Science.gov

Sample records for international seismic safety

  1. Seismic Safety Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F J; Coats, D W

    2006-05-16

    During the past three decades, the Laboratory has been proactive in providing a seismically safe working environment for its employees and the general public. Completed seismic upgrades during this period have exceeded $30M with over 24 buildings structurally upgraded. Nevertheless, seismic questions still frequently arise regarding the safety of existing buildings. To address these issues, a comprehensive study was undertaken to develop an improved understanding of the seismic integrity of the Laboratory's entire building inventory at the Livermore Main Site and Site 300. The completed study of February 2005 extended the results from the 1998 seismic safety study per Presidential Executive Order 12941, which required each federal agency to develop an inventory of its buildings and to estimate the cost of mitigating unacceptable seismic risks. Degenkolb Engineers, who performed the first study, was recontracted to perform structural evaluations, rank order the buildings based on their level of seismic deficiencies, and to develop conceptual rehabilitation schemes for the most seriously deficient buildings. Their evaluation is based on screening procedures and guidelines as established by the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC). Currently, there is an inventory of 635 buildings in the Laboratory's Facility Information Management System's (FIMS's) database, out of which 58 buildings were identified by Degenkolb Engineers that require seismic rehabilitation. The remaining 577 buildings were judged to be adequate from a seismic safety viewpoint. The basis for these evaluations followed the seismic safety performance objectives of DOE standard (DOE STD 1020) Performance Category 1 (PC1). The 58 buildings were ranked according to three risk-based priority classifications (A, B, and C) as shown in Figure 1-1 (all 58 buildings have structural deficiencies). Table 1-1 provides a brief description of their expected performance and damage state

  2. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  3. Seismic Hazard and Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    2013-07-01

    The recent destructive earthquakes in Wenchuan (China), L'Aquila (Italy), Port-au-Prince (Haiti), Christchurch (New Zealand), and Tohoku (Japan) have reignited the discussion over seismic safety. Several scientists [e.g., Stein et al., 2012; Wyss et al., 2012] have questioned the reliability of some seismic hazard maps based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA)—a widely used probabilistic approach that estimates the likelihood of various levels of ground shaking occurring at a given location in a given future time period—raising an intense discussion on this specific point [Hanks et al., 2012; Frankel, 2013; Stein et al., 2013].

  4. Seismic Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  5. 41 CFR 128-1.8006 - Seismic Safety Program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic Safety Program... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8006 Seismic Safety Program requirements. The Department Seismic Safety Coordinator and...

  6. 41 CFR 128-1.8006 - Seismic Safety Program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seismic Safety Program... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8006 Seismic Safety Program requirements. The Department Seismic Safety Coordinator and...

  7. Seismic safety of high concrete dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houqun

    2014-08-01

    China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

  8. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

    2008-07-08

    Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

  9. 41 CFR 128-1.8006 - Seismic Safety Program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seismic Safety Program requirements. 128-1.8006 Section 128-1.8006 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8006 Seismic Safety Program...

  10. 41 CFR 128-1.8006 - Seismic Safety Program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seismic Safety Program requirements. 128-1.8006 Section 128-1.8006 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8006 Seismic Safety Program...

  11. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005 Seismic safety standards. (a) To meet the building and construction requirements of this subpart,...

  12. 41 CFR 128-1.8004 - Seismic Safety Coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seismic Safety... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8004 Seismic Safety Coordinators. (a) The Justice Management Division shall designate...

  13. 41 CFR 128-1.8004 - Seismic Safety Coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic Safety... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8004 Seismic Safety Coordinators. (a) The Justice Management Division shall designate...

  14. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005 Seismic safety standards. (a) To meet the building and construction requirements of this subpart,...

  15. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005 Seismic safety standards. (a) To meet the building and construction requirements of this subpart,...

  16. 41 CFR 128-1.8004 - Seismic Safety Coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seismic Safety... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8004 Seismic Safety Coordinators. (a) The Justice Management Division shall designate...

  17. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seismic safety standards... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005 Seismic safety standards. (a) To meet the building and construction requirements of this subpart,...

  18. The lunar seismic tomography and internal heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, N.; Zhu, P.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, J.

    2012-12-01

    A seismic tomography is presented to show the internal lateral heterogeneities of moon. The lunar seismic tomography is made from the moonquake arrival-time data acquired by the Apollo program during 1971 to 1977. The seismic records obtained from the four seismic station of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package on the moon. The research target covers the surround of Apollo-12, 14, 15 and 16 landing sites. A preliminary image of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structures of lunar interior have been calculated using hundreds of arrival-times of moonquake events from surface to deep mantle. These results show that some evidences of lateral heterogeneities in the lunar mantle and crust, which implies the existence of complex structure inside the moon.

  19. 41 CFR 128-1.8005 - Seismic safety standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seismic safety standards. 128-1.8005 Section 128-1.8005 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8005...

  20. 41 CFR 128-1.8004 - Seismic Safety Coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seismic Safety Coordinators. 128-1.8004 Section 128-1.8004 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program...

  1. 41 CFR 128-1.8006 - Seismic Safety Program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seismic Safety Program requirements. 128-1.8006 Section 128-1.8006 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program...

  2. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.

    1981-10-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  4. The SISIFO project: Seismic Safety at High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruzza, Laura; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Dusi, Alberto; Grimaz, Stefano; Malisan, Petra; Saraò, Angela; Mucciarelli, Marco

    2014-05-01

    For many years, the Italian scientific community has faced the problem of the reduction of earthquake risk using innovative educational techniques. Recent earthquakes in Italy and around the world have clearly demonstrated that seismic codes alone are not able to guarantee an effective mitigation of risk. After the tragic events of San Giuliano di Puglia (2002), where an earthquake killed 26 school children, special attention was paid in Italy to the seismic safety of schools, but mainly with respect to structural aspects. Little attention has been devoted to the possible and even significant damage to non-structural elements (collapse of ceilings, tipping of cabinets and shelving, obstruction of escape routes, etc..). Students and teachers trained on these aspects may lead to a very effective preventive vigilance. Since 2002, the project EDURISK (www.edurisk.it) proposed educational tools and training programs for schools, at primary and middle levels. More recently, a nationwide campaign aimed to adults (www.iononrischio.it) was launched with the extensive support of civil protection volounteers. There was a gap for high schools, and Project SISIFO was designed to fill this void and in particular for those schools with technical/scientific curricula. SISIFO (https://sites.google.com/site/ogssisifo/) is a multidisciplinary initiative, aimed at the diffusion of scientific culture for achieving seismic safety in schools, replicable and can be structured in training the next several years. The students, helped by their teachers and by experts from scientific institutions, followed a course on specialized training on earthquake safety. The trial began in North-East Italy, with a combination of hands-on activities for the measurement of earthquakes with low-cost instruments and lectures with experts in various disciplines, accompanied by specifically designed teaching materials, both on paper and digital format. We intend to raise teachers and students knowledge of the

  5. Application of remote sensing image interpretation in seismic safety evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Wei, Wen-xia; Wang, Gang

    2005-10-01

    As one of essential design gist in important engineering projects, the seismic safety evaluation on choosing engineering site has been applied widely. Using remote sensing images, the analysis to regional seismotectonic environment can bring macroscopic, integrative, dynamic and high efficiency information, so the application of remote sensing technology in seismic safety evaluation of engineering site has fine prospect and will bring great benefit. In this paper, based on remote sensing interpretation to Landsat7 ETM images, also using GIS and field geological investigations, as a case study in Qingdao City, we analyze the physiognomy environment, new tectonic movement, faults activities, and the distributing of deleterious geological objects around the site. Then we find this method can provide good basic geological information for seismic safety evaluation.

  6. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program: a concluding look

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was started in 1978 with the goal of developing tools and data bases to compute the probability of earthquake - caused radioactive release from commercial nuclear power plants. These tools and data bases were to help NRC to assess seismic safety at nuclear plants. The methodology to be used was finalized in 1982 and applied to the Zion Nuclear Power Station. The SSMRP will be completed this year with the development of a more simplified method of analysis and a demonstration of its use on Zion. This simplified method is also being applied to a boiling-water-reactor, LaSalle.

  7. Nuclear Safety of RBMK Storage Pool under Seismic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear safety of RBMK storage pool of spent fuel during of the maximum design earthquake is evaluated. The lower ends of the fuel assemblies are not fixed and they can deviate from the vertical position. The seismic action may be one of the reasons for such deviations. 3D model of fuel assemblies movements caused by seismic impact is used. The simulation of the dynamics of a fuel assemblies group under seismic impacts allows to find the dangerous configuration of closest approach of the fuel assemblies. Three-dimensional neutron program STEPAN calculates the Keff of the most dangerous systems. The maximum design earthquake is the design basis accident. In this case according to the regulatory documents the fuel is considered with zero burn-up. Nuclear safety of RBMK storage pool under considered conditions is provided.

  8. 41 CFR 128-1.8009 - Review of Seismic Safety Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of Seismic Safety... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8009 Review of Seismic Safety Program. The Department shall review and, as necessary, revise...

  9. 41 CFR 128-1.8009 - Review of Seismic Safety Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of Seismic Safety... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8009 Review of Seismic Safety Program. The Department shall review and, as necessary, revise...

  10. 41 CFR 128-1.8009 - Review of Seismic Safety Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Review of Seismic Safety... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8009 Review of Seismic Safety Program. The Department shall review and, as necessary, revise...

  11. 41 CFR 128-1.8009 - Review of Seismic Safety Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of Seismic Safety... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program § 128-1.8009 Review of Seismic Safety Program. The Department shall review and, as necessary, revise...

  12. Seismic requalification of a safety class crane

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    A remotely operated 5-ton crane within a nuclear fuel handling facility was designed and constructed over 25 years ago. At that time, less severe design criteria, particularly on seismic loadings, were in use. This crane is being reactivated and requalified under new design criteria with loads including a site specific design basis earthquake. Detailed analyses of the crane show that the maximum stress coefficient is less than 90% of the code allowable, indicating that this existing crane is able to withstand loadings including those from the design basis earthquake. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Reducing Seismic Hazard and Building Capacity Through International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergino, E. S.; Arakelyan, A.; Babayan, H.; Durgaryan, R.; Elashvili, M.; Godoladze, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Kalogeras, I.; Karakhanyan, A.; Martin, R. J.; Yetirmishli, G.

    2012-12-01

    During the last 50 years, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Caspian Sea regions have experienced several devastating earthquakes. While each country in the region has worked with its neighbors on small, ad-hoc projects to improve preparedness, deeply ingrained political and ethnic rivalries, and severely stressed economies have severely hindered sustained regional cooperation. Future damaging earthquakes are inevitable and without proper planning the negative impact on public safety, security, economics and stability in these regions will be devastating. We have, through twelve years of international scientific cooperation, focused on the development of an expanded skill base and infrastructure, through the installation of new, modern, digital seismic monitoring networks, building of historic databases, sharing seismic, geologic and geophysical data, conducting joint scientific investigations utilizing the new digital data and applying modern techniques, as well as the development of regional hazard models that the scientists of the region share with their governments and use to advise them on the best ways to mitigate the impact of a damaging earthquake. We have established specialized regional scientific task-force teams who can carry out seismological, geological and engineering studies in the epicentral zone, including the collection of new scientific data, for better understanding of seismic and geodynamic processes as well to provide emergency support in crisis and post-crisis situations in the Southern Caucasus countries. "Secrecy" in crisis and post-crisis situations in the former Soviet Union countries, as well as political instabilities, led to an absence of seismic risk reduction and prevention measures as well as little to no training of scientific-technical personnel who could take action in emergency situations. There were few opportunities for the development of a next generation of scientific experts, thus we have placed emphasis on the inclusion

  14. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  15. Identifying gaps in international food safety regulation.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Benn; Ho, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    The rise in food importation in countries such as the United States, coupled with food safety incidents, has led to increased concern with the safety of imported food. This concern has prompted discussion of how international law and governance mechanisms might enhance food safety. This paper identifies the objectives underlying multilateral approaches to food safety such as raising food safety standards abroad, information sharing and ensuring market access. The paper then explores how these objectives are integrated into the international system and identifies how the current state of the law creates imbalances in the pursuit of these objectives.

  16. Equipment fragility data base. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, L.E.

    1983-01-10

    Part of the effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has been directed at generating a fragility data base for equipment used in control and safety systems in commercial nuclear power plants. Component fragility data have been compiled in various forms, depending on their content, intended use, and level of reduction. The data are stored in a relational data base on the LLNL CEC 7600 computers; this provides easy accessibility for LLNL computer users. This report describes the present structure of the data base and presents its contents through the use of tables. This report is a revision of an earlier one of the same name and numbers (NUREG/CR-2680) and (UCRL-53038). Additional data have been included and the presentation has been revised to enhance its usability.

  17. 41 CFR 128-1.8009 - Review of Seismic Safety Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of Seismic Safety Program. 128-1.8009 Section 128-1.8009 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.80-Seismic Safety Program...

  18. Seismic measurements of the internal properties of fault zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Ginzburg, A.

    1986-01-01

    The internal properties within and adjacent to fault zones are reviewed, principally on the basis of laboratory, borehole, and seismic refraction and reflection data. The deformation of rocks by faulting ranges from intragrain microcracking to severe alteration. Saturated microcracked and mildly fractured rocks do not exhibit a significant reduction in velocity, but, from borehole measurements, densely fractured rocks do show significantly reduced velocities, the amount of reduction generally proportional to the fracture density. Highly fractured rock and thick fault gouge along the creeping portion of the San Andreas fault are evidenced by a pronounced seismic low-velocity zone (LVZ), which is either very thin or absent along locked portions of the fault. Thus there is a correlation between fault slip behavior and seismic velocity structure within the fault zone; high pore pressure within the pronounced LVZ may be conductive to fault creep. Deep seismic reflection data indicate that crustal faults sometimes extend through the entire crust. Models of these data and geologic evidence are consistent with a composition of deep faults consisting of highly foliated, seismically anisotropic mylonites. ?? 1986 Birkha??user Verlag, Basel.

  19. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  20. Internal sleeve air release control apparatus in seismic air gun

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.C.; Thomson, J.T.

    1981-01-27

    Disclosed is a seismic source device, known in the industry as an air gun, having internal sleeve and shuttle control for allowing a predetermined discharge of compressed air into water for purposes of seismic exploration. The shuttle engages an internal sleeve having ports that momentarily align with exhaust ports and then moves past, sealing off the exhaust ports before all of the compressed air in the firing chamber of the air gun is exhausted. By preventing further discharge of air with little or no loss in acoustic output, pulses are greatly reduced, thereby enhancing the operation of the entire system. Further by preventing all the air in the firing chamber from being discharged, the system becomes more efficient and more cost effective.

  1. Finite element analyses for Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-04-01

    In the seismic design of shear wall structures, e.g., nuclear reactor buildings, a linear FEM analysis is frequently used to quantify the stresses under the design loading condition. The final design decisions, however, are still based on empirical design rules established over decades from accumulated laboratory test data. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art on the application of nonlinear FEM analysis to reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings based on the findings obtained during the Seismic Shear Wall International Standard Problem (SSWISP) Workshop in 1996. Also, BNL`s analysis results of the International Standard Problem (ISP) shear walls under monotonic static, cyclic static and dynamic loading conditions are described.

  2. 41 CFR 102-80.45 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities? 102-80.45 Section 102-80.45... Environmental Management Seismic Safety § 102-80.45 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities? Federal agencies must follow the standards issued by the...

  3. 41 CFR 102-80.45 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities? 102-80.45 Section 102-80.45... Environmental Management Seismic Safety § 102-80.45 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities? Federal agencies must follow the standards issued by the...

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.45 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities? 102-80.45 Section 102-80.45... Environmental Management Seismic Safety § 102-80.45 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities? Federal agencies must follow the standards issued by the...

  5. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I, final report. Major structure response (Project IV). Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B. J.; Johnson, J. J.; Lo, T. Y.

    1981-05-01

    Task of the Major Structure Response Project within the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was to develop detailed finite element models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant's containment building and auxiliary-fuel-turbine (AFT) complex. The resulting models served as input to the seismic methodology analysis chain.

  6. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 1 include: impact of safety and licensing considerations on fast reactor design; safety aspects of innovative designs; intra-subassembly behavior; operational safety; design accommodation of seismic and other external events; natural circulation; safety design concepts; safety implications derived from operational plant data; decay heat removal; and assessment of HCDA consequences.

  7. Worldwide Assessment of the Status of Seismic Zonation, Fourth International Forum on Seismic Zonation, Proceedings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    Italy/Appendix D). 2. United States Geological Survey, 1992, The Worldwide Earthquake Risk Management (WWERM) Program, Reston, Virginia, 19 p (Paul Thenhaus or S.T. Algermissen - USA/ Appendix D). 3. Instituto Panamericano de Geografia Historia, 1992, Revista Geofisica, Lima, Peru, No. 37, July-December, 234 p (Alberto Giesecke- Peru/Appendix D). 4. Annali di Geofisica, 1992, Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) (Special Issue), International Lithosphere Program, Publication 209, Bologna, Italy, 257 p (Domenico Giardini-Italy/Appendix F). 5. International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior and European Seismological Commission, 1993, The Practice of Hazard Assessment, Golden, Colorado, 284 p (Write Bob Engdahl, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Mail Stop 967, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA).

  8. Finite element analyses for seismic shear wall international standard problem

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1998-04-01

    Two identical reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls, which consist of web, flanges and massive top and bottom slabs, were tested up to ultimate failure under earthquake motions at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation`s (NUPEC) Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, Japan. NUPEC provided the dynamic test results to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for use as an International Standard Problem (ISP). The shear walls were intended to be part of a typical reactor building. One of the major objectives of the Seismic Shear Wall ISP (SSWISP) was to evaluate various seismic analysis methods for concrete structures used for design and seismic margin assessment. It also offered a unique opportunity to assess the state-of-the-art in nonlinear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall structures under severe earthquake loadings. As a participant of the SSWISP workshops, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed finite element analyses under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Three types of analysis were performed, i.e., monotonic static (push-over), cyclic static and dynamic analyses. Additional monotonic static analyses were performed by two consultants, F. Vecchio of the University of Toronto (UT) and F. Filippou of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). The analysis results by BNL and the consultants were presented during the second workshop in Yokohama, Japan in 1996. A total of 55 analyses were presented during the workshop by 30 participants from 11 different countries. The major findings on the presented analysis methods, as well as engineering insights regarding the applicability and reliability of the FEM codes are described in detail in this report. 16 refs., 60 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Probing the internal structure of the asteriod Didymoon with a passive seismic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Hempel, S.; Pou, L.; Cadu, A.; Garcia, R. F.; Mimoun, D.; Margerin, L.; Karatekin, O.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the internal structure of an asteroid has important implications for interpreting its evolutionary history, for understanding its continuing geological evolution, and also for asteroid deflection and in-situ space resource utilisation. Given the strong evidence that asteroids are seismically active, an in-situ passive seismic experiment could provide information about the asteroid surface and interior properties. Here, we discuss the natural seismic activity that may be present on Didymoon, the secondary component of asteroid (65803) Didymos. Our analysis of the tidal stresses in Didymoon shows that tidal quakes are likely to occur if the secondary has an eccentric orbit. Failure occurs most easily at the asteroid poles and close to the surface for both homogeneous and layered internal structures. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in Didymoon show that the seismic moment of even small meteoroid impacts can generate clearly observable body and surface waves if the asteroid's internal structure is homogeneous. The presence of a regolith layer over a consolidated core can result in the seismic energy becoming trapped in the regolith due to the strong impedance contrast at the regolith-core boundary. The inclusion of macro-porosity (voids) further complexifies the wavefield due to increased scattering. The most prominent seismic waves are always found to be those traveling along the surface of the asteroid and those focusing in the antipodal point of the seismic source. We find also that the waveforms and ground acceleration spectra allow discrimination between the different internal structure models. Although the science return of a passive seismic experiment would be enhanced by having multiple seismic stations, one single seismic station can already vastly improve our knowledge about the seismic environment and sub-surface structure of an asteroid. We describe several seismic measurement techniques that could be applied in order to study the

  10. Importance of international cooperation in food safety.

    PubMed

    Canet, C

    1993-01-01

    All countries need to ensure that national food supplies are safe, of good quality and available in adequate amounts at affordable prices to ensure good nutrition and health for all population groups. The enforcement of food standards by efficient national food control authorities in domestic markets and at the points of import and export has been increasingly recognized as a means of raising the value of exported goods by reducing the number of rejected or reconditioned consignments, and of ensuring the safety of the food and its acceptability by the final consumer. However, those national efforts have sometimes induced some non-tariff barriers to food trade and distribution. In addition, new developments in the technologies of food production, processing and marketing pose a new challenge to ensure safety of food. The strengthening of national food control infrastructures in particular in developing countries including the strengthening of staff capabilities, the need for harmonization of food at international levels, the need for collection and exchange of data on food control and food contamination issues are essential elements to ensure food safety in the world. International cooperation has an important role to play in achieving these essential elements.

  11. [Earthquakes and healthcare. Considerations and proposals for improving seismic safety of hospitals].

    PubMed

    Polesani, L; Cocuzza, S; Nachiero, D

    2012-01-01

    The Italian territory faces a high seismic risk. Moreover the high vulnerability of health facilities increases the danger for the population. This study departs from an analysis of the state of conservation of the national hospitals and builds upon the data gathered on the recent earthquakes that have shaken Italy. Indeed, the study provides a bulk of preventive measures directed to improve seismic safety of both the national health system and the hospitals strategic value. The focus is mainly centered on emergency management aspects and the maintenance of the functionality of the medical services necessary to overcome the health crisis following an earthquake of high intensity. The research is conducted considering how these issues were addressed in foreign countries. In particular; California represents a central case study, since the high seismicity of the territory requires heavy investments to deal with the seismic safety of the hospitals.

  12. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  13. Subsystem response review. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Wesley, D. A.; Kamil, H.; Gantayat, A.; Vasudevan, R.

    1981-02-01

    A study was conducted to document the state of the art in seismic qualification of nuclear power plant components and subsystems by analysis and testing and to identify the sources and magnitude of the uncertainties associated with analysis and testing methods. The uncertainties are defined in probabilistic terms for use in probabilistic seismic risk studies. Recommendations are made for the most appropriate subsystem response analysis methods to minimize response uncertainties. Additional studies, to further quantify testing uncertainties, are identified. Although the general effect of non-linearities on subsystem response is discussed, recommendations and conclusions are based principally on linear elastic analysis and testing models.

  14. Non-stationarity and internal correlations of the occurrence process of mining-induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewska, Dorota; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Leptokaropoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-03-01

    A point process, e.g., the seismic process, is potentially predictable when it is non-stationary, internally correlated or both. In this paper, an analysis of the occurrence process of mining-induced seismic events from Rudna copper mine in Poland is presented. Stationarity and internal correlation are investigated in complete seismic time series and segmentally in subseries demonstrating relatively stable seismicity rates. It is shown that the complete seismic series are non-stationary; however, most of their shorter subseries become stationary. In the stationary subseries, the distribution of interevent time is closer to the exponential distribution, which is characteristic for the Poisson process. However, in most of these subseries, the differences between the interevent time and Poisson distributions are still significant, revealing correlations among seismic events.

  15. Fast reactor safety: proceedings of the international topical meeting. Volume 2. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The emphasis of this meeting was on the safety-related aspects of fast reactor design, analysis, licensing, construction, and operation. Relative to past meetings, there was less emphasis on the scientific and technological basis for accident assessment. Because of its broad scope, the meeting attracted 217 attendees from a wide cross section of the design, safety analysis, and safety technology communities. Eight countries and two international organizations were represented. A total of 126 papers were presented, with contributions from the United States, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy. Sessions covered in Volume 2 include: safety design concepts; operational transient experiments; analysis of seismic and external events; HCDA-related codes, analysis, and experiments; sodium fires; instrumentation and control/PPS design; whole-core accident analysis codes; and impact of safety design considerations on future LMFBR developments.

  16. Safety Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Shauna M.

    2004-01-01

    As with any task that NASA takes on, safety is of utmost importaqce. There are pages of safety codes and procedures that must be followed before any idea can be brought to life. Unfortunately, the International Space Station s (ISS) safety regulations and procedures are based on lg standards rather than on Og. To aide in making this space age home away from home a less hazardous environment, I worked on several projects revolving around the dangers of flammable items in microgravity. The first task I was assigned was to track flames. This involves turning eight millimeter video recordings, of tests run in the five second drop tower, into avi format on the computer. The footage is then compressed and altered so that the flame can be seen more clearly. Using another program called Spotlight, line profiles were used to collect data describing the luminescence of the flame at different points. These raw data are saved as text files and run trough a macro so that a Matlab program can analyze it. By fitting the data to a curve and determining the areas of brightest luminescence, the behavior of the flame can be recorded numerically. After entering the data into a database, researchers can come back later and easily get information on flames resulting from different gas and liquid mixtures in microgravity. I also worked on phase two of the FATE project, which deals with safety aboard the ISS. This phase involves igniting projected droplets and determining how they react with secondary materials. Such simulations represent, on a small scale, the spread of onboard fires due to the effervescence of burning primary materials. I set up existing hardware to operate these experiments and ran tests with it, photographing the results. I also made CAD drawings of the apparatus and the area available on the (SF)2 rig for it to fit into. The experiment will later be performed on the KC-135, and the results gathered will be used to reanalyze current safety standards for the ISS

  17. Seismic investigations of the HDR Safety Program. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Kot, C.A.

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the seismic investigations, performed at the HDR facility in Kahl/Main, FRG was to validate calculational methods for the seismic evaluation of nuclear-reactor systems, using experimental data from an actual nuclear plant. Using eccentric mass shaker excitation the HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure, exhibiting highly nonlinear response and demonstrating that structures not seismically designed can sustain loads equivalent to a design basin earthquake (DBE). Load transmission from the structure to piping/equipment indicated significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies, while the response of tanks/vessels depended mainly on their support conditions. The evaluation of various piping support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is important to limiting pipe greens. Piping at loads exceeding the DBE eightfold still had significant margins and failure is improbable inspite of multiple support failures. The mean value for pipe damping, even under extreme loads, was found to be about 4%. Comparison of linear and nonlinear computational results with piping response measurements showed that predictions have a wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces. For the soil/structure system the quality of the predictions did not depend so much on the complexity of the modeling, but rather on whether the model captured the salient features and nonlinearities of the system.

  18. Critical Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis Considerations for Seismic Qualification of Safety Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Q A

    2004-03-04

    While developing seismic analysis models for buildings that support safety-related equipment, a number of issues should be considered to ensure that the input motions for performing seismic qualification of safety-related equipment are properly defined. These considerations are listed and discussed here with special attention to the effect and importance of the interaction among the foundation soil, the building structure, the equipment anchors, and the equipment structure. Typical industry practices are critically examined to assess their adequacy for determining the input motions for equipment seismic qualification. The features that are considered essential in a soil-structure interaction (SSI) model are described. Also, the effects of inappropriate treatment or representation of these features are discussed.

  19. 41 CFR 128-1.8004 - Seismic Safety Coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Safety Program and what reports he must prepare; (6) Prepare and forward for submission all reports, as..., with the exception of the components listed in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) The Component Head...

  20. Safety Identifying of Integral Abutment Bridges under Seismic and Thermal Loads

    PubMed Central

    Easazadeh Far, Narges; Barghian, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have many advantages over conventional bridges in terms of strength and maintenance cost. Due to the integrity of these structures uniform thermal and seismic loads are known important ones on the structure performance. Although all bridge design codes consider temperature and earthquake loads separately in their load combinations for conventional bridges, the thermal load is an “always on” load and, during the occurrence of an earthquake, these two important loads act on bridge simultaneously. Evaluating the safety level of IABs under combination of these loads becomes important. In this paper, the safety of IABs—designed by AASHTO LRFD bridge design code—under combination of thermal and seismic loads is studied. To fulfill this aim, first the target reliability indexes under seismic load have been calculated. Then, these analyses for the same bridge under combination of thermal and seismic loads have been repeated and the obtained reliability indexes are compared with target indexes. It is shown that, for an IAB designed by AASHTO LRFD, the indexes have been reduced under combined effects. So, the target level of safety during its design life is not provided and the code's load combination should be changed. PMID:25405232

  1. Safety identifying of integral abutment bridges under seismic and thermal loads.

    PubMed

    Easazadeh Far, Narges; Barghian, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have many advantages over conventional bridges in terms of strength and maintenance cost. Due to the integrity of these structures uniform thermal and seismic loads are known important ones on the structure performance. Although all bridge design codes consider temperature and earthquake loads separately in their load combinations for conventional bridges, the thermal load is an "always on" load and, during the occurrence of an earthquake, these two important loads act on bridge simultaneously. Evaluating the safety level of IABs under combination of these loads becomes important. In this paper, the safety of IABs--designed by AASHTO LRFD bridge design code--under combination of thermal and seismic loads is studied. To fulfill this aim, first the target reliability indexes under seismic load have been calculated. Then, these analyses for the same bridge under combination of thermal and seismic loads have been repeated and the obtained reliability indexes are compared with target indexes. It is shown that, for an IAB designed by AASHTO LRFD, the indexes have been reduced under combined effects. So, the target level of safety during its design life is not provided and the code's load combination should be changed.

  2. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase 1. Project V. Structural sub-system response: subsystem response review. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelquist, J.; Kaul, M.K.; Koppe, R.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Thailer, H.; Uffer, R.

    1980-03-01

    This project is directed toward a portion of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program which includes one link in the seismic methodology chain. The link addressed here is the structural subsystem dynamic response which consists of those components and systems whose behavior is often determined decoupled from the major structural response. Typically the mathematical model utilized for the major structural response will include only the mass effects of the subsystem and the main model is used to produce the support motion inputs for subsystem seismic qualification. The main questions addressed in this report have to do with the seismic response uncertainty of safety-related components or equipment whose seismic qualification is performed by (a) analysis, (b) tests, or (c) combinations of analysis and tests, and where the seismic input is assumed to have no uncertainty.

  3. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 129 International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program... statement describes a policy change to the FAA's International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) program... appropriate IASA category rating for a country using information collected during an in-country assessment of...

  4. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1–2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180

  5. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-06-20

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  6. The social psychology of seismic hazard adjustment: re-evaluating the international literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solberg, C.; Rossetto, T.; Joffe, H.

    2010-08-01

    The majority of people at risk from earthquakes do little or nothing to reduce their vulnerability. Over the past 40 years social scientists have tried to predict and explain levels of seismic hazard adjustment using models from behavioural sciences such as psychology. The present paper is the first to synthesise the major findings from the international literature on psychological correlates and causes of seismic adjustment at the level of the individual and the household. It starts by reviewing research on seismic risk perception. Next, it looks at norms and normative beliefs, focusing particularly on issues of earthquake protection responsibility and trust between risk stakeholders. It then considers research on attitudes towards seismic adjustment attributes, specifically beliefs about efficacy, control and fate. It concludes that an updated model of seismic adjustment must give the issues of norms, trust, power and identity a more prominent role. These have been only sparsely represented in the social psychological literature to date.

  7. Seismic safety assessment of existing masonry infill structures in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaulagain, Hemchandra; Rodrigues, Hugo; Spacone, Enrico; Varum, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Nepal are constructed with RC frames and masonry infill panels. These structures exhibit a highly non-linear inelastic behavior resulting from the interaction between the panels and frames. This paper presents an extensive case study of existing RC buildings in Nepal. Non-linear analyses were performed on structural models of the buildings considered as a bare frame and with masonry infill, in order to evaluate the influence of infill walls on the failure mechanisms. Five three-storey buildings with different structural configurations and detailing were selected. The effect of masonry infill panels on structural response was delineated by comparing the bare-framed response with the infill response. Seismic performance is evaluated with regard to global strength, stiffness, energy dissipation, inter-storey drift, and total deflection of the structure. A parametric analysis of structures with masonry infill is also performed. For this, the influence of different material properties is studied, namely diagonal compressive stress, modulus of elasticity and tensile stress of masonry infill panels. Study results show that masonry infill increases the global strength and stiffness of the structures; it decreases the inter-storey drift and hence the total displacement of the structure. The results quantify the influence of the infill panels on structural response and, in particular, the effect of the diagonal compressive strength of the masonry wall.

  8. 41 CFR 102-80.45 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Seismic Safety § 102-80.45 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are Federal...

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.45 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning seismic safety in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Seismic Safety § 102-80.45 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are Federal...

  10. Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Global Food Safety-International Consumers' Rights?

    PubMed

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-10-11

    Your submissions to this Special Issue "Food Microbiology and Safety" of Foods-a new open access journal-are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety. [...].

  12. Seismic analysis of the large 70-meter antenna. Part 2: General dynamic response and a seismic safety check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiedron, K.; Chian, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive dynamic analysis for the new JPL 70-meter antenna structure is presented. Analytical procedures are based on the normal mode decomposition which include dumping and special forcing functions. The dynamic response can be obtained for any arbitrarily selected point on the structure. A new computer program for computing the time-dependent, resultant structural displacement, summing the effects of all participating modes, was developed also. Program compatibility with natural frequency analysis output was verified. The program was applied to the JPL 70-meter antenna structure and the dynamic response for several specially selected points was computed. Seismic analysis of structures, a special application of the general dynamic analysis, is based also on the normal modal decomposition. Strength specification of the antenna, with respect to the earthquake excitation, is done by using the common response spectra. The results indicated basically a safe design under an assumed 5% or more damping coefficient. However, for the antenna located at Goldstone, with more active seismic environment, this study strongly recommends and experimental program that determines the true damping coefficient for a more reliable safety check.

  13. Seismic analysis of the large 70-meter antenna. Part 2: General dynamic response and a seismic safety check

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiedron, K.; Chian, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive dynamic analysis for the new JPL 70-meter antenna structure is presented. Analytical procedures are based on the normal mode decomposition which include dumping and special forcing functions. The dynamic response can be obtained for any arbitrarily selected point on the structure. A new computer program for computing the time-dependent, resultant structural displacement, summing the effects of all participating modes, was developed also. Program compatibility with natural frequency analysis output was verified. The program was applied to the JPL 70-meter antenna structure and the dynamic response for several specially selected points was computed. Seismic analysis of structures, a special application of the general dynamic analysis, is based also on the normal modal decomposition. Strength specification of the antenna, with respect to the earthquake excitation, is done by using the common response spectra. The results indicated basically a safe design under an assumed 5% or more damping coefficient. However, for the antenna located at Goldstone, with more active seismic environment, this study strongly recommends and experimental program that determines the true damping coefficient for a more reliable safety check.

  14. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  15. International Safety Regulation and Standards for Space Travel and Commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, J. N.; Jakhu, R.

    The evolution of air travel has led to the adoption of the 1944 Chicago Convention that created the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), headquartered in Montreal, Canada, and the propagation of aviation safety standards. Today, ICAO standardizes and harmonizes commercial air safety worldwide. Space travel and space safety are still at an early stage of development, and the adoption of international space safety standards and regulation still remains largely at the national level. This paper explores the international treaties and conventions that govern space travel, applications and exploration today and analyzes current efforts to create space safety standards and regulations at the national, regional and global level. Recent efforts to create a commercial space travel industry and to license commercial space ports are foreseen as means to hasten a space safety regulatory process.

  16. Advancing internal erosion monitoring using seismic methods in field and laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Minal L.

    embankment surface. Analysis of root mean squared amplitude and AE threshold counts indicated activity focused at the toe in locations matching the sand boils. This analysis also compared the various detection methods employed at the 2012 test to discuss a timeline of detection related to observable behaviors of the structure. The second area of research included designing and fabricating an instrumented laboratory apparatus for investigating active seismic wave propagation through soil samples. This dissertation includes a description of the rigid wall permeameter, instrumentation, control, and acquisitions systems along with descriptions of the custom-fabricated seismic sensors. A series of experiments (saturated sand, saturated sand with a known static anomaly placed near the center of the sample, and saturated sand with a diminishing anomaly near the center of the sample) indicated that shear wave velocity changes reflected changes in the state of stress of the soil. The mean effective stress was influenced by the applied vertical axial load, the frictional interaction between the soil and permeameter wall, and the degree of preloading. The frictional resistance was sizeable at the sidewall of the permeameter and decreased the mean effective stress with depth. This study also included flow tests to monitor changes in shear wave velocities as the internal erosion process started and developed. Shear wave velocity decreased at voids or lower density zones in the sample and increased as arching redistributes loads, though the two conditions compete. Finally, the social and political contexts surrounding nondestructive inspection were considered. An analogous approach utilized by the aerospace industry was introduced: a case study comparing the path toward adopting nondestructive tools as standard practices in monitoring aircraft safety. Additional lessons for dam and levee safety management were discussed from a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Policy (STEP

  17. Overpressure Prediction From Seismic Data: Implications on Drilling Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, O. O.; Oladunjoye, M. A.; Olayinka, A. I.

    2007-12-01

    High rate of sediment influx into the Niger Delta via river Niger coupled with high rate of basin subsidence, very thick clayey members of Agbada and Akata Formations as well as prevailing presence of growth faults had been identified as the main factors responsible for overpressure generation and preservation in the Niger Delta basin. Analysis of porosity dependent parameters such as interval transit times and interval velocities derived from the seismic records of a field in the Western Niger Delta revealed the presence of overpressured formation at depth of 8670 feet, which is the top of the overpressured zone. The plot of interval transit times against depth gave a positive deflection from normal at the region of overpressure while interval velocity plot gave negative deflection; the ratio of this deviation in both cases is as high as 1.52. Pressure gradient in the upper, normally pressured part of the field was determined to be 0.465 psi/ft., which is within the established normal pressure gradient range in Niger Delta, while the abnormal formation pressure gradient in the overpressured region was determined to be 0.96 psi/ft., and this is also within the published abnormal pressure gradient range of 0.71 to 1.1 psi/ft. in Niger Delta. Formation fracture pressure gradients were determined from the formation pressure information to be 0.66psi/ft. in the upper part of the field and 1.2psi/ft. in the overpressured horizon. Mud weight window (MWW); mud density range necessary to prevent formation kick without initiating hydraulic fracturing was determined to be 10.2 to 12.5lbm/gal in the upper part of the field and 22.1 to 22.63lbm/gal in the overpressured horizon. MWW is indispensable for the selection of the mud pump type, capacity, pumping rate and mud densities at different formation pressure regimes. Overpressure prediction is also requisite for drilling program design, casing design as well as rig capacity choice before spudding. It is necessary to reduce

  18. On the Seismic Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Sites in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H.; Park, S.; Yang, J.; Shim, T.; Im, C. B.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula is located at the far eastern part of Eurasian Plate, and within the intra-plate region several hundred km away from the nearest plate boundary. The earthquakes around the Korean Peninsula show the typical characteristics of intra-plate earthquakes. So to speak, those are low seismicity, relatively smaller magnitude than that of inter-plate earthquakes, and spatially irregular epicenters. There are 24 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, 4 NPPs in completion of construction, and 4 NPPs in preparation of construction in South Korea. Even though the seismicity of the Korean Peninsula is known as relatively low, but because there are more than 30 NPPs within not so large territory, thorough the preparedness of NPPs' safety against earthquakes is required. The earthquake preparedness of NPPs in South Korea is composed of 4 stages: site election, design, construction and operation. Since regulatory codes and standards are strictly applied in each stage, the NPPs in South Korea are believed to be safe enough against the maximum potential earthquake ground motion. Through data analysis on geological and seismological characteristics of the region within a radius of 320 km from the site and the detailed geological survey of the area within a radius of 8 km from the site, the design earthquake ground motion of NPPs in South Korea is determined to be 0.2g (in case of newly constructed NPPs is 0.3g) considering the maximum potential earthquake ground motion and some safety margin. The ground motions and surface deformation caused by capable faults are also considered in the seismic design of NPPs. In addition, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety as a regulatory technical expert organization, has been operating independent real time earthquake monitoring network as a part of securing the seismic safety of NPP sites in South Korea since late 1990's. If earthquakes with more than magnitude 3.0 are occurred in the Korean Peninsula or the peak ground

  19. Assessing low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams

    SciTech Connect

    Page, W.D.; Savage, W.U.; McLaren, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Dams have been a familiar construct in the northern Sierra Nevada range in California (north of the San Joaquin River) since the forty-niners and farmers diverted water to their gold mines and farms in the mid 19th century. Today, more than 370 dams dot the region from the Central Valley to the eastern escarpment. Fifty-five more dam streams on the eastern slope. The dams are of all types: 240 earth fill; 56 concrete gravity; 45 rock and earth fills; 35 rock fill; 14 concrete arch; 9 hydraulic fill; and 29 various other types. We use the northern Sierra Nevada to illustrate the assessment of low-activity faults for the seismic safety of dams. The approach, techniques, and methods of evaluation are applicable to other regions characterized by low seismicity and low-activity faults having long recurrence intervals. Even though several moderate earthquakes had shaken the Sierra Nevada since 1849 (for example, the 1875 magnitude 5.8 Honey Lake and the 1909 magnitudes 5 and 5.5 Downieville earthquakes), seismic analyses for dams in the area generally were not performed prior to the middle of this century. Following the 1971 magnitude 6.7 San Fernando earthquake, when the hydraulic-fill Lower Van Norman Dam in southern California narrowly escaped catastrophic failure, the California Division of Safety of Dams and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission required seismic safety to be addressed with increasing rigor. In 1975, the magnitude 5.7 Oroville earthquake on the Cleveland Hill fault near Oroville Dam in the Sierra Nevada foothills, showed convincingly that earthquakes and surface faulting could occur within the range. Following this event, faults along the ancient Foothills fault system have been extensively investigated at dam sites.

  20. Seismic safety of earth dams: A probabilistic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Costantino, C.J.; Reich, M.

    1994-08-01

    The evaluation of the potential for slope sliding and/or liquefaction failure of earthen dams subjected to earthquake loadings is most often based on deterministic procedures of both the excitation input and of the physical model. Such treatment provides answers in the form of either factor of safety values or a yes or no as to whether liquefaction will occur or not. Uncertainties in the physical properties of the soil in the embankment and the foundation layers underlying the dam are typically treated with parametric studies. Consideration of probabilities pertaining to the uncertainties of the earthquake and of the site characterization is expected to augment the prediction of failure potential by associating slope and liquefaction failure to generic properties of the earthquake and of the site characterization. In this study, the procedures for conditional slope failure/liquefaction probabilities are formulated based on a series of simulated deterministic analyses of a dam cross section . These synthetic earthquakes emanate from a 1-D stationary stochastic process of zero mean and an analytical form of power spectral density function. The response of the dam section is formed upon a dynamic finite element approach which provides the temporal variations of the stresses, strains and pore water pressure throughout the model. The constitutive response of the granular soil skeleton and its coupling with the fluid phase is formulated based on the Biot dynamic equations of motion with nonlinear terms compensated for into soil hysteretic damping. Lastly, a stochastic approach to liquefaction based on the transferring of the input motion statistics to the cross section is presented.

  1. International Harmonization of Food Safety Assessment of Pesticide Residues.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Árpád

    2016-01-13

    This paper summarizes the development of principles and methods applied within the program of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius during the past 50 years for the safety assessment of pesticide residues in food and feed and establishing maximum residue limits (MRLs) to promote free international trade and assure the safety of consumers. The role of major international organizations in this process, the FAO capacity building activities, and some problematic areas that require special attention are briefly described.

