated. Composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scan electron microscopy. The results indicate that the radioactive pollutants contained in the fly ash can be reduced by adding a proper amount of zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement. The release of radon from fly ash decreases with a decrease in the granularity of additives. Compared with traditional cement-based composite containing fly ash, the release of radon can be reduced 64.8% in these composites, and the release of gamma-ray is decreased 45%. Based on the microstructure and phase analysis, we think that by added functional additives, there are favorable to form self-absorption of radioactivity in the interior composites. This cement-based composite will conducive to fly ash are large-scale applied in the field of building materials.

  8. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  9. Assessment of radiological hazards of naturally occurring radioactive materials in cement industry.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Gul, Rahmat; Ara, Tauseef; Hussain, Manzur

    2012-09-01

    A study on the radiological hazard in Portland cement due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials is being carried out. The Portland cement manufactured in the Islamabad/Rawalpindi region of Pakistan, intermediate products (clinker) and the various raw materials which compose the product have been analysed for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K using a gamma spectrometry system with a N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. From the measured gamma ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The mean values of the total specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 34.2±11.9, 29.1±3.6 and 295.1±66.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively in Portland cement, 28.4±8.7, 11.3±1.7 and 63.1±17.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in lime stone, 8.2±1.9, 16.2±3.9 and 187.7±53.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in gypsum, 34.7±13.1, 41.2±6.7 and 187.6±17.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clay, 41.1±11.8, 39.3±6.9 and 195.1±29.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively in latrite and 51.1±18.2, 23.2±1.2 and 258.4±15.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively in clinker. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)), internal hazard index (H(in)), absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose rate (E(eff)) were also determined. The measured activity concentrations for these radio nuclides and radiological indices were compared with the reported national and international data. All these measured values are comparable with the worldwide data reported in UNSCEAR publications.

  10. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.

  11. Determination of the probability for radioactive materials on properties in Monticello, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.J.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1991-02-01

    In 1978, under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) to manage the maintenance and surveillance of numerous DOE-owned, radioactively contaminated facilities that have been declared surplus and to conduct a program leading to the ultimate disposition of those facilities. The primary responsibility of SFMP is to protect public health and the environment from potentially harmful radioactive contamination contained within or derived from DOE-owned facilities. Management of SFMP is directed by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Washington, DC. Prior to mill site remediation, Monticello properties surrounding the site and designated privately owned are being assessed for inclusion in the SFMP. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was directed by DOE in July 1988 to assess the radiological condition of privately owned properties in Monticello that have been identified as possibly containing Monticello mill-related materials. Properties containing Monticello mill-related materials and with associated radiation levels that exceed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE standards are eligible for cleanup under SFMP. The objective of this study was to determine the probability that a property which contained Monticello mill-related residual radioactive material in excess of the guidelines would not be assessed under the current protocol. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

  13. Radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used as surfaces in general-purpose radioisotope laboratories.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Natalia M; Tesán, Fiorella C; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Salgueiro, María J