  2. Decision making with epistemic uncertainty under safety constraints: An application to seismic design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veneziano, D.; Agarwal, A.; Karaca, E.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of accounting for epistemic uncertainty in risk management decisions is conceptually straightforward, but is riddled with practical difficulties. Simple approximations are often used whereby future variations in epistemic uncertainty are ignored or worst-case scenarios are postulated. These strategies tend to produce sub-optimal decisions. We develop a general framework based on Bayesian decision theory and exemplify it for the case of seismic design of buildings. When temporal fluctuations of the epistemic uncertainties and regulatory safety constraints are included, the optimal level of seismic protection exceeds the normative level at the time of construction. Optimal Bayesian decisions do not depend on the aleatory or epistemic nature of the uncertainties, but only on the total (epistemic plus aleatory) uncertainty and how that total uncertainty varies randomly during the lifetime of the project. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The International Student Safety Debate: Moving beyond Denial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, C.; Forbes-Mewett, H.; Marginson, S.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 international student safety became an issue of immediate concern to Australian international education exporters following a series of demonstrations by Indian students and interventions by concerned foreign governments. With these developments the "industry" became fixated on how best to secure Australia's share of the…

  4. The International Student Safety Debate: Moving beyond Denial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, C.; Forbes-Mewett, H.; Marginson, S.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 international student safety became an issue of immediate concern to Australian international education exporters following a series of demonstrations by Indian students and interventions by concerned foreign governments. With these developments the "industry" became fixated on how best to secure Australia's share of the…

  5. Data Analysis of Seismic Sequence in Central Italy in 2016 using CTBTO- International Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumladze, Tea; Wang, Haijun; Graham, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The seismic network that forms the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-test-ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) will ultimately consist of 170 seismic stations (50 primary and 120 auxiliary) in 76 countries around the world. The Network is still under the development, but currently more than 80% of the network is in operation. The objective of seismic monitoring is to detect and locate underground nuclear explosions. However, the data from the IMS also can be widely used for scientific and civil purposes. In this study we present the results of data analysis of the seismic sequence in 2016 in Central Italy. Several hundred earthquakes were recorded for this sequence by the seismic stations of the IMS. All events were accurately located the analysts of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBTO. In this study we will present the epicentral and magnitude distribution, station recordings and teleseismic phases as obtained from the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). We will also present a comparison of the database of the IDC with the databases of the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Present work shows that IMS data can be used for earthquake sequence analyses and can play an important role in seismological research.

  6. Walkdown procedure: Seismic adequacy review of safety class 3 & 4 commodities in 2736-Z & ZB buildings at PFP facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ocoma, E.C.

    1995-03-29

    Seismic evaluation of existing safety class (SC) 3 and non-SC 4 commodities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is integrated into an area walkdown program. Field walkdowns of potential PFP seismic deficiencies associated with structural failure and falling will be performed using the DOE SQUG/EPRI methodology. Potential proximity interactions are also addressed. Objective of the walkdown is to qualify as much of the equipment as practical and to identify candidates for further evaluation.

  7. Exposures from environmental radioactivity: international safety standards.

    PubMed

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2008-11-01

    The paper presents the current international system for the protection of the public against environmental radioactivity. The protection system applies to all the three human exposure situations, i.e., planned, emergency and existing exposures. Radiation protection is a developing scientific and practical discipline and some of the areas in public radiation protection and protection of the environment that are in need of further elaboration are identified in the paper.

  8. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.

  9. Internal deformation of the subducted Nazca slab inferred from seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Caroline M.; Long, Maureen D.; Scire, Alissa; Beck, Susan L.; Wagner, Lara S.; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    Within oceanic lithosphere a fossilized fabric is often preserved originating from the time of plate formation. Such fabric is thought to form at the mid-ocean ridge when olivine crystals align with the direction of plate spreading. It is unclear, however, whether this fossil fabric is preserved within slabs during subduction or overprinted by subduction-induced deformation. The alignment of olivine crystals, such as within fossil fabrics, can generate anisotropy that is sensed by passing seismic waves. Seismic anisotropy is therefore a useful tool for investigating the dynamics of subduction zones, but it has so far proved difficult to observe the anisotropic properties of the subducted slab itself. Here we analyse seismic anisotropy in the subducted Nazca slab beneath Peru and find that the fast direction of seismic wave propagation aligns with the contours of the slab. We use numerical modelling to simulate the olivine fabric created at the mid-ocean ridge, but find it is inconsistent with our observations of seismic anisotropy in the subducted Nazca slab. Instead we find that an orientation of the olivine crystal fast axes aligned parallel to the strike of the slab provides the best fit, consistent with along-strike extension induced by flattening of the slab during subduction (A. Kumar et al., manuscript in preparation). We conclude that the fossil fabric has been overprinted during subduction and that the Nazca slab must therefore be sufficiently weak to undergo internal deformation.

  10. Safety sans Frontières: An International Safety Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Reader, Tom W; Noort, Mark C; Shorrock, Steven; Kirwan, Barry

    2015-05-01

    The management of safety culture in international and culturally diverse organizations is a concern for many high-risk industries. Yet, research has primarily developed models of safety culture within Western countries, and there is a need to extend investigations of safety culture to global environments. We examined (i) whether safety culture can be reliably measured within a single industry operating across different cultural environments, and (ii) if there is an association between safety culture and national culture. The psychometric properties of a safety culture model developed for the air traffic management (ATM) industry were examined in 17 European countries from four culturally distinct regions of Europe (North, East, South, West). Participants were ATM operational staff (n = 5,176) and management staff (n = 1,230). Through employing multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, good psychometric properties of the model were established. This demonstrates, for the first time, that when safety culture models are tailored to a specific industry, they can operate consistently across national boundaries and occupational groups. Additionally, safety culture scores at both regional and national levels were associated with country-level data on Hofstede's five national culture dimensions (collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and long-term orientation). MANOVAs indicated safety culture to be most positive in Northern Europe, less so in Western and Eastern Europe, and least positive in Southern Europe. This indicates that national cultural traits may influence the development of organizational safety culture, with significant implications for safety culture theory and practice.

  11. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3: PRA and HRA; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and seismic siting criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1997-02-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Fourth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 21--23, 1996. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom. This volume is divided into the following sections: PRA and HRA and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and seismic siting criteria. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. International and NASA SSA and Safety of Flight Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas K,

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the international and NASA interests in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and space debris as it affects space flight safety. The international interesrt has increased since the collision of the Iridium and Cosmos satellites in 2009. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN COPUOS) has commenced a multi-year effort to review the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.

  13. The Melamine Incident: Implications for International Food and Feed Safety

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Céline Marie-Elise; Schlundt, Jørgen; Ben Embarek, Peter; Hird, Susan; Lo-Fo-Wong, Danilo; Beltran, Jose Javier Ocampo; Teoh, Keng Ngee; Tritscher, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    Background A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequently, melamine has been detected in many milk and milk-containing products, as well as other food and feed products, which were also exported to many countries worldwide. Objectives The melamine event represents one of the largest deliberate food contamination incidents. We provide a description and analysis of this event to determine the global implications on food and feed safety. Discussions A series of factors, including the intentional character of the milk contamination, the young age of the population affected, the large number of potentially contaminated products, the global distribution of these products, and the delay in reporting led this event to take on unexpected proportions. This incident illustrated the complexity of international trade of food products and food ingredients that required immediate actions at international level. Conclusion Managing food-safety events should be done internationally and early on as soon as multinational consequences are expected. Collaboration between food-safety authorities worldwide is needed to efficiently exchange information and to enable tracking and recalling of affected products to ensure food safety and to protect public health. PMID:20049196

  14. The melamine incident: implications for international food and feed safety.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Céline Marie-Elise; Schlundt, Jørgen; Ben Embarek, Peter; Hird, Susan; Lo-Fo-Wong, Danilo; Beltran, Jose Javier Ocampo; Teoh, Keng Ngee; Tritscher, Angelika

    2009-12-01

    A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequently, melamine has been detected in many milk and milk-containing products, as well as other food and feed products, which were also exported to many countries worldwide. The melamine event represents one of the largest deliberate food contamination incidents. We provide a description and analysis of this event to determine the global implications on food and feed safety. A series of factors, including the intentional character of the milk contamination, the young age of the population affected, the large number of potentially contaminated products, the global distribution of these products, and the delay in reporting led this event to take on unexpected proportions. This incident illustrated the complexity of international trade of food products and food ingredients that required immediate actions at international level. Managing food-safety events should be done internationally and early on as soon as multinational consequences are expected. Collaboration between food-safety authorities worldwide is needed to efficiently exchange information and to enable tracking and recalling of affected products to ensure food safety and to protect public health.

  15. European and International Standards on health and safety in welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, A.

    2009-02-01

    A number of European and International Standards on health and safety in welding have been published in recent years and work on several more is nearing completion. These standards have been prepared jointly by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The standards development work has mostly been led by CEN/TC 121/SC 9, with excellent technical input from experts within Europe; but work on the revision of published standards, which has recently gathered pace, is now being carried out by ISO/TC 44/SC 9, with greater international involvement. This paper gives an overview of the various standards that have been published, are being revised or are under development in this field of health and safety in welding, seeking to (i) increase international awareness of published standards, (ii) encourage wider participation in health and safety in welding standards work and (iii) obtain feedback and solicit comments on standards that are currently under development or revision. Such an initiative is particularly timely because work is currently in progress on the revision of one of the more important standards in this field, namely EN ISO 10882:2001 Health and safety in welding and allied processes— Sampling of airborne particles and gases in the operator's breathing zone — Part 1: Sampling of airborne particles.

  16. Progress toward international agreement to improve reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, J.I.; Graham, B.

    1993-05-14

    Representatives of nearly one-half of the 114 member states of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the United States, have participated in the development of an international nuclear safety conventions proposed multilateral treaty to improve civil nuclear power reactor safety. A preliminary draft of the convention has been developed (referred to as the draft convention for this report), but discussions are continuing, and when the final convention text will be completed and presented to IAEA member states for signature is uncertain. This report responds to the former and current Chairman`s request that we provide information on the development of the nuclear safety convention, including a discussion of (1) the draft convention`s scope and objectives, (2) how the convention will be implemented and monitored, (3) the views of selected country representatives on what provisions should be included in the draft convention, and (4) the convention`s potential benefits and limitations.

  17. Seismic safety of structures: Influence of soil-flexibility, asymmetry and ground motion characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sekhar Chandra; Roy, Rana; Das, Prithwish Kumar; Roy, Raghupati; Reddy, G. R.

    2007-11-01

    Structures may experience degradation in strength in the event of strong seismic shaking. A rational estimation of the reserve strength of the structures is often desired in the process of retrofitting or strengthening the same. To achieve this end, the present paper confirms the suitability of an existing hysteresis model in reproducing experimental load-displacement characteristics for reinforced concrete ( R/C) structural members. Attempt has also been made for rational and realistic estimation of the degradation parameter required for the model in absence of any case-specific calibrated value. Subsequently, post-earthquake behaviour of the low-rise symmetric structures is assessed with and without accounting for the effect of soil-structure interaction. Such response for low-rise multistorey systems with regular asymmetry has also been investigated in the sample form. To develop insight into the behaviour of asymmetric (uni-directional and bi-directional) systems, detailed investigation has been made on idealized single-storey asymmetric systems under simulated and real ground motions with different phase difference or time lag variation. This suggests a serious implication of occurrence of peaks of the ground motions on the seismic performance of bi-directionally eccentric structures and indicates a relatively higher torsional vulnerability of bi-directionally eccentric system compared to equivalent uni-directional counterpart. The results along with the endeavour toward measuring the ductility capacity for R/C structural members based on the systematic observation and interpretation of the available experimental results, made in the paper, may prove useful in evaluating the seismic safety of low-rise R/C structures.

  18. Seismic Reflection Signatures of Internal Waves and Thermohaline Intrusions in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, P.; Holbrook, W. S.; Pearse, S.; Paramo, P.; Schmitt, R. W.

    2004-12-01

    Water-column reflections acquired on a seismic survey in the Norwegian Sea and corroborated by 35 XBTs at an average spacing of 5 km and 2 XCTDs at both ends of a 172 km line suggest that temperature fine structure from internal wave strains and thermohaline intrusions have distinct seismic signatures. The survey images reflections from temperature fine structure sensitive to changes as small as 0.03 °C at the water mass boundary between the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) and Norwegian Sea Deep Water (NSDW). Internal wave strains appear in XCTD data from the eastern part of the seismic line near the Norwegian coast showing congruent changes in temperature and density. Reflections in this region have relatively small amplitudes and slope across isotherms corresponding to changes of several degrees Celsius. In contrast, an XCTD taken from the western seaward side of the profile shows several depths where density does not vary with temperature. Salinity is compensating for changes in temperature; thus reflections in this region likely correspond to irreversible fine structure caused by thermohaline intrusions. These reflections have high amplitudes and closely follow isotherms. These results indicate that studying these signatures can provide information about the structure of the internal wave field and isopycnal stirring processes over the lateral and vertical extent of the water column.

  19. Seismic Monitoring of the Arctic region by the International Monitoring System CTBTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medinskaya, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The seismic activity of the Arctic region is less studied in terms of geophysical explorations because of its harsh climatic conditions and low density population. Nowadays increasing the importance of this area leads us to conduct researches in collaboration with relevant international and regional organizations. The International Monitoring System (IMS) network is setup by Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) as the key element of the CTBT verification regime providing data from 50 primary and 120 auxiliary seismic stations deployed all over the world. The aim of this study is to quantify the effective detection capability of the current state of IMS network in order to monitor the Arctic region and evaluate the accuracy of seismic event locations based on the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the CTBTO. A total of 3.928 earthquakes recorded by the IMS Network and reviewed by analysts at the International Data Centre (IDC) during the period from January 2009 to December 2015 at an area above 60°N surrounding the North Pole have been selected. The studied areas cover several tectonic provinces of the Eurasian Arctic, such as Fennoscandia, Eastern Siberia together with Iceland, Greenland, northern Canada and Alaska.

  20. 41 CFR 102-76.30 - What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of Federal facilities?...

  1. 41 CFR 102-76.30 - What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of Federal facilities?...

  2. 41 CFR 102-76.30 - What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of Federal facilities?...

  3. 41 CFR 102-76.30 - What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of Federal facilities?...

  4. 41 CFR 102-76.30 - What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Design and Construction... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of Federal facilities?...

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site seismic safety program: summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate that the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely.

  6. Discrepancies Between Prototype International Data Centre, International Seismological Centre & USGS Seismic Magnitudes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Seismicity 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF THIS PAGE...reported by Willemann (1998), Dewey (1999), and Murphy et al. (2001). Contributing causes include 1) the use by the IMS of arrays (for which the maximum...discrepancy by as much as 0.1-0.2 mb units. 21 2.7 Acknowledgements. We benefited greatly from comments by Ray Buland, Jim Dewey , Lynn Sykes, Jack

  7. Seismic response of rock slopes: Numerical investigations on the role of internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, L.; Applegate, K.; Gibson, M.; Wartman, J.; Adams, S.; Maclaughlin, M.; Smith, S.; Keefer, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    The stability of rock slopes is significantly influenced and often controlled by the internal structure of the slope created by such discontinuities as joints, shear zones, and faults. Under seismic conditions, these discontinuities influence both the resistance of a slope to failure and its response to dynamic loading. The dynamic response, which can be characterized by the slope's natural frequency and amplification of ground motion, governs the loading experienced by the slope in a seismic event and, therefore, influences the slope's stability. In support of the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) project Seismically-Induced Rock Slope Failure: Mechanisms and Prediction (NEESROCK), we conducted a 2D numerical investigation using the discrete element method (DEM) coupled with simple discrete fracture networks (DFNs). The intact rock mass is simulated with a bonded assembly of discrete particles, commonly referred to as the bonded-particle model (BPM) for rock. Discontinuities in the BPM are formed by the insertion of smooth, unbonded contacts along specified planes. The influence of discontinuity spacing, orientation, and stiffness on slope natural frequency and amplification was investigated with the commercially available Particle Flow Code (PFC2D). Numerical results indicate that increased discontinuity spacing has a non-linear effect in decreasing the amplification and increasing the natural frequency of the slope. As discontinuity dip changes from sub-horizontal to sub-vertical, the slope's level of amplification increases while the natural frequency of the slope decreases. Increased joint stiffness decreases amplification and increases natural frequency. The results reveal that internal structure has a strong influence on rock slope dynamics that can significantly change the system's dynamic response and stability during seismic loading. Financial support for this research was provided by the United States National Science Foundation (NSF

  8. National and International centers for Environmental, Health and Safety Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulawka, A. O.

    1988-07-01

    In February 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory hosted the First International Expert Working Group Meeting on Environmental, Health and Safety Aspects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems. This meeting was attended by representatives from France/Germany, Italy, Japan and the U.S. Over the course of the two day workshop, discussions focused on the goals, functional needs and responsibilities for national and international assistance centers and on exemplary research tasks. As an outgrowth of this Workshop, USDOE is now finalizing plans to establish a National Assistance Center.

  9. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards

  10. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  11. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  12. Seismicity of the North Atlantic as measured by the International Data Centre using waveform cross correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitov, Ivan; Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The Technical Secretariat (TS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) will carry out the verification of the CTBT which obligates each State Party not to carry out nuclear explosions. The International Data Centre (IDC) receives, collects, processes, analyses, reports on and archives data from the International Monitoring System. The IDC is responsible for automatic and interactive processing of the International Monitoring System (IMS) data and for standard IDC products. The IDC is also required by the Treaty to progressively enhance its technical capabilities. In this study, we use waveform cross correlation as a technique to improve the detection capability and reliability of the seismic part of the IMS. In order to quantitatively estimate the gain obtained by cross correlation on the current sensitivity of automatic and interactive processing we compared seismic bulletins built for the North Atlantic (NA), which is a seismically isolated region with earthquakes concentrating around the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This allows avoiding the spill-over of mislocated events between adjacent seismic regions and biases in the final bulletins: the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the IDC and the cross correlation Standard Event List (XSEL). To begin with, we cross correlated waveforms recorded at 18 IMS array stations from ~1500 events reported in the REB between 2009 and 2011. The resulting cross correlation matrix revealed the best candidates for master events. We have selected 60 master events evenly distributed over the seismically active zone in the NA. High-quality signals (SNR>5.0) recorded by 10 most sensitive array stations were used as waveform templates. These templates are used for a continuous calculation of cross correlation coefficients in the first half of 2012. All detections obtained by cross-correlation are then used to build events according to the current IDC definition: at least three primary stations with accurate

  13. Safety Certification for International Space Station (ISS) Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. T.

    2005-12-01

    With the advent of long duration space station flights for payloads, the process for how to determine the safety of payloads had to be reassessed. No longer is the design only required to achieve its goals based upon relatively short flight duration on the order of days. The payload safety requirements as defined by [1] and [2] require the payload organization to submit a Certificate of NSTS/ISS Payload Safety Compliance, Johnson Space Center (JSC) Form 1114A. This form states The Payload Organization (PO) Hereby Certifies that: the payload complies with all Applicable requirements of the [1], [2] and/or [3], and1) The Payload is safe with a Design Life of: __________2) The Payload is safe for an Operation Life of: ____________This paper gives the payload organization insight into how the design life and operational life are to be determined, describing the common misconceptions about limited life items from a reliability perspective as opposed to a safe life determination. What these terms mean is explained; and, more importantly, how the ISS Program uses these data. It will emphasize the need for accuracy of certification assessment, using the predicament of the post-Columbia era to illustrate what a payload may experience if the assessment is not realistic. The paper will discuss what organizations track these data and the process for extension of life should the certification life be approaching expiration. Included in this paper are some examples of payloads that have been through the entire process and have had the life extensions, as well as examples of payloads that chose to allow the safety certifications to expire while on orbit.Additional emphasis will be placed on the realization that International Partners will soon need to establish a similar system to track payload safety certifications for which they are responsible. As we progress through the establishment of International Partner payload safety review panels, and as we enter the operations phase

  14. Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

  15. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  16. 77 FR 30017 - International Capacity Building With Respect to Food Safety; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Capacity Building With Respect to Food Safety... meeting entitled ``International Capacity Building with Respect to Food Safety.'' This public meeting will... imports. Critically, the legislation directs FDA to focus on international food safety capacity--a...

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J B; Foxall, W

    2002-04-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site Seismic Safety Program was conceived in 1979 during the preparation of the site Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The impetus for the program came from the development of new methodologies and geologic data that affect assessments of geologic hazards at the LLNL site; it was designed to develop a new assessment of the seismic hazard to the LLNL site and LLNL employees. Secondarily, the program was also intended to provide the technical information needed to make ongoing decisions about design criteria for future construction at LLNL and about the adequacy of existing facilities. This assessment was intended to be of the highest technical quality and to make use of the most recent and accepted hazard assessment methodologies. The basic purposes and objectives of the current revision are similar to those of the previous studies. Although all the data and experience assembled in the previous studies were utilized to their fullest, the large quantity of new information and new methodologies led to the formation of a new team that includes LLNL staff and outside consultants from academia and private consulting firms. A peer-review panel composed of individuals from academia (A. Cornell, Stanford University), the Department of Energy (DOE; Jeff Kimball), and consulting (Kevin Coppersmith), provided review and guidance. This panel was involved from the beginning of the project in a ''participatory'' type of review. The Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC, a committee sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DOE, and the Electric Power Research Institute) strongly recommends the use of participatory reviews, in which the reviewers follow the progress of a project from the beginning, rather than waiting until the end to provide comments (Budnitz et al., 1997). Following the requirements for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) stipulated in the DOE standard DOE-STD-1023-95, a special

  18. Seismicity of the North Atlantic as measured by the International Data Centre using waveform cross correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Given, J. W.; Bobrov, D.; Kitov, I. O.; Spiliopoulos, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Technical Secretariat (TS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) will carry out the verification of the CTBT which obligates each State Party not to carry out any nuclear explosions, independently of their size and purpose. The International Data Centre (IDC) receives, collects, processes, analyses, reports on and archives data from the International Monitoring System(IMS). The IDC is responsible for automatic and interactive processing of the IMS data and for standard IDC products. The IDC is also required by the Treaty to progressively enhance its technical capabilities. In this study, we use waveform cross correlation as a technique to improve the detection capability and reliability of the seismic part of the IMS. In order to quantitatively estimate the gain obtained by cross correlation on the current sensitivity of automatic and interactive processing we compared seismic bulletins built for the North Atlantic (NA), which is an isolated region with earthquakes concentrating around the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This avoids the influence of adjacent seismic regions on the final bulletins: the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the International Data Centre and the cross correlation Standard Event List (XSEL). We have cross correlated waveforms from ~1500 events reported in the REB since 2009. The resulting cross correlation matrix revealed the best candidates for master events. High-quality signals (SNR>5.0) recorded at eighteen array stations from approximately 50 master events evenly distributed over the seismically active zone in the NA were selected as templates. These templates are used for a continuous calculation of cross correlation coefficients since 2011. All detections obtained by cross-correlation are then used to build events according to the current IDC definition, i.e. at least three primary stations with accurate arrival times, azimuth and slowness estimates. The qualified event hypotheses populated the XSEL. In

  19. Safety in radiation oncology: the role of international initiatives by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Holmberg, Ola; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2011-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a wide range of initiatives that address the issue of safety. Quality assurance initiatives and comprehensive audits of radiotherapy services, such as the Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology, are available through the IAEA. Furthermore, the experience of the IAEA in thermoluminescence dosimetric audits has been transferred to the national level in various countries and has contributed to improvements in the quality and safety of radiotherapy. The IAEA is also involved in the development of a safety reporting and analysis system (Safety in Radiation Oncology). In addition, IAEA publications describe and analyze factors contributing to safety-related incidents around the world. The lack of sufficient trained, qualified staff members is addressed through IAEA programs. Initiatives include national, regional, and interregional technical cooperation projects, educational workshops, and fellowship training for radiation oncology professionals, as well as technical assistance in developing and initiating local radiation therapy, safety education, and training programs. The agency is also active in developing staffing guidelines and encourages advanced planning at a national level, aided by information collection systems such as the Directory of Radiotherapy Centers and technical cooperation project personnel planning, to prevent shortages of staff. The IAEA also promotes the safe procurement of equipment for radiation therapy centers within a comprehensive technical cooperation program that includes clinical, medical physics, and radiation safety aspects and review of local infrastructure (room layout, shielding, utilities, and radiation safety), the availability of qualified staff members (radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists and therapists), as well as relevant imaging, treatment planning, dosimetry, and quality control items. The IAEA has taken the lead in developing a

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.; Burkhard, N.R.; Emerson, D.O.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and includes a revision of the peak acceleration hazard curve. Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Improving regional seismic event location through calibration of the international monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, M; Hanley, W; M; Myers, S C; Pasyanos; Schultz, C; Swenson, J

    1999-07-27

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we are working to help calibrate the 170 seismic stations that are part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring network, in order to enhance the network's ability to locate small seismic events. These low magnitude events are likely to be recorded by only the closest of seismic stations, ranging from local to near teleseismic distances. At these distance ranges, calibration statistics become highly nonstationary, challenging us to develop more general statistical models for proper calibration. To meet the goals outlined above, we are developing a general nonstationary framework to accurately calibrate seismic travel-time predictions over the full distance range, from local, to regional, to teleseismic distances. The objective of this framework is to develop valid region-specific corrections for the Middle Fast, North Africa, and portions of the Soviet Union, to assess our progress towards meeting calibration goals, and to perform cost-benefit analysis for future calibrations. The framework integrates six core components essential to accurate calibration. First, is the compilation and statistical characterization of well located reference events, including aftershock sequences, mining explosions and rockbursts, calibration explosions, and teleseismically constrained events (Harris et al., SSA 1999; Hanley et al., SSA 1999). Second, is the development of generalized velocity models based on these reference events (McNamara et al., SSA 1998; Pasyanos, SSA 1999). Third, is the development of nonstationary spatial corrections (nonstationary Bayesian kriging) that refine the base velocity models (Schultz et al., SSA 1998). The fourth component is the development of a detection model on a station-by-station basis. The fifth component is the cross-validation of calibration results to ensure internal consistency along with the continual benchmarking of our nonstationary model where event locations are

  2. Slope Stability: Factor of Safety along the Seismically Active Continental Slope Offshore Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Djadjadihardja, Y.; None, U.

    2013-12-01

    Recent papers have documented the probability that turbidites deposited along and downslope of subduction zone accretionary prisms are likely the result of strong ground shaking from great earthquakes. Given the damaging nature of these earthquakes, along with the casualties from the associated tsunamis, the spatial and temporal patterns of these earthquakes can only be evaluated with paleoseismologic coring and seismic reflection methods. We evaluate slope stability for seafloor topography along the Sunda subduction offshore Sumatra, Indonesia. We use sediment material properties, from local (Sumatra) and analogous sites, to constrain our estimates of static slope stability Factor of Safety (FOS) analyses. We then use ground motion prediction equations (GMPE's) to estimate ground motion intensity (Arias Intensity, AI) and acceleration (Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA), as possibly generated by fault rupture, to constrain seismic loads for pseudostatic slope stability FOS analyses. The ground motions taper rapidly with distance from the fault plane, consistent with ground motion - fault distance relations measured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki subduction zone earthquake. Our FOS analyses include a Morgenstern method of slices probabilistic analysis for 2-D profiles along with Critical Acceleration (Ac) and Newmark Displacement (Dn) analysis of multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor. In addition, we also use estimates of ground motion modeled with a 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) earthquake fault slip model, to also compare with our static FOS analyses of seafloor topography. All slope and trench sites are statically stable (FOS < 1) and sensitive to ground motions generated by earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. We conclude that for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 9, PGA of 0.4-0.6 to 1.4-2.5 g would be expected, respectively, from existing GMPE's. However, saturation of accelerations in the accretionary wedge may limit actual accelerations to less than 1

  3. Life safety and seismic hazards: Selecting buildings for review and questions still to answer

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, M.D.

    1993-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is situated on the eastern flank of the Jemez Mountains in which lies the Valles Caldera, a volcanic center that erupted 1.1 to 1.5 million years ago. Los Alamos is also situated within the western margin of the Rio Grande Rift system, where there is a possibility for seismic activity. Within the Los Alamos area are numerous faults, some within a kilometer or two of LANL structures, some even closer. Many of the permanent structures within Los Alamos were designed and constructed in accordance with applicable building codes in the 1950s. These codes have now been determined to be deficient with respect to both forcing functions of seismic events and structure design. LANL, in response to a letter from the University of California dated October 29, 1990, began the Seismic Hazards Investigation Program to determine the characteristics of a probable seismic event at Los Alamos and to determine the ability of the existing structures to withstand the forces generated by such an event. In the Seismic Hazards Investigation Program, paleoseismic methods are used to determine seismic characterization and a systematic method is needed to investigate existing structures, systems, and components for the ability to resist seismic forces. This paper presents the methodology for determining seismic characterizations and structure prioritization and analysis at LANL for the Seismic Hazards Investigation Program.

  4. Wide-angle seismic constraints on the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, J. P.; Dañobeitia, J. J.; Watts, A. B.

    2000-12-01

    We have used wide-angle seismic data to constrain the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands. The experiment was designed as a seismic fan profile to detect azimuthal variations in the seismic structure of the volcanic edifice and its flanks. Seismic energy was generated using a 75-l airgun-array on board the RRS Charles Darwin fired every 40 s along a quasi-circular profile around the island of Tenerife, centered on Teide volcano. We present the results obtained from the data recorded by five portable land stations distributed on the island. The travel-times indicate that the averaged P-wave velocity within the volcanic edifice is greater than 6 km/s. The observed travel-times were reduced to residual travel-times by removing the effects of variations in the bathymetry along the profile, variations in the shot-receiver distance, and from local heterogeneities. Negative residual travel-times up to 0.8 s in amplitude indicate that the southwestern part of Tenerife is characterized by a high P-wave velocity zone, coincident with a gravity maximum that was previously modeled as a high-density body forming the core of an old, large mafic volcano. We estimate velocities greater than 7.3 km/s within the anomalous body, suggesting that it represents an intrusive plutonic complex. This high-velocity, high-density body may have played an important role in the evolution of Tenerife, buttressing Las Cañadas edifice and preventing the occurrence of landslides in the southern and western areas of Tenerife. The bathymetric high between Tenerife and La Gomera is associated with travel-time delays up to 0.4 s, suggesting that it may be composed of large deposits of lava flows and volcaniclastic materials, probably erupted from the shield massifs of Teno, Roque del Conde, and La Gomera. The post-shield volcanic zones of Santiago and Dorsal rifts also seem to be characterized by moderate high P-wave velocities.

  5. Codex Alimentarius: food quality and safety standards for international trade.

    PubMed

    Randell, A W; Whitehead, A J

    1997-08-01

    Since 1962, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation has been responsible for developing standards, guidelines and other recommendations on the quality and safety of food to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in food trade. The mission of the CAC remains relevant, but a number of factors have shown the need for new techniques to form the basis of food standards, the most important of which is risk analysis. The authors give a brief description of the role and work of the CAC and the efforts deployed by the Commission to respond to the challenges posed by new approaches to government regulation, harmonisation of national requirements based on international standards and the role of civil society.

  6. Design and development of safety evaluation system of buildings on a seismic field based on the network platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Baitao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiangzhao; Zhang, Xinghua

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a set of on-site earthquake safety evaluation systems for buildings, which were developed based on a network platform. The system embedded into the quantitative research results which were completed in accordance with the provisions from Post-earthquake Field Works, Part 2: Safety Assessment of Buildings, GB18208.2 -2001, and was further developed into an easy-to-use software platform. The system is aimed at allowing engineering professionals, civil engineeing technicists or earthquake-affected victims on site to assess damaged buildings through a network after earthquakes. The authors studied the function structure, process design of the safety evaluation module, and hierarchical analysis algorithm module of the system in depth, and developed the general architecture design, development technology and database design of the system. Technologies such as hierarchical architecture design and Java EE were used in the system development, and MySQL5 was adopted in the database development. The result is a complete evaluation process of information collection, safety evaluation, and output of damage and safety degrees, as well as query and statistical analysis of identified buildings. The system can play a positive role in sharing expert post-earthquake experience and promoting safety evaluation of buildings on a seismic field.

  7. Long-term accumulation and improvements in seismic event data for the polar regions by the International Seismological Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchak, Dmitry A.; Kanao, Masaki; Delahaye, Emily; Harris, James

    2015-03-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a non-governmental non-profit making organization funded by 62 research and operational institutions around the world and charged with the production of the ISC Bulletin - the definitive summary of the global seismicity based on reports from over 130 agencies worldwide, including those active in Polar regions. Jointly with the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the ISC runs the International Seismic Station Registry. The ISC is also charged with maintaining the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth Interior (IASPEI) Reference event List. The new ISC product, the ISC Event Bibliography allows users to obtain references to scientific articles describing specific seismic events, natural and anthropogenic. In this paper we demonstrate how these products and services are applicable to seismic events both in Arctic and Antarctic regions. We also give a summary of the ISC data in polar regions and provide credit to Institutions that report these data to the ISC.

  8. ShakeMap earthquake scenario: Building Seismic Safety Council 2014 Event Set (BSSC2014)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Seismic design codes often are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and also a deterministic seismic hazard analysis. While a probabilistic analysis accounts for all possible ruptures, a deterministic analysis only considers a representative subset of ruptures that are based on the same models of earthquake sources as the probabilistic analysis. The deterministic subset of ruptures are characteristic earthquakes on all known active faults. This catalog includes the deterministic ruptures from the 2014 version of the USGS national seismic hazard maps.Ground Motion ModelsFor a given rupture, the ground motion shaking intensity parameters are computed using a weighted combination of ground motion models for reference rock conditions that is consistent with the 2014 version of the USGS national seismic hazard maps. More details are available in the documentation for the 2014 update of the United States national seismic hazard maps.We have employed the OpenQuake hazard library (hazardlib) implementation of the ground motion models. OpenQuake hazardlib provides a broad range of well-tested open-source models.The ground motion parameters in ShakeMap are converted from the average horizontal component, which is given by most ground motion models, to the peak horizontal component. This is necessary for consistency with real-time ShakeMaps. Additional details are discussed in this section of the ShakeMap manual.Site ResponseThe 2014 USGS seismic hazard maps do not account for site response directly. Site conditions are accounted for in the building code separately. However, the scenarios in this catalog include site response in the maps, based on maps of the time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30). The input Vs30 grids are a combination of regionally variable models that are available at the USGS Global Vs30 GitHub repository.

  9. International laser-safety regulations: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Robert M.

    1990-07-01

    There is an increase in international laser safety requirements as part of the emphasis on world-wide standardization of products and regulations. In particular the documents which will evolve from the 1992 consolidation efforts of the European Community (EC) will impact both laser manufacturers and users. This paper provides a discussion of the current status of the various laser radiation standards. NORTH AMERICAN REQUIREMENTS United States Requirements on manufacturers from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been in effect since 1975. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) within that agency ensures that these mandatory requirements [1] are satisfied. The CDRH regulations include the division of products into classes depending on their potential for hazard criteria for power measurement and requirements for product features labels and manuals and records and reports. Manufacturers must test products and certify that they comply with the CDRH requirements. User requirements are found in a standard published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and in requirements from several individual states. Specific ANSI standards have also been published for fiber communications systems [34] and for lasers in medical applications [35]. Please note that the Appendix includes additional information on the standards discussed in this paper including sources for obtaining the documents. Canada In the past Canada has had requirements for two specified product categories (bar code scanners and educational lasers) [26 These will be replaced

  10. 76 FR 41312 - Honeywell International Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... COMMISSION Honeywell International Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board Pursuant to....321, notice is hereby given that an Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) is being established to... comprised of the following administrative judges: Paul S. Ryerson, Chair, Atomic Safety and Licensing...

  11. 76 FR 26183 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... transmission lines to Logan Airport. This safety zone is required to provide for the safety of life on... Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register...

  12. 76 FR 19698 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule... to Logan Airport. This safety zone is required to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters... Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, Massachusetts, in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  13. Perspectives of Cross-Correlation in Seismic Monitoring at the International Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan; Zerbo, Lassina

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that several techniques based on waveform cross-correlation are able to significantly reduce the detection threshold of seismic sources worldwide and to improve the reliability of arrivals by a more accurate estimation of their defining parameters. A master event and the events it can find using waveform cross-correlation at array stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have to be close. For the purposes of the International Data Centre (IDC), one can use the spatial closeness of the master and slave events in order to construct a new automatic processing pipeline: all qualified arrivals detected using cross-correlation are associated with events matching the current IDC event definition criteria (EDC) in a local association procedure. Considering the repeating character of global seismicity, more than 90 % of events in the reviewed event bulletin (REB) can be built in this automatic processing. Due to the reduced detection threshold, waveform cross-correlation may increase the number of valid REB events by a factor of 1.5-2.0. Therefore, the new pipeline may produce a more comprehensive bulletin than the current pipeline—the goal of seismic monitoring. The analysts' experience with the cross correlation event list (XSEL) shows that the workload of interactive processing might be reduced by a factor of two or even more. Since cross-correlation produces a comprehensive list of detections for a given master event, no additional arrivals from primary stations are expected to be associated with the XSEL events. The number of false alarms, relative to the number of events rejected from the standard event list 3 (SEL3) in the current interactive processing—can also be reduced by the use of several powerful filters. The principal filter is the difference between the arrival times of the master and newly built events at three or more primary stations, which should lie in a narrow range of a few seconds. In this study, one event at a

  14. Safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors: a general assessment and international efforts to upgrade their safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speis, Themis P.

    1995-03-01

    This paper provides a general description of the various Soviet-designed reactor types operating in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern and Central Europe and the various safety issues associated with each reactor type, in terms of their design and operation. It also provides a general safety assessment and the technical potential for safety improvement for each reactor type (including potential short-term and longer-term actions). Other issues discussed, including their effect on safety, include organizational problems, lack of well established regulatory organizations, and the changing socio-political and economic situation. The condition of the Chernobyl sarcophagus and safety concerns related to it are addressed. Finally, international efforts and programs underway, including those originating in the USA, to provide financial and technical assistance to secure safety improvements and encourage indigenous improvements are noted.

  15. 75 FR 6070 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards Version...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... 3.0, Draft Safety Requirements DS379 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting on the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards Version 3.0, Draft Safety...

  16. Internal structure of the Moon inferred from Apollo seismic data and selenodetic data from GRAIL and LLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Yamada, Ryuhei; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Kamata, Shunichi; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Iwata, Takahiro; Hanada, Hideo; Sasaki, Sho

    2015-09-01

    The internal structure of the Moon is important for discussions on its origin and evolution. However, the deep structure of the Moon is still debated due to the absence of comprehensive seismic data. This study explores lunar interior models by complementing Apollo seismic travel time data with selenodetic data which have recently been improved by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). The observed data can be explained by models including a deep-seated zone with a low velocity (S wave velocity = 2.9 ± 0.5 km/s) and a low viscosity (˜3 × 1016 Pa s). The thickness of this zone above the core-mantle boundary is larger than 170 km, showing a negative correlation with the radius of the fluid outer core. The inferred density of the lowermost mantle suggests a high TiO2 content (>11 wt.%) which prefers a mantle overturn scenario.

  17. 78 FR 20926 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Providing Postmarket Periodic Safety Reports in the International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Safety Reports in the International Conference on Harmonisation E2C(R2) Format (Periodic Benefit-Risk... ``Providing Postmarket Periodic Safety Reports in the ICH E2C(R2) Format (Periodic Benefit-Risk Evaluation Report).'' This guidance is intended to inform applicants of the conditions under which FDA will...

  18. 76 FR 4575 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... to Logan International Airport, Saugus River, Saugus, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... of high voltage transmission lines to Logan Airport. This safety zone is required to provide for the... feed Logan Airport. The safety zone will be enforced immediately before, during, and after the start...

  19. Using the international monitoring system of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors for global airburst detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.

    2014-07-01

    The impact of meter-sized objects with the Earth occurs every few weeks [1,2]. Most of these collisions result in airbursts, here defined as impacts where the meteoroid's initial kinetic energy is of order a small nuclear weapon (> 0.1 kilotons of TNT equivalent = 4.185×10^{11} J) and where this energy is fully deposited at high altitude in the atmosphere. Historically, the majority of these airbursts go undetected over oceans or remote land areas as dedicated fireball camera networks (eg.[ 3]) cover less than 1 % of the globe. Airbursts often produce meteorite falls and hence airburst data may yield pre-atmospheric orbits and physical properties for the impacting NEO providing context for recovered meteorite samples [4]. With the advent of more capable telescopic survey systems, pre-atmospheric detection of NEO-producing airbursts has become possible as evidenced by the impacts of 2014 AA and 2008 TC_3 [5]. Detection of ''terminal plungers'' is expected to become more common as projects such as ATLAS [6] become operational. This increases the need for instrumental data of the corresponding airburst, particularly its location and energy. Beginning in the late 1990s, a global network of seismic, infrasound, and hydroacoustic sensors has been deployed globally to provide treaty verification for a nuclear test ban. This network is the International Monitoring System (IMS) overseen by Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) [7]. The IMS is a unique global resource for detection of explosions worldwide and in recent years shock waves from many airbursts [8] have been detected by the system. Data from the IMS permits airburst location, origin time and energy to be measured. In rare cases, source heights, trajectories, and details of fragmentation may be obtained. Here the current capabilities of the IMS will be presented in the context of airburst detection and characterization. Empirical characteristics of the long-range sound produced by airbursts

  20. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A L; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  1. Internal stress field at Mount Vesuvius: A model for background seismicity at a central volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Natale, Giuseppe; Petrazzuoli, Stefano M.; Troise, Claudia; Pingue, Folco; Capuano, Paolo

    2000-07-01

    We propose a model to explain the background seismicity occurring at Somma-Vesuvius in its present, mostly quiescent period. A finite element procedure has been used to simulate the stress field due to gravitational body forces in an axisymmetric volcano characterized by a central high-rigidity anomaly. Results emphasize the important effect of axial high-rigidity, which concentrates at its borders stresses resulting from the gravitational load of the volcanic edifice, as well as external (regional) stresses. The joint effect of the gravitational loading and of the presence of the anomaly produces stresses very close to or above the critical rupture threshold. The observed spatial concentrations of seismicity and moment release correlate well with peaks of computed maximum shear stress. Seismicity is then interpreted as due to small stress perturbations concentrated around the high-rigidity core and added to a system already close, to the failure threshold. This model can explain the widely observed occurrence of background seismicity at central volcanoes worldwide.

  2. Too generous to a fault? Is reliable earthquake safety a lost art? Errors in expected human losses due to incorrect seismic hazard estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bela, James

    2014-11-01

    "One is well advised, when traveling to a new territory, to take a good map and then to check the map with the actual territory during the journey." In just such a reality check, Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) maps (prepared using PSHA) portrayed a "low seismic hazard," which was then also assumed to be the "risk to which the populations were exposed." But time-after-time-after-time the actual earthquakes that occurred were not only "surprises" (many times larger than those implied on the maps), but they were often near the maximum potential size (Maximum Credible Earthquake or MCE) that geologically could occur. Given these "errors in expected human losses due to incorrect seismic hazard estimates" revealed globally in these past performances of the GSHAP maps (> 700,000 deaths 2001-2011), we need to ask not only: "Is reliable earthquake safety a lost art?" but also: "Who and what were the `Raiders of the Lost Art?' "

  3. Major food safety episodes in Taiwan: implications for the necessity of international collaboration on safety assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Lai, Yuan-Hui; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-07-01

    The major food safety episodes that occurred in Taiwan during the past decade are briefly reviewed in this paper. Among the nine major episodes surveyed, with the exception of a U.S. beef (associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)-related incident, all the others were associated with chemical toxicants. The general public, which has a layperson attitude of zero tolerance toward food safety, may panic over these food-safety-associated incidents. However, the health effects and impacts of most incidents, with the exception of the melamine incident, were essentially not fully evaluated. The mass media play an important role in determining whether a food safety concern becomes a major incident. A well-coordinated and harmonized system for domestic and international collaboration to set up standards and regulations is critical, as observed in the incidents of pork with ractopamine, Chinese hairy crab with nitrofuran antibiotics, and U.S. wheat with malathion. In the future, it can be anticipated that food safety issues will draw more attention from the general public. For unknown new toxicants or illicit adulteration of food, the establishment of a more proactive safety assessment system to monitor potential threats and provide real-time information exchange is imperative.

  4. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Regional relationships among earthquake magnitude scales

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D. H.; Bernreuter, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    The seismic body-wave magnitude m{sub b} of an earthquake is strongly affected by regional variations in the Q structure, composition, and physical state within the earth. Therefore, because of differences in attenuation of P-waves between the western and eastern United States, a problem arises when comparing m{sub b}'s for the two regions. A regional m/sub b/ magnitude bias exists which, depending on where the earthquake occurs and where the P-waves are recorded, can lead to magnitude errors as large as one-third unit. There is also a significant difference between m{sub b} and M{sub L} values for earthquakes in the western United States. An empirical link between the m{sub b} of an eastern US earthquake and the M{sub L} of an equivalent western earthquake is given by M{sub L} = 0.57 + 0.92(m{sub b}){sub East}. This result is important when comparing ground motion between the two regions and for choosing a set of real western US earthquake records to represent eastern earthquakes. 48 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A Combined Geophysical/Engineering Approach for the Seismic Safety of Long-Span Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fäcke, Andreas; Stempniewski, Lothar; Richwalski, Sandra M.; Parolai, Stefano; Milkereit, Claus; Wang, Rongjiang; Bormann, Peter; Roth, Frank

    The spatial distribution of the resonance frequency of the sedimentary cover in the Cologne area was estimated by the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method using ambient noise measurements. A comparison with the eigenfrequencies of selected long-span bridges crossing the Rhine river indicated an overlap in frequency and therefore potential damage in the case of an earthquake. Consequently, we conducted a dynamic vulnerability analysis using the finite-element method. In addition to accelerograms from design spectra, ground motion scenarios with sources located on the most proximate fault (Erft fault) were simulated using a numerical hybrid method that takes into account source, path, and site effects. The results indicated that due to the low frequency content of these scenarios, consistently higher responses - compared to the recommended loads in the German seismic code - were obtained at all selected bridges. Usage of both scenarios revealed specific failure mechanisms. While cable supported bridges seem to be secure, grave failure was detected for a box girder bridge.

  6. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  7. Managing Health and Safety on International School Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter-Jones, John; Hunter-Jones, Philippa

    2007-01-01

    Organizing international school trips can be a demanding experience because of the age of the participants, the unfamiliar surroundings and the excitement associated with the foreign trip. As many organizers are full-time teachers, without a background in the travel sector, the pressures can be even greater. The need to anticipate potential risks…

  8. [New international initiatives to create systems of effective risk prediction and food safety].

    PubMed

    Efimochkinal, N R; Bagryantseva, E C; Dupouy, E C; Khotimchenko, S A; Permyakov, E V; Sheveleva, S A; Arnautov, O V

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is one of the most important problems that is directly related to health protection of the population. The problem is particularly relevant on aglobalscale because ofincreasingnumberoffood-borne diseases andimportance of the health consequence early detection. In accordance with the position of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, food safety concept also includes quality. In this case, creation of the national, supranational and international early warning systems related to the food safety, designed with the purpose to prevent or minimize risks on different stages of the food value chain in various countries, regions and climate zones specific to national nutrition and lifestyle in different groups of population, gains particular importance. The article describes the principles and working examples of international, supranational and national food safety early warning systems. Great importance is given to the hazards of microbial origin - emergent pathogens. Example of the rapid reaction to the appearance of cases, related to the melanin presence in infant formula, are presented. Analysis of the current food safety and quality control system in Russian Federation shows that main improvements are mostly related to the development of the efficient monitoring, diagnostics and rapid alert procedures forfood safety on interregional and international levels that will allow to estimate real contamination of food with the most dangerous pathogens, chemical and biological contaminants, and the development of the electronic database and scientifically proved algorithms for food safety and quality management for targeted prevention activities against existing and emerging microbiological and other etiology risks, and public health protection.

  9. Status report of the US Department of Energy`s International Nuclear Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) implements the US Government`s International Nuclear Safety Program to improve the level of safety at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and Unkraine. The program is conducted consistent with guidance and policies established by the US Department of State (DOS) and the Agency for International Development and in close collaboration with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some of the program elements were initiated in 1990 under a bilateral agreement with the former Soviet Union; however, most activities began after the Lisbon Nuclear Safety Initiative was announced by the DOS in 1992. Within DOE, the program is managed by the International Division of the Office of Nuclear Energy. The overall objective of the International Nuclear Safety Program is to make comprehensive improvements in the physical conditions of the power plants, plant operations, infrastructures, and safety cultures of countries operating Soviet-designed reactors. This status report summarizes the Internatioal Nuclear Safety Program`s activities that have been completed as of September 1994 and discusses those activities currently in progress.

  10. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3, structural and seismic engineering, primary systems integrity, equipment operability and aging, ECCS strainer blockage research and regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 3, presents topics in Structural & Seismic Engineering, Primary Systems Integrity, Equipment Operability and Aging, and ECCS Strainer Blockage Research & Regulatory Issues. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  11. Challenges of assuring crew safety in space shuttle missions with international cargoes.

    PubMed

    Vongsouthy, C; Stenger-Nguyen, P A; Nguyen, H V; Nguyen, P H; Huang, M C; Alexander, R G

    2004-02-01

    The top priority in America's manned space flight program is the assurance of crew and vehicle safety. This priority gained greater focus during and after the Space Shuttle return-to-flight mission (STS-26). One of the interesting challenges has been to assure crew safety and adequate protection of the Space Shuttle, as a national resource, from increasingly diverse cargoes and operations. The control of hazards associated with the deployment of complex payloads and cargoes has involved many international participants. These challenges are examined in some detail along with examples of how crew safety has evolved in the manned space program and how the international partners have addressed various scenarios involving control and mitigation of potential hazards to crew and vehicle safety.

  12. Mesoscale Weather and Aviation Safety: The Case of Denver International Airport.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Steven L.

    1992-04-01

    The new Denver International Airport will be the first new major commercial airport to be built in the United States in 20 years. Concern has been expressed about the meteorology at the new airport site and its potential impact on aviation safety. Several levels of assessment of weather safety at and in the vicinity of the new airport site have been conducted by airport planners. In addition, the new airport site area has been intensively studied by research scientists. Meteorologists and aviation experts have concluded that the site of the new Denver airport does not raise special concerns regarding weather safety. Denver International should enhance aviation weather safety as a consequence of the improved alignment and spacing of runways, greater distance from the Rocky Mountains, and technological advances at the new facility.

  13. Destination therapy: safety and feasibility of national and international travel.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Laura A; Martin, Michele M; Kurien, Sudha; Graham, Joel D; Gallagher, Colleen; Silver, Marc A; Slaughter, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    Results for Destination Therapy (DT) continue to improve with advanced technology, better patient selection, and experienced clinical management. Quality of life for these patients is an important component of the overall success of DT, and traveling is becoming more common. We reviewed our experience with long-distance travel in our DT population. All patients implanted with a left ventricular assist device for DT were followed prospectively. Long-distance travel was considered to be >200 miles, one way from their homes. There were 15 patients (14 men) with an average age of 66 years (range, 30-82) who traveled a combined total of 40 long-distance trips. Four trips were international (Spain, Canada (2), and Puerto Rico), 35 within the continental U.S., and one to Hawaii. The average one way distance traveled was 925 miles with a range of 218-4256 miles. The average time away from home was 8.3 days (range, 2-30). Patients traveled by airplane (17), car (23), and one trip included a 5 day cruise. Five complications occurred: driveline trauma, delay of reentry into the United States, missed flight, red heart alarm from bearing wear, and dehydration. All patients returned home safely for routine follow-up. Long-distance travel is possible for DT patients. Anticipating potential problems and careful planning is necessary for safe national and international travel.

  14. The Activities of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Joseph Blair

    2001-10-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) – Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Kazakhstan, Spain, and Israel are now participating. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments”. The 2001 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 2642 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data.

  15. Summary of the 1st International Workshop on Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Stevens, E.; Kim, K.; Maisonnier, D.; Kalashnikov, A.; Tobita, K.; Jackson, D.; Alejaldre, C.; Perrault, D.; Panayotov, D.; Merrill, B.; Grisolia, C.; Zucchetti, M.; Pinna, T.; van Houtte, D.; Konishi, S.; Kolbasov, B.

    2016-12-01

    The 1st International workshop on Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power (ESEFP) was held on 13 September 2015 at Jeju Island, South Korea. The workshop was initiated by the International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on a Co-operative Program on ESEFP. The workshop was well attended with about forty participants representing twelve institutions in ten countries. The presentations covered safety issues and environmental impacts, availability improvement and risk control and socio-economic aspects of fusion power. Safety and licensing gaps between DEMO and ITER were discussed in depth with the consensus output presented as a plenary presentation at the 12th International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT-12). The next workshop is planned to be held in conjunction with the ISFNT-13 in 2017.

  16. Structural Safety Analysis Based on Seismic Service Conditions for Butterfly Valves in a Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

  17. Structural safety analysis based on seismic service conditions for butterfly valves in a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon; Lee, Kwon-Hee; Han, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements.

  18. Exploring the potential impact of hospital ward-based pharmacy interns on drug safety.

    PubMed

    Schorr, S G; Eickhoff, C; Feldt, S; Hohmann, C; Schulz, M

    2014-04-01

    Clinical pharmacists play an important role in improving drug safety on hospital wards. However, little is known about the impact of pharmacy interns. The objective of our study was, therefore, to investigate the impact of hospital ward-based pharmacy interns on drug safety. This study was conducted as part of the project "P-STAT 2: Pharmacy interns on the ward" on 14 surgical wards in seven hospitals in Germany and a total of 27 pharmacy interns participated. All patients admitted to the participating wards from 1st June 2008 until 31st October 2008 and from 1st December 2008 till 30th April 2009 were included. The pharmacy interns were involved in medication reconciliation, and identifying, resolving, and preventing drug-related problems (DRPs) using the classification system APS-Doc. A total of 6,551 patients were included. Patients received on average (+/- SD) 4.4 +/- 3.9 drugs. The pharmacy interns detected a total of 4,085 DRPs and on average 0.6 +/- 1.2 DRPs per patient. Most frequently detected DRPs were potential drug-drug interactions (n = 591, 14%), missing drug strength, when different strengths were available (n = 373, 9%), and incomplete medication record (n = 296, 7%). The pharmacy interns conducted an intervention for 98% (n = 4,011) of all DRPs. According to their documentation, 74% of the DRPs (n = 3,038) were solved. Drugs which were most often related with DRPs were simvastatin, diclofenac, and ibuprofen. This is the very first study exploring the potential impact of pharmacy interns on drug safety on surgical wards in Europe. Pharmacy interns can play an important role to improve drug safety on hospital wards.

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention to Improve the Patient Safety Attitudes of Intern Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Fois, Romano A; McLachlan, Andrew J; Chen, Timothy F

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face educational intervention in improving the patient safety attitudes of intern pharmacists. Methods. A patient safety education program was delivered to intern pharmacists undertaking The University of Sydney Intern Training Program in 2014. Their patient safety attitudes were evaluated immediately prior to, immediately after, and three-months post-intervention. Underlying attitudinal factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Changes in factor scores were examined using analysis of variance. Results. Of the 120 interns enrolled, 95 (78.7%) completed all three surveys. Four underlying attitudinal factors were identified: attitudes towards addressing errors, questioning behaviors, blaming individuals, and reporting errors. Improvements in all attitudinal factors were evident immediately after the intervention. However, only improvements in attitudes towards blaming individuals involved in errors were sustained at three months post-intervention. Conclusion. The educational intervention was associated with short-term improvements in pharmacist interns' patient safety attitudes. However, other factors likely influenced their attitudes in the longer term.

  20. Dose limits to the lens of the eye: International Basic Safety Standards and related guidance.

    PubMed

    Boal, T J; Pinak, M

    2015-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements: 'General Safety Requirements Part 3--Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors at its meeting in September 2011, and was issued as General Safety Requirements Part 3 in July 2014. The equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv year(-1) to 20 mSv year(-1), averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv. This reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye followed the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its statement on tissue reactions of 21 April 2011. IAEA has developed guidance on the implications of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye. This paper summarises the process that led to the inclusion of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye in the BSS, and the implications of the new dose limit.

  1. Regulating Space Assets Safety - China's Experience and Lex Ferenda of International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2012-01-01

    With advantages of the fast development of space activities, the world witnesses more and more accidents and disasters relating to the space assets causing tremendous loss. No one can guarantee that the American and Russian satellites collision happened 2009 will never happen again. The regulations governing the space assets safety are inadequate both nationally and internationally. The further development of commercialization of space activities will give more pressure on the weakness of the already crowded space and of he already inadequate space regulations. As a quick developing space country, China has at least three levels of national regulations relating to space assets safety though the National Space Law will not promulgated in the soon future. All these regulations play very active roles in China's space activities, and may contribute to the future National Space Law. Based on the necessity of national and international regulations of space assets safety, this paper will clarify the status quo of China's regulations relating to the space assets safety, and explore the legal basis and possibility of international cooperation on space assets safety.

  2. An observational study of child safety seat use in an international safe community: Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Marziyeh; Khanjani, Narges; Nabipour, Amir Reza

    2017-01-02

    Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness of child safety seats in reducing injuries, the use of these devices in some communities is still rare. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of child safety seat use and the factors influencing its use in the safe community of Tehran. This roadside observational study was conducted in 2015 and 2,178 personal cars with a child under 12 years aboard were observed on Tehran's streets in regard to use of child safety seats. Other variables such as the gender of the driver, driver's age group, type of street, region of municipality, time of day, and day of the week were also collected. Prevalence of child safety seat use was 4.3% and was significantly higher among women drivers, on freeways, and in municipal regions 1, 4, and 7. The prevalence of child safety seat use in Tehran as a most populous member of the international safe community was very low and most children commuted in insecure situations in the vehicle. Therefore, it is proposed that plans should be made to increase the use of child safety seats in international safe communities.

  3. Towards an International Classification for Patient Safety: key concepts and terms.

    PubMed

    Runciman, William; Hibbert, Peter; Thomson, Richard; Van Der Schaaf, Tjerk; Sherman, Heather; Lewalle, Pierre

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the patient safety literature has been compromised by the inconsistent use of language. To identify key concepts of relevance to the International Patient Safety Classification (ICPS) proposed by the World Alliance For Patient Safety of the World Health Organization (WHO), and agree on definitions and preferred terms. Six principles were agreed upon-that the concepts and terms should: be applicable across the full spectrum of healthcare; be consistent with concepts from other WHO Classifications; have meanings as close as possible to those in colloquial use; convey the appropriate meanings with respect to patient safety; be brief and clear, without unnecessary or redundant qualifiers; be fit-for-purpose for the ICPS. Definitions and preferred terms were agreed for 48 concepts of relevance to the ICPS; these were described and the relationships between them and the ICPS were outlined. The consistent use of key concepts, definitions and preferred terms should pave the way for better understanding, for comparisons between facilities and jurisdictions, and for trends to be tracked over time. Changes and improvements, translation into other languages and alignment with other sets of patient safety definitions will be necessary. This work represents the start of an ongoing process of progressively improving a common international understanding of terms and concepts relevant to patient safety.

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention to Improve the Patient Safety Attitudes of Intern Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Fois, Romano A.; McLachlan, Andrew J.; Chen, Timothy F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face educational intervention in improving the patient safety attitudes of intern pharmacists. Methods. A patient safety education program was delivered to intern pharmacists undertaking The University of Sydney Intern Training Program in 2014. Their patient safety attitudes were evaluated immediately prior to, immediately after, and three-months post-intervention. Underlying attitudinal factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Changes in factor scores were examined using analysis of variance. Results. Of the 120 interns enrolled, 95 (78.7%) completed all three surveys. Four underlying attitudinal factors were identified: attitudes towards addressing errors, questioning behaviors, blaming individuals, and reporting errors. Improvements in all attitudinal factors were evident immediately after the intervention. However, only improvements in attitudes towards blaming individuals involved in errors were sustained at three months post-intervention. Conclusion. The educational intervention was associated with short-term improvements in pharmacist interns’ patient safety attitudes. However, other factors likely influenced their attitudes in the longer term. PMID:28289295

  5. 76 FR 8656 - Safety Zone; Miami International Triathlon, Bayfront Park, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Park, Miami, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the waters east of Bayfront Park for the Miami International Triathlon... 0.9 mile swim, which will take place in the waters east of Bayfront Park in Miami, Florida...

  6. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-25 International... In Charge, Marine Inspection, the following certificates after performing an inspection or safety management audit of the vessel's systems and determining the vessel meets the applicable requirements:...

  7. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-25 International... In Charge, Marine Inspection, the following certificates after performing an inspection or safety management audit of the vessel's systems and determining the vessel meets the applicable requirements:...

  8. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-25 International... In Charge, Marine Inspection, the following certificates after performing an inspection or safety management audit of the vessel's systems and determining the vessel meets the applicable requirements:...

  9. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-25 International... In Charge, Marine Inspection, the following certificates after performing an inspection or safety management audit of the vessel's systems and determining the vessel meets the applicable requirements:...

  10. 46 CFR 2.01-25 - International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Inspecting and Certificating of Vessels § 2.01-25 International... In Charge, Marine Inspection, the following certificates after performing an inspection or safety management audit of the vessel's systems and determining the vessel meets the applicable requirements:...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../accident response. 91.1021 Section 91.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety reporting.... (b) Each program manager must establish procedures to respond to an aviation incident/accident....

  12. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../accident response. 91.1021 Section 91.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety reporting.... (b) Each program manager must establish procedures to respond to an aviation incident/accident....

  13. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../accident response. 91.1021 Section 91.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety reporting.... (b) Each program manager must establish procedures to respond to an aviation incident/accident....

  14. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../accident response. 91.1021 Section 91.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety reporting.... (b) Each program manager must establish procedures to respond to an aviation incident/accident....

  15. 14 CFR 91.1021 - Internal safety reporting and incident/accident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../accident response. 91.1021 Section 91.1021 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... incident/accident response. (a) Each program manager must establish an internal anonymous safety reporting.... (b) Each program manager must establish procedures to respond to an aviation incident/accident....

  16. 76 FR 58049 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium... assurance for its Metropolis Works uranium conversion facility in Metropolis, Illinois. \\1\\ LBP-11-19, 74... Financial Assurance Requirements, Honeywell Metropolis Works, Material License No. SUB- 526 (TAC No. L32718...

  17. 76 FR 52667 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E2F Development Safety Update Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E2F Development Safety Update Report; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled...

  18. The preliminary results: Internal seismic velocity structure imaging beneath Mount Lokon

    SciTech Connect

    Firmansyah, Rizky; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Kristianto

    2015-04-24

    Historical records that before the 17{sup th} century, Mount Lokon had been dormant for approximately 400 years. In the years between 1350 and 1400, eruption ever recorded in Empung, came from Mount Lokon’s central crater. Subsequently, in 1750 to 1800, Mount Lokon continued to erupt again and caused soil damage and fall victim. After 1949, Mount Lokon dramatically increased in its frequency: the eruption interval varies between 1 – 5 years, with an average interval of 3 years and a rest interval ranged from 8 – 64 years. Then, on June 26{sup th}, 2011, standby alert set by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Peak activity happened on July 4{sup th}, 2011 that Mount Lokon erupted continuously until August 28{sup th}, 2011. In this study, we carefully analyzed micro-earthquakes waveform and determined hypocenter location of those events. We then conducted travel time seismic tomographic inversion using SIMULPS12 method to detemine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio structures beneath Lokon volcano in order to enhance our subsurface geological structure. During the tomographic inversion, we started from 1-D seismic velocities model obtained from VELEST33 method. Our preliminary results show low Vp, low Vs, and high Vp/Vs are observed beneath Mount Lokon-Empung which are may be associated with weak zone or hot material zones. However, in this study we used few station for recording of micro-earthquake events. So, we suggest in the future tomography study, the adding of some seismometers in order to improve ray coverage in the region is profoundly justified.

  19. Improving battery safety by early detection of internal shorting with a bifunctional separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Zhuo, Denys; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries have been widely used in portable electronics and show great promise for emerging applications in transportation and wind-solar-grid energy storage, although their safety remains a practical concern. Failures in the form of fire and explosion can be initiated by internal short circuits associated with lithium dendrite formation during cycling. Here we report a new strategy for improving safety by designing a smart battery that allows internal battery health to be monitored in situ. Specifically, we achieve early detection of lithium dendrites inside batteries through a bifunctional separator, which offers a third sensing terminal in addition to the cathode and anode. The sensing terminal provides unique signals in the form of a pronounced voltage change, indicating imminent penetration of dendrites through the separator. This detection mechanism is highly sensitive, accurate and activated well in advance of shorting and can be applied to many types of batteries for improved safety.

  20. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Process and Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matthew R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-09-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) transitions to the operations and research lifecycle phase, an expected increase in the number of payloads necessitates an easier, more consistent method for management of the hazard reporting process. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with three goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data (e.g., problems, hazards, hardware); and, increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes.These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based, structured data system utilizing the Mission Assurance System (MAS), which is based on the open- source Bugzilla software bug tracker. This paper provides an overview of the MAS system and the approach taken by the ISS Program and the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Human Computer Interaction (HCI) team to determine requirements and implementation strategy for the new system.

  1. Seismic Safety Margins Research Programs. Assessment of potential increases in risk due to degradation of steam generator and reactor coolant pump supports. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, M. P.; Wells, J. E.; Shieh, L. C.; Cover, L. E.; Streit, R. L.

    1983-08-01

    During the NRC licensing review for the North Anna Units 1 and 2 pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), questions were raised regarding the potential for low-fracture toughness of steam-generator and reactor-coolant-pump supports. Because other PWRs may face similar problems, this issue was incorporated into the NRC Program for Resolution of Generic Issues. The work described in this report was performed to provide the NRC with a quantitative evaluation of the value/impact implications of the various options of resolving the fracture-toughness question. This report presents an assessment of the probabilistic risk associated with nil-ductility failures of steam-generator and reactor-coolant-pump structural-support systems during seismic events, performed using the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program codes and data bases.

  2. Seismic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  3. The use of seismic tomograms for the identification of internal problems with earthen dams and levees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...

  4. Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, S.

    1981-10-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) research programs in seismic testing to improve earthquake design guidelines lowers the safety-design costs of nuclear power plants. Explosive tests that simulate earthquakes help to determine how structures respond to ground motion and how these are related to soil and geologic conditions at a specific site. Explosive tests develop data for simulation using several computer codes. Photographs illustrate testing techniques. 6 references. (DCK)

  5. Research Tool to Evaluate the Safety Response of Lithium Batteries to an Internal Short Circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-19

    Li-ion cells provide the highest specific energy and energy density rechargeable battery with the longest life. Many safety incidents that take place in the field originate due to an internal short that was not detectable or predictable at the point of manufacture. NREL's internal short circuit (ISC) device is capable of simulating shorts and produces consistent and reproducible results. The cell behaves normally until the ISC device is activated wherein a latent defect (i.e., built into the cell during manufacturing) gradually moves into position to create an internal short while the battery is in use, providing relevant data to verify abuse models. The ISC device is an effective tool for studying the safety features of parts of Li-ion batteries.

  6. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

    2009-04-01

    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition

  7. 78 FR 48044 - Safety Zone; San Diego International Airport Terminal Two West Grand Opening Fireworks; San Diego...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2013-0637] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego International Airport Terminal Two West... of a fireworks display for the Grand Opening of Lindbergh Airport Terminal Two West on August 8, 2013..., for the San Diego International Airport Terminal Two grand opening. This safety zone is necessary...

  8. INTEGRAL BENCHMARKS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY BENCHMARK EVALUATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Enrico Sartori; Yolanda Rugama

    2008-09-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) continue to expand their efforts and broaden their scope to identify, evaluate, and provide integral benchmark data for method and data validation. Benchmark model specifications provided by these two projects are used heavily by the international reactor physics, nuclear data, and criticality safety communities. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. The status of the IRPhEP and ICSBEP is discussed in this paper, and the future of the two projects is outlined and discussed. Selected benchmarks that have been added to the IRPhEP and ICSBEP handbooks since PHYSOR’06 are highlighted, and the future of the two projects is discussed.

  9. Food safety in Vietnam: where we are at and what we can learn from international experiences.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Unger, Fred; Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Grace, Delia

    2017-02-16

    Food-borne diseases are attracting a lot of attention in Vietnam as a result of repeated episodes of adulterated and unsafe food. In this paper, we provide some perspectives on food safety in Vietnam from the point of view of an international research institution working on food safety with partners in the country. We argue that one of the key issues of food safety in Vietnam is that certain food value chain stakeholders lack ethics, which leads to the production and trading of unsafe foods in order to make profits irrespective of adverse health effects on consumers. In turn, the shortfall in ethical behaviours around food can be attributed to a lack of incentives or motivating factors.Although food safety causes panic in the population, it is unclear how much contaminated food contributes to the burden of food-borne diseases and food poisonings in Vietnam. However, globally, the biggest health problem associated with food are infections from consuming food contaminated with viruses, bacteria or parasites. A major food safety challenge is the inappropriate way of communicating food risks to the public. Another key constraint is the inherent difficulty in managing food in wet markets and from smallholder production. On the other hand, local foods, and local food production and processing are an important cultural asset as well as being essential to food safety, and these aspects can be put at risk if food safety concerns motivate consumers to purchase more imported foods.In this paper, we also discuss good experiences in food safety management from other countries and draw lessons learnt for Vietnam on how to better deal with the current food safety situation.

  10. Lunar internal structure modeling using Apollo seismic travel time data and the latest selenodetic data from GRAIL and LLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, F.; Kamata, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Iwata, T.; Hanada, H.; Sasaki, S.

    2014-12-01

    We tried to constrain lunar internal structure by combining the Apollo seismic travel time data and selenodetic data including those from GRAIL and LLR. We used a seven-layer model consisting of crust, upper mantle, middle mantle, lower mantle, low-velocity layer (LVL), fluid outer core and solid inner core. The model is constrained by the following observations; three selenodetic data of mass, mean moment of inertia, tidal Love number k2 from [1], and Apollo seismic travel time data from [2]. Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is used to infer the model parameters. We collected 140 million samples from 10 chains. Viscosity is not taken into account in this calculation. Mean crustal thickness of 46 ± 4 km is estimated by fitting a normal distribution curve to the posterior distribution, which is to be compared with the previous estimate of 34 - 43 km [3]. Major part of crustal densities is sampled between 2500 and 2600 kg/m3, which is consistent with the value of 2550 kg/m3 reported by [3]. In general, seismic wave velocities in the mantle are consistent with the previous estimates [4][5]. The ranges of size and density of the outer core which satisfy the observation are relatively wide and it is difficult to tightly constrain them. Strong correlation between outer core size and LVL thickness is observed. The smaller outer core should be accompanied by thick LVL and vice versa. When we take into account the upper bound of the fluid core size of 400 km which is predicted by magnetic observation [6], the thickness of the LVL is at least about 100 km. The S-wave velocity within this low-velocity layer is estimated to be less than about 3 km/s. The effect of low viscosity [7] may change the estimate of the S-wave velocity in the LVL. The inner core radius is expected to be smaller than 280 km. The lunar displacement Love number is predicted to be h2= 0.0423 ± 0.0004. References [1] Williams et al. (2014), JGR, doi:10.1002/2013JE004559 [2] Lognonne et al. (2003), EPSL

  11. Radiation safety awareness among medical interns: are EU guidelines being implemented?

    PubMed

    Lee, A M; Lee, M J

    2016-11-14

    European recommendations suggest that medical students should be taught radiation safety before entering clinical practice. The aim of this study was to produce a summative assessment of radiation protection training in medical school in Ireland. A web-based questionnaire was distributed to the 2014 intern population (n = 683) via network intern-coordinators. The survey encompassed knowledge of radiation dose in X-ray investigations, laws governing the prescribing of radiation and complications of radiation exposure to staff and patients. Response rate was 14.2% (97/683) with all Irish medical schools represented. 64% of interns reported no formal training in radiation safety. 80% correctly identified MRI and 94% US as not posing a radiation risk. 54% identified CT PET as emitting the highest radiation dose to patients. Only 32% correctly identified one CT abdomen/pelvis as equivalent to the dose from 300 to 500 chest X-rays and 22% correctly identified the theoretical lifetime risk of cancer induction from CT abdomen/pelvis as 1 in 2000. While 71% thought it was very important that prescribers should be aware of patient radiation dose and 28% thought it was moderately important, 74% were not aware of any laws governing the prescribing of radiology investigations. Currently, there is little formal radiation safety training in Irish medical schools. Knowledge of radiation dose and the laws governing prescribing is limited among qualifying interns. Implementation of a formal radiation safety curriculum in Irish Medical Schools would adhere to EU guidelines and improve prescriber knowledge, patient, and personal radiation safety.

  12. GROWTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY AND REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford

    2011-09-01

    Since the International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC) 2007, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) have continued to expand their efforts and broaden their scope. Eighteen countries participated on the ICSBEP in 2007. Now, there are 20, with recent contributions from Sweden and Argentina. The IRPhEP has also expanded from eight contributing countries in 2007 to 16 in 2011. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments1' have increased from 442 evaluations (38000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 3955 critical or subcritical configurations to 516 evaluations (nearly 55000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 4405 critical or subcritical configurations in the 2010 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. The contents of the Handbook have also increased from 21 to 24 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and from 20 to 200 configurations categorized as fundamental physics measurements relevant to criticality safety applications. Approximately 25 new evaluations and 150 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments2' have increased from 16 different experimental series that were performed at 12 different reactor facilities to 53 experimental series that were performed at 30 different reactor facilities in the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Considerable effort has also been made to improve the functionality of the searchable database, DICE (Database for the International Criticality Benchmark Evaluation Project) and verify the accuracy of the data contained therein. DICE will be discussed in separate papers at ICNC 2011. The status of the ICSBEP and the IRPh

  13. Good practices for the operational safety management in the early recovery phase of a seismic event using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro; Alani, Amir M.; Tosti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    This study deals with a case report about the planning and the performance of GPR surveys carried out in the town of Amatrice, in the district of Rieti, Italy. As sadly known, the town has been hit by a 6.9 magnitude earthquake in the nighttime of August 24th 2016. The strength of the seism, along with the age and the deterioration rate of the structural asset, have caused the razing to the ground and the critical damaging of the majority of the buildings within the "red zone area", corresponding to the historical town center. In the early recovery phase taking place afterwards, the strong seismic swarm subsequent the main shake has sensitively slowed down the rescue and rehabilitation operations. Moreover, the main issue was related to the unsafety operational conditions of volunteers and firemen. To this effect, the geotechnical stability of the roads and the large operational areas represented critical issues, as up to 40 tons crane trucks were needed to put in safety the highest buildings, such as three-floor buildings and historical towers. In this framework, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) provided a valuable help in preliminary assessing the stability of the areas where the crane trucks were planned to operate as well as to be parked over. The main objective of the GPR tests was to verify the absence of possible cavities beneath the ground surface that could undermine the strength of the surface under heavy loadings. To that effect, a multi-frequency ground-coupled GPR system was used. This radar system can simultaneously collect data at both the frequencies of 600 MHz and 1600 MHz. Four different sites were surveyed, namely, two sections of the main road passed on by the cranes, and two machinery depot areas down by the towers. In the former case, the surveys were performed by parallel longitudinal scans, due to the significant longitudinal length of the sections, whereas in the latter, two grids with differing sizes were realized and scanned for producing

  14. Safety assessment guidance in the International Atomic Energy Agency RADWASS Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vovk, I.F.; Seitz, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    The IAEA RADWASS programme is aimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and standards for the safe management of waste and formulating the guidelines necessary for their application. A large portion of this programme has been devoted to safety assessments for various waste management activities. Five Safety Guides are planned to be developed to provide general guidance to enable operators and regulators to develop necessary framework for safety assessment process in accordance with international recommendations. They cover predisposal, near surface disposal, geological disposal, uranium/thorium mining and milling waste, and decommissioning and environmental restoration. The Guide on safety assessment for near surface disposal is at the most advanced stage of preparation. This draft Safety Guide contains guidance on description of the disposal system, development of a conceptual model, identification and description of relevant scenarios and pathways, consequence analysis, presentation of results and confidence building. The set of RADWASS publications is currently undergoing in-depth review to ensure a harmonized approach throughout the Safety Series.

  15. Establishing an international baseline for medication safety in oncology: Findings from the 2012 ISMP International Medication Safety Self Assessment® for Oncology.

    PubMed

    Greenall, Julie; Shastay, Ann; Vaida, Allen J; U, David; Johnson, Philip E; O'Leary, Joe; Chambers, Carole

    2015-02-01

    In 2012, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada (ISMP Canada) collaborated with an international panel of oncology practitioners to develop the ISMP International Medication Safety Self Assessment® for Oncology. This self-assessment was designed to assist oncology practitioners in hospitals, ambulatory care centers, and office practice settings throughout the world to evaluate safe practices related to medication use in the oncology setting and to identify opportunities for improvement. The self-assessment consists of 175 items organized into 10 key elements subdivided into 18 core characteristics of safe medication use. Assessment results were submitted via a secure online portal. The online program allows participants to print and graph their results and to compare their findings with those of similar organizations both nationally and internationally. Complimentary access to the self-assessment was made available for a seven-month "snapshot" period in 2012. A total of 352 organizations from 13 countries submitted assessment results. Key opportunities for improvement were identified in five areas: implementation of the World Health Organization recommendations for management of vinCRIStine and other vinca alkaloids, safe management of oral chemotherapy, labeling of distal ends of intravenous tubing, implementation of technology-based safeguards, and patient education. This international snapshot provides important data about the level of implementation of system-based safeguards in oncology practice, key improvement opportunities, and represents a baseline for future improvement efforts. A collaborative approach to identifying vulnerabilities and developing solutions for safe medication use in oncology will enhance the care of patients with cancer internationally. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Spirit Drink Safety Standards and Regulations from an International Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiao-Na; Li, Zhao-Jie; Chen, Jing-Yu; Gao, Li-Juan; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Standards and regulations related to spirit drinks have been established by different countries and international organizations to ensure the safety and quality of spirits. Here, we introduce the principles of food safety and quality standards for alcoholic beverages and then compare the key indicators used in the distinct standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the United States, Canada, and Australia. We also discuss in detail the "maximum level" of the following main contaminants of spirit drinks: methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl carbamate, hydrocyanic acid, heavy metals, mycotoxins, phthalates, and aldehydes. Furthermore, the control measures used for potential hazards are introduced. Harmonization of the current requirements based on comprehensive scope analysis and the risk assessment approach will enhance both the trade and quality of distilled spirits. This review article provides valuable information that will enable producers, traders, governments, and researchers to increase their knowledge of spirit drink safety requirements, control measures, and research trends.

  17. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-01

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as ‘high priority’ by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  18. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  19. 76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces an open joint meeting of the NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. The purpose of this meeting is to assess the status of the development of two current commercial cargo vehicles under consideration by NASA for Commercial Resupply Services for the International Space Station (ISS), with particular focus on the ability of each to rendezvous and berth safely with the ISS.

  20. Building capacity for quality and safety in critical care: A roundtable discussion from the second international patient safety conference in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Taher, Saadi; Berenholtz, Sean M; Alamry, Ahmed; Hijazi, Ra'ed; Alatassi, Abdulaleem; Marini, Abdellatif M

    2013-10-01

    This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion from the Second International Patient Safety Conference held in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to: (1) review the conceptual framework for building capacity in quality and safety in critical care. (2) examine examples of leading international experiences in building capacity. (3) review the experience in Saudi Arabia in this area. (4) discuss the role of building capacity in simulation for patient safety in critical care and (5) review the experience in building capacity in an ongoing improvement project for severe sepsis and septic shock.

  1. Shear Wave Reflection Seismics Image Internal Structure of Quick-Clay Landslides in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Malehmir, A.

    2014-12-01

    Covering many different sizes of scale, landslides are widespread and pose a severe hazard in many areas as soon as humans or infrastructure are affected. In order to provide geophysical tools and techniques to better characterize sites prone to sliding, a geophysical assessment working towards a geotechnical understanding of landslides is necessary. As part of a joint project studying clay-related landslides in Nordic countries by a suite of geophysical methods, we therefore tested the use of shear wave reflection seismics to survey shallow structures that are known to be related to quick-clay landslide processes in southern Sweden. On two crossing profiles, a land streamer consisting of 120 SH-geophones with 1 m spacing was deployed, and an ELVIS micro-vibrator was shaking every 4 m to generate the shear wave signal. SH-wave data of high quality were thereby acquired to resolve the gaps between P-wave data and electrical and surface wave based methods of lower resolution. After quality control, correlation, subtractive stack, and geometry setup, single shot gathers already demonstrate the high data quality gained in the region, especially on a gravel road. The migrated depth sections image the structural inventory down to ca. 50 m depth with vertical resolution of less than 1 m. Horizontally layered sediments are visible in the upper 40 m of soft (marine) sediments, followed by top basement with a rough topography varying between ca. 20-40 m depth. The imaged, bowl-shaped basement morphology centres near the profile crossing, and basement is exposed at three sides of the profiles. Three distinct sediment sequences are separated by high-amplitude unconformities. The quick-clay layer may be located above the marked reflection set that lies on top of the more transparent sequence that levels out the basement. Located between 15-20 m depth, this correlates with the height of the last scarp that occurred in the area. In addition, shear wave velocities are determined

  2. [International Chemical Safety Cards: information source on hazards caused by chemical substances].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) are produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) in collaboration with the European Commission and various IPCS-participating institutions in different countries. ICSCs disseminate essential information on chemicals to promote their safe production, transport and use. Application of standard terminology along with relevant criteria facilitates the comparison of risk related to different chemicals, which makes the cards a successful hazard-communication tool. Translation of the cards into various languages all over the world reflects the range of their growing use. A multi-stage compilation of information contained in ICSCs, based on the most up-to-date world literature and professional databases, assures its reliability. Their concise form makes them easy in everyday use as a source of information on chemical safety. The range of information contained in ICSCs corresponds to that provided by Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), however, the former are more concise and simpler. Although ICSCs have no legal status they may complement a 16-point MSDSs and help in the implementation of labeling and classification of chemicals according to the Globally Harmonized System.

  3. Applying the WHO conceptual framework for the International Classification for Patient Safety to a surgical population

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, L. M.; Woods, D. M.; Yanes, A. F.; Skaro, A. I.; Daud, A.; Curtis, T.; Wymore, E.; Holl, J. L.; Abecassis, M. M.; Ladner, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Efforts to improve patient safety are challenged by the lack of universally agreed upon terms. The International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS) was developed by the World Health Organization for this purpose. This study aimed to test the applicability of the ICPS to a surgical population. Design A web-based safety debriefing was sent to clinicians involved in surgical care of abdominal organ transplant patients. A multidisciplinary team of patient safety experts, surgeons and researchers used the data to develop a system of classification based on the ICPS. Disagreements were reconciled via consensus, and a codebook was developed for future use by researchers. Results A total of 320 debriefing responses were used for the initial review and codebook development. In total, the 320 debriefing responses contained 227 patient safety incidents (range: 0–7 per debriefing) and 156 contributing factors/hazards (0–5 per response). The most common severity classification was ‘reportable circumstance,’ followed by ‘near miss.’ The most common incident types were ‘resources/organizational management,’ followed by ‘medical device/equipment.’ Several aspects of surgical care were encompassed by more than one classification, including operating room scheduling, delays in care, trainee-related incidents, interruptions and handoffs. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a framework for patient safety can be applied to facilitate the organization and analysis of surgical safety data. Several unique aspects of surgical care require consideration, and by using a standardized framework for describing concepts, research findings can be compared and disseminated across surgical specialties. The codebook is intended for use as a framework for other specialties and institutions. PMID:26803539

  4. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  5. A decade of international cooperation brings a standard seismic point of view

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, H. S

    1971-01-01

    Whether in a castle in Italy, a police station in Iceland, o an abandoned gold mine in Australia, the sensitive instruments in the Worldwide Seismograph Network send a steady flow of standard earthquake records to the geophysical scientific community. They provide the raw data that make possible very precise earthquake studies, precise because the instruments are identical and their product standard. A truly international program, this network of 115 stations in 61 countires and territories has laid the foundation for reserach in seismology for many years to come. 

  6. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station Payload Safety: Overcoming Differences and Working for Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Masayuki; Takeyasu, Yoshioka; Griffith, Gerald; Goto, Katsuhito; Mitsui, Masami

    2010-09-01

    The importance of international cooperation among the International Space Station(ISS) Program participants is ever increasing as the ISS nears assembly complete. In the field of payload safety assurance, NASA and JAXA have enhanced their cooperation level. The authors describe the evolution of cooperation between the two agencies and the challenges encountered and overcame. NASA and JAXA have been working toward development of a NASA Payload Safety Review Panel(PSRP) franchise panel at JAXA for several years. When the JAXA Safety Review Panel(SRP) becomes a fully franchised panel of the NASA PSRP, the JAXA SRP will have the authority review and approve all JAXA ISS payloads operated on USOS and JEM, although NASA and JAXA joint reviews may be conducted as necessary. A NASA PSRP franchised panel at JAXA will streamline the conventional review process. Japanese payload organizations will not have to go through both JAXA and NASA payload safety reviews, while NASA will be relieved of a certain amount of review activities. The persistent efforts have recently born fruit. For the past two years, NASA and JAXA have increased emphasis on efforts to develop a NASA PSRP Franchised Panel at JAXA with concrete results. In 2009, NASA and JAXA signed Charter and Joint Development Plan. At the end of 2009, NASA PSRP transferred some review responsibility to the JAXA SRP under the franchising charter. Although JAXA had long history of reviewing payloads by their own panel prior to NASA PSRP reviews, it took several years for JAXA to receive NASA PSRP approval for delegation of franchised review authority to JAXA. This paper discusses challenges JAXA and NAXA faced. Considerations were required in developing a franchise at JAXA for history and experiences of the JAXA SRP as well as language and cultural differences. The JAXA panel, not only had its own well-established processes and supporting organizational structures which had some differences from its NASA PSRP counterparts

  7. International Nuclear Safety Center database on thermophysical properties of reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Sofu, T.; Ley, H.

    1997-08-01

    The International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) database has been established at Argonne National Laboratory to provide easily accessible data and information necessary to perform nuclear safety analyses and to promote international collaboration through the exchange of nuclear safety information. The INSC database, located on the World Wide Web at http://www.insc.anl.gov, contains critically assessed recommendations for reactor material properties for normal operating conditions, transients, and severe accidents. The initial focus of the database is on thermodynamic and transport properties of materials for water reactors. Materials that are being included in the database are fuel, absorbers, cladding, structural materials, coolant, and liquid mixtures of combinations of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Zr, stainless steel, absorber materials, and concrete. For each property, the database includes: (1) a summary of recommended equations with uncertainties; (2) a detailed data assessment giving the basis for the recommendations, comparisons with experimental data and previous recommendations, and uncertainties; (3) graphs showing recommendations, uncertainties, and comparisons with data and other equations; and (4) property values tabulated as a function of temperature.

  8. Technical Guidance from the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space for Design and Development Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerer, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space [1] has been adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The safety framework reflects an international consensus on best practices. After the older 1992 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second document at UN level dedicated entirely to space nuclear power sources.This paper analyses aspects of the safety framework relevant for the design and development phases of space nuclear power sources. While early publications have started analysing the legal aspects of the safety framework, its technical guidance has not yet been subject to scholarly articles. The present paper therefore focuses on the technical guidance provided in the safety framework, in an attempt to assist engineers and practitioners to benefit from these.

  9. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations.

  10. International small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks to avoid dam failure flood disasters in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Dam, Tuyet Thi; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries small dam failure disasters are common yet research on their dam safety management is lacking. This paper reviews available small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks from international literature, synthesises them for applicability in developing countries, and provides example application through a case study of Vietnam. Generic models from 'minimum' to 'best' practice (Pisaniello, 1997) are synthesised with the World Bank's 'essential' and 'desirable' elements (Bradlow et al., 2002) leading to novel policy analysis and design criteria for developing countries. The case study involved 22 on-site dam surveys finding micro level physical and management inadequacies that indicates macro dam safety management policy performs far below the minimum benchmark in Vietnam. Moving assurance policy towards 'best practice' is necessary to improve the safety of Vietnam's considerable number of hazardous dams to acceptable community standards, but firstly achieving 'minimum practice' per the developed guidance is essential. The policy analysis/design process provides an exemplar for other developing countries to follow for avoiding dam failure flood disasters.