    2014-12-01

    In accord with as-low-as-reasonably-achievable and good-manufacturing-practice concepts, the present study evaluated the efficiency of radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used in laboratory surfaces and whether solvent spills on these materials affect the findings. Four materials were evaluated: stainless steel, a surface comprising one-third acrylic resin and two-thirds natural minerals, an epoxy cover, and vinyl-based multipurpose flooring. Radioactive material was eluted from a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator, and samples of the surfaces were control-contaminated with 37 MBq (100 μL) of this eluate. The same procedure was repeated with samples of surfaces previously treated with 4 solvents: methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, and ethanol. The wet radioactive contamination was allowed to dry and then was removed with cotton swabs soaked in soapy water. The effectiveness of decontamination was defined as the percentage of activity removed per cotton swab, and the efficacy of decontamination was defined as the total percentage of activity removed, which was obtained by summing the percentages of activity in all the swabs required to complete the decontamination. Decontamination using our protocol was most effective and most efficacious for stainless steel and multipurpose flooring. Moreover, treatment with common organic solvents seemed not to affect the decontamination of these surfaces. Decontamination of the other two materials was less efficient and was interfered with by the organic solvents; there was also great variability in the overall results obtained for these other two materials. In expanding our laboratory, it is possible for us to select those surface materials on which our decontamination protocol works best. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  14. Novel methods for estimating 3D distributions of radioactive isotopes in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Taya, T.; Okochi, H.; Ogata, H.; Yamamoto, S.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, various gamma-ray visualization techniques, or gamma cameras, have been proposed. These techniques are extremely effective for identifying "hot spots" or regions where radioactive isotopes are accumulated. Examples of such would be nuclear-disaster-affected areas such as Fukushima or the vicinity of nuclear reactors. However, the images acquired with a gamma camera do not include distance information between radioactive isotopes and the camera, and hence are "degenerated" in the direction of the isotopes. Moreover, depth information in the images is lost when the isotopes are embedded in materials, such as water, sand, and concrete. Here, we propose two methods of obtaining depth information of radioactive isotopes embedded in materials by comparing (1) their spectra and (2) images of incident gamma rays scattered by the materials and direct gamma rays. In the first method, the spectra of radioactive isotopes and the ratios of scattered to direct gamma rays are obtained. We verify experimentally that the ratio increases with increasing depth, as predicted by simulations. Although the method using energy spectra has been studied for a long time, an advantage of our method is the use of low-energy (50-150 keV) photons as scattered gamma rays. In the second method, the spatial extent of images obtained for direct and scattered gamma rays is compared. By performing detailed Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4, we verify that the spatial extent of the position where gamma rays are scattered increases with increasing depth. To demonstrate this, we are developing various gamma cameras to compare low-energy (scattered) gamma-ray images with fully photo-absorbed gamma-ray images. We also demonstrate that the 3D reconstruction of isotopes/hotspots is possible with our proposed methods. These methods have potential applications in the medical fields, and in severe environments such as the nuclear-disaster-affected areas in Fukushima.

  15. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  16. Apparatus for the processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1999-03-16

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination oaf plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  17. International Space Station Materials: Selected Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program is of such complexity and scale that there have been numerous issues addressed regarding safety of materials: from design to manufacturing, test, launch, assembly on-orbit, and operations. A selection of lessons learned from the ISS materials perspective will be provided. Topics of discussion are: flammability evaluation of materials with connection to on-orbit operations; toxicity findings for foams; compatibility testing for materials in fluid systems; and contamination control in precision clean systems and critical space vehicle surfaces.

  18. The Assessment of Future Human Actions at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Galson, D.A.; Patera, E.S.

    1994-04-01

    For some deep geological disposal systems, the level of confinement provided by the natural and engineered barriers is considered to be so high that the greatest long-term risks associated with waste disposal may arise from the possibility of future human actions breaching the natural and/or engineered barrier systems. Following a Workshop in 1989, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established a Working Group on Assessment of Future Human Actions (FHA) a Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. This Group met four times in the period 1991--1993, and has extensively reviewed approaches to and experience of incorporating the effects of FHA into long-term performance assessments (PAs). The Working Group`s report reviews the main issues concerning the treatment of FHA, presents a general framework for the quantitative, consideration of FHA in radioactive waste disposal programmes, and discusses means in reduce the risks associated with FHA. The Working Group concluded that FHA must be considered in PAs, although FHA where the actors were cognizant of the risks could be ignored. Credit can be taken for no more than several hundred years of active site control; additional efforts should therefore be taken to reduce the risks associated with FHA. International agreement on principles for the construction of FHA scenarios would build confidence, as would further discussion concerning regulatory policies for judging risks associated with FHA.

  19. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.