  11. Evaluation of the organisation and effectiveness of internal audits to govern patient safety in hospitals: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    van Gelderen, Saskia C; Zegers, Marieke; Boeijen, Wilma; Westert, Gert P; Robben, Paul B; Wollersheim, Hub C

    2017-07-10

    Hospital boards are legally responsible for safe healthcare. They need tools to assist them in their task of governing patient safety. Almost every Dutch hospital performs internal audits, but the effectiveness of these audits for hospital governance has never been evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the organisation of internal audits and their effectiveness for hospitals boards to govern patient safety. A mixed-methods study consisting of a questionnaire regarding the organisation of internal audits among all Dutch hospitals (n=89) and interviews with stakeholders regarding the audit process and experienced effectiveness of audits within six hospitals. Response rate of the questionnaire was 76% and 43 interviews were held. In every responding hospital, the internal audits followed the plan-do-check-act cycle. Every hospital used interviews, document analysis and site visits as input for the internal audit. Boards stated that effective aspects of internal audits were their multidisciplinary scope, their structured and in-depth approach, the usability to monitor improvement activities and to change hospital policy and the fact that results were used in meetings with staff and boards of supervisors. The qualitative methods (interviews and site visits) used in internal audits enable the identification of soft signals such as unsafe culture or communication and collaboration problems. Reported disadvantages were the low frequency of internal audits and the absence of soft signals in the actual audit reports. This study shows that internal audits are regarded as effective for patient safety governance, as they help boards to identify patient safety problems, proactively steer patient safety and inform boards of supervisors on the status of patient safety. The description of the Dutch internal audits makes these audits replicable to other healthcare organisations in different settings, enabling hospital boards to complement their systems to govern patient

  12. Internal loading theory for mantle convection revisited: the trade-off between viscosity and seismic velocity to density conversion factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandan, D.; Peltier, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    The internal loading theory requires information on the radial viscosity profile and the lateral density heterogeneity in the mantle to compute signatures of the dynamical response to convective overturning. Following observations by Masters et al., (1982), that at long wavelengths the geoid is highly correlated with the heterogeneity observed seiemically at the base of the transition region, it has been suggested [Forte and Peltier, 1987, 1991; Pari and Peltier, 1995,1997] that the form of the viscosity profile that best reduces the variance between the observed geoid and the predicted geoid, be such as to include the presence of a low viscosity layer at the base of the transition zone. The geoid kernels computed using the theory will then peak in the transition zone and pick up features of the heterogeneity that provide a good fit to the geoid. However, within the formalism of the internal loading theory, it is possible to vary the amplitude of the seismic conversion factor instead (within the same region), and achieve an equivalent amount of variance reduction. Recent theoretical results based on a self-consistent thermodynamic model [Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2007] suggest that sharp changes in the amplitude of the conversion factor are in fact expected in the transition zone due to the presence of well documented transitions of mineral phase. We explore this tradeoff between variations in the viscosity profile and the body wave to density conversion factor on the variance reduction achievable for the geoid. Since this tradeoff is shown to be extremely important we explore the results achievable by fixing the viscosity profile to that required by the observables related to the global process of glacial isostatic adjustment and optimizing the fit to the data by adjusting the conversion factor. If time allows, we will also present results for the geodynamic observables predicted by the internal loading theory when the density anomaly is generated using the

  13. 46 CFR 109.103 - Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.103 Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. No self-propelled unit of more than 500 gross tons may embark on...

  14. BFS, a Legacy to the International Reactor Physics, Criticality Safety, and Nuclear Data Communities

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Anatoly Tsibulya; Yevgeniy Rozhikhin

    2012-03-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. Two Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) activities, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), initiated in 1992, and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP), initiated in 2003, have been identifying existing integral experiment data, evaluating those data, and providing integral benchmark specifications for methods and data validation for nearly two decades. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. Data provided by these two projects will be of use to the international reactor physics, criticality safety, and nuclear data communities for future decades The Russian Federation has been a major contributor to both projects with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) as the major contributor from the Russian Federation. Included in the benchmark specifications from the BFS facilities are 34 critical configurations from BFS-49, 61, 62, 73, 79, 81, 97, 99, and 101; spectral characteristics measurements from BFS-31, 42, 57, 59, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101; reactivity effects measurements from BFS-62-3A; reactivity coefficients and kinetics measurements from BFS-73; and reaction rate measurements from BFS-42, 61, 62, 73, 97, 99, and 101.

  15. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Processes and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matt R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station Program at NASA is constantly seeking to improve the processes and systems that support safe space operations. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with 3 goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data; and increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes. These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based structured data system that includes strong process support and supports integration with other information systems. Along with the data systems, ISS is evolving its submission requirements and safety process requirements to support the improved model. In contrast to existing operations (where paper processes and electronic file repositories are used for safety data management) the web-based solution provides the program with dramatically faster access to records, the ability to search for and reference specific data within records, reduced workload for hazard updates and approval, and process support including digital signatures and controlled record workflow. In addition, integration with other key data systems provides assistance with assessments of flight readiness, more efficient review and approval of operational controls and better tracking of international safety certifications. This approach will also provide new opportunities to streamline the sharing of data with ISS international partners while maintaining compliance with applicable laws and respecting restrictions on proprietary data. One goal of this paper is to outline the approach taken by the ISS Progrm to determine requirements for the new system and to devise a practical and efficient implementation strategy. From conception through implementation, ISS and NASA partners utilized a user-centered software development approach focused on user research and iterative design methods. The user-centered approach used on

  16. Development of a Quality and Safety Competency Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residency: An International Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Adleman, Jenna; Gillan, Caitlin; Caissie, Amanda; Davis, Carol-Anne; Liszewski, Brian; McNiven, Andrea; Giuliani, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    To develop an entry-to-practice quality and safety competency profile for radiation oncology residency. A comprehensive list of potential quality and safety competency items was generated from public and professional resources and interprofessional focus groups. Redundant or out-of-scope items were eliminated through investigator consensus. Remaining items were subjected to an international 2-round modified Delphi process involving experts in radiation oncology, radiation therapy, and medical physics. During Round 1, each item was scored independently on a 9-point Likert scale indicating appropriateness for inclusion in the competency profile. Items indistinctly ranked for inclusion or exclusion were re-evaluated through web conference discussion and reranked in Round 2. An initial 1211 items were compiled from 32 international sources and distilled to 105 unique potential quality and safety competency items. Fifteen of the 50 invited experts participated in round 1: 10 radiation oncologists, 4 radiation therapists, and 1 medical physicist from 13 centers in 5 countries. Round 1 rankings resulted in 80 items included, 1 item excluded, and 24 items indeterminate. Two areas emerged more prominently within the latter group: change management and human factors. Web conference with 5 participants resulted in 9 of these 24 items edited for content or clarity. In Round 2, 12 participants rescored all indeterminate items resulting in 10 items ranked for inclusion. The final 90 enabling competency items were organized into thematic groups consisting of 18 key competencies under headings adapted from Deming's System of Profound Knowledge. This quality and safety competency profile may inform minimum training standards for radiation oncology residency programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety.

    PubMed

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Angola Seismicity MAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  19. Observational studies in South African mines to mitigate seismic risks: implications for mine safety and tectonic earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrheim, Raymond; Ogaswara, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Masao; Yabe, Yasuo; Milev, Alexander; Cichowicz, Artur; Kawakata, Hironori; Moriya, Hirokazu; Naoi, Makoto; Kgarume, Thabang; Murakami, Osamu; Mngadi, Siyanda

    2014-05-01

    Seismicity poses a significant risk to workers in deep and overstressed mines, such as the gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin of South Africa, as well as inhabitants of earthquake-prone regions such as Japan. A 5-year collaborative project entitled "Observational studies in South African mines to mitigate seismic risks" was launched in 2010 to address these risks, drawing on over a century of South African and Japanese research experience with respect to mining-related and tectonic earthquakes, respectively. The project has three main aims: (1) to learn more about earthquake preparation and triggering mechanisms by deploying arrays of sensitive sensors within rock volumes where mining is likely to induce seismic activity; (2) to learn more about earthquake rupture and rockburst damage phenomena by deploying robust strong ground motion sensors close to potential fault zones and on stope hangingwalls; and (3) to upgrade the South African surface national seismic network in the mining districts. Research sites have been established at mines operated by Sibanye Gold (Hlanganani Shaft and Cooke #4 Shaft) and Anglogold Ashanti (Moab-Khotsong). More than 70 boreholes (totalling more than 2.8 km in length) have been drilled to locate "capable" faults i.e. faults that are considered likely to become seismically active as a result of mining activity and to deploy sensors. Acoustic emission sensors, strain- and tilt meters, and controlled seismic sources were installed to monitor the deformation of the rock mass, the accumulation of damage during the earthquake preparation phase, and changes in dynamic stress produced by the propagation of the rupture front. These data are being integrated with measurements of rock properties, stope closure, stope strong motion, seismic data recorded by the mine-wide network, and stress modelling. The mid-point of the 5-year project has passed. New observations of stress and the response of the rock mass to mining have already been made

  20. Using lean methodology to teach quality improvement to internal medicine residents at a safety net hospital.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Charlene; Suen, Winnie; Gupte, Gouri

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this initiative was to develop a quality improvement (QI) curriculum using Lean methodology for internal medicine residents at Boston Medical Center, a safety net academic hospital. A total of 90 residents and 8 School of Public Health students participated in a series of four, 60- to 90-minute interactive and hands-on QI sessions. Seventeen QI project plans were created and conducted over a 4-month period. The curriculum facilitated internal medicine residents' learning about QI and development of positive attitudes toward QI (assessed using pre- and post-attitude surveys) and exposed them to an interprofessional team structure that duplicates future working relationships. This QI curriculum can be an educational model of how health care trainees can work collaboratively to improve health care quality.

  1. Temporal Considerations in Mission Safety Decision Making- An International Space Station Case Study Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Operations on the International Space Station(ISS) shall ensure mission success whilst maintaining safety for the ISS crew, ISS and visiting vehicles(also known as Safety of Flight(SoF)). Prior to mission, within the mission development and preparation process operations products are defined to form a boundary around and assure mission success. Over the phases of the safety review process, undertaken within spaceflight hardware design, approaches such as failure tolerance are employed to appropriately control the inherent or induced hazards presented by the spaceflight hardware or its use. Prior to mission execution all nominal operations are certified as being safe -it follows then that only after the instance of “issues”, such as hardware anomalies, that operational deltas arise and need further safety(or risk) assessment to be brought to the appropriate approval authority. In some rare cases the need for a new safety assessment response arises due to a change in safety requirements. During a mission, the tools by which a new safety case is assessed by mission management includes concepts as “time to effect” and “time of exposure” and form part of the normal risk understanding and acceptance process. The ISS Mission Management Team(IMMT) shall assure that the presentable risks are acceptable, in terms the specific risk and the accumulated risk. “Equivalent safety” may be granted for noncompliant conditions that do not meet specific requirements in the exact manner specified; however, the hardware/system design, procedure, or configuration satisfies the intent of the requirement by achieving a comparable or higher degree of safety. Criteria for establishing an “equivalent safety” is based on: a. Use of alternative methods/controls; b. Utilization of procedures, protective devices, preflight verification activities, and crew experience base; c. Reduced time of exposure; d. Likelihood/probability of additional failures after loss of first control

  2. Requirements relating to radon in the International Basic Safety Standards: information, measurement and national strategies.

    PubMed

    Colgan, P A; Boal, T; Czarwinski, R

    2013-03-01

    The fifth edition of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) has recently been established as Part 3 of the General Safety Requirements of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The BSS applies to all exposure situations and to all categories of exposure. As such, the BSS addresses both occupational exposure due to radon in workplaces and public exposure due to radon in dwellings. In workplaces, exposure due to radon is treated either as a planned exposure situation or as an existing exposure situation, depending on the circumstances. With regard to exposure due to radon in dwellings, the BSS requires that general information on radon, including information on health risks and the synergy with smoking, be made available to the public and other interested parties. Countries are also required to determine whether an action plan for controlling exposure due to radon indoors is necessary, and, if so, to establish and implement such an action plan. Guidance material, covering the establishment of reference levels, national and regional radon surveys, identification of radon prone areas, building codes for new buildings, corrective actions for existing buildings, information campaigns and programme evaluation and effectiveness is currently being developed.

  3. A Common Approach for the Certifying of International Space Station (ISS) Basic Hardware for Ground Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul D.; Trinchero, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    In order to support the International Space Station, as well as any future long term human missions, vast amounts of logistical-type hardware is required to be processed through the various launch sites. This category consists of such hardware as spare parts, replacement items, and upgraded hardware. The category also includes samples for experiments and consumables. One attribute that all these items have is they are generally non-hazardous, at least to ground personnel. Even though the items are non-hazardous, launch site ground safety has a responsibility for the protection of personnel, the flight hardware, and launch site resources. In order to fulfill this responsibility, the safety organization must have knowledge of the hardware and its operations. Conversely, the hardware providers are entitled to a process that is commensurate with the hazard. Additionally, a common system should be in place that is flexible enough to account for the requirements at all launch sites, so that, the hardware provider need only complete one process for ground safety regardless of the launch site.

  4. Using Comprehensive Science-based Disaster Scenarios to Support Seismic Safety Policy: A Case Study in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, the USGS entered a technical assistance agreement with the City of Los Angeles to apply the results of the 2008 ShakeOut Scenario of a M7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault to develop a comprehensive plan to increase the seismic resilience of the City. The results of this project are to be submitted to the Mayor of Los Angeles at the Great ShakeOut on October 16, 2014. The ShakeOut scenario detailed how the expected cascade of failures in a big earthquake could lead to significant delays in disaster recovery that could create financial losses that greatly exceed the direct losses in the event. The goal of the seismic resilience plan is to: protect the lives of residents during earthquakes improve the capacity of the City to respond to the earthquake prepare the City to recover quickly after the earthquake so as to protect the economy of the City and all of southern California To accomplish these goals, the project addresses three areas of seismic vulnerability that were identified in the original ShakeOut Scenario: Pre-1980 buildings that present an unacceptable risk to the lives of residents, including "non-ductile reinforced concrete," and "soft-first-story" buildings Water system infrastructure (including impact on firefighting capability) Communications infrastructure The critical science needed to support policy decisions is to understand the probable consequences to the regional long-term economy caused by decisions to undertake (or not) different levels of mitigation. The arguments against mitigation are the immediate financial costs, so a better understanding of the eventual benefit is required. However, the direct savings rarely justify the mitigation costs, so the arguments in favor of mitigation are driven by the potential for cascading failures and the potential to trigger the type of long term reduction in population and economic activity that has occurred in New Orleans since Hurricane Katrina.

  5. 46 CFR 109.103 - Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. 109.103 Section 109.103 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.103 Requirements of the International...

  6. 46 CFR 109.103 - Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. 109.103 Section 109.103 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.103 Requirements of the International...

  7. 46 CFR 109.103 - Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. 109.103 Section 109.103 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.103 Requirements of the International...

  8. 46 CFR 109.103 - Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974. 109.103 Section 109.103 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS General § 109.103 Requirements of the International...

  9. The International Safety Framework for nuclear power source applications in outer space-Useful and substantial guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerer, L.; Wilcox, R. E.; Bechtel, R.; Harbison, S.

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space was adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations under the auspices of a partnership between the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Safety Framework reflects an international consensus on best practices to achieve safety. Following the 1992 UN Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second attempt by the international community to draft guidance promoting the safety of applications of nuclear power sources in space missions. NPS applications in space have unique safety considerations compared with terrestrial applications. Mission launch and outer space operational requirements impose size, mass and other space environment limitations not present for many terrestrial nuclear facilities. Potential accident conditions could expose nuclear power sources to extreme physical conditions. The Safety Framework is structured to provide guidance for both the programmatic and technical aspects of safety. In addition to sections containing specific guidance for governments and for management, it contains technical guidance pertinent to the design, development and all mission phases of space NPS applications. All sections of the Safety Framework contain elements directly relevant to engineers and space mission designers for missions involving space nuclear power sources. The challenge for organisations and engineers involved in the design and development processes of space nuclear power sources and applications is to implement the guidance provided in the Safety Framework by integrating it into the existing standard space mission infrastructure of design, development and operational requirements, practices and processes. This adds complexity to the standard space mission and launch approval processes. The Safety Framework is deliberately

  10. Roadmap for the international collaborative epidemiologic monitoring of safety and effectiveness of new high priority vaccines.

    PubMed

    Izurieta, Hector S; Zuber, Patrick; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Chen, Robert T; Sankohg, Osman; Laserson, Kayla F; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Loucq, Christian; Weibel, Daniel; Dodd, Caitlin; Black, Steve

    2013-08-02

    With the advent of new vaccines targeted to highly endemic diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and with the expansion of vaccine manufacturing globally, there is an urgent need to establish an infrastructure to evaluate the benefit-risk profiles of vaccines in LMIC. Fortunately the usual decade(s)-long time gap between introduction of new vaccines in high and low income countries is being significantly reduced or eliminated due to initiatives such as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI) and the Decade of Vaccines for the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. While hoping for more rapid disease control, this time shift may potentially add risk, unless appropriate capacity for reliable and timely evaluation of vaccine benefit-risk profiles in some LMIC's are developed with external assistance from regional or global level. An ideal vaccine safety and effectiveness monitoring system should be flexible and sustainable, able to quickly detect possible vaccine-associated events, distinguish them from programmatic errors, reliably and quickly evaluate the suspected event and its association with vaccination and, if associated, determine the benefit-risk of vaccines to inform appropriate action. Based upon the demonstrated feasibility of active surveillance in LMIC as shown by the Burkina Faso assessment of meningococcal A conjugate vaccine or that of rotavirus vaccine in Mexico and Brazil, and upon the proof of concept international GBS study, we suggest a sustainable, flexible, affordable and timely international collaborative vaccine safety monitoring approach for vaccines being newly introduced. While this paper discusses only the vaccine component, the same system could also be eventually used for monitoring drug effectiveness (including the use of substandard drugs) and drug safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. International R&M/Safety Cooperation Lessons Learned Between NASA and JAXA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Rene; Havenhill, Maria T.; Zampino, Edward J.; Kiefer, Dwayne E.

    2013-01-01

    Presented are a number of important experiences gained and lessons learned from the collaboration of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) on the CoNNeCT (Communications, Navigation, and Networking re-Configurable Testbed) project. Both space agencies worked on the CoNNeCT Project to design, assemble, test, integrate, and launch a communications testbed facility mounted onto the International Space Station (ISS) truss. At the 2012 RAMS, two papers about CoNNeCT were presented: one on Ground Support Equipment Reliability & System Safety, and the other one on combined application of System Safety & Reliability for the flight system. In addition to the logistics challenges present when two organizations are on the opposite side of the world, there is also a language barrier. The language barrier encompasses not only the different alphabet, it encompasses the social interactions; these were addressed by techniques presented in the paper. The differences in interpretation and application of Spaceflight Requirements will be discussed in this paper. Although many, but definitely not all, of JAXA's Spaceflight Requirements were inspired by NASA, there were significant and critically important differences in how they were interpreted and applied. This paper intends to summarize which practices worked and which did not for an international collaborative effort so that future missions may benefit from our experiences. The CoNNeCT flight system has been successfully assembled, integrated, tested, shipped, launched and installed on the ISS without incident. This demonstrates that the steps taken to facilitate international understanding, communication, and coordination were successful and warrant discussion as lessons learned.

  12. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  13. Comment on "How can seismic hazard around the New Madrid seismic zone be similar to that in California?" by Arthur Frankel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Shi, B.; Kiefer, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    PSHA is the method used most to assess seismic hazards for input into various aspects of public and financial policy. For example, PSHA was used by the U.S. Geological Survey to develop the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Frankel et al., 1996, 2002). These maps are the basis for many national, state, and local seismic safety regulations and design standards, such as the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, the International Building Code, and the International Residential Code. Adoption and implementation of these regulations and design standards would have significant impacts on many communities in the New Madrid area, including Memphis, Tennessee and Paducah, Kentucky. Although "mitigating risks to society from earthquakes involves economic and policy issues" (Stein, 2004), seismic hazard assessment is the basis. Seismologists should provide the best information on seismic hazards and communicate them to users and policy makers. There is a lack of effort in communicating the uncertainties in seismic hazard assessment in the central U.S., however. Use of 10%, 5%, and 2% PE in 50 years causes confusion in communicating seismic hazard assessment. It would be easy to discuss and understand the design ground motions if the true meaning of the ground motion derived from PSHA were presented, i.e., the ground motion with the estimated uncertainty or the associated confidence level.

  14. Seismotectonic characteristics of the Krško Basin with relation to seismic safety of existing and planned nuclear infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavec, Miloš; Atanackov, Jure; Jamšek Rupnik, Petra

    2015-04-01

    The Kr\\vsko Basin hosts complex infrastructure and is being investigated as a potential site for several future projects including a new NPP and a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository. A large database of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data has been accumulated, producing increasingly detailed tectonic and seismotectonic models of the Kr\\vsko Basin. The first tectonic and seismotectonic investigation campaign was undertaken in the 1970s for the first Kr\\vsko NPP (Arsovski et al., 1973). The next study (Fajfar et al., 1994) was followed by an extensive geophysical survey in in which basin axis-trending syncline was reevaluated (Persoglia, ed., 2000). In 2004 the geological, tectonic and seismotectonic characteristics of the Kr\\vsko Basin were readdressed by performing a periodic seismic hazard assessment for the NPP (Swan et al., 2004). After which, a series of field investigations were conducted for the potential radwaste repository site evaluation (Brenčič, ed., 2006; Petkovšek, ed., 2009). In 2008-2013 a set of geological, geotechnical and seismological investigations were performed for the proposed new NPP unit (Bazargan-Sabet et al., 2010). As part of this project the seismotectonic model and the seismic source model were updated (Bavec et al., 2010a,b). Particular attention was given to the Libna fault (Bavec et al., 2013), which was also the subject of a follow up study to further evaluate the age of deformed sediments in the basin (Cline et al., 2013). A new phase of geological, geophysical and geomorphic investigations is being undertaken in the Kr\\vsko basin by the team of Rizzo Associates and Geological Survey of Slovenia to refine on the geological and seismological inputs to the planned PSHA. The Basin has experienced moderate and dispersed seismic activity. The catalogue of known earthquakes in the region (ARSO, 2011) extends back to the early 17th century. The strongest earthquake in the Kr\\vsko basin was the

  15. Seismic imaging of the western Iberian crust using ambient noise: Boundaries and internal structure of the Iberian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Graça; Dias, Nuno; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Iberian Massif one of the major structural units of the Iberian Peninsula is composed by rocks with ages ranging from the Upper Precambrian to Upper Carboniferous. The massif outcrops in Central and Western Iberia and the location of its limits, as well as the relationship between its shallow and deeper structures are still a matter of debate. Several problems like source-receiver geometry, irregular seismicity distribution or, for some methods, low seismicity occurrence did not allow obtaining high-resolution models of Iberian structure using traditional imaging methods. Seismic interferometry/ambient noise surface-waves tomography allows imaging regions with a resolution that mainly depends on the seismic network coverage. This study aims to map the boundaries of the Iberian Massif particularly those that are covered or in contact with recent (Cenozoic) and older (Mesozoic) basins. Whenever possible, we intend to characterize second-order structures inside the Massif. We present new Rayleigh-wave dispersion maps of the western Iberian Peninsula for periods between 8 and 30 seconds, obtained from correlations of seismic ambient noise, following the recent increase in seismic broadband network density in Portugal and Spain. Group velocities have been computed for each station pair using the empirical Green's functions generated by cross-correlating one-day-length seismic ambient-noise records. The resulting high-path density allows us to obtain lateral variations of the group velocities as a function of period in cells of 0.5° x 0.5° with an unprecedented resolution. As a result we were able to address some of the unknowns regarding the lithospheric structure beneath SW Iberia. The dispersion maps allow the imaging of the major structural units, namely the Iberian Massif, and the Lusitanian and Algarve Meso-Cenozoic basins. The Cadiz Gulf/Gibraltar Strait area corresponds to a strong low-velocity anomaly, which can be followed to the largest period inverted

  16. The International Federation for Emergency Medicine framework for quality and safety in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lecky, Fiona; Benger, Jonathan; Mason, Suzanne; Cameron, Peter; Walsh, Chris

    2014-11-01

    All emergency departments (EDs) have an obligation to deliver care that is demonstrably safe and of the highest possible quality. Emergency medicine is a unique and rapidly developing specialty, which forms the hub of the emergency care system and strives to provide a consistent and effective service 24 h a day, 7 days a week. The International Federation of Emergency Medicine, representing more than 70 countries, has prepared a document to define a framework for quality and safety in the ED. Following a consensus conference and with subsequent development, a series of quality indicators have been proposed. These are tabulated in the form of measures designed to answer nine quality questions presented according to the domains of structure, process and outcome. There is an urgent need to improve the evidence base to determine which quality indicators have the potential to successfully improve clinical outcomes, staff and patient experience in a cost-efficient manner--with lessons for implementation.

  17. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Complexity of the international agro-food trade network and its impact on food safety.

    PubMed

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Lakner, Zoltán; Baranyi, József

    2012-01-01

    With the world's population now in excess of 7 billion, it is vital to ensure the chemical and microbiological safety of our food, while maintaining the sustainability of its production, distribution and trade. Using UN databases, here we show that the international agro-food trade network (IFTN), with nodes and edges representing countries and import-export fluxes, respectively, has evolved into a highly heterogeneous, complex supply-chain network. Seven countries form the core of the IFTN, with high values of betweenness centrality and each trading with over 77% of all the countries in the world. Graph theoretical analysis and a dynamic food flux model show that the IFTN provides a vehicle suitable for the fast distribution of potential contaminants but unsuitable for tracing their origin. In particular, we show that high values of node betweenness and vulnerability correlate well with recorded large food poisoning outbreaks.

  19. International perspectives on food safety and regulations - a need for harmonized regulations: perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiumei

    2014-08-01

    Food safety is a major livelihood issue and a priority concern in China. Since the Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued in 2009, the food safety control system has been strengthened through, inter alia, the Food Safety Risk Surveillance System, the Food Safety Risk Assessment System and the Food Safety Standards System. In accordance with the Food Safety Law and regulations for implementation, the Ministry of Health released the 'Twelfth Five-year Plan' of Food Safety Standards. The existing 5000 food-related standards will be integrated. Notwithstanding, the supervision system in China needs to be further improved and strengthened.

  20. New seismic hazard maps for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, C.; Frankel, A.; Petersen, M.; Leyendecker, E.

    2010-01-01

    The probabilistic methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey is applied to a new seismic hazard assessment for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Modeled seismic sources include gridded historical seismicity, subduction-interface and strike-slip faults with known slip rates, and two broad zones of crustal extension with seismicity rates constrained by GPS geodesy. We use attenuation relations from western North American and worldwide data, as well as a Caribbean-specific relation. Results are presented as maps of peak ground acceleration and 0.2- and 1.0-second spectral response acceleration for 2% and 10% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years (return periods of about 2,500 and 500 years, respectively). This paper describes the hazard model and maps that were balloted by the Building Seismic Safety Council and recommended for the 2003 NEHRP Provisions and the 2006 International Building Code. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  1. Technical Letter Report: Evaluation and Analysis of a Few International Periodic Safety Review Summary Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, Omesh K.; Diercks, Dwight R.; Ma, David Chia-Chiun; Garud, Yogendra S.

    2013-12-17

    At the request of the United States (U.S.) government, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) assembled a team of 20 senior safety experts to review the regulatory framework for the safety of operating nuclear power plants in the United States. This review focused on the effectiveness of the regulatory functions implemented by the NRC and on its commitment to nuclear safety and continuous improvement. One suggestion resulting from that review was that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) incorporate lessons learned from periodic safety reviews (PSRs) performed in other countries as an input to the NRC’s assessment processes. In the U.S., commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) are granted an initial 40-year operating license, which may be renewed for additional 20-year periods, subject to complying with regulatory requirements. The NRC has established a framework through its inspection, and operational experience processes to ensure the safe operation of licensed nuclear facilities on an ongoing basis. In contrast, most other countries do not impose a specific time limit on the operating licenses for NPPs, they instead require that the utility operating the plant perform PSRs, typically at approximately 10-year intervals, to assure continued safe operation until the next assessment. The staff contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to perform a pilot review of selected translated PSR assessment reports and related documentation from foreign nuclear regulatory authorities to identify any potential new regulatory insights regarding license renewal-related topics and NPP operating experience (OpE). A total of 14 PSR assessment documents from 9 countries were reviewed. For all of the countries except France, individual reports were provided for each of the plants reviewed. In the case of France, three reports were provided that reviewed the performance assessment of thirty-four 900-MWe reactors of similar design commissioned between 1978

  2. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  3. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  4. Safety of early endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis: an international multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tsivgoulis, G; Krogias, C; Georgiadis, G S; Mikulik, R; Safouris, A; Meves, S H; Voumvourakis, K; Haršány, M; Staffa, R; Papageorgiou, S G; Katsanos, A H; Lazaris, A; Mumme, A; Lazarides, M; Vasdekis, S N

    2014-10-01

    Although the latest recommendations suggest that carotid endarterectomy (CEA) should be performed in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (sCAS) patients within 2 weeks of the index event, only a minority of patients undergo surgery within the recommended time-frame. The aim of this international multicenter study was to prospectively evaluate the safety of early CEA in patients with sCAS in everyday clinical practice settings. Consecutive patients with non-disabling acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) due to sCAS (≥ 70%) underwent early (≤ 14 days) CEA at five tertiary-care stroke centers during a 2-year period. Primary outcome events included stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) or death occurring during the 30-day follow-up period and were defined according to the International Carotid Stenting Study criteria. A total of 165 patients with sCAS [mean age 69 ± 10 years; 69% men; 70% AIS; 6% crescendo TIA; 8% with contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion] underwent early CEA (median elapsed time from symptom onset 8 days). Urgent CEA (≤ 2 days) was performed in 20 cases (12%). The primary outcomes of stroke and MI were 4.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5%-8.1%] and 0.6% (95% CI 0%-1.8%). The combined outcome event of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal MI or death was 5.5% (95% CI 2.0%-9.0%). Crescendo TIA, contralateral ICA occlusion and urgent CEA were not associated (P > 0.2) with a higher 30-day stroke rate. Our findings indicate that the risk of early CEA in consecutive unselected patients with non-disabling AIS or TIA due to sCAS is acceptable when the procedure is performed within 2 weeks (or even within 2 days) from symptom onset. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  5. Imaging the internal structure of a warm core ring in the Gulf of Mexico using industry high resolution seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, J. C.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the water column sound speed during an industrial seismic survey from the Gulf of Mexico, imaging a warm core ring that passes through the survey during acquisition. We use single seismic reflection line donated by Schlumberger Ltd., from a 3D survey, to image water column reflections and estimate a sound speed field within the water column during the survey. WesternGeco Ltd. acquired a 65 km line in the Green Canyon area in August of 2001 using a group interval of 12.5m, 412 channels per streamer aboard the MV. Legend. The transect runs southwest from shallow to deeper water across a canyon area and intersects a warm core ring feature traveling eastwards through the survey area. We present a migration of the water column data to image the water masses within a warm core ring with a resolution of 6.25 m along the sail line and a 15 m vertical resolution. Images processed show strong seismic reflectors due to temperature variations within the water column. The stack section of the line shows a distinct dipping event in the reflectors as the line is acquired moving towards the center of the ring. A distinct fine structure is present in the reflectors at a depth of approx 750m at the edge of the ring rising to approx. 600m depth towards the center of the ring. The affect of the warm core ring seems to significantly perturb the sound speed profiles within the water column along the entire 64km line with the effects of the ring being concentrated in the 225m to 1000m depth range. Velocity analysis indicates a complex velocity profile highly spatial variant through the ring structure. This survey provides a detailed image of water sound speed changes due a highly localized feature within the water column from data acquired during an industry seismic survey.

  6. Impact of the Global Food Safety Initiative on Food Safety Worldwide: Statistical Analysis of a Survey of International Food Processors.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Philip G; Mauromoustakos, Andy; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Thompson, Kevin C; Yiannas, Frank; Bridges, Kerry; Francois, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In 2000, the Consumer Goods Forum established the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) to increase the safety of the world's food supply and to harmonize food safety regulations worldwide. In 2013, a university research team in conjunction with Diversey Consulting (Sealed Air), the Consumer Goods Forum, and officers of GFSI solicited input from more than 15,000 GFSI-certified food producers worldwide to determine whether GFSI certification had lived up to these expectations. A total of 828 usable questionnaires were analyzed, representing about 2,300 food manufacturing facilities and food suppliers in 21 countries, mainly across Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Nearly 90% of these certified suppliers perceived GFSI as being beneficial for addressing their food safety concerns, and respondents were eight times more likely to repeat the certification process knowing what it entailed. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of these food manufacturers would choose to go through the certification process again even if certification were not required by one of their current retail customers. Important drivers for becoming GFSI certified included continuing to do business with an existing customer, starting to do business with new customer, reducing the number of third-party food safety audits, and continuing improvement of their food safety program. Although 50% or fewer respondents stated that they saw actual increases in sales, customers, suppliers, or employees, significantly more companies agreed than disagreed that there was an increase in these key performance indicators in the year following GFSI certification. A majority of respondents (81%) agreed that there was a substantial investment in staff time since certification, and 50% agreed there was a significant capital investment. This survey is the largest and most representative of global food manufacturers conducted to date.

  7. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  8. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  9. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seismic acknowledgments. 1792.104 Section 1792.104... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For...

  10. Improving Safety on the International Space Station: Transitioning to Electronic Emergency Procedure Books on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter-Journet, Katrina; Clahoun, Jessica; Morrow, Jason; Duncan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) originally designed the International Space Station (ISS) to operate until 2015, but have extended operations until at least 2020. As part of this very dynamic Program, there is an effort underway to simplify the certification of Commercial ]of ]the ]Shelf (COTS) hardware. This change in paradigm allows the ISS Program to take advantage of technologically savvy and commercially available hardware, such as the iPad. The iPad, a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc., was chosen to support this endeavor. The iPad is functional, portable, and could be easily accessed in an emergency situation. The iPad Electronic Flight Bag (EFB), currently approved for use in flight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is a fraction of the cost of a traditional Class 2 EFB. In addition, the iPad fs ability to use electronic aeronautical data in lieu of paper in route charts and approach plates can cut the annual cost of paper data in half for commercial airlines. ISS may be able to benefit from this type of trade since one of the most important factors considered is information management. Emergency procedures onboard the ISS are currently available to the crew in paper form. Updates to the emergency books can either be launched on an upcoming visiting vehicle such as a Russian Soyuz flight or printed using the onboard ISS printer. In both cases, it is costly to update hardcopy procedures. A new operations concept was proposed to allow for the use of a tablet system that would provide a flexible platform to support space station crew operations. The purpose of the system would be to provide the crew the ability to view and maintain operational data, such as emergency procedures while also allowing Mission Control Houston to update the procedures. The ISS Program is currently evaluating the safety risks associated with the use of iPads versus paper. Paper products can contribute to the flammability

  11. International phase III trial of liprotamase efficacy and safety in pancreatic-insufficient cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Borowitz, Drucy; Stevens, Christopher; Brettman, Lee R; Campion, Marilyn; Chatfield, Barbara; Cipolli, Marco

    2011-12-01

    Most cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) and need supplementation with pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT). Liprotamase, a novel non-porcine PERT containing highly purified biotechnology-derived lipase, protease, and amylase, has successfully undergone initial efficacy and safety testing. In this international phase III parallel-group, randomized-withdrawal, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, CF patients with EPI 7 years and older, including nutritionally and functionally compromised individuals, underwent baseline testing for coefficients of fat and nitrogen absorption (CFA and CNA) and stool weight and frequency while off PERT. After an open-label treatment period with liprotamase, subjects were randomized 1:1 to one liprotamase or placebo capsule taken with 3 meals and 2 snacks per day. The dose was fixed and increases were not allowed. The same measurements were obtained again after treatment with double-blind study drug or placebo. 138 subjects were randomized. The adjusted least squares mean (LSM) difference between the treatment and placebo groups for change in CFA was 15.1% (p=0.001) for the subgroup with baseline CFA <40%, 8.6% (p=0.006) for subjects with baseline CFA ≥40%, and 10.6% (p<0.001) for the overall intent-to-treat population. Similar results were seen for change in CNA. Stool weight was significantly decreased although not stool frequency. Liprotamase was well tolerated with no safety concerns identified. In a CF patient population reflective of that encountered in clinical practice, this trial demonstrated that liprotamase at a fixed dose of one capsule per meal or snack (5 capsules per day) was well tolerated and significantly increased fat absorption as measured by improvement in CFA, significantly increased protein absorption as measured by improvement in CNA, and significantly decreased stool weight. Copyright © 2011 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  12. New "Risk-Targeted" Seismic Maps Introduced into Building Codes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luco, Nicholas; Garrett, B.; Hayes, J.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout most municipalities of the United States, structural engineers design new buildings using the U.S.-focused International Building Code (IBC). Updated editions of the IBC are published every 3 years. The latest edition (2012) contains new "risk-targeted maximum considered earthquake" (MCER) ground motion maps, which are enabling engineers to incorporate a more consistent and better defined level of seismic safety into their building designs.

  13. Speaking up about traditional and professionalism-related patient safety threats: a national survey of interns and residents.

    PubMed

    Martinez, William; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Thomas, Eric J; Etchegaray, Jason M; Shelburne, Julia T; Hickson, Gerald B; Brady, Donald W; Schleyer, Anneliese M; Best, Jennifer A; May, Natalie B; Bell, Sigall K

    2017-04-25

    Open communication between healthcare professionals about care concerns, also known as 'speaking up', is essential to patient safety. Compare interns' and residents' experiences, attitudes and factors associated with speaking up about traditional versus professionalism-related safety threats. Anonymous, cross-sectional survey. Six US academic medical centres, 2013-2014. 1800 medical and surgical interns and residents (47% responded). Attitudes about, barriers and facilitators for, and self-reported experience with speaking up. Likelihood of speaking up and the potential for patient harm in two vignettes. Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) teamwork and safety scales; and Speaking Up Climate for Patient Safety (SUC-Safe) and Speaking Up Climate for Professionalism (SUC-Prof) scales. Respondents more commonly observed unprofessional behaviour (75%, 628/837) than traditional safety threats (49%, 410/837); p<0.001, but reported speaking up about unprofessional behaviour less commonly (46%, 287/628 vs 71%, 291/410; p<0.001). Respondents more commonly reported fear of conflict as a barrier to speaking up about unprofessional behaviour compared with traditional safety threats (58%, 482/837 vs 42%, 348/837; p<0.001). Respondents were also less likely to speak up to an attending physician in the professionalism vignette than the traditional safety vignette, even when they perceived high potential patient harm (20%, 49/251 vs 71%, 179/251; p<0.001). Positive perceptions of SAQ teamwork climate and SUC-Safe were independently associated with speaking up in the traditional safety vignette (OR 1.90, 99% CI 1.36 to 2.66 and 1.46, 1.02 to 2.09, respectively), while only a positive perception of SUC-Prof was associated with speaking up in the professionalism vignette (1.76, 1.23 to 2.50). Interns and residents commonly observed unprofessional behaviour yet were less likely to speak up about it compared with traditional safety threats even when they perceived high potential patient

  14. De-Orbiting the International Space Station ISS: Safety Considerations and Preliminary Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschi, F.; Huertas, I.; Ortega, G.; Sgobba, T.; Laurel, C.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has proposed to its partners the de-orbiting of the International Space Station (ISS) around the year 2020. Technical plans on how to do it have been presented as long as the year 1999. The current situation of ISS claims for a possible extension of the date of 2020 but to all International Partners is clear that the de-orbiting operations need to be performed with safety as the main and central paradigm. The proposed paper evaluates several scenarios and options for the de- orbiting of ISS. The paper proposes trajectory design considerations, de- orbit strategies and the calculation of casualties and fatalities for some of those. The paper proposes as well some fragment disposal regions using the classic approach of disposing ISS on ground and compares it with the feasibility and cost with the approach of end of life vehicle recycling culture of the European Union. The paper computes and calculates the reliability of all options and establishes a trade-off between all of them. The paper provides a detailed mathematical model that is able to calculate casualty and fatality rates. The mathematical model has been programmed in the ASTOS software tool and the corresponding casualty and fatality curves have been computed for some considered options. The following options are studied, discussed, and traded- off: simple one-go complete disposal of ISS with controlled de-orbiting using a service module, complex partial disposal of ISS elements with controlled de-orbiting using a modified version of service module, same variation using a set of auxiliary vehicles, design of a new vehicle to dispose the ISS and finally the uncontrolled re-entry of the entire ISS. Further, the paper proposes some de-orbiting requirements, and mission design considerations for a successful end-of-mission closure.

  15. Seismic assessment of Technical Area V (TA-V).

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, Carlos S.

    2014-03-01

    The Technical Area V (TA-V) Seismic Assessment Report was commissioned as part of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Self Assessment Requirement per DOE O 414.1, Quality Assurance, for seismic impact on existing facilities at Technical Area-V (TA-V). SNL TA-V facilities are located on an existing Uniform Building Code (UBC) Seismic Zone IIB Site within the physical boundary of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). The document delineates a summary of the existing facilities with their safety-significant structure, system and components, identifies DOE Guidance, conceptual framework, past assessments and the present Geological and Seismic conditions. Building upon the past information and the evolution of the new seismic design criteria, the document discusses the potential impact of the new standards and provides recommendations based upon the current International Building Code (IBC) per DOE O 420.1B, Facility Safety and DOE G 420.1-2, Guide for the Mitigation of Natural Phenomena Hazards for DOE Nuclear Facilities and Non-Nuclear Facilities.

  16. Mars Internal Structure: Seismic Predictions for Core Phase Arrivals in Anticipation of the InSight Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. C.; Banerdt, W. B.; Lognonne, P. H.; Hempel, S.; Panning, M. P.; Schmerr, N. C.; Garcia, R.; Shiro, B.; Gudkova, T.

    2016-12-01

    We present a methodology to constrain the seismic structure of the Martian core in preparation for the return of data from the InSight mission. Expected amplitudes for marsquakes assuming a medium seismicity model support the likely observation of core reflections of P and S energy for events with magnitude greater than MW 4.5. For the mission duration, we would expect to record on the order of 10 events of at least this magnitude. Our method predicts the ray density of core reflected (PcP, ScS) and transmitted (PKP, SKS) phases for various core sizes with core-mantle boundary depths between 1650 and 2100 km. Ray density is defined as the fraction of rays in a small source-receiver interval normalized by the total number of rays over a great circle slice through the planet. The ray density of a given phase is scaled by predicted amplitudes calculated considering attenuation, geometric spreading and reflection/transmission coefficients at discontinuities along the ray path. Maximum PcP/ScS amplitudes are expected at epicentral distances of 40-100 degrees. Thus, if present, strong seismicity in the Hellas and Tharsis region may facilitate core detection. For events with MW above 4.5, ScS and SKS signals are expected to lie above the lander noise, but PcP and PKP signals may barely be visible. The resolution of these phases can be improved by applying stacking techniques to account for expected background noise, scattering, and interfering seismic phases. These techniques were successfully applied to Apollo seismograms to infer the radial structure of the lunar core. Even if source depth and location have large uncertainties during a single-station mission to Mars, different phases can be distinguished by their slownesses. Prior to the summation of the traces of individual events, signals are aligned to a reference phase, e.g. the PcP onset assuming various core radii. A maximum in signal coherency corresponds to the best fitting core radius. In the case of lunar

  17. NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION AND SAFETY: Challenges Facing the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    safeguards), and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident have focused greater attention on nuclear proliferation and the safety of nuclear power... Chernobyl , IAEA has placed increasing emphasis on assisting member states in improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Despite funding shortfalls...report language, GAO has incorporated their comments where appropriate. 2Nuclear Power Safety: Chernobyl Accident Prompted Worldwide Actions but

  18. [Harmonization of microbiologicaland parasitological indices of epidemic safety of drinking water with the international requirements].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, L V; Artemova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaĭnova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasniak, A V; Korneĭchuk, S S; Shustova, S S

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of harmonization of microbiological and parasitological indices and benchmarks there was performed the comparative analysis of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in respect of the epidemic safety on the basic regulations of Russia, the Directive Council of the European Union EU, WHO, the United States, Canada, Australia, Finland, Sweden, Brazil, France, Japan and China. As a result, there were revealed the priority bacteriological, virological and parasitological parameters: E. coli--indicator of recent fecal contamination, coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria colony count (Heterotrophic plate count), which is in the water legislation of the Russian Federation is characterized as total bacterial count (TBC), being an integral index of the quality of wastewater treatment technologies and hygienic condition of the water supply systems, coliphages as an indicator of viral contamination. In the Guidelines for drinking-water quality control, WHO and a set of countries there is recommended a more wide range of indicators: enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enteroviruses, parasitological indices. With aim of harmonization of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in the Russian Federation with international approaches to the revision of the Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPin) 2.1.4.1074 into the project there are introduced priority indicator parameters of bacterial, viral and parasitic contamination of water, evidence-based guidelines.

  19. Internal geometry, seismic facies, and petroleum potential of canyons and inner fan channels of the Indus submarine fan

    SciTech Connect

    McHargue, T.R.; Webb, J.E.

    1986-02-01

    The Indus Fan, the second largest submarine fan in the world, covers 1,250,000 km/sup 2/ (500,000 mi/sup 2/) and contains sediment more than 7 km (23,000 ft) thick. Multichannel (24-fold) CDP seismic data provide the bases for evaluating the Indus Fan and consist of four seismic facies. Of these, only the high-amplitude, discontinuous (H-D) facies is thought to contain reservoir-quality sandstones. The H-D facies is confined to the axes of leveed channels. Canyon-channel systems that fed the fan in the past can be divided into three zones. The degradational zone is composed of an erosional canyon complex filled by prodelta mud. The transitional zone, located near the canyon mouth, consists of superimposed channels that initially were erosional but eventually aggraded and developed levees. The headward termination of the H-D facies occurs in this zone. The aggradational zone consists of superimposed leveed channels confined solely by their own levees. The proximal termination of the H-D facies near canyon mouths implies the presence of reservoir-quality sandstone surrounded by source/seal mudstone in the transitional zone. This stratigraphic trapping geometry and structural leads may represent a vast, untapped petroleum province.

  20. International Comparability of Patient Safety Indicators in 15 OECD Member Countries: A Methodological Approach of Adjustment by Secondary Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Drösler, Saskia E; Romano, Patrick S; Tancredi, Daniel J; Klazinga, Niek S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To improve the international comparability of patient safety indicators based on administrative hospital data, adjustment of country-specific rates by a proxy measure of diagnostic coding intensity was tested. Data Sources Secondary data (numerator and denominator counts of patient safety indicators) based on adults discharged from acute care hospitals between 2006 and 2008 was used. Study Design A retrospective cross-sectional study using hospital administrative data was performed. Data Collection Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States provided data according to detailed instructions. Principal Findings Age- and sex-standardized rates varied across countries. An ordinary least squares regression model was estimated for each Patient Safety Indicator (PSI) using the mean number of secondary diagnoses among denominator cases as the predictor (R2=23 percent to 56 percent). Estimated country-specific residuals were linearly transformed into adjusted PSI rates. Variation among age–sex standardized PSI rates decreased substantially after this adjustment. Conclusions International comparisons of health system performance based on unadjusted patient safety indicators are problematic due to suspected coding or ascertainment bias. The model could be an interim approach to provide comparable information on hospital quality, with a long-term goal of improving international consistency in diagnostic reporting in administrative data. PMID:21762143

  1. Seismic Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Seismic methods are the most commonly conducted geophysical surveys for engineering investigations. Seismic refraction provides engineers and geologists with the most basic of geologic data via simple procedures with common equipment.

  2. Appropriate small dam management for minimizing catchment-wide safety threats: International benchmarked guidelines and demonstrative cases studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne; Burritt, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Small dam safety is generally being ignored. The potential for dam failure resulting in catastrophic consequences for downstream communities, property, and the environment, warrants exploration of the threats and policy issues associated with the management of small/farm dams. The paper achieves this through a comparative analysis of differing levels of dam safety assurance policy: absent, driven, strong, and model. A strategic review is undertaken to establish international dam safety policy benchmarks and to identify a best practice model. A cost-effective engineering/accounting tool is presented to assist the policy selection process and complement the best practice model. The paper then demonstrates the significance of the small-dam safety problem with a case study of four Australian States,policy-absent South Australia, policy-driven Victoria, policy-strong New South Wales, and policy-modelTasmania. Surveys of farmer behavior practices provide empirical evidence of the importance of policy and its proper implementation. Both individual and cumulative farm dam failure threats are addressed and, with supporting empirical evidence, the need for "appropriate" supervision of small dams is demonstrated. The paper adds to the existing international dam policy literature by identifying acceptable minimum level practice in private/farm dam safety assurance policy as well as updated international best practice policy guidelines while providing case study demonstration of how to apply the guidelines and empirical reinforcement of the need for "appropriate" policy. The policy guidelines, cost-effective technology, and comparative lessons presented can assist any jurisdiction to determine and implement appropriate dam safety policy.

  3. Impact of online education on intern behaviour around Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals: A randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    TJ, Shaw; LIM, Pernar; SE, Peyre; JF, Helfrick; K, Vogelgesang; E, Graydon-Baker; Y, Chretien; EJ, Brown; J, Nicholson; JJ, Heit; JP, Co; TK, Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of 2 types of online learning methodologies for improving the patient-safety behaviours mandated in the Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals (NPSG). Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2010 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Brigham & Women’s Hospital (BWH) in Boston USA. Incoming interns were randomised to either receive an online Spaced Education program (SE) consisting of cases and questions that reinforce over time, or a program consisting of an online slide show followed by a quiz (SQ). The outcome measures included NPSG-knowledge improvement, NPSG-compliant behaviors in a simulation scenario, self reported confidence in safety and quality, program acceptability and program relevance. Results Both online learning programs improved knowledge retention. On four out of seven survey items measuring satisfaction and self reported confidence, the proportion of SE interns responding positively was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the fraction of SQ interns. SE interns demonstrated a mean 4.79 (36.6%) NPSG-compliant behaviors (out of 13 total), while SQ interns completed a mean 4.17 (32.0%) (p=0.09). Among those in surgical fields, SE interns demonstrated a mean 5.67 (43.6%) NPSG-compliant behaviors, while SQ interns completed a mean 2.33 (17.9%) (p=0.015). Focus group data indicates that SE was more contextually relevant than SQ and significantly more engaging. Conclusion While both online methodologies improved knowledge surrounding the NPSG, SE was more contextually relevant to trainees and engaging. SE impacted more significantly on both self reported confidence and the behaviour of surgical residents in a simulated scenario. PMID:22706930

  4. Impact of online education on intern behaviour around joint commission national patient safety goals: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Tim J; Pernar, Luise I; Peyre, Sarah E; Helfrick, John F; Vogelgesang, Kaitlin R; Graydon-Baker, Erin; Chretien, Yves; Brown, Elizabeth J; Nicholson, James C; Heit, Jeremy J; Co, John Patrick T; Gandhi, Tejal

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two types of online learning methodologies for improving the patient-safety behaviours mandated in the Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals (NPSG). This randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2010 at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) in Boston USA. Incoming interns were randomised to either receive an online Spaced Education (SE) programme consisting of cases and questions that reinforce over time, or a programme consisting of an online slide show followed by a quiz (SQ). The outcome measures included NPSG-knowledge improvement, NPSG-compliant behaviours in a simulation scenario, self-reported confidence in safety and quality, programme acceptability and programme relevance. Both online learning programmes improved knowledge retention. On four out of seven survey items measuring satisfaction and self-reported confidence, the proportion of SE interns responding positively was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the fraction of SQ interns. SE interns demonstrated a mean 4.79 (36.6%) NPSG-compliant behaviours (out of 13 total), while SQ interns completed a mean 4.17 (32.0%) (p=0.09). Among those in surgical fields, SE interns demonstrated a mean 5.67 (43.6%) NPSG-compliant behaviours, while SQ interns completed a mean 2.33 (17.9%) (p=0.015). Focus group data indicates that SE was more contextually relevant than SQ, and significantly more engaging. While both online methodologies improved knowledge surrounding the NPSG, SE was more contextually relevant to trainees and was engaging. SE impacted more significantly on both self-reported confidence and the behaviour of surgical residents in a simulated scenario.

  5. Regulatory forum opinion piece*: supporting the need for international harmonization of safety assessments for food flavoring substances.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoichi; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Fukushima, Shoji

    2014-08-01

    The advancement of technology and the growth of international commerce underscore the need for global harmonization of regulatory safety requirements and their assessment pertaining to consumer products such as drugs, medical devices, and food. This need is particularly relevant when safety requirements involve time-intensive and costly animal safety studies. Here we present the current regulatory requirements in Europe, the United States, and Japan for flavoring substances (FSs) used in foods and point out significant differences relevant to the international standardization for safety assessments that in our opinion need to be addressed and overcome. The safety assessments that are carried out for FSs in various countries are influenced by divergent definitions of FS, by the information required and available for regulatory submission, and by different regulatory procedures, including the use of decision tree approaches. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the Expert Panel of the U.S. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA), and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) are making efforts to improve and harmonize the safety assessment of FSs. The application of in silico methods such as quantitative structure-activity relationships and read-across strategies relying on expert input are useful as a first-step screening of the assessment. Application of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach permits conclusions that are compatible with the risk assessment approaches currently used by international advisory committees. The Japanese Regulatory Authority, on the other hand, does not yet consider in silico methods but still requires in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity test data as well as repeat-dose 90-day toxicity data in at least one species, to be submitted as the first step in the safety assessment of FSs. With this article, we echo requests that have

  6. Investigating the deep internal structure and the heterogeneous margins of the enigmatic Demerara plateau using deep penetrating seismic methods: first results of the MARGATS cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graindorge, David; Walter, Roest; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Poetisi, Ewald; Deverchère, Jacques; Frédéric Lebrun, Jean; Heuret, Arnauld; Perrot, Julie; Apprioual, Ronan; Crozon, Jacques; Fabre, Maud; Fernagu, Philippe; Guyavarch, Pierre; Prunier, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    The MARGATS scientific cruise was carried out from October 20th to November 16th 2016 on board the R/V L'Atalante, in the Exclusive Economic Zones of Suriname and French Guiana. This cruise is part of a program dedicated to geological investigations of the continental margin, including the Demerara plateau, following the GUYAPLAC (2003), IGUANES (2013) and DRADEMcruises (2016). The aim of MARGATS was to image the internal structure of the Demerara plateau and its different margins using coincident deep penetrating wide angle refraction and multi channel reflection seismic (MCS) methods. During the MARGATS experiment 171 OBSs were deployed distributed along 4 wide-angle lines. Along each wide angle line we also recorded coincident MCS data using a 3 km 480 channel streamer. The dataset was completed by three MCS lines along the eastern part of the Demerara plateau. MCS MAR007 line which is coincident with line OBS MAR-3 was extended on land by a set of 13 land stations deployed along the Maroni River. This line, together with MCS MAR001 and the coincident OBS MAR-1 line reveal the highly homogeneous deep structure of the internal part of the plateau. MCS MAR005 line, which is coincident with OBS MAR-2, MCS MAR006 line coincident with OBS MAR-4, MCS MAR002, MCS MAR003 and MCS MAR004 help to elucidate the structural complexity of the northern transform margin and the eastern divergent margin of the plateau. These new datasets will be highly complementary to the DRADEM dredges results which provide evidence for huge vertical displacements along the transform margin. This EGU session will be the first opportunity to reveal the exceptional quality of the seismic data, after the initial processing steps and the new emergent results conditioning our understanding of the Demarara plateau and its margins.

  7. International regulations on labour health and safety applied to fishing and maritime transport sectors. Are maritime workers under-protected.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Julio Louro; Portela, Rosa Mary de la Campa; Pardo, Guadalupe Martín

    2012-01-01

    The work activity developed on board is of great importance in our nearby environment, and it has a series of peculiarities that determine the service rendering of sea workers. On the other hand, work at sea is developed on an international basis. Nowadays such work becomes a completely globalised industrial sector in relation to the elements that make up the ship's operation, including manpower. For that reason several relevant international organisations have paid attention to this industrial sector and have adopted a broad regulation on this matter. In the case of the European Union, the Community procedure emphasises enormous interest in providing specific and comprehensive training to seafarers, as well as in regulating working time on board with the aim of minimising the safety problems caused by fatigue. In the present article a schematic presentation of regulations on workers' health and occupational safety protection derived from the European Union, the International Maritime Organisation, and the International Labour Organisation has been done. Also it shows what parts of these regulations are not applicable to the work on board, and it reveals how the workers of fishing and maritime transport sectors are under-protected with regard to the guarantee of their health and occupational safety compared to workers in other sectors.

  8. Proceedings of the international meeting on thermal nuclear reactor safety. Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1983-02-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current issues in nuclear power plant safety; national programs in nuclear power plant safety; radiological source terms; probabilistic risk assessment methods and techniques; non LOCA and small-break-LOCA transients; safety goals; pressurized thermal shocks; applications of reliability and risk methods to probabilistic risk assessment; human factors and man-machine interface; and data bases and special applications.

  9. Patient Safety in Medication Nomenclature: Orthographic and Semantic Properties of International Nonproprietary Names

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Rachel; Aronson, Jeffrey K.; ten Hacken, Pius; Williams, Alison; Jordan, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background Confusion between look-alike and sound-alike (LASA) medication names (such as mercaptamine and mercaptopurine) accounts for up to one in four medication errors, threatening patient safety. Error reduction strategies include computerized physician order entry interventions, and ‘Tall Man’ lettering. The purpose of this study is to explore the medication name designation process, to elucidate properties that may prime the risk of confusion. Methods and Findings We analysed the formal and semantic properties of 7,987 International Non-proprietary Names (INNs), in relation to naming guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) INN programme, and have identified potential for errors. We explored: their linguistic properties, the underlying taxonomy of stems to indicate pharmacological interrelationships, and similarities between INNs. We used Microsoft Excel for analysis, including calculation of Levenshtein edit distance (LED). Compliance with WHO naming guidelines was inconsistent. Since the 1970s there has been a trend towards compliance in formal properties, such as word length, but longer names published in the 1950s and 1960s are still in use. The stems used to show pharmacological interrelationships are not spelled consistently and the guidelines do not impose an unequivocal order on them, making the meanings of INNs difficult to understand. Pairs of INNs sharing a stem (appropriately or not) often have high levels of similarity (<5 LED), and thus have greater potential for confusion. Conclusions We have revealed a tension between WHO guidelines stipulating use of stems to denote meaning, and the aim of reducing similarities in nomenclature. To mitigate this tension and reduce the risk of confusion, the stem system should be made clear and well ordered, so as to avoid compounding the risk of confusion at the clinical level. The interplay between the different WHO INN naming principles should be further examined, to better understand their

  10. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  11. B341 Seismic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J.

    2014-01-02

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3. Based on our evaluation the building does not meet a Life Safety performance level for the BSE- 1E earthquake ground shaking hazard. The BSE-1E is the recommended seismic hazard level for evaluation of existing structures and is based on a 20% probability of exceedence in 50 years.

  12. Reshaping the carcinogenic risk assessment of medicines: international harmonisation for drug safety, industry/regulator efficiency or both?

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Reed, Tim

    2003-07-01

    The most significant institutional entity involved in the harmonisation of drug testing standards worldwide is the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), which comprises the three pharmaceutical industry associations and regulatory agencies of the EU, US and Japan. It is often claimed that such harmonisation will both accelerate the development and approval of new drugs and preserve safety standards, if not strengthen safety regimes. Drawing on extensive documentary research and interviews, this paper systematically examines whether the efforts by the ICH to improve industrial and regulatory efficiency by harmonising drug testing requirements is likely to raise, maintain or compromise safety standards in carcinogenic risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. The evidence suggests that, in the field of carcinogenicity testing, the ICH management of international harmonisation of medicines regulation is not achieving simultaneous improvements in safety standards and acceleration of drug development. Rather, the latter is being achieved at the expense of the former. Indeed, the ICH may be converting permissive regulatory practices of the past into new scientific standards for the future. These findings are significant as many expert scientific advisers to drug regulatory agencies seem to have accepted uncritically the conclusions reached by the ICH, which may affect a potential patient population of half a billion and tens of thousands of clinical trials.

  13. Bisphosphonates and Nonhealing Femoral Fractures: Analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and International Safety Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Beatrice J.; Bunta, Andrew D.; Lane, Joseph; Odvina, Clarita; Rao, D. Sudhaker; Raisch, Dennis W.; McKoy, June M.; Omar, Imran; Belknap, Steven M.; Garg, Vishvas; Hahr, Allison J.; Samaras, Athena T.; Fisher, Matthew J.; West, Dennis P.; Langman, Craig B.; Stern, Paula H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the United States, hip fracture rates have declined by 30% coincident with bisphosphonate use. However, bisphosphonates are associated with sporadic cases of atypical femoral fracture. Atypical femoral fractures are usually atraumatic, may be bilateral, are occasionally preceded by prodromal thigh pain, and may have delayed fracture-healing. This study assessed the occurrence of bisphosphonate-associated nonhealing femoral fractures through a review of data from the U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) (1996 to 2011), published case reports, and international safety efforts. Methods: We analyzed the FAERS database with use of the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and empiric Bayesian geometric mean (EBGM) techniques to assess whether a safety signal existed. Additionally, we conducted a systematic literature review (1990 to February 2012). Results: The analysis of the FAERS database indicated a PRR of 4.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.44 to 5.92) for bisphosphonate use and nonhealing femoral fractures. Most cases (n = 317) were attributed to use of alendronate (PRR = 3.32; 95% CI, 2.71 to 4.17). In 2008, international safety agencies issued warnings and required label changes. In 2010, the FDA issued a safety notification, and the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) issued recommendations about bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fractures. Conclusions: Nonhealing femoral fractures are unusual adverse drug reactions associated with bisphosphonate use, as up to 26% of published cases of atypical femoral fractures exhibited delayed healing or nonhealing. PMID:23426763

  14. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... American Tri-Hull Championship will consist of a series of power boat races for approximately 8-12 vessels that are 18-feet long. The temporary safety zone is necessary for the safety of race participants...

  15. Opportunities and challenges for quality and safety applications in ICD-11: an international survey of users of coded health data.

    PubMed

    Southern, Danielle A; Hall, Marc; White, Deborah E; Romano, Patrick S; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Droesler, Saskia E; Pincus, Harold A; Ghali, William A

    2016-02-01

    In 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) plans to release the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The overall goal of the WHO is to produce a new disease classification that has an enhanced ability to capture health concepts in a manner that is compatible with contemporary information systems. Accordingly, our objective was to identify opportunities and challenges in improving the utility of ICD-11 for quality and safety applications. A survey study of international stakeholders with expertise in either the production or use of coded health data. International producers or users of ICD-coded health care data. We used a snowball sampling approach to identify individuals with relevant expertise in 12 countries, mostly from North America, Europe, and Australasia. An 8-item online survey included questions on demographic characteristics, familiarity with ICD, experience using ICD-coded data on healthcare quality and safety, opinions regarding the use of ICD classification systems for quality and safety measurement, and current limitations and potential future improvements that would permit better coding of quality and safety concepts in ICD-11. Two-hundred fifty-eight unique individuals accessed the online survey; 246 provided complete responses. The respondents identified specific desires for the ICD revision: more code content for adverse events/complications; a desire for code clustering mechanisms; the need for diagnosis timing information; and the addition of better code definitions to reference materials. These findings reinforce the vision and existing work plan of the WHO's ICD revision process, because each of these desires is being addressed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  16. From Seismic Characterization to Coupled Process Testing Along Drifts at LSBB as an Example of Establishing an International Facility for a Worldwide Network of Underground Research Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, S.; Wang, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit (LSBB) at Rustrel France is a French National Instrumented Infrastructure, CNRS, dedicated to inter-Disciplinary Underground Science and Technology. The underground galleries and the surrounding carbonate rock formations are well characterized by seismic imaging studies obtained with sensors both along the ridges and underground along the drifts. The facility is horizontally accessible with the main tunnel following an L-shape. The deepest is 518m below the surface. The main tunnel continues with a long gallery below the ridge, and ends with an escape shaft to the surface. Electrical and fiber optic communication cables connect the galleries and the underground to the huts on the surface. All data from LSBB are distributed on line (http://lsbb.oca.eu) and data from the 3D broadband seismic array are fed in real time (delay of ~4s) to the European Union seismic network (see streams RUSF_01, 03, 04, 05, 06, and 07 at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/Data-info/orbstats.html). Concurrently with establishing the seismic network, the LSBB characterizes its low noise environment, including its low ambient magnetic noise with a (SQUID)2 magnetometer, located 518m below the surface in a shielded cage. The magnetic noise floor in the cage is lower than 2fT/SQRT(Hz). Together with the seismic network and the magnetic sensor, tiltmeters, radiation sensors, groundwater pressure and chemistry monitoring devices are installed to characterize the unsaturated environment along the tunnel. Seasonal seepage observations are also collected. 3 national research projects are currently carried out along dedicated tunnels: (1) the project on High-Pulse Poroelasticity Protocol (HPPP) for geophysical monitoring of CO2 injection in reservoirs (http://hppp.unice.fr/), focusing currently on hydromechanical testing in carbonate rock; (2) the MAXWELL electromagnetic project on broadband imaging which employs joint resistivity and permittivity inversion (http

  17. Internal structure of the San Jacinto fault zone at Blackburn Saddle from seismic data of a linear array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, Pieter-Ewald; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ross, Zachary E.; Qiu, Hongrui; Vernon, Frank L.

    2017-08-01

    Local and teleseismic earthquake waveforms recorded by a 180-m-long linear array (BB) with seven seismometers crossing the Clark fault of the San Jacinto fault zone northwest of Anza are used to image a deep bimaterial interface and core damage structure of the fault. Delay times of P waves across the array indicate an increase in slowness from the southwest most (BB01) to the northeast most (BB07) station. Automatic algorithms combined with visual inspection and additional analyses are used to identify local events generating fault zone head and trapped waves. The observed fault zone head waves imply that the Clark fault in the area is a sharp bimaterial interface, with lower seismic velocity on the southwest side. The moveout between the head and direct P arrivals for events within ∼40 km epicentral distance indicates an average velocity contrast across the fault over that section and the top 20 km of 3.2 per cent. A constant moveout for events beyond ∼40 km to the southeast is due to off-fault locations of these events or because the imaged deep bimaterial interface is discontinuous or ends at that distance. The lack of head waves from events beyond ∼20 km to the northwest is associated with structural complexity near the Hemet stepover. Events located in a broad region generate fault zone trapped waves at stations BB04-BB07. Waveform inversions indicate that the most likely parameters of the trapping structure are width of ∼200 m, S velocity reduction of 30-40 per cent with respect to the bounding blocks, Q value of 10-20 and depth of ∼3.5 km. The trapping structure and zone with largest slowness are on the northeast side of the fault. The observed sense of velocity contrast and asymmetric damage across the fault suggest preferred rupture direction of earthquakes to the northwest. This inference is consistent with results of other geological and seismological studies.

  18. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-05-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm / shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm / shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments” have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy

  19. Integrating seismic reflection and geological data and interpretations across an internal basement massif: The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; Hatcher, R.D.; Stephenson, W.J.; Hooper, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window exposes 1.1 Ga Grenvillian basement and its metasedimentary Paleozoic(?) cover through the allochthonous Inner Piedmont. The issue of whether the crustal block inside the window was either transported above the master Appalachian (late Alleghanian) de??collement or is an autochthonous block that was overridden by the de??collement has been debated for some time. New detrital zircon geochronologic data from the cover rocks inside the window suggest this crustal block was derived from Gondwana but docked with Laurentia before the Alleghanian event. Reprocessed deep seismic reflection data from west-central Georgia (pre- and poststack noise reduction, amplitude variation analysis, and prestack depth migration) indicate that a significant band of subhorizontal reflections occurs almost continuously beneath the window collinear with the originally recognized de??collement reflections north of the window. A marked variation in the de??collement image, from strong and coherent north of the window to more diffuse directly beneath the window, is likely a partial consequence of the different geology between the Inner Piedmont and the window. The more diffuse image beneath the window may also result from imaging problems related to changes in topography and fold of cover (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). Two alternative tectonic models for the Pine Mountain window can partially account for the observed variation in the de??collement reflectivity. (1) The Pine Mountain block could be truncated below by a relatively smooth continuation of the de??collement. The window would thus expose an allochthonous basement duplex or horse-block thrust upward from the south along the Late Proterozoic rifted continental margin. (2) The window represents localized exhumation of autochthonous basement and cover along a zone of distributed intrabasement shearing directly beneath the window. Either model is viable if only reflector geometry is

  20. Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Study Using Multi-Physics Internal Short-Circuit Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G-.H.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-06-01

    This presentation outlines NREL's multi-physics simulation study to characterize an internal short by linking and integrating electrochemical cell, electro-thermal, and abuse reaction kinetics models.

  1. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  2. Long-term efficacy and safety of internal neurolysis for trigeminal neuralgia without neurovascular compression.

    PubMed

    Ko, Andrew L; Ozpinar, Alp; Lee, Albert; Raslan, Ahmed M; McCartney, Shirley; Burchiel, Kim J

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) occurs and recurs in the absence of neurovascular compression (NVC). While microvascular decompression (MVD) is the most effective treatment for TN, it is not possible when NVC is not present. Therefore, the authors sought to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and durability of internal neurolysis (IN), or "nerve combing," as a treatment for TN without NVC. METHODS This was a retrospective review of all cases of Type 1 TN involving all patients 18 years of age or older who underwent evaluation (and surgery when appropriate) at Oregon Health & Science University between July 2006 and February 2013. Chart reviews and telephone interviews were conducted to assess patient outcomes. Pain intensity was evaluated with the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) Pain Intensity scale, and the Brief Pain Inventory-Facial (BPI-Facial) was used to assess general and face-specific activity. Pain-free survival and durability of successful pain relief (BNI pain scores of 1 or 2) were statistically evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Prognostic factors were identified and analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS A total of 177 patients with Type 1 TN were identified. A subgroup of 27 was found to have no NVC on high-resolution MRI/MR angiography or at surgery. These patients were significantly younger than patients with classic Type 1 TN. Long-term follow-up was available for 26 of 27 patients, and 23 responded to the telephone survey. The median follow-up duration was 43.4 months. Immediate postoperative results were comparable to MVD, with 85% of patients pain free and 96% of patients with successful pain relief. At 1 year and 5 years, the rate of pain-free survival was 58% and 47%, respectively. Successful pain relief at those intervals was maintained in 77% and 72% of patients. Almost all patients experienced some degree of numbness or hypesthesia (96%), but in patients with successful pain relief, this numbness did not

  3. Further study of the intrinsic safety of internally shorted lithium and lithium-ion cells within methane-air

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers continue to study the potential for lithium and lithium-ion battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. Researchers conducted cell crush tests using a plastic wedge within a 20-L explosion-containment chamber filled with 6.5% CH4-air to simulate the mining hazard. The present work extends earlier findings to include a study of LiFePO4 cells crushed while under charge, prismatic form factor LiCoO2 cells, primary spiral-wound constructed LiMnO2 cells, and crush speed influence on thermal runaway susceptibility. The plastic wedge crush was a more severe test than the flat plate crush with a prismatic format cell. Test results indicate that prismatic Saft MP 174565 LiCoO2 and primary spiral-wound Saft FRIWO M52EX LiMnO2 cells pose a CH4-air ignition hazard from internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 systems ANR26650M1A LiFePO4 cylindrical cells produced no chamber ignitions while under a charge of up to 5 A. Common spiral-wound cell separators are too thin to meet intrinsic safety standards provisions for distance through solid insulation, suggesting that a hard internal short circuit within these cells should be considered for intrinsic safety evaluation purposes, even as a non-countable fault. Observed flames from a LiMnO2 spiral-wound cell after a chamber ignition within an inert atmosphere indicate a sustained exothermic reaction within the cell. The influence of crush speed on ignitions under specified test conditions was not statistically significant. PMID:26139958

  4. Further study of the intrinsic safety of internally shorted lithium and lithium-ion cells within methane-air.

    PubMed

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2014-11-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers continue to study the potential for lithium and lithium-ion battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. Researchers conducted cell crush tests using a plastic wedge within a 20-L explosion-containment chamber filled with 6.5% CH4-air to simulate the mining hazard. The present work extends earlier findings to include a study of LiFePO4 cells crushed while under charge, prismatic form factor LiCoO2 cells, primary spiral-wound constructed LiMnO2 cells, and crush speed influence on thermal runaway susceptibility. The plastic wedge crush was a more severe test than the flat plate crush with a prismatic format cell. Test results indicate that prismatic Saft MP 174565 LiCoO2 and primary spiral-wound Saft FRIWO M52EX LiMnO2 cells pose a CH4-air ignition hazard from internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 systems ANR26650M1A LiFePO4 cylindrical cells produced no chamber ignitions while under a charge of up to 5 A. Common spiral-wound cell separators are too thin to meet intrinsic safety standards provisions for distance through solid insulation, suggesting that a hard internal short circuit within these cells should be considered for intrinsic safety evaluation purposes, even as a non-countable fault. Observed flames from a LiMnO2 spiral-wound cell after a chamber ignition within an inert atmosphere indicate a sustained exothermic reaction within the cell. The influence of crush speed on ignitions under specified test conditions was not statistically significant.

  5. Seismic Data Gathering and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Three recent earthquakes in the last seven years have exceeded their design basis earthquake values (so it is implied that damage to SSC’s should have occurred). These seismic events were recorded at North Anna (August 2011, detailed information provided in [Virginia Electric and Power Company Memo]), Fukushima Daichii and Daini (March 2011 [TEPCO 1]), and Kaswazaki-Kariwa (2007, [TEPCO 2]). However, seismic walk downs at some of these plants indicate that very little damage occurred to safety class systems and components due to the seismic motion. This report presents seismic data gathered for two of the three events mentioned above and recommends a path for using that data for two purposes. One purpose is to determine what margins exist in current industry standard seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) tools. The second purpose is the use the data to validated seismic site response tools and SSI tools. The gathered data represents free field soil and in-structure acceleration time histories data. Gathered data also includes elastic and dynamic soil properties and structural drawings. Gathering data and comparing with existing models has potential to identify areas of uncertainty that should be removed from current seismic analysis and SPRA approaches. Removing uncertainty (to the extent possible) from SPRA’s will allow NPP owners to make decisions on where to reduce risk. Once a realistic understanding of seismic response is established for a nuclear power plant (NPP) then decisions on needed protective measures, such as SI, can be made.

  6. Argonne National Laboratory Internal Appraisal Program environment, safety, health/quality assurance oversight

    SciTech Connect

    Winner, G.L.; Siegfried, Y.S.; Forst, S.P.; Meshenberg, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Internal Appraisal Program has developed a quality assurance team member training program. This program has been developed to provide training to non-quality assurance professionals. Upon successful completion of this training and approval of the Internal Appraisal Program Manager, these personnel are considered qualified to assist in the conduct of quality assurance assessments. The training program has been incorporated into a self-paced, computerized, training session.

  7. The Space Station Freedom - International cooperation and innovation in space safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) being developed by the United States, European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and Canada poses novel safety challenges in design, operations, logistics, and program management. A brief overview discloses many features that make SSF a radical departure from earlier low earth orbit (LEO) space stations relative to safety management: size and power levels; multiphase manned assembly; 30-year planned lifetime, with embedded 'hooks and scars' forevolution; crew size and skill-mix variability; sustained logistical dependence; use of man, robotics and telepresence for on-orbit maintenance of station and free-flyer systems; closed-environment recycling; use of automation and expert systems; long-term operation of collocated life-sciences and materials-science experiments, requiring control and segregation of hazardous and chemically incompatible materials; and materials aging in space.

  8. The Space Station Freedom - International cooperation and innovation in space safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) being developed by the United States, European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and Canada poses novel safety challenges in design, operations, logistics, and program management. A brief overview discloses many features that make SSF a radical departure from earlier low earth orbit (LEO) space stations relative to safety management: size and power levels; multiphase manned assembly; 30-year planned lifetime, with embedded 'hooks and scars' forevolution; crew size and skill-mix variability; sustained logistical dependence; use of man, robotics and telepresence for on-orbit maintenance of station and free-flyer systems; closed-environment recycling; use of automation and expert systems; long-term operation of collocated life-sciences and materials-science experiments, requiring control and segregation of hazardous and chemically incompatible materials; and materials aging in space.

  9. Teaching internal medicine residents quality improvement and patient safety: a lean thinking approach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Christopher S; Lukela, Michael P; Parekh, Vikas I; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S; Del Valle, John; Spahlinger, David A; Billi, John E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety (PS) and quality improvement (QI) are among the highest priorities for all health systems. Resident physicians are often at the front lines of providing care for patients. In many instances, however, QI and PS initiatives exclude trainees. By aligning the goals of the health system with those of the residency program to engage residents in QI and PS projects, there is a unique opportunity to fulfill both a corporate and educational mission to improve patient care. Here, the authors briefly describe one residency program's educational curriculum to provide foundational knowledge in QI and PS to all its trainees and highlight a resident team-based project that applied principles of lean thinking to evaluate the process of responding to an in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. This approach provided residents with a practical experience but also presented an opportunity for trainees to align with the health system's approach to improving quality and safety.

  10. Transient Safety Analysis of Fast Spectrum TRU Burning LWRs with Internal Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Downar, Thomas; Zazimi, Mujid; Hill, Bob

    2015-01-31

    The objective of this proposal was to perform a detailed transient safety analysis of the Resource-Renewable BWR (RBWR) core designs using the U.S. NRC TRACE/PARCS code system. This project involved the same joint team that has performed the RBWR design evaluation for EPRI and therefore be able to leverage that previous work. And because of their extensive experience with fast spectrum reactors and parfait core designs, ANL was also part the project team. The principal outcome of this project was the development of a state-of-the-art transient analysis capability for GEN-IV reactors based on Monte Carlo generated cross sections and the US NRC coupled code system TRACE/PARCS, and a state-of-the-art coupled code assessment of the transient safety performance of the RBWR.

  11. Ergonomics support for local initiative in improving safety and health at work: International Labour Organization experiences in industrially developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, T; Kogi, K

    2005-04-15

    Ergonomics has played essential roles in the technical cooperation activities of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in occupational safety and health in industrially developing countries. Ergonomics support focusing on practical day-to-day needs at the grass-root workplace has strengthened the local initiative in improving safety and health. Practical action-tools such as ergonomics checklists, local good example photos and group discussions have assisted workers and employers in identifying feasible solutions using locally available resources. Direct participation of workers and employers has been promoted in ergonomics training aimed at immediate solutions. ILO Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems have played increasingly important roles in the systematic planning of local improvement actions. Policy-level programmes to develop network support mechanisms to the grass-root workplace were essential for following up and sustaining local achievements. Practical ergonomics support tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, should be developed and widely applied so as to reach grass-root levels and help local people create safer and healthier workplaces.

  12. Internationally trained pharmacists' perception of their communication proficiency and their views on the impact on patient safety.

    PubMed

    Ziaei, Zainab; Hassell, Karen; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2015-01-01

    According to Great Britain (GB)'s pharmacy regulator's standards of conduct, ethics and performance, pharmacists have a responsibility to ensure that they have sufficient linguistic skills to communicate and perform their job safely. Yet, very little is known about internationally trained pharmacists' (ITPs) linguistic proficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate ITPs' perceptions of their communication proficiency and the resultant impact on patient safety. Eight focus groups were conducted between May and July 2010, with 31 European Economic Area (EEA) and 11 non-EEA pharmacists who, at the time of the study, practiced in community pharmacy (n = 29) or hospital (n = 13), in London, Manchester, Liverpool and Glasgow. The framework method was used to analyze qualitative data, and the Model of Communicative Proficiency (MCP) served as a framework to handle and explain the data obtained. ITPs experienced communication difficulties through new dialects, use of idioms and colloquial language in their workplace. The differences between the "BBC English" they learned formally and the "Street English" used in GB also led to difficulties. Culture was also recognized as an important aspect of communication. ITPs in this study were adamant that communication difficulty did not compromise patient safety. Communicative deficiency of ITPs arose primarily from two sources: linguistic competence and socio-cultural competence. These deficiencies could have negative implications for patient safety. The findings of this study should be taken into account when designing adaptation programs for ITPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the Prevalence of Self-Reported Foodborne Illnesses and Food Safety Risks among International College Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyonga, Agnes Ngale; Eighmy, Myron A.; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Foodborne illness and food safety risks pose health threats to everyone, including international college students who live in the United States and encounter new or unfamiliar foods. This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported foodborne illness among international college students by cultural regions and length of time in the United…

  14. Internal consistency, factor structure and construct validity of the French version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.

    PubMed

    Perneger, Thomas V; Staines, Anthony; Kundig, François

    2014-05-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of the French-language version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC). Data were obtained from a staff survey at a Swiss multisite hospital. We computed descriptive statistics and internal consistency coefficients, then conducted a confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, and performed construct validity tests. 1171 staff members participated (response rate 74%). The internal consistency coefficients of the 12 dimension scores ranged from 0.57 to 0.86 (median 0.73). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a reasonable but not perfect fit of the hypothesised measurement model (root mean square error of approximation 0.043, comparative fit index 0.89). Exploratory data analysis suggested 10 dimensions instead of 12, grouping items from teamwork across hospital units with those of hospital handoffs and transitions, and items from communication openness with those of feedback and communication about error. However, the loading pattern was clean: 41 of 42 main loadings exceeded 0.40, and only 3 of 378 cross-loadings exceeded 0.30. All 10 process scores were higher among respondents who rated the global safety grade as 'excellent' or 'very good' rather than 'good', 'fair' or 'poor' (effect sizes 0.41-0.79, all p<0.001), but score differences between those who have and have not reported an incident in the past year were weak or inconsistent with theory. The French version of the HSOPSC did not perform as well as the original in standard psychometric analyses.

  15. A qualitative review of existing national and international occupational safety and health policies relating to occupational sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Pieter; Gilson, Nicholas; Healy, Genevieve N; Dunstan, David W; Straker, Leon M

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged sedentary time is now recognised as an emergent ergonomics issue. We aimed to review current occupational safety and health policies relevant to occupational sedentary behaviour. An electronic search for documents was conducted on websites of ergonomics and occupational safety and health organisations from 10 countries and six international/pan-European agencies. Additionally, 43 informants (nine countries) were contacted and an international conference workshop held. 119 documents (e.g. legislation, guidelines, codes of practice) were identified. Using a qualitative synthesis, it was observed that many jurisdictions had legal frameworks establishing a duty of care for employers, designers/manufacturers/suppliers and employees. While no occupational authority policies focusing specifically on sedentary behaviour were found, relevant aspects of existing policies were identified. We highlight implications for ergonomics research and practice and recommend the development of policy to specifically address occupational sedentary behaviour and support workplace initiatives to assess and control the risks of this emergent hazard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seismic seiches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, Arthur; Gupta, Harsh K.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic seiche is a term first used by Kvale (1955) to discuss oscillations of lake levels in Norway and England caused by the Assam earthquake of August 15, 1950. This definition has since been generalized to apply to standing waves set up in closed, or partially closed, bodies of water including rivers, shipping channels, lakes, swimming pools and tanks due to the passage of seismic waves from an earthquake.

  17. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-31

    for second-order Sturm - Liouville boundary-value problems, such a count of eigenvalues may be established in terms of the number of zero crossings of...will be operational during the next six months. Section 11 describes a series of activities in the development and imple- mentation of the seismic...element of seismic research. with emphasis on those areas directly related to tho operations of the SDC. Substantial progress has been made in the

  18. Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krimgold, Frederick; Hattis, David; Green, Melvyn

    Asserting that the strategy of incremental seismic rehabilitation makes it possible for schools to get started now on improving earthquake safety, this manual provides school administrators with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for…

  19. Safety of Acupuncture and Pharmacopuncture in 80,523 Musculoskeletal Disorder Patients: A Retrospective Review of Internal Safety Inspection and Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Kim, Me-Riong; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Ahn, Yong-Jun; Park, Ki Byung; Lee, Hwa Dong; Lee, Yoonmi; Kim, Sung Geun; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the range and frequency of significant adverse events (AEs) in use of pharmacopuncture and acupuncture using large-scale, single-center safety data as evidence supporting safety of acupuncture with pharmacopuncture, used extensively in Asia, is scarce. Status reports (nurse records in ambulatory and inpatient care units, and administrative event records) as a part of an internal audit at a Korean Medicine hospital specializing in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, patient complaints filed through the hospital website, and medical records of patients visiting from December, 2010 (inception of internal audit) to October, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A total 80,523 patients (5966 inpatients and 74,557 outpatients) visited during this period. Inpatients received an average 31.9 ± 20.7 acupuncture, 23.0 ± 15.6 pharmacopuncture, and 15.4 ± 11.3 bee venom pharmacopuncture sessions, and outpatients were administered 8.2 ± 12.2 acupuncture, 7.8 ± 11.5 pharmacopuncture, and 10.0 ± 12.3 bee venom sessions, respectively. AEs associated with acupuncture/pharmacopuncture were forgotten needle (n = 47), hypersensitivity to bee venom (n = 37), presyncopic episode (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 4), and infection (n = 2). Most cases were mild requiring little or no additional intervention and leaving no sequelae. Although serious AEs including infection (n = 2) and anaphylaxis associated with bee venom treatment (n = 3) were also reported, incidence was rare at 0.002% in infection and 0.019% in anaphylaxis. Incidence of AEs associated with acupuncture/pharmacopuncture treatment was low, and most cases were not serious. Still, however rare, avoidable AEs can and should be prevented through education and corrective action. Further prospective studies on the effect of error reduction strategies on incidence of adverse effects are warranted.

  20. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    DOEpatents

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  1. Weak localization of seismic waves.