  20. Assessment of the natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in Turkish cement and its raw materials.

    PubMed

    Turhan, S

    2008-02-01

    The natural radioactivity due to presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radionuclides in raw materials, intermediate products (clinker) and end products (22 different cement types) was measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe detector. The specific radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the analyzed cement samples ranged from 12.5+/-0.3 to 162.5+/-1.7Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 40.5+/-26.7Bqkg(-1), 6.7+/-0.3 to 124.9+/-2.5Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 26.1+/-18.9Bqkg(-1) and 64.4+/-2.3 to 679.3+/-18.2Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 267.1+/-102.4Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the emanation coefficient, the (222)Rn mass exhalation rate and the indoor absorbed dose rate were estimated for the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples. The calculated Ra(eq) values of cement samples (37.2+/-8.7-331.1+/-15.5Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 98.3+/-53.8) are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) set for building materials. The Ra(eq) values were compared with the corresponding values for cement of different countries. The mean indoor absorbed dose rate is slightly higher than the population-weighted average of 84nGyh(-1).

  1. Characterization of radioactive materials using the MARS beamline at the synchrotron SOLEIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitaud, Bruno; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Schlutig, Sandrine; Llorens, Isabelle; Hermange, Hervé

    2012-06-01

    Since 2004 numerous efforts have been done at the new French SOLEIL synchrotron to construct a beamline for studying radioactive matter in general and nuclear materials in particular. This Multi Analyses on Radioactive Samples (MARS) beamline has been designed and built thanks to a close partnership with the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The optics and the experimental stations have been optimized to perform X-ray characterizations (diffraction, scattering, absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging) on a large variety of radioactive elements. The special infrastructure of this beamline has been defined to be in conformity with the French safety regulations for the manipulation of relatively high activity samples (α, β, γ and n emitters) with an activity up to 18.5 GBq per sample. Several relevant results obtained during the commissioning of the experimental end-stations are presented and discussed in the frame of the near future characterizations of nuclear materials by X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy.

  2. An overview of the draft for the amendment of 'nuclear materials and radioactive waste management act'

    SciTech Connect

    Huan Lin; Tai-Wei Lan; Min-Tsang Chang; Wuu-Kune Cheng

    2013-07-01

    The 'Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Waste Management Act' (NMRWMA) in Taiwan has been in use since 2002. To promote further administrative efficiency and improve regulatory capacity, an amendment of the act has been initiated by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC). It is now being reviewed by outside experts and related communities so as to include the best understanding of risk management factors. For the future decommissioning challenges of nuclear facilities, the act is also being amended to comply with the regulatory requirements of the decommissioning mandates. Currently the Taiwan government is conducting government reorganization, and AEC will be reformed but will remain as an independent regulatory body. AEC will then be capable of improving the regulatory capacity for facilitating licensing and inspection, ensuring operational safety, environmental protection and public involvement, and giving a more flexible administrative discretion, such as expending the margin of penalty. The amendment is also required to provide a formal legal basis for the Nuclear Backend Fund, and to mandate the waste producers to take responsibility for any final debt repayment. In addition, this amendment promotes measures to prevent accidents or emergencies concerning radioactive materials and facilities and procedures to reduce the impact and effect of any unexpected events. Furthermore, this amendment intends to implement the concept of information transparency and public participation so as to meet the public needs. Finally, radioactive waste final disposal tasks have to be completed by waste producers under the supervision of the AEC. (authors)

  3. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  4. Closed source experimental system for soft x-ray spectroscopy of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Modin, A.; Butorin, S. M.; Vegelius, J.; Olsson, A.; Englund, C.-J.; Andersson, J.; Werme, L.; Nordgren, J.; Kaeaembre, T.; Skarnemark, G.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-09-15

    An instrumental and experimental setup for soft x-ray spectroscopy meeting the requirements of a closed source for radioactivity is described. The system consists of a vacuum sealed cell containing the sample, mounted on a tubing system to ensure compatibility with most standard manipulators. The soft x rays penetrate a thin x-ray window separating the interior of the cell from the vacuum in the experimental chamber. Our first results for single crystal PuO{sub 2} confirm the feasibility of experiments using the setup. The results are consistent with results of first principles calculations and previously recorded spectra obtained using a standard open source setup. The results show that the closed source experimental system can be used to collect valuable experimental data from radioactive materials.