    PubMed

    Larose, E; Margerin, L; Van Tiggelen, B A; Campillo, M

    2004-07-23

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity. Copyright 2004 The American Physical Society

  2. Patient-centered medical home intervention at an internal medicine resident safety-net clinic.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Michael E; Asch, Steven; Jibilian, Arek; Chaudry, Bharat; Ben-Ari, Ron; Hsieh, Eric; Berumen, Margaret; Mokhtari, Shahrod; Raad, Mohamad; Hicks, Elisabeth; Sanford, Crystal; Aguirre, Norma; Tseng, Chi-hong; Vangala, Sitaram; Mangione, Carol M; Goldstein, David A

    2013-10-14

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model holds promise for improving primary care delivery, but it has not been adequately tested in teaching settings. We implemented an intervention guided by PCMH principles at a safety-net teaching clinic with resident physician providers. Two similar clinics served as controls. Using a cross-sectional design, we measured the effect on patient and resident satisfaction using the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey and a validated teaching clinic survey, respectively. Both surveys were conducted at baseline and 1 year after the intervention. We also measured the effect on emergency department and hospital utilization. Following implementation of our intervention, the clinic’s score on the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s PCMH certification tool improved from 35 to 53 of 100 possible points, although our clinic did not achieve all must-pass elements to qualify as a PCMH. During the 1-year study period, 4676 patients were exposed to the intervention; 39.9% of these used at least 1 program component. Compared with baseline, patient-reported access and overall satisfaction improved to a greater extent in the intervention clinic, and the composite satisfaction rating increased from 48% to 65% in the intervention clinic vs from 50% to 59% in the control sites (P = .04). The improvements were particularly notable for questions relating to access. For example, satisfaction with urgent appointment scheduling increased from 12% to 53% in the intervention clinic vs from 14% to 18% in the control clinics (P < .001). Resident satisfaction also improved in the intervention clinic: the composite satisfaction score increased from 39% to 51% in the intervention clinic vs a decrease from 46% to 42% in the control clinics (P = .01). Emergency department utilization did not differ significantly between the intervention and control clinics, and hospitalizations increased from 26 to 27 visits

  3. Patient-Centered Medical Home Intervention at an Internal Medicine Resident Safety-Net Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hochman, Michael E.; Asch, Steven; Jibilian, Arek; Chaudry, Bharat; Ben-Ari, Ron; Hsieh, Eric; Berumen, Margaret; Mokhtari, Shahrod; Raad, Mohamad; Hicks, Elisabeth; Sanford, Crystal; Aguirre, Norma; Tseng, Chi-hong; Vangala, Sitaram; Mangione, Carol M.; Goldstein, David A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model holds promise for improving primary care delivery, but it has not been adequately tested in teaching settings. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We implemented an intervention guided by PCMH principles at a safety-net teaching clinic with resident physician providers. Two similar clinics served as controls. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Using a cross-sectional design, we measured the effect on patient and resident satisfaction using the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey and a validated teaching clinic survey, respectively. Both surveys were conducted at baseline and 1 year after the intervention. We also measured the effect on emergency department and hospital utilization. RESULTS Following implementation of our intervention, the clinic’s score on the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s PCMH certification tool improved from 35 to 53 of 100 possible points, although our clinic did not achieve all must-pass elements to qualify as a PCMH. During the 1-year study period, 4676 patients were exposed to the intervention; 39.9% of these used at least 1 program component. Compared with baseline, patient-reported access and overall satisfaction improved to a greater extent in the intervention clinic, and the composite satisfaction rating increased from 48% to 65% in the intervention clinic vs from 50% to 59% in the control sites (P = .04). The improvements were particularly notable for questions relating to access. For example, satisfaction with urgent appointment scheduling increased from 12% to 53% in the intervention clinic vs from 14% to 18% in the control clinics (P < .001). Resident satisfaction also improved in the intervention clinic: the composite satisfaction score increased from 39% to 51% in the intervention clinic vs a decrease from 46%to 42% in the control clinics (P = .01). Emergency department utilization did not differ significantly between the intervention and

  4. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    PubMed

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  5. 78 FR 28987 - Revisions to Transportation Safety Requirements and Harmonization With International Atomic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in consultation with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), is proposing to amend its regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. These amendments would make NRC regulations conform to revisions to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for the international transportation of radioactive material and maintain consistency with DOT regulations. These changes are necessary to maintain a consistent regulatory framework for the transportation and packaging of radioactive material. These changes would make the regulation of quality assurance programs more efficient by allowing changes that do not change quality assurance approval holder commitments to be made without prior NRC approval, and extending the duration of quality assurance program approvals. These changes would clarify the responsibilities of general licensees and further limit the shipping of fissile material under a general license. The parallel DOT proposed rulemaking was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011.

  6. Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board: Improvements Needed to Strengthen Internal Control and Promote Transparency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    According to a DNFSB document, work products were consistently reviewed and carefully screened by management for technical accuracy and consistency...record for its drug free workplace program. DNFSB officials stated that someone must have inadvertently transposed the list of areas planned for...among different people to reduce the risk of error or fraud . Without such segregation of responsibilities, particularly in assessments of internal

  7. [Blood Safety in the XXI century. Transfusion transmitted infectious diseases. International and Mexican view].

    PubMed

    Rojo Medina, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Currently worldwide, the transfusion of blood components cannot be done without residual risks, as compared to those countries with a high human development index, mostly in Europe, that have blood donation systems based on 100% repeat volunteer donors and use molecular biology techniques in screening for infectious diseases. In Latin America and the Caribbean countries, prevention of transfusion-transmissible diseases requires special and different strategies due to several factors: the high prevalence of replacement donors, their specific geographical location, climate, genetic, and sociocultural status of the population make them vulnerable to endemic diseases such as dengue, malaria, and Chagas disease. Thus it is necessary to create local approaches to increase blood safety and achieve the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization.

  8. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  9. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume II contains the proceedings for the Short Course on Seismic Base Isolation held in Berkeley, California, August 10-14, 1992.

  10. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume I contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Seismic Base Isolation for Department of Energy Facilities held in Marina Del Rey, California, May 13-15, 1992.

  11. New Seismic Hazard Maps of the Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoladze, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Jorjiashvili, N.; Sokhadze, G.

    2014-12-01

    The methodologies for long term probabilistic prognoses in terms of seismic hazard assessment are well developed. Modern seismic hazard assessment is one of the major concepts for sustainable development of the Caucasus region in general. Safety of the civilian population in the region as well as safe implementation of large economic projects must be protected. Prosperity in the Caucasus region, and its successful development, unconditionally depends on international projects aiming to integrate the region into leading economical structure. Earthquake hazard analysis is especially important for economically undeveloped countries, since the recovery period after strong earthquakes is very long. The main objective of our study was to improve the database for hazard calculations and develop modern and new common hazard maps for the region. The primary tasks to obtain our objective were defined as follows: 1. Improvement of the shared regional database, with quality control, to include seismological, geological, geophysical, geodetic, geotechnical and other information, as well as data on critical infrastructure. 2. Seismic hazard assessment based upon the newly improved database and using new methodologies and CRISIS software. 3. Tectonic studies of the region. The improved database facilitated tectonic studies, including the development of physical/mathematical models for regional seismotectonic processes. These models were incorporated active tectonic structures throughout the area, including transborder regions. The National Building codes of Georgia are based on the seismic hazard map developed in 1999. Presented study participants were the key researchers in compiling the 1999 hazard map. Map has been slightly updated in 2006 and adopted in 2009. Based on the world experience national seismic hazard map should be updated periodically (approximately once in every 5 years.). We believe that the results of this study, namely the new probabilistic seismic hazard maps

  12. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume III contains supporting materials not included in Volumes I and II.

  13. Medication safety and the administration of intravenous vincristine: international survey of oncology pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Gilbar, Peter; Chambers, Carole R; Larizza, Maria

    2015-02-01

    The risk of medication errors with vincristine administration is well documented. Our objective was to ascertain how vincristine is administered worldwide and determine what strategies for preventing the accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine are in place. A survey, comprising 28 questions, was distributed to 363 International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners members from 42 countries via email. Questions were asked on methods of vincristine administration, intrathecal drug administration and strategies used to prevent medication errors. A reminder was sent and the survey was available on the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners website. Only one survey per institution was requested. In all, 62 responses from 15 countries were received, with the majority from Australia. Vincristine was dispensed in mini-bags in 77.4% of centres, though some also used syringes. Syringes were used in 31.1% of centres, with half these doses prepared undiluted. Administration took 5 to 15 minutes in most centres (78.8%). The most common reasons for still using syringes were perceived risk of extravasation and faster infusion time. Despite numerous vincristine administrations, extravasation was very rare. Other recommended strategies for error prevention were in use in the majority of centres. Comparisons with three previous surveys are difficult as the majority of respondents in those studies were from the USA. A number of areas appear to have improved, particularly the preparation of vincristine in mini-bags, but they are far from perfect. Deaths continue to occur following accidental intrathecal administration of vincristine. International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioner members are urged to lead the way in incorporating strategies for prevention into institutions worldwide. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Pesticide health and safety and the work and impact of international agencies: partial successes and major failures.

    PubMed

    Watterson, A

    2001-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of the international role and impact of key agencies in informing regulators and users about pesticides and controlling and preventing pesticide poisoning worldwide. The WHO, IPCS, ILO, World Bank, and related organizations such as ICPS, for instance, all have effects. Particular attention is paid to the IPCS environmental health criteria documents on pesticides. Political and economic influences affect decisions about whether or not to use pesticides, and the risk assessments and data used to assess pesticides. This has significant influence on the selection and use of particular pesticides and hence on both acute and chronic pesticide poisoning cases globally. Progress has been made to correct these covert and damaging influences and imbalances, but more needs to be done to ensure proper accountability and transparency in pesticide health and safety policy and practice.

  15. An international network (PlaNet) to evaluate a human placental testing platform for chemicals safety testing in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brownbill, Paul; Chernyavsky, Igor; Bottalico, Barbara; Desoye, Gernot; Hansson, Stefan; Kenna, Gerry; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Markert, Udo R; Powles-Glover, Nicola; Schneider, Henning; Leach, Lopa

    2016-09-01

    The human placenta is a critical life-support system that nourishes and protects a rapidly growing fetus; a unique organ, species specific in structure and function. We consider the pressing challenge of providing additional advice on the safety of prescription medicines and environmental exposures in pregnancy and how ex vivo and in vitro human placental models might be advanced to reproducible human placental test systems (HPTSs), refining a weight of evidence to the guidance given around compound risk assessment during pregnancy. The placental pharmacokinetics of xenobiotic transfer, dysregulated placental function in pregnancy-related pathologies and influx/efflux transporter polymorphisms are a few caveats that could be addressed by HPTSs, not the specific focus of current mammalian reproductive toxicology systems. An international consortium, "PlaNet", will bridge academia, industry and regulators to consider screen ability and standardisation issues surrounding these models, with proven reproducibility for introduction into industrial and clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and implementation of seismic design and evaluation criteria for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, S.C.; MacCalden, P.B.

    1998-03-17

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is being built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as an international research center for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This paper will provide an overview of NIF, review NIF seismic criteria, and briefly discuss seismic analyses of NIF optical support structures that have been performed by LLNL and the Ralph M. Parsons Company, the Architect and Engineer (A&E) for NIF. The NIF seismic design and evaluation criteria is based on provisions in DOE Standard 1020 (DOE-STD-1020), the Uniform Building Code (UBC), and the LLNL Mechanical Engineering Design Safety Standards (MEDSS). Different levels of seismic requirements apply to NIF structures, systems, and components (SSCs) based on their function. The highest level of requirements are defined for optical support structures and SSCs which could influence the performance of optical support structures, while the minimum level of requirements are Performance Category 2 (PC2) requirements in DOE-STD-1020. To demonstrate that the NIF seismic criteria is satisfied, structural analyses have been performed by LLNL and Parsons to evaluate the responses of optical support structures and other SSCs to seismic-induced forces.

  17. Direct measurements of safety factor profiles with motional Stark effect for KSTAR tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, J.; Chung, J.

    2017-06-01

    The safety factor profile evolutions have been measured from the plasma discharges with the external current drive mechanism such as the multi-ion-source neutral beam injection for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) for the first time. This measurement has been possible by the newly installed motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic system that utilizes the polarized Balmer-alpha emission from the energetic neutral deuterium atoms induced by the Stark effect under the Lorentz electric field. The 25-channel KSTAR MSE diagnostic is based on the conventional photoelastic modulator approach with the spatial and temporal resolutions less than 2 cm (for the most of the channels except 2 to 3 channels inside the magnetic axis) and about 10 ms, respectively. The strong Faraday rotation imposed on the optical elements in the diagnostic system is calibrated out from a separate and well-designed polarization measurement procedure using an in-vessel reference polarizer during the toroidal-field ramp-up phase before the plasma experiment starts. The combination of the non-inductive current drive during the ramp-up and shape control enables the formation of the internal transport barrier where the pitch angle profiles indicate flat or slightly hollow profiles in the safety factor.

  18. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples.

  19. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D Program. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P.S.; Simons, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated.

  20. Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in low birth weight newborn.

    PubMed

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Rodríguez-Taméz, Antonio; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Barreto-Arroyo, Itzel; Hernández-Garduño, Adolfo; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; Quero, José; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Central venous catheterization is not the first choice of vascular access in neonates. Success depends on the size of the vessel and the skill of the health professional performing the procedure. The internal jugular vein provides a predictable path for central venous cannulation, although it is more difficult to cannulate infants than adults and even more difficult in smaller newborns. We conducted a prospective study in 100 newborns, in which a 4 Fr ultrasound-guided central venous catheter was placed in the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The study population was low birth weight (LBW) newborns <2500g, very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns <1500g and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) newborns <1000g. There were 53% female patients, mean gestational age was 31weeks, mean weight 1352g and the CVC was placed at a mean of 12days of extrauterine life. Birth weight distribution was 39% LBW; 33% VLBW and 28% ELBW. A mean of two (1-8) attempts were necessary with a procedure duration of 16.8 (10-40) minutes. Success of RIJV catheterization was 94%. One attempt was necessary in 50% and up to 5 attempts in 95.7%. Success by weight was VLBW, 97.2%; ELBW, 92.9%; LBW, 91.7%. A venous hematoma occurred in 5% of cases. Ultrasound-guided RIJV cannulation with real-time visualization to gain access to the central venous circulation in low birth weight newborns is effective and safe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Health and Safety Advisory Committee (HASAC) of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) has managed critical challenges for two decades.

    PubMed

    Thibier, M; Stringfellow, D A

    2003-02-01

    The International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) was founded in 1974. Early members used the society as a forum for the exchange of scientific and technical information relevant to a newly emerging embryo transfer industry. The impact that embryo transfer could have on the international trade of livestock genetics was clear by 1982, so the IETS commissioned the Import/Export Committee. The initial challenge for this Committee was to deal with concerns about disease transmission via embryo transfer. Many of the early concerns have been dispelled, but at the time they threatened the continued development of a fledgling industry. Over the past two decades, many new critical challenges have been met and managed by this Committee, which was recently renamed the Health and Safety Advisory Committee (HASAC). Assessing risks of animal disease transmission via reproductive technologies and establishing protocols for managing these risks are still major issues for HASAC. However, additional concerns have developed as views of the society changed and as novel applications of biotechnology in farm animals were identified. This paper is intended to chronicle some of the major changes and challenges that were managed by members of the HASAC and its Subcommittees from the early years of embryo transfer to the current millennium with technological advances in molecular biology.

  2. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  3. Piping and equipment resistance to seismic-generated missiles

    SciTech Connect

    LaSalle, F.R.; Golbeg, P.R.; Chenault, D.M.

    1992-02-01

    For reactor and nuclear facilities, both Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, and US Department of Energy Order 6430.1A require assessments of the interaction of non-Safety Class 1 piping and equipment with Safety Class 1 piping and equipment during a seismic event to maintain the safety function. The safety class systems of nuclear reactors or nuclear facilities are designed to the applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers standards and Seismic Category 1 criteria that require rigorous analysis, construction, and quality assurance. Because non-safety class systems are generally designed to lesser standards and seismic criteria, they may become missiles during a safe shutdown earthquake. The resistance of piping, tubing, and equipment to seismically generated missiles is addressed in the paper. Gross plastic and local penetration failures are considered with applicable test verification. Missile types and seismic zones of influence are discussed. Field qualification data are also developed for missile evaluation.

  4. The clinical safety, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry of flutemetamol (¹⁸F) injection in healthy Japanese adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Senda, Michio; Brooks, David J; Farrar, Gill; Somer, Edward J; Paterson, Carolyn L; Sasaki, Masahiro; McParland, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    The Phase I safety, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry study in adult healthy Japanese males of flutemetamol ((18)F) injection, an in vivo β-amyloid imaging agent, is reported and compared with previously obtained Caucasian data. Whole-body PET scans of 6 healthy volunteers (age 51.8-61.7 years) were acquired approximately 4 h post-injection (administered activity 102-160 MBq). Venous blood sampling determined (18)F activity concentrations in whole blood and plasma and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) established the percentages of parent [(18)F]flutemetamol and its metabolites. Voided urine activity was recorded. The decay-corrected and normalised (18)F activity of 14 source organ regions as a function of time was entered into the OLINDA/EXM software to calculate the internal radiation dosimetry and effective dose of each subject following the MIRD schema. The pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and dosimetry profiles were compared to data obtained from a cohort of healthy Caucasian adult volunteers from a previous Phase I study of [(18)F]flutemetamol. Flutemetamol ((18)F) injection was well tolerated. The highest mean initial uptakes were measured in the liver (15.2%), lungs (10.2%) and brain (6.6%). The highest mean radiation absorbed doses were received by the gallbladder wall (366 μGy/MBq), upper large intestine (138 μGy/MBq) and small intestine (121 μGy/MBq). The mean effective dose was 34.9 μSv/MBq. HPLC analysis demonstrated that at 5-min post-injection about 75% of plasma (18)F radioactivity was in the form of parent [(18)F]flutemetamol, reducing to 8 and 2% at 25 and 90 min, respectively, giving rise to less lipophilic (18)F-labelled metabolites. Comparisons with the Caucasian cohort showed no differences that could be regarded as clinically significant. The clinical safety of [(18)F]flutemetamol demonstrated no differences of clinical significance in the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry

  5. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

  6. Validation in Support of Internationally Harmonised OECD Test Guidelines for Assessing the Safety of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gourmelon, Anne; Delrue, Nathalie

    Ten years elapsed since the OECD published the Guidance document on the validation and international regulatory acceptance of test methods for hazard assessment. Much experience has been gained since then in validation centres, in countries and at the OECD on a variety of test methods that were subjected to validation studies. This chapter reviews validation principles and highlights common features that appear to be important for further regulatory acceptance across studies. Existing OECD-agreed validation principles will most likely generally remain relevant and applicable to address challenges associated with the validation of future test methods. Some adaptations may be needed to take into account the level of technique introduced in test systems, but demonstration of relevance and reliability will continue to play a central role as pre-requisite for the regulatory acceptance. Demonstration of relevance will become more challenging for test methods that form part of a set of predictive tools and methods, and that do not stand alone. OECD is keen on ensuring that while these concepts evolve, countries can continue to rely on valid methods and harmonised approaches for an efficient testing and assessment of chemicals.

  7. Injuries occurring in medical students during international medical rotations: a strategy toward maximizing safety.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Shannon; Robertson, Russell; Hargarten, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    The number of medical students traveling to nations outside the United States is steadily increasing. The Association of American Medical Colleges graduation questionnaire notes an increase from 2,838 students in 2001 to 3,799 students in 2009, the last year for which information is available. The risk of having any type of illness during international travel approaches 50%. Up to 19% of students will seek medical care on their return to the United States for illnesses. Most illnesses are benign and self limited. However, when deaths do occur, the leading causes are motor vehicle crashes and drownings. If air medical evacuation occurs, the most likely cause is an injury event. The authors review the literature to determine the risk of and type of illnesses and injuries suffered by travelers while overseas, especially medical volunteers. We describe the major categories of illness and injury risk and propose reasonable risk reduction and prevention strategies for prevention for injury, a relatively neglected area. We recommend that medical schools provide pre-travel training that includes injury prevention so that students are prepared not only for illness prevention but also for injury prevention. A focus on injury prevention, especially from motor vehicle crashes and drowning, is warranted given their role in causing death and serious injury to traveling students.

  8. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-31

    dyn-cm. It can be seen that there is a wide range of the potential con- tribution of different seismic zones to excitation of the Chandler wobble ...Correction to the Excitation of the Chandler Wobble by Earthquakes," Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 32, 203-217 (1973). 22. S. C. Solomon, N. H. Sleep

  9. Seismic Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  10. Seismic Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  11. Seismic calm predictors of rockburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmushko, Tatjana; Turuntaev, Sergey; Kulikov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    The method of "seismic calm" is widely used for forecasting of strong natural earthquakes (Sobolev G.A., Ponomarev A.V., 2003). The "seismic calm" means that during some time period before the main earthquake, the smaller events (with energies of several order smaller than that of the main earthquake) don't occur. In the presented paper the applicability of the method based on the idea of seismic calm for forecasting rockburst is considered. Three deposits (with seismicity induced by mining) are analyzed: Tashtagol iron deposit (Altai, Russia), Vorkuta (North Ural, Russia) and Barentsburg (Spitsbergen, Norway) coalmines. Local seismic monitoring networks are installed on each of them. The catalogues of seismic events were processed and strong events (rockbursts) were studied (Vorkuta M=2,3; Barentsburg M=1,8; Tashtagol M=1,9÷2,2). All catalogues cover at least two years (Vorkuta - 2008-2011, Barentsburg - 2011-2012, Tashtagol - 2002-2012). It was found that the number of seismic events with magnitudes M=0,5÷1 decreased in a month before the main strong event at Vorkuta coalmines. This event was not directly related with coal mining, its epicenter was located aside of the area of coal mining. In Barentsburg mine the rockburst wasn't so strong as in Vorkuta. The number of events with energies M=0,5 decreased slightly before the rockburst, but not so obviously as in Vorkuta case. The seismic events with high energies occur often at Tashtagol iron deposit. Mining methods used there differ from the coal deposit mining. At coalmines the mining combine runs from edge to edge of the wall, cutting off the coal. The considered iron deposit is developed by a method of block blasting. Not all rockbursts occur immediately after the blasting, so, the problem of the rockburst prediction is important for mining safety. To find rockburst precursors it is necessary to separate the events occurred due to the block blasting from the seismic events due to relocation of stresses in

  12. Seismic Symphonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  13. Information and communication technology systems to improve quality of life and safety of Alzheimer's disease patients: a multicenter international survey.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Alberto; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Benelli, Edoardo; Zanesco, Antonio; Cabello, Ana; Margelí, M Carmen; Wanche-Politis, Sophia; Seferis, Kostas; Sancarlo, Daniele; Kilias, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of the European Commission funded Smart Home for Elderly People (HOPE) Project, relatives/caregivers of 223 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients were recruited in Italy, Spain, and Greece for a multicenter international survey on the potential role of Information and Communication Technology system (ICT-systems) for AD patients. A five-minute video on HOPE ICT-systems was shown, and all relatives/caregivers completed a 13-item questionnaire that evaluated the potential role of: A) ICT-systems in improving quality of life, care, and safety; B) devices for monitoring personal movements, medication use, and ambient environmental conditions; C) devices to improve communication, home-based rehabilitation, and reduction of specific risks; and D) possible agreement in using ICT-systems by AD patients. Relatives/caregivers reported that ICT-systems could be very useful to improve: A) quality of life (66.4%), care (56.1%), and safety (87.0%); B) monitoring bed rest and movements (80.7%), medication use (87.4%), and ambient environmental conditions (85.2%); and C) emergency communication (83.4%). Relatives/caregivers reported that ICT-systems could be significantly more useful for AD patients aged 75-84 than patients aged <75 or ≥85 years (p < 0.0001) and with moderate than mild or severe dementia (p < 0.0001). Relatives/caregivers aged ≥50 years and with low educational level considered ICT-systems more useful than relatives/caregivers aged <50 years (p < 0.0001) and with high educational level (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, relatives/caregivers considered that the HOPE ICT-system could be useful to improve the management of AD patients.

  14. International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1979-01-01

    The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)

  15. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Worth the Risk: Four Approaches to Safety in International Learning, Including Selected and Annotated Resource Guide. CBIE Research Millennium Series No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Wayne; Mitchell, Lynne

    2000-01-01

    More and more Canadians are departing the country for international study, training and work experiences. Increasingly Canadian organizations and institutions are developing programs that further this mobility. However there is a dearth of resources and a lack of guidelines related to ensuring health and safety while abroad. "Worth the…

  17. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    demonstrated and sufficient justification of hazard assessment protocols; (b) a more complete learning of the actual range of earthquake hazards to local communities and populations, and (c) a more ethically responsible control over how seismic hazard and seismic risk is implemented to protect public safety. It follows that the international project GEM is on the wrong track, if it continues to base seismic risk estimates on the standard method to assess seismic hazard. The situation is not hopeless and could be improved dramatically due to available geological, geomorphologic, seismic, and tectonic evidences and data combined with deterministic pattern recognition methodologies, specifically, when intending to PREDICT PREDICTABLE, but not the exact size, site, date, and probability of a target event. Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems of blocks-and-faults has led already to methodologies of neo-deterministic seismic hazard analysis and intermediate-term middle- to narrow-range earthquake prediction algorithms tested in real-time applications over the last decades. It proves that Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such info in advance extreme catastrophes, which are LOW PROBABILITY EVENTS THAT HAPPEN WITH CERTAINTY. Geoscientists must initiate shifting the minds of community from pessimistic disbelieve to optimistic challenging issues of neo-deterministic Hazard Predictability.

  18. Seismic Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-31

    Determining Phase and Group Velocities of Surface Seismic Waves 21 B. Group-Velocity Measurements Across Eurasia from Mashad SRO 22 C. Group-Velocity...Albuquerque), MAIO ( Mashad ), GUMO (Guam), NWAO (Australia), SNZO (New Zealand), and TATO (Taiwan). Fairly extensive data are now a|ailable for the...include a new rapid algorithm for the determination of group and phase velocity, a series of observations of Rayleigh-wave dispersion at the Mashad

  19. Hanford quarterly seismic monitoring report 96C

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.

    1996-09-24

    Seismic monitoring at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1975 the University of Washington assumed responsibility for and expanded the network. In 1979 the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) became responsible for collecting seismic data for the site as part of site characterization. Rockwell International Operations followed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Geosciences Group, operated the local network and were the contract technical advisors for the Eastern Washington Regional Network operated by the University of Washington. Funding ended for BWIP in December 1988. Seismic Monitoring and the University of Washington contract was then transferred WHC`s Environmental Division. Seismic Monitoring is currently assigned to WHC`s Hanford Technical Services (HTS), part of the Environmental Division. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team (SMART) operates, maintains, and analyzes data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN), extending the site historical seismic database and fulfilling U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office requirements and orders. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team also maintains the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN). The University of Washington uses the data from the EWRN and other seismic networks in the Northwest to provide the SMART with necessary regional input for the seismic hazards analysis at the Hanford Site.

  20. Seismic performance analysis of Tendaho earth fill dam, Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhe, T.; Wu, W.

    2009-04-01

    The Tendaho dam is found in the Afar regional state, North Eastern part of Ethiopia. It is located within an area known as the ‘Tendaho Graben' ,which forms the center of Afar triangle, a low lying area of land where East African, Red sea and the Gulf of Eden Rift systems converge. The dam is an earthfill dam with a volume of about 4 Million cubic meters and with mixed clay core. The geological setting associated with the site of the dam, the geotechnical properties of the dam materials and seismicity of the region are reviewed. Based on this review, the foundation materials and dam body include some liquefiable granular soils. Moreover, the active East African Rift Valley fault, which can generate an earthquake of magnitude greater than 6, passes through the dam body. This valley is the primary seismic source contributing to the hazard at the Tendaho dam site. The availability of liquefiable materials beneath and within the dam body and the presence of the active fault crossing the dam site demand a thorough seismic analysis of the dam. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is selected as a measure of ground motion severity. The PGA was selected according to the guidelines of the International Commission on Large Dams, ICOLD. Based on the criteria set by the ICOLD, the dam is analyzed for two different earthquake magnitudes, the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) and the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE). Numerical codes are useful tools to investigate the safety of dams in seismic prone areas. In this paper, FLAC3D numerical tool is used to investigate the performance of the dam under dynamic loading. Based on the numerical analysis, the seismic performance of the dam is investigated.

  1. Utilization of internal standard response factors to estimate the concentration of organic compounds leached from pharmaceutical packaging systems and application of such estimated concentrations to safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Jenke, Dennis; Odufu, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Substances from packaging systems that are leached into packaged medical products may have a safety impact on patients to whom such medical products are administered. The potential safety impact depends on the identity and concentration of the leached substances. The concentration above which a leachable must be identified in order to assess its safety impact is frequently estimated using an internal standard to "calibrate" the analytical response of a chromatographic system. Such an estimate is accurate to the extent that the responses of the internal standard and leachables are similar. To establish the accuracy of the internal standard approach, a database of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) responses was generated for thirty-eight leachables and eight internal standard candidates. Although the FID and MS responses of many of the leachables and internal standards fell within a narrow band, acidic and basic compounds produced responses that were discernibly different from those of neutral analytes. While most of the internal standards were suited for concentration estimation, three of the candidates, dimethylphthalate, triphenylphosphate and 4,4-dibromobiphenyl, produced the smallest mean error in estimated concentration for the analytes examined. As the FID and MS responses were linear, internal standards could be used to estimate leachables concentrations even when the difference in leachable versus internal standard concentrations was as great as a factor of 25. A multiplier may be appropriate to adjust an estimated concentration to its greatest possible value, and it is this value that is used to convert an estimated Analytical Evaluation Threshold (AET) into a working or final AET.

  2. 77 FR 63437 - Advisory Committee on Structural Safety of Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities, Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... issues and structural design as they relate to seismic and other natural hazards impact on the safety of... seismic, natural hazards, and fire safety issues that are particularly relevant to facilities owned and...

  3. 78 FR 21197 - Advisory Committee on Structural Safety of Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities, Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... seismic and other natural hazards impact on the safety of buildings. On April 26, the Committee will receive appropriate briefings and presentations on current seismic, natural hazards, and fire safety...

  4. 78 FR 21198 - Advisory Committee on Structural Safety of Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... seismic and other natural hazards impact on the safety of buildings. On April 26, the Committee will receive appropriate briefings and presentations on current seismic, natural hazards, and fire safety...

  5. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 3: Primary systems integrity; Structural and seismic engineering; Aging research, products and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24--26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Use of electronic group method in assessing food safety training needs and delivery methods among international college students in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Garden-Robinson, Julie; Eighmy, Myron A; Lyonga, Agnes Ngale

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of unfamiliar foods international students in the U.S. encounter and to assess food safety information that international students would like to receive for mitigating risks associated with handling and preparing unfamiliar foods. The study identified preferred instructional delivery methods and media for receiving food safety training or information. An electronic group method was used for this study. The electronic group method was chosen to maximize group efficiency by allowing participants to share ideas simultaneously and anonymously with minimal use of time and resources.Types of different (unfamiliar) foods were grouped into major categories. Fast and ready-to-eat foods, and processed and frozen foods constituted a major change for some international students, who were accustomed to homemade and fresh foods in their countries. Participants were interested in receiving information about how to safely handle and prepare unfamiliar foods in their new environment. Preferred methods for receiving food safety information included written materials, online publications, presentations, and materials provided during student orientation. Food packages, websites, and television programs were other preferred methods of receiving food safety information.

  8. Nutritional and safety assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology--case studies by the International Food Biotechnology Committee of ILSI.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Kevin C

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, the public and private sectors have made substantial research progress internationally toward improving the nutritional value of a wide range of food and feed crops. Nevertheless, significant numbers of people still suffer from the effects of undernutrition. As newly developed crops with nutritionally improved traits come closer to being available to producers and consumers, scientifically sound and efficient processes are needed to assess the safety and nutritional quality of these crops. In 2004, a Task Force of international scientific experts, convened by the International Food Biotechnology Committee (IFBiC) of ILSI, published recommendations for the safety and nutritional assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through modern biotechnology (J. Food Science, 2004, 69:CRH62-CRH68). The comparative safety assessment process is a basic principle in this publication and is the starting point, not the conclusion, of the analysis. Significant differences in composition are expected to be observed in the case of nutritionally enhanced crops and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. The Golden Rice 2 case study will be presented as an example of a food crop nutritionally enhanced through the application of modern biotechnology (i.e., recombinant DNA techniques) to illustrate how the 2004 recommendations provide a robust paradigm for the safety assessment of "real world" examples of improved nutrition crops.

  9. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  10. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; hide

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  11. The environmental, health, and safety issues of acoustical materials: A strategy for finding, using, and evaluating information effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischel, Marsha S.

    2005-09-01

    Concern over the safety of our indoor environments has increased in recent years. The definition of safety has also evolved to include not just life safety issues such as fire, but issues such as mold growth, toxins, the emission of volatile organic compounds, seismic concerns, and ergonomic issues. Consequently, the understanding of product safety has become increasingly more complex. Simultaneously, there has been an explosion in the number of products available to specifiers, due largely to access to the World Wide Web by international manufacturers of all sizes. Some of these manufacturers may be unable to test all aspects of product safety, or simply may be unaware of safety regulations. Specifiers can no longer assume a product is inherently safe and must do their own evaluations of product safety attributes. This paper will lay out a basic methodology for finding, using, and evaluating environmental, health, and safety information on acoustical products in an effective manner.

  12. Safety and efficacy of vertebroplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a prospective multicenter international randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Leali, Paolo Tranquilli; Solla, Federico; Maestretti, Gianluca; Balsano, Massimo; Doria, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) treated non-operatively can diminish function and quality of life, and lead to chronic health effects. The short-term safety and effectiveness of vertebroplasty for symptomatic VCFs are well-documented, but long-term follow-up is needed. Purpose The aim of this paper was to analyse a multicenter international experience of 200 compression fractures treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty (VP) and compare the results of this procedure with the result of 200 patients treated conservatively. To estimate cost-effectiveness of VP compared to conservative care in terms of: pain reduction, quality of life, complications, secondary fractures and mortality. Materials and methods 400 patients have been enrolled in a prospective randomized controlled study with painful VCFs with bone edema on MR imaging, local back pain for 6 weeks or less, osteoporosis and aged 55 years or older; after obtaining informed consent patients are included and randomized for VP or conservative care. Before treatment and at follow-up with regular intervals during 1-year period were administered to patients standard questionnaires addressing: clinical symptoms, pain medication, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score to evaluate functional activity. Results 200 patients treated with PV compared with 200 patients treated conservatively had significantly better VAS and used less analgesics 1 day after treatment. Twenty-four hours after VP, there was a reduction in pain scores and an improvement in physical functions, whereas remain unchanged in the patients treated conservatively. Conclusions Pain relief and improvement of mobility and function after PV is immediate and significantly better in the short term compared with non-surgical care treatment. PMID:28228788

  13. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Richard B; Kalman, Douglas S; Antonio, Jose; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Wildman, Robert; Collins, Rick; Candow, Darren G; Kleiner, Susan M; Almada, Anthony L; Lopez, Hector L

    2017-01-01

    Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection. Additionally, a number of clinical applications of creatine supplementation have been studied involving neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., muscular dystrophy, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease), diabetes, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, aging, brain and heart ischemia, adolescent depression, and pregnancy. These studies provide a large body of evidence that creatine can not only improve exercise performance, but can play a role in preventing and/or reducing the severity of injury, enhancing rehabilitation from injuries, and helping athletes tolerate heavy training loads. Additionally, researchers have identified a number of potentially beneficial clinical uses of creatine supplementation. These studies show that short and long-term supplementation (up to 30 g/day for 5 years) is safe and well-tolerated in healthy individuals and in a number of patient populations ranging from infants to the elderly. Moreover, significant health benefits may be provided by ensuring habitual low dietary creatine ingestion (e.g., 3 g/day) throughout the lifespan. The purpose of this review is to provide an update to the current literature regarding the role and safety of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine and to update the position stand of International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN).

  14. Seismic assessment for offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Blaker, F.; Nadim, F.

    1995-12-31

    An international consensus on seismic design criteria for onshore pipelines has been established during the last thirty years. The need to assess seismic design for offshore pipelines has not been similarly recognized. In this paper, the geotechnical hazard for a pipeline routed across steep slopes and irregular terrains affected by earthquakes, is discussed. The integrity of both natural and artificial load bearing supports is assessed.d The response of the pipeline to direct excitation from soil or through discontinuous, sparsely distributed natural or artificial supports, is commented.

  15. EBR-2 (Experimental Breeder Reactor-2) containment seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, J.G.; Lehto, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) is a liquid metal reactor located at the Argonne National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho. At the time the EBR-2 was designed and constructed, there were no engineering society or federal guide lines specifically directed toward the seismic design of reactor containment structures; hence, static analysis techniques were used in the design. With the increased focus on safety of reactor and fuel reprocessing facilities, Argonne has initiated a program to analyze its existing facilities for seismic integrity using current Department of Energy guidelines and industry consensus standards. A seismic analysis of the EBR-2 containment building has been performed using finite-element analysis techniques. The containment building is essentially a vertical right cylindrical steel shell with heads on both ends. The structure is unique in that the interior of the steel shell is lined with reinforced concrete. The actual containment function of the building is served by the steel shell; whereas the function of the concrete liner is to serve as a missile shield and a thermal insulating shield to protect the steel containment shell from internally generated missiles and fires. Model development and structural evaluation of the EBR-2 containment building are discussed in this paper. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  16. ORNL results for Test Case 1 of the International Atomic Energy Agency`s research program on the safety assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, D.J.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Kocher, D.C.; Little, C.A.; Roemer, E.K.

    1993-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started the Coordinated Research Program entitled ```The Safety Assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities.`` The program is aimed at improving the confidence in the modeling results for safety assessments of waste disposal facilities. The program has been given the acronym NSARS (Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) for ease of reference. The purpose of this report is to present the ORNL modeling results for the first test case (i.e., Test Case 1) of the IAEA NSARS program. Test Case 1 is based on near-surface disposal of radionuclides that are subsequently leached to a saturated-sand aquifer. Exposure to radionuclides results from use of a well screened in the aquifer and from intrusion into the repository. Two repository concepts were defined in Test Case 1: a simple earth trench and an engineered vault.

  17. Historical seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dengler, L.

    1992-01-01

    The North Coast region of California in the vicinity of Cape Mendocino is one of the state's most seismically active areas, accounting for 25 percent of seismic energy release in California during the last 50 years. the region is located in a geologically dynamic are surrounding the Mendocino triple junction where three of the Earth's tectonic plates join together ( see preceding article by Sam Clarke). In the historic past the North Coast has been affected by earthquakes occurring on the San Andreas fault system to the south, the Mendocino fault to the southwest, and intraplate earthquakes within both the Gorda and North American plates. More than sixty of these earthquakes have caused damage since the mid-1800's. Recent studies indicate that California's North Coast is also at risk with respect to very large earthquakes (magnitude >8) originating along the Cascadia subduction zone. Although the subduction zone has not generated great earthquakes in historic time, paleoseismic evidence suggests that such earthquakes have been generated by the subduction zone in the recent prehistoric past. 

  18. Seismic reflection imaging of shallow oceanographic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piété, Helen; Marié, Louis; Marsset, Bruno; Thomas, Yannick; Gutscher, Marc-André

    2013-05-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiling can provide high lateral resolution images of deep ocean thermohaline fine structure. However, the shallowest layers of the water column (z < 150 m) have remained unexplored by this technique until recently. In order to explore the feasibility of shallow seismic oceanography (SO), we reprocessed and analyzed four multichannel seismic reflection sections featuring reflectors at depths between 10 and 150 m. The influence of the acquisition parameters was quantified. Seismic data processing dedicated to SO was also investigated. Conventional seismic acquisition systems were found to be ill-suited to the imaging of shallow oceanographic structures, because of a high antenna filter effect induced by large offsets and seismic trace lengths, and sources that typically cannot provide both a high level of emission and fine vertical resolution. We considered a test case, the imagery of the seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. New oceanographic data acquired in this area allowed simulation of the seismic acquisition. Sea trials of a specifically designed system were performed during the ASPEX survey, conducted in early summer 2012. The seismic device featured: (i) four seismic streamers, each consisting of six traces of 1.80 m; (ii) a 1000 J SIG sparker source, providing a 400 Hz signal with a level of emission of 205 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. This survey captured the 15 m thick, 30 m deep seasonal thermocline in unprecedented detail, showing images of vertical displacements most probably induced by internal waves.

  19. Urban shear-wave reflection seismics: Reconstruction support by combined shallow seismic and engineering geology investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Guenther, A.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, P.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the massive reconstruction activities in the Aceh province (Northern Sumatra) were promoted by the Republic of Indonesia and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. The aims of the project MANGEONAD (Management of Georisk Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam). are to establish geoscientific on the ground support for a sustainable development and management of save building constructions, lifelines, infrastructure and also natural resources. Therefore, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in close combination to engineering geology investigations in the period between 2005-2009 since depth and internal structure of the Krueng Aceh River delta (mainly young alluvial sediments) were widely unknown. Due to the requirements in the densely populated Banda Aceh region, lacking also traffic infrastructure, a small and lightweight engineering seismic setup of high mobility and high subsurface resolution capability was chosen. The S-wave land streamer system with 48 channels was applied successfully together with the ELVIS vibratory source using S- and P-waves on paved roads within the city of Banda Aceh. The performance of the S-wave system enabled the detailed seismic investigation of the shallow subsurface down to 50-150 m depth generating shaking frequencies between 20 Hz to 200 Hz. This also provides depth information extending the maximum depths of boreholes and Standard Penetrometer Testings (SPT), which could only be applied to max. 20 m depth. To integrate the results gained from all three methods, and further to provide a fast statistical analysis tool for engineering use, the Information System Engineering Geology (ISEG, BGR) was developed. This geospatial information tool includes the seismic data, all borehole information, geotechnical SPT and laboratory results from samples available in the investigation area. Thereby, the geotechnical 3D analysis of the subsurface units is enabled. The

  20. Seismic Monitoring for the United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Nakanishi, K

    2005-04-11

    There is potential for earthquakes in the United Arab Emirates and in the Zagros mountains to cause structural damage and pose a threat to safety of people. Damaging effects from earthquakes can be mitigated by knowledge of the location and size of earthquakes, effects on construction, and monitoring these effects over time. Although a general idea of seismicity in the UAE may be determined with data from global seismic networks, these global networks do not have the sensitivity to record smaller seismic events and do not have the necessary accuracy to locate the events. A National Seismic Monitoring Observatory is needed for the UAE that consists of a modern seismic network and a multidisciplinary staff that can analyze and interpret the data from the network. A seismic network is essential to locate earthquakes, determine event magnitudes, identify active faults and measure ground motions from earthquakes. Such a network can provide the data necessary for a reliable seismic hazard assessment in the UAE. The National Seismic Monitoring Observatory would ideally be situated at a university that would provide access to the wide range of disciplines needed in operating the network and providing expertise in analysis and interpretation.

  1. National Seismic Network of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanova, N.; Kakhoberashvili, S.; Omarashvili, V.; Tserodze, M.; Akubardia, D.

    2016-12-01

    Georgia, as a part of the Southern Caucasus, is tectonically active and structurally complex region. It is one of the most active segments of the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. The deformation and the associated seismicity are due to the continent-continent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Seismic Monitoring of country and the quality of seismic data is the major tool for the rapid response policy, population safety, basic scientific research and in the end for the sustainable development of the country. National Seismic Network of Georgia has been developing since the end of 19th century. Digital era of the network started from 2003. Recently continuous data streams from 25 stations acquired and analyzed in the real time. Data is combined to calculate rapid location and magnitude for the earthquake. Information for the bigger events (Ml>=3.5) is simultaneously transferred to the website of the monitoring center and to the related governmental agencies. To improve rapid earthquake location and magnitude estimation the seismic network was enhanced by installing additional 7 new stations. Each new station is equipped with coupled Broadband and Strong Motion seismometers and permanent GPS system as well. To select the sites for the 7 new base stations, we used standard network optimization techniques. To choose the optimal sites for new stations we've taken into account geometry of the existed seismic network, topographic conditions of the site. For each site we studied local geology (Vs30 was mandatory for each site), local noise level and seismic vault construction parameters. Due to the country elevation, stations were installed in the high mountains, no accessible in winter due to the heavy snow conditions. To secure online data transmission we used satellite data transmission as well as cell data network coverage from the different local companies. As a result we've already have the improved earthquake location and event magnitudes. We

  2. A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Maggiò, F.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.

    2008-07-01

    The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on

  3. A procedure for seismic risk reduction in Campania Region

    SciTech Connect

    Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.; Maggio, F.

    2008-07-08

    The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on

  4. Recent Advances in Seismic Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenberg, Cord; Klaeschen, Dirk; Krahmann, Gerd; Hobbs, Richard; Vsemirnova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    Recently seismic reflection methods have been successfully applied to oceanographic issues. Acoustic imaging of internal oceanic structure (‘‘seismic oceanography'') is providing views of thermohaline finestructure with the potential to provide quantitative information on such processes as internal waves, eddy dynamics, and turbulent dissipation. Here we present sound-speed data und subsequently temperature and salinity images inverted from combined seismic and hydrographic observations at unprecedented resolution. However, unlike the solid earth, where the boundaries between two rock masses may be sharp and a description by the impedance above and below the boundary suffice, the boundaries in the ocean are affected by diffusion processes, so that the reflection coefficient needs to be described by continuous profiles of the vertical impedance gradient or the underlying properties sound speed and density. These quantities can be related to temperature and salinity of the water. For this we use a T-S(z) relationship (temperature-salinity) derived from CTD observations and the equation of state for seawater to simultaneously calculate temperature and salinity for the whole profile in an iterative process. The inverted temperature and salinity maps thereby allow us to identify different water mass bodies at intermediate scales. Furthermore, we use these accurate sound-speed models to derive reflector movement velocities of water mass bodies as an additional property from seismic reflection data. For migration of seismic data over the solid Earth we know the geometry and need to find the optimum sound speed model, here we reverse this procedure, given the sound speed model we can compute the optimum geometry for a dynamic fluid and hence its motion. The movement velocity gives a dynamic property to the instant seismic reflector image and may have great potential to study the temporal dynamics of the water structure.

  5. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-04-20

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

  6. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  7. Cardiovascular disorders associated with naloxone monotherapy and in fixed-dose combination with opioids: Data from international safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Amneet; Kao, David; Mehler, Philip S; Haigney, Mark C P; Krantz, Mori J

    2016-06-01

    The widespread use of opioids has resulted in sharp rise of associated complications, particularly opioid-induced constipation (OIC). Opioid receptor antagonists have been proposed to treat OIC, but could precipitate rapid opioid withdrawal. As cardiovascular safety data are lacking, we assessed disproportionate reporting of adverse cardiac events associated with naloxone across large, international pharmacovigilance systems. Post-marketing data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and FDA Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) were evaluated for naloxone and the synthetic opioids oxycodone and tilidine. The proportional reporting ratio (PRR), a measure of reporting frequency analogous to an odds ratio, was assessed. The primary outcome was reporting frequency of the MedDRA System Organ Class (SOC) 'Cardiac Disorders' for naloxone alone and in fixed-dose combination with opioids. Opioid mono-preparations served as quasi-experimental controls. A PRR greater than 2.0 was considered significant. In total, 14,827,374 million adverse drug event reports were reviewed. In WHO, there were 1757 reports of SOC cardiac disorders among 10,866 total reports for oxycodone (PRR 2.38 [95% CI 2.28-2.49, χ(2)=1504]). For oxycodone-naloxone, there were 43/453 reports of SOC cardiac disorders (PRR 1.45 [95% CI 1.09-1.92, χ(2)=6.4]). For the synthetic opioid tilidine there were 13/179 reports (PRR 1.13 [95% CI 0.67-1.91, χ(2)=0.2]) and for tilidine-naloxone, 30/505 reports (PRR 0.92 [95% CI 0.65-1.31, χ(2)=0.2]). In FAERS, the PRR for SOC cardiac disorders was 0.95 [95% CI 0.89-1.01, χ(2)=2.1] for naloxone (all administration routes) and 1.16 [95% CI 0.93-1.45, χ(2)=1.3] for naloxone (oral only). In comparison, the PRR was 1.66 [95% CI 1.63-1.69, χ(2)=4278] for oxycodone and 1.52 [CI 1.28-1.80, χ(2)=1500] for oxycodone-naloxone. Available pharmacovigilance data do not suggest disproportionate reporting of adverse cardiovascular events for opioid antagonists used to treat

  8. Seismic risk perception test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  9. Notification: FY 2012 Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses for the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    February 1, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General is beginning work to update our list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  10. Seismic analysis for translational failure of landfills with retaining walls.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Li-Ya

    2010-11-01

    In the seismic impact zone, seismic force can be a major triggering mechanism for translational failures of landfills. The scope of this paper is to develop a three-part wedge method for seismic analysis of translational failures of landfills with retaining walls. The approximate solution of the factor of safety can be calculated. Unlike previous conventional limit equilibrium methods, the new method is capable of revealing the effects of both the solid waste shear strength and the retaining wall on the translational failures of landfills during earthquake. Parameter studies of the developed method show that the factor of safety decreases with the increase of the seismic coefficient, while it increases quickly with the increase of the minimum friction angle beneath waste mass for various horizontal seismic coefficients. Increasing the minimum friction angle beneath the waste mass appears to be more effective than any other parameters for increasing the factor of safety under the considered condition. Thus, selecting liner materials with higher friction angle will considerably reduce the potential for translational failures of landfills during earthquake. The factor of safety gradually increases with the increase of the height of retaining wall for various horizontal seismic coefficients. A higher retaining wall is beneficial to the seismic stability of the landfill. Simply ignoring the retaining wall will lead to serious underestimation of the factor of safety. Besides, the approximate solution of the yield acceleration coefficient of the landfill is also presented based on the calculated method.

  11. 7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seismic design and construction standards for new..., REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and construction...

  12. 7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic design and construction standards for new..., REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and construction...

  13. 7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seismic design and construction standards for new..., REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and construction...

  14. 7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Seismic design and construction standards for new..., REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and construction...

  15. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices regarding Injection Safety and Related Biomedical Waste Management amongst Interns in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Priyanka; Khandekar, Jyoti; Bachani, Damodar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by needle sticks and sharps due to unsafe injection practices are the most common occupational hazard amongst health care personnel. The objectives of our study were to determine the existing knowledge and practices of interns and change in their level following an information education and communication (IEC) package regarding safe injection practices and related biomedical waste management and to determine the status of hepatitis B vaccination. We conducted a follow-up study among all (106) interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Delhi. A predesigned semistructured questionnaire was used. IEC package in the form of hands-on workshop and power point presentation was used. A highly significant (P < 0.001) improvement in the knowledge of interns was observed after intervention with respect to the “three criteria of a safe injection” and cleaning of injection site. Thus, the baseline knowledge of interns was good in certain aspects of injection safety, namely, diseases transmitted by unsafe injections and their prevention. We conclude that IEC intervention package was effective in significantly improving the interns' knowledge regarding safe injection practices and biomedical waste management. Almost two-thirds of interns were immunised against hepatitis B before the intervention and this proportion rose significantly after the intervention. PMID:27433489

  16. Assessment of Knowledge and Practices regarding Injection Safety and Related Biomedical Waste Management amongst Interns in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Delhi.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Priyanka; Khandekar, Jyoti; Bachani, Damodar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries caused by needle sticks and sharps due to unsafe injection practices are the most common occupational hazard amongst health care personnel. The objectives of our study were to determine the existing knowledge and practices of interns and change in their level following an information education and communication (IEC) package regarding safe injection practices and related biomedical waste management and to determine the status of hepatitis B vaccination. We conducted a follow-up study among all (106) interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital, Delhi. A predesigned semistructured questionnaire was used. IEC package in the form of hands-on workshop and power point presentation was used. A highly significant (P < 0.001) improvement in the knowledge of interns was observed after intervention with respect to the "three criteria of a safe injection" and cleaning of injection site. Thus, the baseline knowledge of interns was good in certain aspects of injection safety, namely, diseases transmitted by unsafe injections and their prevention. We conclude that IEC intervention package was effective in significantly improving the interns' knowledge regarding safe injection practices and biomedical waste management. Almost two-thirds of interns were immunised against hepatitis B before the intervention and this proportion rose significantly after the intervention.

  17. Evaluation of information in nanomaterial safety data sheets and development of international standard for guidance on preparation of nanomaterial safety data sheets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kuk, Won Kwen; Kwon, Miran; Lee, Jong Han; Lee, Kwon Sub; Yu, Il Je

    2013-05-01

    Safety data sheets (SDSs) and labelling are the basic hazard communication tools for hazardous chemicals as regards their manufacture, storage, transport and other handling activities. Thus, in the context of the growing use of nanomaterials and nanomaterial-containing materials, this study evaluated the information provided in 97 nanomaterial-related SDSs according to the criteria set by the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals) and found that most of the SDSs did not include sufficient information on the safety of nanomaterials, such as their toxicity and physicochemical properties. The reasons for this lack of information in the nanomaterial SDSs can mainly be attributed to (1) a lack of toxicity and physicochemical property information on nanomaterials, (2) unawareness of the effectiveness of conventional exposure controls, such as local exhaust ventilation and encapsulation, and personal protective equipment (PPE), in protecting against nanomaterial exposure, (3) a lack of information on emergency and firefighting measures and (4) a lack of knowledge on how existing regulations apply to nanomaterials. Therefore, to create a consistent standard for the information provided on safety, health and environmental matters for manufactured nanomaterial-containing products, guidance for the preparation of nanomaterial-specific SDSs, including both nanomaterials and mixtures of nanomaterials with conventional non-nanoscale materials, was recently initiated by the ISO TC 229. Their guidance, in the form of a technical report, recommends that nanomaterial-related SDSs should be prepared based on a precautionary approach in terms of the toxicity and other risks associated with the nanomaterial contents within the mixture in question. One of the key recommendations in the technical report is to include additional physicochemical properties, including the particle size (average and range), size distribution aggregation

  18. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

  19. ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    E. Blanford; E. Keldrauk; M. Laufer; M. Mieler; J. Wei; B. Stojadinovic; P.F. Peterson

    2010-09-20

    Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated with the design of nuclear and industrial safety systems, physical security systems, and international safeguards systems. Overall reliability will be increased, through the use of replaceable and modular equipment, and through design to facilitate on-line monitoring, in-service inspection, maintenance, replacement, and decommissioning. Economics will also receive high design priority, through integrated engineering efforts to optimize building arrangements to minimize building heights and footprints. Finally, the licensing approach will be transformed by becoming increasingly performance based and technology neutral, using best-estimate simulation methods with uncertainty and margin quantification. In this context, two structural engineering technologies, seismic base isolation and modular steel-plate/concrete composite structural walls, are investigated. These technologies have major potential to (1) enable standardized reactor designs to be deployed across a wider range of sites, (2) reduce the impact of uncertainties related to site-specific seismic conditions, and (3) alleviate reactor equipment qualification requirements. For Gen IV reactors the potential for deliberate crashes of large aircraft must also be considered in design. This report concludes that base-isolated structures should be decoupled from the reactor external event exclusion system. As an example, a scoping analysis is performed for a rectangular, decoupled external event shell designed as a grillage. This report also reviews modular construction technology, particularly steel-plate/concrete construction using

  20. The Contribution of Paleoseismology to Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Kurt; Guerrieri, Luca; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of site evaluation/re-evaluation procedures for nuclear power plants (NPP), paleoseismology plays an essential role not only for Fault Displacement Hazard Assessment (FDHA) but also for Seismic Hazard Assessment (SHA). The relevance of paleoseismology is recommended in the reference IAEA Safety Guide (IAEA SSG-9) and has been dramatically confirmed in recent time especially after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP caused by the disastrous great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred on 11 March 2011. After this event, the IAEA International Seismic Safety Center promoted a technical document aimed at encouraging and supporting Member States, especially from newcomer countries, to include paleoseismic investigations into the geologic database, highlighting the value of earthquake geology studies and paleoseismology for nuclear safety and providing standard methodologies to perform such investigations. In detail, paleoseismic investigations in the context of site evaluation of nuclear installations have the following main objectives: i) identification of seismogenic structures based on the recognition of effects of past earthquakes in the regional area; ii) improvement of the completeness of earthquake catalogs, through the identification and dating of ancient moderate to large earthquakes, whose trace has been preserved in the geologic records; iii) estimation of the maximum seismic potential associated with an identified seismogenic structure/source, typically on the basis of the amount of displacement per event (evaluable in paleoseismic trenches), as well as of the geomorphic and stratigraphic features interpretable as the cumulative effect of repeated large seismic events (concept of "seismic landscape"); iv) rough calibration of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), by using the recurrence interval of large earthquakes detectable by paleoseismic investigations, and providing a "reality check" based on direct observations of

  1. Seismic investigations - The Viking Mars Lander.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.; Latham, G.; Press, F.; Nafi Toksoz, M.; Sutton, G.

    1972-01-01

    A lightweight three-component short period seismometer has been developed for preliminary seismic investigations of Mars. Because of weight and data-rate constraints the Viking seismic experiment is far from optimal but it should, at a minimum, provide information about the microseismic level and an upper bound on the seismicity of the planet. If Mars is tectonically active a start can be made on the problem of the internal structure, dynamics, and composition of the planet. A good distribution of modest sized Marsquakes will make it possible to determine if Mars has a core. The size of the core is related to the conditions of planetary formation.

  2. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, Michael A.; Cook, Neville G. W.; McEvilly, Thomas V.; Majer, Ernest L.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

  3. Space safety and rescue 1991; Proceedings of the 24th International IAA Symposium, Montreal, Canada, Oct. 5-11, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Gloria W.

    Various papers on space safety and rescue are presented. The topics addressed include: the human factor in spacecraft operation, space rescue system analysis and design, safety operation experiment M-V launch vehicle, laser systems for spacecraft hull protection, EVA self-rescue simulation in the virtual interactive environment workstation, crew escape subsystems for space transportation subsystems, enhancing safety for future space transportation systems, manned spaceflight certification, activities on space debris in Europe, management of the orbital environment, orbital space debris problem, analysis of the necessity and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent a chain reaction of collisions, examination of possible collisions in space, quantifying the orbital debris environment, breakup in geostationary orbit and possible creation of a debris ring, effects of chemical propulsion on the environment.

  4. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  5. The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure and Seismic Load on ITER Lower Cryopump Ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yingxiang; Yu, Jie; Wu, Songtao

    2007-04-01

    The lower cryopump ports in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as a part of the vacuum vessel play many important roles. As the boundary of vacuum it must be ensured against structural damage. In this study a finite element model of the lower cryopump ports was developed by ANSYS code with a purpose to evaluate the stress and displacement level on it. Two kinds of loads were taken into account. One was the hydrostatic pressure including the normal operation pressure and test pressure. The other was the seismic load. The analysis results show that the peak stress does not exceed the allowable stress for either the hydrostatic pressure or the seismic load according to the ITER structural design criterion, which indicates that the structure has a good safety margin.

  6. The whole modeling and structural seismic analysis of frame bridge in sluice based on Midas Civil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Meng, Xiaoyi

    2017-04-01

    Frame Bridge is an important part of sluice that its structure safety has direct influence on the control and application of sluice. As demands for modern seismic design have increased, traditional static analysis cannot already satisfy the precise demand. On the basis of above considerations, a new structure analysis method of Frame Bridge is proposed based on Midas Civil. According to the typical structure of Frame Bridge, a whole modeling is established. Boundary constraints and loading conditions are setting reasonably. Based on the results of static analysis, dynamic analysis is proceeded by using standard ground motion parameters in software library. Internal forces under static and seismic condition are acquired that they can provide the scientific basis for physical design of sluice.

  7. National electrical code changes for 1996 and USA participation in International Energy Agency activities related to photovoltaics safety and grid interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, W.

    1995-01-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) systems gain more acceptance in utility-interactive applications throughout the world, many organizations are placing increasingly higher priorities on writing guidelines, codes and standards. These guidelines and codes are being written to improve safety, installation, acceptance, listing or certification of the PV components or systems. Sandia National Laboratories` PV System Applications Department is working closely with the PV industry to address issues that are associated with fire and personnel safety and with National Electrical Code (NEC) requirements. Additionally, the United States has agreed to participate in two of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Annexes (topical tasks) of the Implementing Agreement for a Cooperative Programme on Photovoltaic Power Systems. This paper describes events and activities associated with the NEC and the IEA that are being led by Sandia National Laboratories with broad participation by the US PV industry.

  8. [Main direction of harmonization of Russian and international requirements on providing of biological safety when handling pathogenic biological agents].

    PubMed

    Dobrokhotskiĭ, O N; Diatlov, A I

    2013-01-01

    The actuality of harmonization of Russian and international requirements when handling with pathogenic biological agents (PBA) is caused by the need to ensure biological security on the basis of control of biorisks. One of the basic conditions for harmonization is development and implementation of the Russian standard for biorisk management based on international standard CWA 15793:2008.

  9. 75 FR 3471 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., and the United States. The six ICH sponsors are the European Commission; the European Federation of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2....'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation...

  10. 7 CFR 1792.104 - Seismic acknowledgments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.104 Seismic acknowledgments. For each... to § 1792.103 of this subpart will be used in the design of the building. (a) For projects in which... the building project. The plans and specifications must be dated, signed, and sealed by the registered...

  11. Safety Standards for Projectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Raymond

    1979-01-01

    The safety of projectors and related viewing devices for school, home, and business use is of paramount importance. The Advisory Committee on Safety (ACOS) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a working group to consider the problem of projector safety and to make recommendations for safety standards. (CMV)

  12. Safety Standards for Projectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Raymond

    1979-01-01

    The safety of projectors and related viewing devices for school, home, and business use is of paramount importance. The Advisory Committee on Safety (ACOS) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a working group to consider the problem of projector safety and to make recommendations for safety standards. (CMV)

  13. Seismic Reflection Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Seismic methods are the most commonly conducted geophysical surveys for engineering investigations. Seismic refraction provides engineers and geologists with the most basic of geologic data via simple procedures with common equipment.

  14. Seismic Considerations--Elementary and Secondary Schools, Revised Edition. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Series 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, DC.

    Elementary and secondary schools deserve special attention with respect to seismic safety because of their special occupancy characteristics and their importance to immediate and long-term earthquake disaster relief and recovery efforts. Seismic safety provisions, when incorporated in a sound design from the very beginning, usually amount to only…

  15. Seismic intrusion detector system

    DOEpatents

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  16. Inverse problem of electro-seismic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    When a porous rock is saturated with an electrolyte, electrical fields are coupled with seismic waves via the electro-seismic conversion. Pride (1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 15678-96) derived the governing models, in which Maxwell equations are coupled with Biot's equations through the electro-kinetic mobility parameter. The inverse problem of the linearized electro-seismic conversion consists in two steps, namely the inversion of Biot's equations and the inversion of Maxwell equations. We analyze the reconstruction of conductivity and electro-kinetic mobility parameter in Maxwell equations with internal measurements, while the internal measurements are provided by the results of the inversion of Biot's equations. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines these two parameters. Moreover, a Lipschitz-type stability is proved based on the same sets of well-chosen boundary conditions.

  17. Updated seismic solar model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W. A.; Goode, Philip R.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1995-05-01

    Recently released low-l solar oscillation data from the BISON network are combined with BBSO data to obtain an updated solar seismic model of the Sun's interior. For the core, the solar seismic model from the new data is more consistent with the current standard solar models than our earlier seismic model. An astrophysical solution to the solar neutrino problem fades away.

  18. Geological mounds and their seismic expression

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbrick, R.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Mound geometry (convex upward structure developed above a subhorizontal surface) is common in many geological environments and frequently observed in 2-dimensions on seismic sections. Seismic mounds are typically associated with deep-water clastic sediments, e.g. submarine fans and slumps, and with a variety of carbonate depositional settings, e.g., reefs and banks, but also exist in other depositional settings. Recognition will be dependent on mound dimension, velocity contrast, amplitude strength, and the resolution of the seismic data. Since mounds can represent an important exploration target and recognition of porous, hydrocarbon-bearing section is all-important, careful restitution of the original depositional morphology from the seismic data is required. Details of present velocity distribution are critical, along with a realistic concept of any post-depositional modification, such as compaction, which may have taken place during burial. Where differential compaction is taking place, for example between sand and shale, seismic expression of morphology will be continually modified during progressive burial. Analysis of structure at the top and base of the mound can provide support for lithological interpretation based on other criteria, such as seismic facies analysis based on internal and external reflections. Modeling, using parameters from mounds in a variety of known depositional settings, illustrates many of the interpretational problems associated with seismic mounds and provides some objective criteria for analysis of mound morphology. Comparison is made with real data, principally from northwest Europe and North America.

  19. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

    2000-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

  20. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  1. Switchyard Enclosure Seismic Criteria Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, B

    2001-08-27

    Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was conducted on these four Beam Enclosure Assembly drawings: (1) AAA97-108954 (Quad); (2) AAA97-108981 (Quad Intermediate); (3) AAA98-101193 (Bundle); and (4) AAA97-108982 (Double Quad). Each drawing chosen represents one of the four enclosure types: Quad, Quad Intermediate, Bundle, and Double Quad. They were chosen because they have the longest length between supports for their type and are therefore the worse case condition from the standpoint of seismic induced stress. The purpose of the analysis was to find the maximum acceleration that each enclosure assembly can withstand and with this value determine the safety factor.

  2. Internal short circuit and accelerated rate calorimetry tests of lithium-ion cells: Considerations for methane-air intrinsic safety and explosion proof/flameproof protection methods

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied the potential for lithium-ion cell thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. In this third phase of the study, researchers compared plastic wedge crush-induced internal short circuit tests of selected lithium-ion cells within methane (CH4)-air mixtures with accelerated rate calorimetry tests of similar cells. Plastic wedge crush test results with metal oxide lithium-ion cells extracted from intrinsically safe evaluated equipment were mixed, with one cell model igniting the chamber atmosphere while another cell model did not. The two cells models exhibited different internal short circuit behaviors. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cell model was tolerant to crush-induced internal short circuits within CH4-air, tested under manufacturer recommended charging conditions. Accelerating rate calorimetry tests with similar cells within a nitrogen purged 353-mL chamber produced ignitions that exceeded explosion proof and flameproof enclosure minimum internal pressure design criteria. Ignition pressures within a 20-L chamber with 6.5% CH4-air were relatively low, with much larger head space volume and less adiabatic test conditions. The literature indicates that sizeable lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary (non rechargeable) cell ignitions can be especially violent and toxic. Because ignition of an explosive atmosphere is expected within explosion proof or flameproof enclosures, there is a need to consider the potential for an internal explosive atmosphere ignition in combination with a lithium or lithium-ion battery thermal runaway process, and the resulting effects on the enclosure. PMID:27695201

  3. Internal short circuit and accelerated rate calorimetry tests of lithium-ion cells: Considerations for methane-air intrinsic safety and explosion proof/flameproof protection methods.

    PubMed

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H; DuCarme, Joseph P

    2016-09-01

    Researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) studied the potential for lithium-ion cell thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment for use in underground coal mines. In this third phase of the study, researchers compared plastic wedge crush-induced internal short circuit tests of selected lithium-ion cells within methane (CH4)-air mixtures with accelerated rate calorimetry tests of similar cells. Plastic wedge crush test results with metal oxide lithium-ion cells extracted from intrinsically safe evaluated equipment were mixed, with one cell model igniting the chamber atmosphere while another cell model did not. The two cells models exhibited different internal short circuit behaviors. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cell model was tolerant to crush-induced internal short circuits within CH4-air, tested under manufacturer recommended charging conditions. Accelerating rate calorimetry tests with similar cells within a nitrogen purged 353-mL chamber produced ignitions that exceeded explosion proof and flameproof enclosure minimum internal pressure design criteria. Ignition pressures within a 20-L chamber with 6.5% CH4-air were relatively low, with much larger head space volume and less adiabatic test conditions. The literature indicates that sizeable lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) primary (non rechargeable) cell ignitions can be especially violent and toxic. Because ignition of an explosive atmosphere is expected within explosion proof or flameproof enclosures, there is a need to consider the potential for an internal explosive atmosphere ignition in combination with a lithium or lithium-ion battery thermal runaway process, and the resulting effects on the enclosure.

  4. Georgia-Armenia Transboarder seismicity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Javakishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Durgaryan, R.; Arakelyan, A.; Gevorgyan, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the presented study we performed Comprehensive seismic analyses for the Armenian-Georgian transboarder active seismic fault starting on Armenian territory, cutting the state boarder and having possibly northern termination on Adjara-Triealeti frontal structure in Georgia. In the scope of International projects: ISTC A-1418 "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" and NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response" in Akhalkalaki (Georgia) seismic center, Regional Summer school trainings and intensive filed investigations were conducted. Main goal was multidisciplinary study of the Javakheti fault structure and better understanding seismicity of the area. Young scientists from Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia were participated in the deployment of temporal seismic network in order to monitor seisimity on the Javakheti highland and particularly delineate fault scarf and identify active seismic structures. In the scope of international collaboration the common seismic database has been created in the southern Caucasus and collected data from the field works is available now online. Javakheti highland, which is located in the central part of the Caucasus, belongs to the structure of the lesser Caucasus and represents a history of neotectonic volcanism existed in the area. Jasvakheti highland is seismicalu active region devastating from several severe earthquakes(1088, 1283, 1899…). Hypocenters located during analogue network were highly scattered and did not describe real pattern of seismicity of the highland. We relocated hypocenters of the region and improved local velocity model. The hypocenters derived from recently deployed local seismic network in the Javakheti highland, clearly identified seismically active structures. Fault plane solutions of analogue data of the Soviet times have been carefully analyzed and examined. Moment tensor inversion were preformed

  5. Laboratory glassware rack for seismic safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rack for laboratory bottles and jars for chemicals and medicines has been designed to provide the maximum strength and security to the glassware in the event of a significant earthquake. The rack preferably is rectangular and may be made of a variety of chemically resistant materials including polypropylene, polycarbonate, and stainless steel. It comprises a first plurality of parallel vertical walls, and a second plurality of parallel vertical walls, perpendicular to the first. These intersecting vertical walls comprise a self-supporting structure without a bottom which sits on four legs. The top surface of the rack is formed by the top edges of all the vertical walls, which are not parallel but are skewed in three dimensions. These top edges form a grid matrix having a number of intersections of the vertical walls which define a number of rectangular compartments having varying widths and lengths and varying heights.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Cariprazine in Acute Exacerbation of Schizophrenia: Results From an International, Phase III Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kane, John M; Zukin, Stephen; Wang, Yao; Lu, Kaifeng; Ruth, Adam; Nagy, Krisztián; Laszlovszky, István; Durgam, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of cariprazine, a dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist with preferential binding to D3 receptors, in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Patients were randomized to 6-week double-blind treatment with placebo, cariprazine 3 to 6 mg/d, or cariprazine 6 to 9 mg/d. Primary and secondary efficacy: change from baseline to week 6 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scores, respectively, analyzed using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures adjusting for multiple comparisons. Safety included treatment-emergent adverse events, clinical laboratory values, vital signs, electrocardiograms, ophthalmologic examination, Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, and extrapyramidal symptom scales. In the Safety Population (placebo, n = 147; cariprazine 3-6 mg/d, n = 151; cariprazine 6-9 mg/d, n = 148), 60.5% of patients completed the study. At week 6, statistically significant least squares mean differences in favor of cariprazine versus placebo were observed for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score (3-6 mg/d: -6.8, P = 0.003; 6-9 mg/d: -9.9, P < 0.001) and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (3-6 mg/d: -0.3, P = 0.012; 6-9 mg/d: -0.5, P < 0.001). Common treatment-emergent adverse events (≥5% and twice the rate of placebo) in both cariprazine groups were akathisia, extrapyramidal disorder, and tremor; most were mild to moderate in severity. Mean changes in metabolic parameters were generally small and similar between groups. Prolactin levels decreased in all groups. In conclusion, cariprazine 3 to 6 and 6 to 9 mg/d versus placebo demonstrated significant improvement on primary and secondary efficacy parameters. Cariprazine was generally well tolerated. These results suggest that cariprazine may be a new and effective treatment for schizophrenia.

  7. Seismic exploration system

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.H.

    1983-02-08

    Seismic exploration method in arctic regions involving the generation of a seismic disturbance in the water beneath the ice in areas where conventional marine and land exploration methods are functionally inadequate. Seismic disturbances are generated by an air gun assembly which automatically executes lowering air guns through apertures in the ice and retrieving them while carrying out preventive measures against freeze-ups. Seismic sensing and recording equipment are positioned within an appropriate range to detect seismic data in the form of reflective or diffractive signals generated in response to the seismic disturbance after actuating the air gun array, wherein the seismic data is indicative of sub-surface structural formations existing below the body of water.

  8. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  9. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition... Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to...

  10. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefitmore » of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.« less

  11. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.

  12. Focusing attention on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1992-09-01

    When people think of hydropower, an image of a dam often comes to mind. Indeed, at most high-hazard dams, there is a hydro plant. A North American hydro industry survey shows that dams and their safety are a priority among project owners. The survey identified several recent dam safety activities: development of safety evaluation programs; dam rehabilitation for greater stability; dam monitoring installations; seismic strengthening; and emergency preparedness.

  13. GIS-based seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes often represent very dangerouses natural events in terms of human life and economic losses and their damage effects are amplified by the synchronous occurrence of seismically-induced ground-shaking failures in wide regions around the seismogenic source. In fact, the shaking associated with big earthquakes triggers extensive landsliding, sometimes at distances of more than 100 km from the epicenter. The active tectonics and the geomorphic/morphodinamic pattern of the regions affected by earthquakes contribute to the slopes instability tendency. In fact, earthquake-induced groun-motion loading determines inertial forces activation within slopes that, combined with the intrinsic pre-existing static forces, reduces the slope stability towards its failure. Basically, under zero-shear stress reversals conditions, a catastrophic failure will take place if the earthquake-induced shear displacement exceeds the critical level of undrained shear strength to a value equal to the gravitational shear stress. However, seismic stability analyses carried out for various infinite slopes by using the existing Newmark-like methods reveal that estimated permanent displacements smaller than the critical value should also be regarded as dangerous for the post-earthquake slope safety, in terms of human activities use. Earthquake-induced (often high-speed) landslides are among the most destructive phenomena related to slopes failure during earthquakes. In fact, damage from earthquake-induced landslides (and other ground-failures), sometimes exceeds the buildings/infrastructures damage directly related to ground-shaking for fault breaking. For this matter, several hearthquakes-related slope failures methods have been developed, for the evaluation of the combined hazard types represented by seismically ground-motion landslides. The methodologies of analysis of the engineering seismic risk related to the slopes instability processes is often achieved through the evaluation of the

  14. Condition Assessment of Levees, U.S. Section of the International Boundary and Water Commission. Report 5: Flood Simulation Study of Retamal Levee, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, Using Seismic and Electrical Geophysical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Surface cracking of the levee was caused primarily by drought conditions as they affected expansive clay soils where total annual rainfall , in...soils. Seismic data indicated the higher rainfall in 2004 posi- tively affected the core of the levee. Measurable increases in the seismic velocity...7 Annual Rainfall Data in the LRGV....................................................................7 Monthly Rainfall

  15. Setting the Stage for Harmonized Risk Assessment by Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe (SHARE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, Jochen; Giardini, Domenico; SHARE Consortium

    2010-05-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) is arguably one of the most useful products that seismology can offer to society. PSHA characterizes the best available knowledge on the seismic hazard of a study area, ideally taking into account all sources of uncertainty. Results form the baseline for informed decision making, such as building codes or insurance rates and provide essential input to each risk assessment application. Several large scale national and international projects have recently been launched aimed at improving and harmonizing PSHA standards around the globe. SHARE (www.share-eu.org) is the European Commission funded project in the Framework Programme 7 (FP-7) that will create an updated, living seismic hazard model for the Euro-Mediterranean region. SHARE is a regional component of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM, www.globalquakemodel.org), a public/private partnership initiated and approved by the Global Science Forum of the OECD-GSF. GEM aims to be the uniform, independent and open access standard to calculate and communicate earthquake hazard and risk worldwide. SHARE itself will deliver measurable progress in all steps leading to a harmonized assessment of seismic hazard - in the definition of engineering requirements, in the collection of input data, in procedures for hazard assessment, and in engineering applications. SHARE scientists will create a unified framework and computational infrastructure for seismic hazard assessment and produce an integrated European probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) model and specific scenario based modeling tools. The results will deliver long-lasting structural impact in areas of societal and economic relevance, they will serve as reference for the Eurocode 8 (EC8) application, and will provide homogeneous input for the correct seismic safety assessment for critical industry, such as the energy infrastructures and the re-insurance sector. SHARE will cover the whole European territory, the

  16. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  17. Optimal treatment of painful bone metastases with Samarium EDTMP in a haemodialysis patient: effectiveness and safety of internal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Saadia; Desruet, Marie-Dominique; Bourre, Jean-Cyril; Caravel, Jean-Pierre; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe

    2009-08-01

    One of the current therapeutic approaches in the treatment of osteoblastic bone metastases uses the affinity of Samarium ((153)Sm) ethylene-diamine-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) for bone areas of bone turnover. As Samarium EDTMP is a beta-emitter, the radiotherapy contributes to osteoblastic bone lesion control over time. To date, the safety and effectiveness of Samarium therapy have not been established in patients with renal impairment. In this first report, we describe our experience of use of Samarium EDTMP in conjunction with biphosphonates in a haemodialysis patient for treatment of painful bone metastasis. Encouraging results were obtained in achieving pain control. The use of this radioisotope could be more widely applied to treat haemodialysis patients.

  18. Risk-Targeted versus Current Seismic Design Maps for the Conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luco, Nicolas; Ellingwood, Bruce R.; Hamburger, Ronald O.; Hooper, John D.; Kimball, Jeffrey K.; Kircher, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The probabilistic portions of the seismic design maps in the NEHRP Provisions (FEMA, 2003/2000/1997), and in the International Building Code (ICC, 2006/2003/2000) and ASCE Standard 7-05 (ASCE, 2005a), provide ground motion values from the USGS that have a 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Under the assumption that the capacity against collapse of structures designed for these "uniformhazard" ground motions is equal to, without uncertainty, the corresponding mapped value at the location of the structure, the probability of its collapse in 50 years is also uniform. This is not the case however, when it is recognized that there is, in fact, uncertainty in the structural capacity. In that case, siteto-site variability in the shape of ground motion hazard curves results in a lack of uniformity. This paper explains the basis for proposed adjustments to the uniform-hazard portions of the seismic design maps currently in the NEHRP Provisions that result in uniform estimated collapse probability. For seismic design of nuclear facilities, analogous but specialized adjustments have recently been defined in ASCE Standard 43-05 (ASCE, 2005b). In support of the 2009 update of the NEHRP Provisions currently being conducted by the Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC), herein we provide examples of the adjusted ground motions for a selected target collapse probability (or target risk). Relative to the probabilistic MCE ground motions currently in the NEHRP Provisions, the risk-targeted ground motions for design are smaller (by as much as about 30%) in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, near Charleston, South Carolina, and in the coastal region of Oregon, with relatively little (<15%) change almost everywhere else in the conterminous U.S.

  19. A Gis Model Application Supporting The Analysis of The Seismic Hazard For The Urban Area of Catania (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, S.; Maugeri, M.

    After the Summit held in Washington on August 20-22 2001 to plan the first World Conference on the mitigation of Natural Hazards, a Group for the analysis of Natural Hazards within the Mediterranean area has been formed. The Group has so far determined the following hazards: (1) Seismic hazard (hazard for historical buildings included); (2) Hazard linked to the quantity and quality of water; (3) Landslide hazard; (4) Volcanic hazard. The analysis of such hazards implies the creation and the management of data banks, which can only be used if the data are properly geo-settled to allow a crossed use of them. The obtained results must be therefore represented on geo-settled maps. The present study is part of a research programme, namely "Detailed Scenarios and Actions for Seismic Prevention of Damage in the Urban Area of Catania", financed by the National Department for the Civil Protection and the National Research Council-National Group for the Defence Against Earthquakes (CNR-GNDT). Nowadays the south-eastern area of Sicily, called the "Iblea" seismic area of Sicily, is considered as one of the most intense seismic zones in Italy, based on the past and current seismic history and on the typology of civil buildings. Safety against earthquake hazards has two as pects: structural safety against potentially destructive dynamic forces and site safety related to geotechnical phenomena such as amplification, land sliding and soil liquefaction. So the correct evaluation of seismic hazard is highly affected by risk factors due to geological nature and geotechnical properties of soils. The effect of local geotechnical conditions on damages suffered by buildings under seismic conditions has been widely recognized, as it is demonstrated by the Manual for Zonation on Seismic Geotechnical Hazards edited by the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (TC4, 1999). The evaluation of local amplification effects may be carried out by means of either

  20. [Results of international multicentre non-interventional clinical study of the effectiveness and safety of ascoril expectorant for the treatment of cough in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Nurgozhin, T S; Guliaev, A E; Ermekbaeva, B A; Zhaugasheva, S K; Abuova, G T; An, É A

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports results of international multicentre non-interventional clinical study of the effectiveness and safety of ascoril expectorant for the treatment of cough in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The study included 16312 patients examined in different cities during 2011-2012. It showed that ascoril expectorant (Glenmark) at a standard dose is an effective agent for the treatment of cough in children above 3 years and adults aged up to 78 years with ARVI and acute bronchitis, exacerbation of these conditions or grade I-II chronic obstructire pulmonary disease. Most patients reported good therapeutic effect within 1 day after intake. Ascoril expectorant caused no adverse reactions and was well tolerated by the patients. 91% of the attending physicians describe the drug as highly effective.

  1. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals; availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2010-01-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance, which is a revision of an existing guidance, discusses the types of nonclinical studies, their scope and duration, and their relation to the conduct of human clinical trials and marketing authorization for pharmaceuticals. The guidance is intended to facilitate the timely conduct of clinical trials and reduce the unnecessary use of animals and other drug development resources.

  2. Recent Impacts on Mars: Cluster Properties and Seismic Signal Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justine Daubar, Ingrid; Schmerr, Nicholas; Banks, Maria; Marusiak, Angela; Golombek, Matthew P.

    2016-10-01

    Impacts are a key source of seismic waves that are a primary constraint on the formation, evolution, and dynamics of planetary objects. Geophysical missions such as InSight (Banerdt et al., 2013) will monitor seismic signals from internal and external sources. New martian craters have been identified in orbital images (Malin et al., 2006; Daubar et al., 2013). Seismically detecting such impacts and subsequently imaging the resulting craters will provide extremely accurate epicenters and source crater sizes, enabling calibration of seismic velocities, the efficiency of impact-seismic coupling, and retrieval of detailed regional and local internal structure.To investigate recent impact-induced seismicity on Mars, we have assessed ~100 new, dated impact sites. In approximately half of new impacts, the bolide partially disintegrates in the atmosphere, forming multiple craters in a cluster. We incorporate the resulting, more complex, seismic effects in our model. To characterize the variation between sites, we focus on clustered impacts. We report statistics of craters within clusters: diameters, morphometry indicating subsurface layering, strewn-field azimuths indicating impact direction, and dispersion within clusters indicating combined effects of bolide strength and elevation of breakup.Measured parameters are converted to seismic predictions for impact sources using a scaling law relating crater diameter to the momentum and source duration, calibrated for impacts recorded by Apollo (Lognonne et al., 2009). We use plausible ranges for target properties, bolide densities, and impact velocities to bound the seismic moment. The expected seismic sources are modeled in the near field using a 3-D wave propagation code (Petersson et al., 2010) and in the far field using a 1-D wave propagation code (Friederich et al., 1995), for a martian seismic model. Thus we calculate the amplitudes of seismic phases at varying distances, which can be used to evaluate the detectability

  3. Martian seismicity through time from surface faulting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Banerdt, W. B.; Tralli, D.

    1991-01-01

    An objective of future Mars missions involves emplacing a seismic network on Mars to determine the internal structure of the planet. An argument based on the relative geologic histories of the terrestrial planets suggests that Mars should be seismically more active than the Moon, but less active than the Earth. The seismicity is estimated which is expected on Mars through time from slip on faults visible on the planets surface. These estimates of martian seismicity must be considered a lower limit as only structures produced by shear faulting visible at the surface today are included (i.e., no provision is made for buried structures or non-shear structures); in addition, the estimate does not include seismic events that do not produce surface displacement (e.g., activity associated with hidden faults, deep lithospheric processes or volcanism) or events produced by tidal triggering or meteorite impacts. Calibration of these estimates suggests that Mars may be many times more seismically active than the Moon.

  4. New Madrid Seismic Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NEW MADRID SEISMIC ZONE BY COLONEL J.DAVID NORWOOD United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...mCTBB l USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT New Madrid Seismic Zone by J. David Norwood, COL, USA Michael A. Pearson, COL, USA Project Advisor The...ABSTRACT AUTHOR: J. David Norwood, Colonel, U.S. Army TITLE: New Madrid Seismic Zone FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 22 April 1998 . PAGES:

  5. Movable intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging incorporating a seismic system.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Masuda, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Matsuda, Masahide; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-08-01

    A high-field ceiling-mounted and movable intraoperative MR imaging (iMRI) can minimize additional risks for MRI and enhance safety by not moving the patient. In this system, hanging the heavy magnet from the ceiling requires structural stability; this stability was confirmed in earlier studies, but not proved during a seismic event. We have installed a 1.5 T movable iMRI system with an incorporated seismic system in our hospital in Japan, a seismic event-prone region. This arrangement is the first in the world, to our knowledge. The objective of this study was to describe the mechanism of this seismic system and the first clinical experience using this system. The seismic system consists of a stabilizer pad that is mounted directly under the magnet, in addition to the structural stability. The seismic system was tested with using a shaker table testing at a test laboratory. Ninety-one patients underwent neurosurgical intervention using this iMRI and seismic system at our hospital. In all patients, intra-, pre, and/or postoperative MR images were successfully obtained, and image quality was excellent. The workflow of moving the magnet and scanning were smooth and unproblematic. We had 169 seismic events in our city during this time period, but had no incidental or accidental events related to the seismic events. With the use of the seismic system, a ceiling-mounted, movable iMRI system can be more safely used. This seismic system may contribute to the spread of movable iMRI systems in countries where seismic events occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  7. Seismic Waveguide of Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

    We developed a new method of an earthquake-resistant design to support conventional aseismic system using acoustic metamaterials. The device is an attenuator of a seismic wave that reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially. Constructing a cylindrical shell-type waveguide composed of many Helmholtz resonators that creates a stop-band for the seismic frequency range, we convert the seismic wave into an attenuated one without touching the building that we want to protect. It is a mechanical way to convert the seismic energy into sound and heat.

  8. Seismic risk assessment of a BWR: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, T.Y.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Wells, J.E.; Johnson, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    The seismic risk methodology developed in the US NRC Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was demonstrated by its application to the Zion nuclear power plant, a pressurized water reactor (PWR). A detailed model of Zion, including systems analysis models (initiating events, event trees, and fault trees), SSI and structure models, and piping models was developed and analyzed. The SSMRP methodology can equally be applied to a boiling water reactor (BWR). To demonstrate its applicability, to identify fundamental differences in seismic risk between a PWR and a BWR, and to provide a basis of comparison of seismic risk between a PWR and a BWR when analyzed with comparable methodology and assumptions, a seismic risk analysis is being performed on the LaSalle County Station nuclear power plant.

  9. InSight/SEIS@Mars Educational program : Sharing the InSight NASA mission and the Seismic Discovery of Mars with a International Network of classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Berenguer, J. L.; Sauron, A.; Denton, P.; Carrer, D.; Taber, J.; Bravo, T. K.; Gaboriaud, A.; Houston Jones, J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Martinuzzi, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Event requests to the lander in order to get the associated high frequencies of these events. These school will therefore be fully associated to the InSight/SEIS discoveries. The SEIS@Mars project will therefore allow the students to perform scientific analysis almost at the same time as the International "professional" seismologists.

  10. Efficacy and safety of Stealth liposomal doxorubicin in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. The International SL-DOX Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, F. D.; Goldstein, D.; Goos, M.; Jablonowski, H.; Stewart, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The utility of current chemotherapeutic regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) is often compromised by both limited efficacy and substantial toxicity. Pegylated (Stealth) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (SL-DOX) has been demonstrated specifically to deliver high concentrations of doxorubicin to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions. This phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SL-DOX in the treatment of moderate to severe AIDS-KS. Patients were treated biweekly with 10, 20, or 40 mg m-2 SL-DOX. Tumour response was assessed according to AIDS Clinical Trials Groups (ACTG) criteria before each cycle. Best response was determined for 238 patients and was achieved after a mean of 2.3 cycles (range 1-20). Fifteen patients (6.3%) had a complete response to SL-DOX, 177 (74.4%) had a partial response, 44 (18.5%) had stable disease and two (0.8%) had disease progression. SL-DOX was well tolerated: ten patients discontinued therapy because of adverse events, in four cases because of neutropenia. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred after 281 of 2023 cycles (13.9%) but involved 137 of 240 patients (57.1%) for whom data were available. SL-DOX has substantial activity in AIDS-KS. Best response is typically seen after fewer than three cycles of chemotherapy and in some cases may be prolonged. The most important adverse event is neutropenia, which occurs after a minority of cycles but which may occur in over half of all patients. PMID:8611437

  11. Overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.J.; Stoddart, W.C.; Burnett, W.A.; Beavers, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of seismic considerations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the Department of Energy (DOE). The overview describes the original design, the seismic evaluations performed for the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) issued in 1985, and current evaluations and designs to address revised DOE requirements. Future plans to ensure changes in requirements and knowledge are addressed.