  5. CLOSURE WELDING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2006-09-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) responsibility for the disposition of radioactive materials has given rise to several unique welding applications. Many of these materials require packaging into containers for either Interim or long-term storage. It is not uncommon that final container fabrication, i.e., closure welding, is performed with these materials already placed into the container. Closure welding is typically performed remote to the container, and routine post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE) are often times not feasible. Fluor Hanford has packaged many such materials in recent years as park of the Site's cleanup mission. In lieu of post-weld testing and NDE, the Fluor-Hanford approach has been to establish weld quality through ''upfront'' development and qualification of welding parameters, and then ensure parameter compliance during welding. This approach requires a rigor not usually afforded to typical welding development activities, and may involve statistical analysis and extensive testing, including burst, drop, sensitive leak testing, etc. This paper provides an instructive review of the development and qualification activities associated with the closure of radioactive materials containers, including a brief report on activities for closure welding research reactor, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) overpacks at the Hanford Site.

  6. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  7. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics.

  8. Hazardous materials: chemistry and safe handling aspects of flammable, toxic and radioactive materials. A course of study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    The subject of this dissertation is a one semester, three credit course designed for students who have taken at least twelve credits college chemistry, and for high school teachers as a continuing education course. The need for such a course arises from the increased concern for safety in recent years and the introduction of many regulations of which the working chemist should be aware, notably those issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A few colleges have recently started to offer courses in laboratory safety to undergraduate and graduate chemistry students. Thus, there is a need for the development of courses in which chemical safety is taught. This course is divided into three units: 1) flammable materials; 2) toxic materials; and 3) radioactive materials. Each unit is self contained and could be taught separately as a one credit course. The material necessary for lecture presentation is given in the text of this dissertation: there are about seven topics in each unit. The chemical properties of selected substances are emphasized. Examples of governmental regulations are given, and there are sample examination questions for each unit and homework assignments that require the use of reference sources. Laboratory exercises are included to enable students to gain experience in the safe handling of hazardous chemicals and of some equipment and instruments used to analyze and study flammable, toxic and radioactive materials.

  9. THE NEED FOR A NEW JOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CLOSURE WELDING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL GR; HILL BE; GRANT GJ

    2008-10-29

    One of the activities associated with cleanup throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is packaging radioactive materials into storage containers. Much of this work will be performed in high-radiation environments requiring fully remote operations, for which existing, proven systems do not currently exist. These conditions demand a process that is capable of producing acceptable (defect-free) welds on a consistent basis; the need to perform weld repair, under fully-remote operations, can be extremely costly and time consuming. Current closure welding technology (fusion welding) is not well suited for this application and will present risk to cleanup cost and schedule. To address this risk, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are proposing that a new and emerging joining technology, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), be considered for this work. FSW technology has been demonstrated in other industries (aerospace and marine) to produce near flaw-free welds on a consistent basis. FSW is judged capable of providing the needed performance for fully-remote closure welding of containers for radioactive materials for the following reasons: FSW is a solid-state process; material is not melted. As such, FSW does not produce the type of defects associated with fusion welding, e.g., solidification-induced porosity, cracking, distortion due to weld shrinkage, and residual stress. In addition, because FSW is a low-heat input process, material properties (mechanical, corrosion and environmental) are preserved and not degraded as can occur with 'high-heat' fusion welding processes. When compared to fusion processes, FSW produces extremely high weld quality. FSW is performed using machine-tool technology. The equipment is simple and robust and well-suited for high radiation, fully-remote operations compared to the relatively complex equipment associated with the fusion-welding processes. Additionally, for standard wall thicknesses of radioactive materials

  10. Imaging of radioactive material and its host particle from the nuclear power plant accident in Japan by using imaging plate and electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kimura, Tohru; Sakoh, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan on March, 2012, dispersed radioactive materials. In the Meteorological Research Institute, where locates 170 km south west from the power plant, we collected two types of filter aerosol samples and wet and dry deposition particles before and after the accident. Using these samples, we analyzed 1) radioactivity using an imaging plate (IP), which visualizes the radioactivity of samples in a two-dimensional plane with space resolution ~0.05 mm and 2) shape and compositions of particles that host radioactive materials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). From the samples collected on March 15 and 21, we found radioactive spots on the filter samples using the IP, suggesting that radioactive materials, presumably Cs, were carried from the power plant. Radioactivity was also detected over the aggregates of dust particles in wet and dry deposition samples collected from March 2011. We did not find any detectable radioactive materials after the April when using the IP. We further investigated the radioactive spots using the SEM to identify the host particles of the radioactive materials and to detect radioactive materials from the EDS analysis. From the SEM analysis, we found that the particles on the filters include sulfate, mineral dust, and metals, but there were no particular particles or materials in the radioactive spots comparing to those in other area. The result suggests that the radioactive materials are hosted on the surface of other particles or inside them. We, so far, did not obtain any evidences that the radioactive materials are particulate with larger than 0.1 micro meter. Further analysis will need to identify the source of radioactive spots from individual particles using a manipulator as well as SEM and IP. Such studies will reveal where the radioactive materials exist in the environment, how they resuspend in the air, and how they could

  11. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in Tunisian building materials.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, F; Oueslati, M; Abdelli, W; Samaali, M; Ben Tekaya, M

    2012-12-01

    Building materials can expose public and workers to radiation because of their content of radium, thorium and potassium isotopes. This is why it is very important from the radiological point of view to survey the natural radioactivity content of commonly used building materials in any country. This work consists of the measurement of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in a variety of commonly used building materials in Tunisia and on the estimation of their radiological hazard. The maximum value of radium equivalent for the studied materials was equal to 169 Bq kg(-1) and corresponds to the clay brick, which is lower than the recommended value of 370 Bq kg(-1). In this work, several radiological indexes were calculated and were found to be under their highest permitted limit.

  12. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  13. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  14. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation.

  15. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Aliquippa Forge site

    SciTech Connect

    Monette, F.; Jones, L.; Yu, C.

    1992-09-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Aliquippa Forge site in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Aliquippa Forge site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following decontamination. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four potential scenarios were considered for the site; the scenarios vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for uranium within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of combined uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the Aliquippa Forge site does not exceed the following levels: 1,700 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario); 3,900 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); 20 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer using well water as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario), and 530 pCi/g for Scenario D (resident farmer using a distant water source not affected by site conditions as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario). The uranium guidelines derived in this report apply to the combined activity concentration of uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238 and were calculated on the basis of a dose of 100 mrem/yr.

  17. Radioactivity concentration measurement and analysis in construction floor materials of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. H.; Lee, H. K.; Cho, J. H.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the radioactive concentrations contained in samples of commonly used building floor materials were measured. This result can be used as basic information for public health and the environment. Among building floor materials, samples of induction blocks, cement bricks, artificial granite blocks and compact high-pressure blocks were chosen and used. A detailed gamma nuclide analysis was performed with a multichannel analyzer by putting these samples on a high-purity germanium detector which is a semiconductor detector. In order to measure the concentration of radionuclides, a spectrum file was obtained by analyzing the concentration of gamma radionuclides and setting the measurement time as 1000, 4000, 7000 and 10,000 s. According to the study results, K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ra-226 and U-235 were detected in the induction blocks measured at 10,000 s and K-40, Th-230, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ra-226 and Na-22 were detected in the cement bricks measured at 10,000 s. K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Th-234, U-235 and Ra-223 were detected in the artificial granite blocks measured at 10,000 s and K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Th-234, Ra-226, Ra-223 and Mn-54 were detected in the compact high-pressure blocks. In conclusion, low-level radioactivity was detected in building floor materials, so it is thought that measures to reduce radioactivity and further studies on this will be needed.

  18. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-11-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined.

  19. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of radiation streaming from a radioactive material shipping cask

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Schwarz, R.A.; Tang, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    Simulated detection of gamma radiation streaming from a radioactive material shipping cask have been performed with the Monte Carlo codes MCNP4A and MORSE-SGC/S. Despite inherent difficulties in simulating deep penetration of radiation and streaming, the simulations have yielded results that agree within one order of magnitude with the radiation survey data, with reasonable statistics. These simulations have also provided insight into modeling radiation detection, notably on location and orientation of the radiation detector with respect to photon streaming paths, and on techniques used to reduce variance in the Monte Carlo calculations. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.