  12. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

    2013-05-01

    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together

  13. Ischia Island: Historical Seismicity and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Cubellis, E.; Iannuzzi, R.; Luongo, G.; Obrizzo, F.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic energy release in volcanic areas is a complex process and the island of Ischia provides a significant scenario of historical seismicity. This is characterized by the occurence of earthquakes with low energy and high intensity. Information on the seismicity of the island spans about eight centuries, starting from 1228. With regard to effects, the most recent earthquake of 1883 is extensively documented both in the literature and unpublished sources. The earthquake caused 2333 deaths and the destruction of the historical and environmental heritage of some areas of the island. The most severe damage occurred in Casamicciola. This event, which was the first great catastrophe after the unification of Italy in the 1860s (Imax = XI degree MCS), represents an important date in the prevention of natural disasters, in that it was after this earthquake that the first Seismic Safety Act in Italy was passed by which lower risk zones were identified for new settlements. Thanks to such detailed analysis, reliable modelling of the seismic source was also obtained. The historical data onwards makes it possible to identify the area of the epicenter of all known earthquakes as the northern slope of Monte Epomeo, while analysis of the effects of earthquakes and the geological structures allows us to evaluate the stress fields that generate the earthquakes. In a volcanic area, interpretation of the mechanisms of release and propagation of seismic energy is made even more complex as the stress field that acts at a regional level is compounded by that generated from migration of magmatic masses towards the surface, as well as the rheologic properties of the rocks dependent on the high geothermic gradient. Such structural and dynamic conditions make the island of Ischia a seismic area of considerable interest. It would appear necessary to evaluate the expected damage caused by a new event linked to the renewal of dynamics of the island, where high population density and the

  14. Seismic Adequacy Review of PC012 SCEs that are Potential Seismic Hazards with PC3 SCEs at Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    OCOMA, E.C.

    1999-08-12

    This document provides seismic adequacy review of PCO12 Systems, Components L Equipment anchorage that are potential seismic interaction hazards with PC3 SCEs during a Design Basis Earthquake. The PCO12 items are identified in the Safety Equipment List as 3/1 SCEs.

  15. The ISC Seismic Event Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a not-for-profit organization operating in the UK for the last 50 years and producing the ISC Bulletin - the definitive worldwide summary of seismic events, both natural and anthropogenic - starting from the beginning of 20th century. Often researchers need to gather information related to specific seismic events for various reasons. To facilitate such task, in 2012 we set up a new database linking earthquakes and other seismic events in the ISC Bulletin to bibliographic records of scientific articles (mostly peer-reviewed journals) that describe those events. Such association allows users of the ISC Event Bibliography (www.isc.ac.uk/event_bibliography/index.php) to run searches for publications via a map-based web interface and, optionally, selecting scientific publications related to either specific events or events in the area of interest. Some of the greatest earthquakes were described in several hundreds of articles published over a period of few years. The journals included in our database are not limited to seismology but bring together a variety of fields in geosciences (e.g., engineering seismology, geodesy and remote sensing, tectonophysics, monitoring research, tsunami, geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, atmospheric sciences, etc.) making this service useful in multidisciplinary studies. Usually papers dealing with large data set are not included (e.g., papers describing a seismic catalogue). Currently the ISC Event Bibliography includes over 17,000 individual publications from about 500 titles related to over 14,000 events that occurred in last 100+ years. The bibliographic records in the Event Bibliography start in the 1950s, and it is updated as new publications become available.

  16. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Mathieson, John; Judd, Laurie; Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana

    2013-07-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  17. Explosives for Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Explosive charges of various sizes were investigated for use in lunar seismic studies. Program logistics, and the specifications for procurement of bulk explosives are described. The differential analysis, thermal properties, and detonation velocity measurements on HNS/Teflon 7C 90/10 are reported along with the field tests of the hardware. It is concluded that nearly all large explosive charges crack after fabrication, from aging or thermal shock. The cracks do not affect the safety, or reliability of the explosives.

  18. Detection capability of the IMS seismic network based on ambient seismic noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection threshold can be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  19. Seismic isolation of an electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Godden, W.G.; Aslam, M.; Scalise, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A unique two-stage dynamic-isolation problem is presented by the conflicting design requirements for the foundations of an electron microscope in a seismic region. Under normal operational conditions the microscope must be isolated from ambient ground noise; this creates a system extremely vulnerable to seismic ground motions. Under earthquake loading the internal equipment forces must be limited to prevent damage or collapse. An analysis of the proposed design solution is presented. This study was motivated by the 1.5 MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) to be installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) located near the Hayward Fault in California.

  20. 50 years of Global Seismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Butler, R.; Berger, J.; Davis, P.; Derr, J.; Gee, L.; Hutt, C. R.; Leith, W. S.; Park, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    Seismological recordings have been made on Earth for hundreds of years in some form or another, however, global monitoring of earthquakes only began in the 1890's when John Milne created 40 seismic observatories to measure the waves from these events. Shortly after the International Geophysical Year (IGY), a concerted effort was made to establish and maintain a more modern standardized seismic network on the global scale. In the early 1960's, the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) was established through funding from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and was installed and maintained by the USGS's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (then a part of the US Coast and Geodetic Survey). This network of identical seismic instruments consisted of 120 stations in 60 countries. Although the network was motivated by nuclear test monitoring, the WWSSN facilitated numerous advances in observational seismology. From the IGY to the present, the network has been upgraded (High-Gain Long-Period Seismograph Network, Seismic Research Observatories, Digital WWSSN, Global Telemetered Seismograph Network, etc.) and expanded (International Deployment of Accelerometers, US National Seismic Network, China Digital Seismograph Network, Joint Seismic Project, etc.), bringing the modern day Global Seismographic Network (GSN) to a current state of approximately 150 stations. The GSN consists of state-of-the-art very broadband seismic transducers, continuous power and communications, and ancillary sensors including geodetic, geomagnetic, microbarographic, meteorological and other related instrumentation. Beyond the GSN, the system of global network observatories includes contributions from other international partners (e.g., GEOSCOPE, GEOFON, MEDNET, F-Net, CTBTO), forming an even larger backbone of permanent seismological observatories as a part of the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks. 50 years of seismic network operations have provided

  1. Seismic analysis of nailed vertical excavation using pseudo-dynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Piyush; Ghosh, Priyanka

    2016-12-01

    An attempt has been made to study the behavior of nailed vertical excavations in medium dense to dense cohesionless soil under seismic conditions using a pseudo-dynamic approach. The effect of several parameters such as angle of internal friction of soil ( ϕ), horizontal ( k h) and vertical ( k v) earthquake acceleration coefficients, amplification factor ( f a), length of nails ( L), angle of nail inclination ( α) and vertical spacing of nails ( S v) on the stability of nailed vertical excavations has been explored. The limit equilibrium method along with a planar failure surface is used to derive the formulation involved with the pseudo-dynamic approach, considering axial pullout of the installed nails. A comparison of the pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic approaches has been established in order to explore the effectiveness of the pseudo-dynamic approach over pseudo-static analysis, since most of the seismic stability studies on nailed vertical excavations are based on the latter. The results are expressed in terms of the global factor of safety (FOS). Seismic stability, i.e., the FOS of nailed vertical excavations is found to decrease with increase in the horizontal and vertical earthquake forces. The present values of FOS are compared with those available in the literature.

  2. Updates to building-code maps for the 2015 NEHRP recommended seismic provisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luco, Nicolas; Bachman, Robert; Crouse, C.B; Harris, James R.; Hooper, John D.; Kircher, Charles A.; Caldwell, Phillp; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    With the 2014 update of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM) as a basis, the Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC) has updated the earthquake ground motion maps in the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures, with partial funding from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Anticipated adoption of the updated maps into the American Society of Civil Engineers Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structures and the International Building and Residential Codes is underway. Relative to the ground motions in the prior edition of each of these documents, most of the updated values are within a ±20% change. The larger changes are, in most cases, due to the USGS NSHM updates, reasons for which are given in companion publications. In some cases, the larger changes are partly due to a BSSC update of the slope of the fragility curve that is used to calculate the risk-targeted ground motions, and/or the introduction by BSSC of a quantitative definition of “active faults” used to calculate deterministic ground motions.

  3. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  4. Some issues in the seismic design of nuclear power-plant facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjian, A.H.; Iwan, W.D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper summarizes the major issues discussed by an international panel of experts during the post-SMIRT (Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology) Seminar on Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Power-Plant Facilities, which was held in Berlin, Aug. 20-21, 1979. The emphasis of the deliberations was on the state of the art of seismic-response calculations to predict the expected performance of structures and equipment during earthquakes. Four separate panels discussed issues on (1) soil-structure interaction and structural response, (2) modeling, materials, and boundary conditions, (3) damping in structures and equipment, and (4) fragility levels of equipment. The international character of the seminar was particularly helpful in the cross-pollination of ideas regarding the issues and the steps required to enhance the cause of safety of nuclear plants.

  5. SOAR Telescope seismic performance II: seismic mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Jonathan H.; Muñoz, Freddy; Warner, Michael; Rivera, Rossano; Martínez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    We describe design modifications to the SOAR telescope intended to reduce the impact of future major earthquakes, based on the facility's experience during recent events, most notably the September 2015 Illapel earthquake. Specific modifications include a redesign of the encoder systems for both azimuth and elevation, seismic trigger for the emergency stop system, and additional protections for the telescope secondary mirror system. The secondary mirror protection may combine measures to reduce amplification of seismic vibration and "fail-safe" components within the assembly. The status of these upgrades is presented.

  6. Seismic Hazard Analysis — Quo vadis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klügel, Jens-Uwe

    2008-05-01

    of critical infrastructures, especially with systematic sensitivity analyses based on validated phenomenological models. Deterministic seismic hazard analysis incorporates uncertainties in the safety factors. These factors are derived from experience as well as from expert judgment. Deterministic methods associated with high safety factors may lead to too conservative results, especially if applied for generally short-lived civil structures. Scenarios used in deterministic seismic hazard analysis have a clear physical basis. They are related to seismic sources discovered by geological, geomorphologic, geodetic and seismological investigations or derived from historical references. Scenario-based methods can be expanded for risk analysis applications with an extended data analysis providing the frequency of seismic events. Such an extension provides a better informed risk model that is suitable for risk-informed decision making.

  7. Induced and Natural Seismicity: Earthquake Hazards and Risks in Ohio:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.; Worstall, R.; Tomastik, T.; Simmers, R.

    2013-12-01

    To adapt with increasing need to regulate all operations related to both the Utica and Marcellus shale play within the state, ODNR had recently strengthen its regulatory capability through implementation of stricter permit requirements, additional human resources and improved infrastructure. These ODNR's efforts on seismic risk reduction related to induced seismicity led to stricter regulations and many infrastructure changes related particularly to Class II wells. Permit requirement changes and more seismic monitoring stations were implemented together with additional injection data reporting from selected Class II well operators. Considering the possible risks related to seismic events in a region with relatively low seismicity, correlation between limited seismic data and injection volume information were undertaken. Interestingly, initial results showed some indications of both plugging and fracturing episodes. The real-time data transmission from seismic stations and availability of injection volume data enabled ODNR to interact with operators and manage wells dynamically. Furthermore, initial geomorphic and structural analyses indicated possible active faults in the northern and western portion of the state oriented NE-SW. The newly-mapped structures imply possible relatively bigger earthquakes in the region and consequently higher seismic risks. With the above-mentioned recent changes, ODNR have made critical improvement of its principal regulatory role in the state for oil and gas operations but also an important contribution to the state's seismic risk reduction endeavors. Close collaboration with other government agencies and the public, and working together with the well operators enhanced ODNR's capability to build a safety culture and achieve further public and industry participation towards a safer environment. Keywords: Induced seismicity, injection wells, seismic risks

  8. Systems of safety and active worker-participation strategies for a safe workplace: the philosophical and structural underpinnings of the labor institute, and the Paper, Allied-industrial, Chemical And Energy Workers International Union, Accident Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Renner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    For the last ten years, The Labor Institute, in cooperation with the Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers International Union (PACE) and several other international unions, has been training workers and managers to prevent accidents in the workplace using what we call a Systems of Safety (SOS) approach. We teach workers to identify major categories of safety systems and sub-systems in the workplace and to assign a hierarchical prevention value to each category. The SOS approach enables workers to look beyond the simplest explanations for an accident to identify the full range of factors that contributed to the event. As a result, Systems of Safety training provides workers with an unparalleled opportunity to reduce the frequency and severity of in-plant accidents. Unfortunately, the full benefits of an SOS system cannot be realized in most workplaces as they are now organized. Our decades of experience--and a review of relevant literature--tell us that worker participation is the key to preventing accidents. Maximum accident prevention is only achievable through maximum worker participation. In most workplaces, hierarchical structures--and workers' internalization of that hierarchy--prevent full worker participation. This article will explore barriers to achieving maximum worker participation, and strategies for providing workers with some measure of control over the systems of safety that determine the level of safety at their work sites.

  9. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  10. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee; Gernero, Edward; Lin, Pei-Ying; Thorne, Michael; Schmerr, Nicholas; Han, Shin-Chan

    2012-01-01

    The present ]day internal structure of the Moon provides insight not only into its own formation and evolution, but also that of all rocky planetary bodies. The most direct way to probe a planet fs interior structure is through seismology. As part of the Apollo lunar missions, four seismometers were deployed on the nearside surface of the Moon between the years 1969 and 1972. These instruments operated continuously until 1977, forming the only substantial extraterrestrial seismic data set in existence. These data have been used to constrain various aspects of the seismic velocity and density structure of the Moon. Typical 1-D models recognize a 30-60 km thick crust overlying a nearly constant ]velocity mantle, and extend to a depth of approximately 1000 km, below which the lack of penetrating moonquake ray ]paths precludes the seismic determination of deeper structure. Previously, the lack of observed moonquakes from the far side of the Moon has been used to infer the presence of a highly attenuating (possibly molten) core. Indirect geophysical measurements such as moment of inertia, magnetic induction, lunar laser ranging, and elemental abundances of mare basalts also place varying constraints on core size and state. In combination with seismic studies, these indirect measurements have been used to arrive at a commonly accepted model of the Moon's deepest interior that includes a solid inner and fluid outer core, overlain by a partial melt boundary layer. We recently applied modern array seismology techniques to the Apollo data and revealed detailed core structure, including the first direct confirmation of the presence of a solid inner core. Our study focused on the identification of core ]reflected phases in deep moonquake seismograms. The resulting model of the Moon fs innermost structure was found to be consistent with the commonly accepted model. However, the modeled layer radii may vary by tens of kilometers, as is expected when accounting for uncertainties

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Pafuramidine versus Pentamidine Maleate for Treatment of First Stage Sleeping Sickness in a Randomized, Comparator-Controlled, International Phase 3 Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pohlig, Gabriele; Bernhard, Sonja C.; Blum, Johannes; Burri, Christian; Mpanya, Alain; Lubaki, Jean-Pierre Fina; Mpoto, Alfred Mpoo; Munungu, Blaise Fungula; N’tombe, Patrick Mangoni; Deo, Gratias Kambau Manesa; Mutantu, Pierre Nsele; Kuikumbi, Florent Mbo; Mintwo, Alain Fukinsia; Munungi, Augustin Kayeye; Dala, Amadeu; Macharia, Stephen; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Franco, Jose Ramon; Dituvanga, Ndinga Dieyi; Tidwell, Richard R.; Olson, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT]) is a neglected tropical disease with limited treatment options that currently require parenteral administration. In previous studies, orally administered pafuramidine was well tolerated in healthy patients (for up to 21 days) and stage 1 HAT patients (for up to 10 days), and demonstrated efficacy comparable to pentamidine. Methods This was a Phase 3, multi-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active control study where 273 male and female patients with first stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT were treated at six sites: one trypanosomiasis reference center in Angola, one hospital in South Sudan, and four hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between August 2005 and September 2009 to support the registration of pafuramidine for treatment of first stage HAT in collaboration with the United States Food and Drug Administration. Patients were treated with either 100 mg of pafuramidine orally twice a day for 10 days or 4 mg/kg pentamidine intramuscularly once daily for 7 days to assess the efficacy and safety of pafuramidine versus pentamidine. Pregnant and lactating women as well as adolescents were included. The primary efficacy endpoint was the combined rate of clinical and parasitological cure at 12 months. The primary safety outcome was the frequency and severity of adverse events. The study was registered on the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the number ISRCTN85534673. Findings/Conclusions The overall cure rate at 12 months was 89% in the pafuramidine group and 95% in the pentamidine group; pafuramidine was non-inferior to pentamidine as the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval did not exceed 15%. The safety profile of pafuramidine was superior to pentamidine; however, 3 patients in the pafuramidine group had glomerulonephritis or nephropathy approximately 8 weeks post-treatment. Two of these events were judged as

  12. Safety and efficacy of Intraurethral Mitomycin C Hydrogel for prevention of post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Mahmoudreza; Derakhshandeh, Katayoun; Karimian, Babak; Fasihi, Mahtab

    2016-07-01

    Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of intraurethral Mitomycin C (MMC) hydrogel for prevention of post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy. A thermoresponsive hydrogel base consisting of 0.8 mg MMC with 1cc water and propylene glycol to PF-127 poloxamer was used in theater. 40 male patients with short, non-obliterated, urethral stricture were randomized into 2 groups: control and MMC. After internal urethrotomy, the MMC group patients received the MMC-Hydrogel while the others were just catheterized. Both groups had their catheters for at least 1 week. After surgery, they were followed up by means of medical history and physical examination, monitoring voiding patterns and retrograde urethrogram at 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. 40 male patients between 14 to 89 years old (Mean = 54.15) underwent internal urethrotomy. The average age for the control and MMC group was 54.55±21.25 and 53.75±24.75 respectively. In a comparison of age between the two groups, they were matched (P=0.574). Stricture length was 10.7±5.9 and 9.55±4.15 mm for the control and MMC group respectively. There were no statistically meaningful differences between the two groups (P=0.485). Fifteen patients had a history of one previous internal urethrotomy which in a comparison between the two groups meant there was no meaningful difference (P=0.327). During postoperative follow up, total urethral stricture recurrence happened in 12 patients: 10 patients (50%) in control group and 2 patients (10%) in MMC group. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). There were no significant complications associated with the MMC injection in our patients. Based on our results, MMC Hydrogel may have an anti-fibrotic action preventing post-traumatic anterior urethral stricture recurrence with no side effects on pre-urethral tissue. Due to our study limitations, our follow up time and the small number of patients, our results were not

  13. Effects of Large and Small-Source Seismic Surveys on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, M.; Richardson, W. J.; Koski, W. R.; Smultea, M. A.; Haley, B.; Fitzgerald, M. W.; Rawson, M.

    2006-05-01

    L-DEO implements a marine mammal and sea turtle monitoring and mitigation program during its seismic surveys. The program consists of visual observations, mitigation, and/or passive acoustic monitoring (PAM). Mitigation includes ramp ups, powerdowns, and shutdowns of the seismic source if marine mammals or turtles are detected in or about to enter designated safety radii. Visual observations for marine mammals and turtles have taken place during all 11 L-DEO surveys since 2003, and PAM was done during five of those. Large sources were used during six cruises (10 to 20 airguns; 3050 to 8760 in3; PAM during four cruises). For two interpretable large-source surveys, densities of marine mammals were lower during seismic than non- seismic periods. During a shallow-water survey off Yucatán, delphinid densities during non-seismic periods were 19x higher than during seismic; however, this number is based on only 3 sightings during seismic and 11 sightings during non-seismic. During a Caribbean survey, densities were 1.4x higher during non-seismic. The mean closest point of approach (CPA) for delphinids for both cruises was significantly farther during seismic (1043 m) than during non-seismic (151 m) periods (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.001). Large whales were only seen during the Caribbean survey; mean CPA during seismic was 1722 m compared to 1539 m during non-seismic, but sample sizes were small. Acoustic detection rates with and without seismic were variable for three large-source surveys with PAM, with rates during seismic ranging from 1/3 to 6x those without seismic (n = 0 for fourth survey). The mean CPA for turtles was closer during non-seismic (139 m) than seismic (228 m) periods (P < 0.01). Small-source surveys used up to 6 airguns or 3 GI guns (75 to 1350 in3). During a Northwest Atlantic survey, delphinid densities during seismic and non-seismic were similar. However, in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, delphinid densities during non-seismic were 2x those during

  14. The assessment of seismic hazard for Gori, (Georgia) and preliminary studies of seismic microzonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoladze, Z.; Moscatelli, M.; Giallini, S.; Avalle, A.; Gventsadze, A.; Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic risk is a crucial issue for South Caucasus, which is the main gateway between Asia and Europe. The goal of this work is to propose new methods and criteria for defining an overall approach aimed at assessing and mitigating seismic risk in Georgia. In this reguard seismic microzonation represents a highly useful tool for seismic risk assessmentin land management, for design of buildings or structures and for emergency planning.Seismic microzonation assessment of local seismic hazard,which is a component of seismicity resulting from specific local characteristics which cause local amplification and soil instability, through identification of zones with seismically homogeneous behavior. This paper presents the results of preliminary study of seismic microzonation of Gori, Georgia. Gori is and is located in the Shida Kartli region and on both sides of Liachvi and Mtkvari rivers, with area of about 135 km2around the Gori fortress. Gori is located in Achara-Trialeti fold-thrust belt, that is tectonically unstable. Half of all earthquakes in Gori area with magnitude M≥3.5 have happened along this fault zone and on basis of damage caused by previous earthquakes, this territory show the highest level of risk (the maximum value of direct losses) in central part of the town. The seismic microzonation map of level 1 for Gori was carried out using: 1) Already available data (i.e., topographic map and boreholes data), 2) Results of new geological surveys and 3) Geophysical measurements (i.e., MASW and noise measurements processed with HVSR technique). Our preliminary results highlight the presence of both stable zones susceptible to local amplifications and unstable zones susceptible to geological instability. Our results are directed to establish set of actions aimed at risk mitigation before initial onset of emergency, and to management of the emergency once the seismic event has occurred. The products obtained, will contain the basic elements of an integrated system

  15. Seismic Research and High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayers, J.

    2004-12-01

    Through a series of summer workshops, seismologists at Indiana University have trained secondary physics and earth science teachers in fundamentals of seismology and basic concepts in seismic research. Teachers and students then gain hands on experience in science research through operation of a research quality seismic station sited at the local schools. Physics and earth science students have operated the Northview High School Seismic Station since 1998. Data from the Northview seismometer are stored locally and also transmitted over the Internet to a database at Indiana University. Students have access to local data as well as seismic databases accessible through the Internet to use for research projects. In this presentation, I will describe how these projects have been incorporated into the physics and earth science programs at Northview High School. I will discuss how our teachers and students have benefited from the opportunity to take part in hands-on collaborative scientific research under the guidance of university faculty. In particular, I will describe our participation in a regional seismic network through seismic data acquisition, data analysis using seismological software, and students' experiences in a university-based student research symposium. I reflect on the some of the successes, such as increased student and community interest, resulting from our work with the seismic station. I comment on some of the barriers, such as time constraints and unintended interference from school personnel, to high-school teachers' and students' involvement in scientific research programs. I conclude with a discussion of a successful student seismology project, an examination of blasts from local surface coal mines, that was a finalist in the 2003 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair

  16. Seismic Hazard of Eritrea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagos, L.; Arvidsson, R.

    2003-04-01

    The method of spatially smoothed seismicity developed by Frankel(1995) and later extended by Lapajne et al.(1997) , is applied to estimate the seismic hazard of Eritrea. The extended method unlike the original one involves the delineation of the whole region into subregions with statistically determined directions of seismogenic faults pertaining to the respective tectonic regions (Poljak, 2000). Fault-rupture oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing results in spatial models of expected seismicity. Seismic catalogue was compiled from ISC, NEIC, and Turyomurgyendo(1996) and homogenized to Ms. Three seismicity models suggested by Frankel(1995) which are based on different time and magnitude intervals are used in this approach, and a fourth model suggested by Lapajne et al.(2000), which is based on the seismic energy release is also used to enhance the influence of historical events on the hazard computation. Activity rates and maximum likelihood estimates of b- values for the different models are computed using the OHAZ program. The western part of the region shows no seismic activity. b -value for models 1-3 is estimated to be 0.91. Mmax has been estimated to be 7.0. Correlation distances are obtained objectively from the location error in the seismic catalogue. The attenuation relationship by Ambraseys et al .(1996) was found suitable for the region under study. PGA values for 10% probability of exceedence in 50 years (return period of 475 years) are computed for each model and a combined seismic hazard map was produced by subjectively assigning weights to each of the models. A worst case map is also obtained showing the highest PGA values at each location from the four hazard maps. The map indicates a higher hazard along the main tectonic features of the East African and the Red sea rift systems, with its highest PGA values within Eritrea exceeding 25% of g being located north of the red sea port of Massawa. In areas around Asmara PGA values exceed 10% of g.

  17. Seismic Instrumentation Placement Recommendations Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.N.

    1998-09-30

    DOE Order 420.1, ''Facility Safety'', requires that facilities or sites with hazardous materials be provided with instrumentation or other means to detect and record the occurrences and severity of seismic events. These requirements assure that necessary records are available after an earthquake for evaluation purposes and to supplement other data to justify a facility restart or curtailing plant operations after an earthquake. This report documents the basis for the selection of Savannah River Site areas and existing facilities to be instrumented. The need to install instrumentation in new facilities such as the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility, Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility and the Accelerator Production of Tritium Facility will be assessed separately.

  18. Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)

    SciTech Connect

    Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

    2008-05-15

    array will considerably improve the recording capacity of regional and local seismic events. It will allow detection of signatures of seismic waves propagating in submeridional and sublatitudinal directions. The latter is of special interest not only to access the influence of the Urals on propagation patterns of seismic waves, but also to address other questions, such as the structure and dynamic characteristics of the internal dynamo of the Earth [9,13]. Recording seismic waves at low angular distances from seismically active subpolar zones will allow us to collect data on vortical and convective movements in subpolar lithosphere blocks and at the boundary of the inner core of the Earth, possibly giving essential clues to the modeling of the Earth's electromagnetic field [3,13]. The present study considers basic features of seismic noise at the Vorkuta station obtained through the analysis of seismic records from March, 2006 till December, 2007.

  19. Poor compliance with antifungal drug use guidelines by transplant physicians: a framework for educational guidelines and an international consensus on patient safety.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Patricia; Rojas, Loreto; Cervera, Carlos; Garrido, Gregorio; Fariñas, Maria Carmen; Valerio, Maricela; Giannella, Maddalena; Bouza, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    The rate of compliance with antifungal drug use guidelines by transplant physicians is mostly unknown. We performed a nationwide electronic survey to assess antifungal use by different types of transplant physicians. Sixty-one percent (53/87) of the transplant programs responded (accounting for 85% of heart transplant procedures, 65% of kidney transplantations, and 71.5% of liver transplantations). Antifungal prophylaxis was used in 41.5% programs (liver 93.3%, heart 30.8%, and kidney 16%). Prophylaxis was universal in 32% of the programs and targeted only to selected patients in 68%, mainly indicated after re-transplantation (73.3%), re-intervention (66.7%) and hemodialysis (60%). Main drugs for universal prophylaxis were fluconazole and itraconazole (42.9% each), while fluconazole (60%), L-amphotericin B (AMB), and caspofungin (13.4% each) were preferred for targeted prophylaxis. Overall, 84.9% of the programs used galactomannan for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (only 34% in BAL) and 66.6% used voriconazole as first-line monotherapy. Combination first-line therapy for invasive aspergillosis was used by 31.3%, mainly with voriconazole with caspofungin (40%) or anidulafungin (26.7%) or L-AMB-caspofungin (26.7%). Adherence of transplant physicians to current recommendations on antifungal treatment and prophylaxis is poor. An international consensus that responds to differences in patients and centers and emphasizes patient safety is clearly needed.

  20. Method of migrating seismic records

    DOEpatents

    Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

  1. Seismic sequences in the Sombrero Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Huerfano, V. A.; ten Brink, U.; von Hillebrandt, C.

    2007-05-01

    The northeastern Caribbean, in the vicinity of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, has a long and well-documented history of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis, including major events in 1670, 1787, 1867, 1916, 1918, and 1943. Recently, seismicity has been concentrated to the north and west of the British Virgin Islands, in the region referred to as the Sombrero Seismic Zone by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). In the combined seismicity catalog maintained by the PRSN, several hundred small to moderate magnitude events can be found in this region prior to 2006. However, beginning in 2006 and continuing to the present, the rate of seismicity in the Sombrero suddenly increased, and a new locus of activity developed to the east of the previous location. Accurate estimates of seismic hazard, and the tsunamigenic potential of seismic events, depend on an accurate and comprehensive understanding of how strain is being accommodated in this corner region. Are faults locked and accumulating strain for release in a major event? Or is strain being released via slip over a diffuse system of faults? A careful analysis of seismicity patterns in the Sombrero region has the potential to both identify faults and modes of failure, provided the aggregation scheme is tuned to properly identify related events. To this end, we experimented with a scheme to identify seismic sequences based on physical and temporal proximity, under the assumptions that (a) events occur on related fault systems as stress is refocused by immediately previous events and (b) such 'stress waves' die out with time, so that two events that occur on the same system within a relatively short time window can be said to have a similar 'trigger' in ways that two nearby events that occurred years apart cannot. Patterns that emerge from the identification, temporal sequence, and refined locations of such sequences of events carry information about stress accommodation that is obscured by large clouds of

  2. Topographic effects on seismic response of long-span rigid-frame bridge under SV seismic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Gang; Qu, Tie-Jun

    2008-05-01

    Seismic ground motions of two neighboring mountains and the free surface between them are calculated under the SV seismic waves with three different incident angles. The results are then taken as the inputs of multi-point seismic excitations for the foundation of a long-span bridge built over the valley in the analysis considering the integrated influence of traveling wave and topography. On the basis of a dynamic analytical method, a finite element model is created for the seismic responses of a four-span rigid-frame bridge of 440 m. The pier-top displacement and the pier-bottom internal force of the bridge are calculated. Then the results are compared with those considering traveling-wave effect only. The conclusions can serve as a seismic design reference for the structures located on the complex mountain topography.

  3. The Geoscope Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, N.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.; Vallee, M.; Pardo, C.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory provides 32 years of continuous broadband data to the scientific community. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. In 2014, we upgraded 4 stations: SSB in France, CAN in Australia, ROCAM in Rodrigues and ECH in France. 27 stations send data in real or near real time to the GEOSCOPE Data Center and to tsunami warning centers. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the IPGP Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces including web services (see details on http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). In 2015, GEOSCOPE data will also be available through the French national data center RESIF. Seismic noise level of the continuous data are computed every 24 hours and accessible via the geoscope web site. GEOSCOPE data are also validated by comparing real and synthetic body wave waveforms using the SCARDEC method (Vallee et al., 2011). The information on earthquake characteristics, on GEOSCOPE data available for each event and on the waveform fit for each channel are available through the geoscope web portal.

  4. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J.

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  5. The seismic design handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Naeim, F. )

    1989-01-01

    This book contains papers on the planning, analysis, and design of earthquake resistant building structures. Theories and concepts of earthquake resistant design and their implementation in seismic design practice are presented.

  6. Revised seismic and geologic siting regulations for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, A.J.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1997-02-01

    The primary regulatory basis governing the seismic design of nuclear power plants is contained in Appendix A to Part 50, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). General Design Criteria (GDC) 2 defines requirements for design bases for protection against natural phenomena. GDC 2 states the performance criterion that {open_quotes}Structures, systems, and components important to safety shall be designed to withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, . . . without loss of capability to perform their safety functions. . .{close_quotes}. Appendix A to Part 100, Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, has been the principal document which provided detailed criteria to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites and suitability of the plant design basis established in consideration of the seismic and geologic characteristics of the proposed sites. Appendix A defines required seismological and geological investigations and requirements for other design conditions such as soil stability, slope stability, and seismically induced floods and water waves, and requirements for seismic instrumentation. The NRC staff is in the process of revising Appendix A. The NRC has recently revised seismic siting and design regulations for future applications. These revisions are discussed in detail in this paper.

  7. Climate-Seismicity Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, O.

    2009-04-01

    Topic of the slow climate changes is rather popular at present. Two important problems are usually discussing in connection with the climate variability: several years quasi-periodicity (El Nino/La Nino effect) and long-term trend in the global temperature (global warming or cooling). Concerning forcing agent on the climate changes several hypotheses have been suggested including changes in solar luminosity, variations in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, cosmic rays, volcanic eruption activity and so on but the most accepted cause is the change in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations due to human activity. We have tried to find a correlation between slow climate changes using variation in sstoi indices (sea surface temperature anomalies in the 3 selected areas of near-equatorial Pacific Ocean, 160E-90W) and seismic activity using USGS catalog on crustal earthquakes (EQs) in about the same areas. We calculate the values that are proportional to seismic energy release as indices of seismic activity and compare the variation of half-year sstoi and seimic indicies during period of 1973-2008. Autocorrelation of both indices smoothed by 1-year window shows the same behavior in the all selected regions with averaged 4.5 year periodicity while the cross-correlation of the indices envisages 1.5-2 years time delay of sstoi indices in relation to seismic indices. Such the mother-daughter delay is checked by comparison of deep and crustal seismic activity using technique that described in the paper [1]. Furthermore there is clear similarity in the trends of sstoi and seismic indices. We conclude that slow climate variations are probably induced by changes in natural seismicity. Energetic estimations of the climate-seismicity coupling are also discussed. [1] O.A. Mochanov and S. Uyeda, Upward migration of earthquake hypocenters in Japan, Kurile-Kamchatka and Sunda subduction zones, Physics and Chemistry, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.pce.2008.09.011.

  8. Automatic Seismic Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-04

    CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (end Sublitle) S. TYPE O REPORT & PERIOD COVERED FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT - ROUTINE AUTOM!ATIC SEISMIC ANALYSIS TECHNICAL PACKAGE 6...Seismic Analysis Package ARPA Order Number: 4199 Name of Contractor: ENSCO, Inc. 4 - Contract Number: F086 06-80-C-0021 Effective Date of Contract: 10...developed and demonstrated. This timing detector algorithm times the start time of signals and their envelope peaks. It was designed to measure the size

  9. State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiwen; Chen, Kun; Wu, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design. Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more information about ground motion, which should be obtained by evaluating seismic safety for pipeline engineering site. Different from a city’s water pipeline network, the long-distance oil and gas pipeline system is a spatially linearly distributed system. For the uniform confidence of seismic safety, a long-distance oil and pipeline formed with pump stations and different-class pipe segments should be considered as a whole system when analyzing seismic risk. Considering the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, the design-basis fault displacements corresponding to the different pipeline classes are proposed to improve deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA). A new empirical relationship between the maximum fault displacement and the surface-wave magnitude is obtained with the supplemented earthquake data in East Asia. The estimation of fault displacement for a refined oil pipeline in Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake is introduced as an example in this paper.

  10. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  11. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  12. NSR&D Program Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Call for Proposals Mitigation of Seismic Risk at Nuclear Facilities using Seismic Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Seismic isolation (SI) has the potential to drastically reduce seismic response of structures, systems, or components (SSCs) and therefore the risk associated with large seismic events (large seismic event could be defined as the design basis earthquake (DBE) and/or the beyond design basis earthquake (BDBE) depending on the site location). This would correspond to a potential increase in nuclear safety by minimizing the structural response and thus minimizing the risk of material release during large seismic events that have uncertainty associated with their magnitude and frequency. The national consensus standard America Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard 4, Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures recently incorporated language and commentary for seismically isolating a large light water reactor or similar large nuclear structure. Some potential benefits of SI are: 1) substantially decoupling the SSC from the earthquake hazard thus decreasing risk of material release during large earthquakes, 2) cost savings for the facility and/or equipment, and 3) applicability to both nuclear (current and next generation) and high hazard non-nuclear facilities. Issue: To date no one has evaluated how the benefit of seismic risk reduction reduces cost to construct a nuclear facility. Objective: Use seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) to evaluate the reduction in seismic risk and estimate potential cost savings of seismic isolation of a generic nuclear facility. This project would leverage ongoing Idaho National Laboratory (INL) activities that are developing advanced (SPRA) methods using Nonlinear Soil-Structure Interaction (NLSSI) analysis. Technical Approach: The proposed study is intended to obtain an estimate on the reduction in seismic risk and construction cost that might be achieved by seismically isolating a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a representative pressurized water reactor building nuclear power plant (NPP) structure

  13. A Comparative Study on Seismic Analysis of Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) with Other Building Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. S.; Das, T.

    2013-09-01

    Tectonic framework of Bangladesh and adjoining areas indicate that Bangladesh lies well within an active seismic zone. The after effect of earthquake is more severe in an underdeveloped and a densely populated country like ours than any other developed countries. Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) was first established in 1993 to provide guidelines for design and construction of new structure subject to earthquake ground motions in order to minimize the risk to life for all structures. A revision of BNBC 1993 is undergoing to make this up to date with other international building codes. This paper aims at the comparison of various provisions of seismic analysis as given in building codes of different countries. This comparison will give an idea regarding where our country stands when it comes to safety against earth quake. Primarily, various seismic parameters in BNBC 2010 (draft) have been studied and compared with that of BNBC 1993. Later, both 1993 and 2010 edition of BNBC codes have been compared graphically with building codes of other countries such as National Building Code of India 2005 (NBC-India 2005), American Society of Civil Engineering 7-05 (ASCE 7-05). The base shear/weight ratios have been plotted against the height of the building. The investigation in this paper reveals that BNBC 1993 has the least base shear among all the codes. Factored Base shear values of BNBC 2010 are found to have increased significantly than that of BNBC 1993 for low rise buildings (≤20 m) around the country than its predecessor. Despite revision of the code, BNBC 2010 (draft) still suggests less base shear values when compared to the Indian and American code. Therefore, this increase in factor of safety against the earthquake imposed by the proposed BNBC 2010 code by suggesting higher values of base shear is appreciable.

  14. Seismic Search Engine: A distributed database for mining large scale seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Vaidya, S.; Kuzma, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO collects terabytes worth of seismic measurements from many receiver stations situated around the earth with the goal of detecting underground nuclear testing events and distinguishing them from other benign, but more common events such as earthquakes and mine blasts. The International Data Center (IDC) processes and analyzes these measurements, as they are collected by the IMS, to summarize event detections in daily bulletins. Thereafter, the data measurements are archived into a large format database. Our proposed Seismic Search Engine (SSE) will facilitate a framework for data exploration of the seismic database as well as the development of seismic data mining algorithms. Analogous to GenBank, the annotated genetic sequence database maintained by NIH, through SSE, we intend to provide public access to seismic data and a set of processing and analysis tools, along with community-generated annotations and statistical models to help interpret the data. SSE will implement queries as user-defined functions composed from standard tools and models. Each query is compiled and executed over the database internally before reporting results back to the user. Since queries are expressed with standard tools and models, users can easily reproduce published results within this framework for peer-review and making metric comparisons. As an illustration, an example query is “what are the best receiver stations in East Asia for detecting events in the Middle East?” Evaluating this query involves listing all receiver stations in East Asia, characterizing known seismic events in that region, and constructing a profile for each receiver station to determine how effective its measurements are at predicting each event. The results of this query can be used to help prioritize how data is collected, identify defective instruments, and guide future sensor placements.

  15. Concept design for seismic upgrade of Keck telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Frank W.; Park, Samuel; Sarawit, Andrew T.; Cranston, P. Graham

    2016-08-01

    On 15 October 2006, a large earthquake damaged both telescopes at W. M. Keck Observatory resulting in weeks of observing downtime. A significant portion of the downtime was attributed to recovery efforts repairing damage to telescope bearing journals, radial pad support structures, and encoder subsystems. To reduce the risk of damage and loss of observing time in future seismic events, we developed a conceptual design for the seismic upgrade of the twin Keck Telescopes. The paper covers the design requirements and constraints for the seismic upgrade, the evaluation method used to check the safety of sensitive components, and the trade-off study used to compare different options and to select the best design. Various design options such as base isolating the structure, strengthening seismic restraints, adding dampers, adding break-away mechanisms, and combinations of these design options are considered in this study. Nonlinear time history analyses are performed to evaluate the performance of the design concepts.

  16. Identifying spatial and temporal variations in seismicity in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Atkinson, G. M.; Fereidoni, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Cho, N.; Kazemian, J.; Vincent, P.; Gonzalez, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Natural earthquake fault systems are highly heterogeneous in space; inhomogeneities occur because of the varying internal structures and material strengths that dissipate stress differently. However, because analysis of the actual earthquake fault system remains incomplete due to the inherent difficulty in sampling the solid Earth (Richter, 1958; Kanamori, 1981; Geller et al., 1997), much of the recent research in statistical seismology has centered on investigating the variety of spatial and temporal patterns that exist in local and regional data. In particular, in recent years a combination of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and seismicity data analysis has established the link between variations in seismicity rates and the dynamics of the underlying stress field (Dieterich, 1994; Dieterich et al., 2002; Toda et al., 2002; Rundle et al., 2002; Tiampo et al., 2002, 2006; Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005). However, this research has predominantly focused on tectonically-active regions with a relatively high rate of background seismicity. Here we present new work that quantifies seismicity rate changes in the intraplate region of eastern Canada in order to identify spatial and temporal variations in local and regional stress (Tiampo et al, 2002, 2006). Although stable eastern North America generally has much lower seismicity than plate boundary regions, there are areas of substantial seismicity and earthquake hazard. The bulk of the eastern Canadian seismicity is concentrated in both the lower Saint Lawrence seismic zone, downriver from Québec City and the Charlevoix seismic zone to the west of Québec City. Although Mazzotti and Adams (2005) estimate that seismic strain rates in most of eastern Canada are about 10-13 to 10-11/yr, exceptions to these low strain rates can be found in these regions of higher seismic activation. These seismically active zones generally are associated with large lithospheric-scale paleotectonic geologic features and this strong

  17. Applying the seismic interferometry method to vertical seismic profile data using tunnel excavation noise as source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Teixido, Teresa; Martin, Elena; Segarra, Miguel; Segura, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    response and the reflection response for a 1D multilayer structure, and next 3D approach (Wapenaar 2004). As a result of this seismic interferometry experiment the 3D reflectivity model (frequencies and resolution ranges) was obtained. We proved also that the seismic interferometry approach can be applied in asynchronous seismic auscultation. The reflections detected in the virtual seismic sections are in agreement with the geological features encountered during the excavation of the tunnel and also with the petrophysical properties and parameters measured in previous geophysical borehole logging. References Claerbout J.F., 1968. Synthesis of a layered medium from its acoustic transmision response. Geophysics, 33, 264-269 Flavio Poletto, Piero Corubolo and Paolo Comeli.2010. Drill-bit seismic interferometry whith and whitout pilot signals. Geophysical Prospecting, 2010, 58, 257-265. Wapenaar, K., J. Thorbecke, and D. Draganov, 2004, Relations between reflection and transmission responses of three-dimensional inhomogeneous media: Geophysical Journal International, 156, 179-194.

  18. Seismic observations at the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory: history, present, and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, Elena; Narkilahti, Janne; Nevalainen, Jouni; Hurskainen, Riitta; Silvennoinen, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    Instrumental seismic observations in northern Finland started in the 1950s. They were originally initiated by the Institute of Seismology of the University of Helsinki (ISUH), but the staff of Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO) and later geophysicists of the University of Oulu (UO) were involved in the development of seismological observations and research in northern Finland from the very beginning. This close cooperation between seismologists and the technical staff of ISUH, UO, and SGO continued in many significant international projects and enabled a high level of seismological research in Finland. In our paper, we present history and current status of seismic observations and seismological research in northern Finland at the UO and SGO. These include both seismic observations at permanent seismic stations and temporary seismic experiments with portable seismic equipment. We describe the present seismic instrumentation and major research topics of the seismic group at SGO and discuss plans for future development of permanent seismological observations and portable seismic instrumentation at SGO as part of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) research infrastructure. We also present the research topics of the recently organized Laboratory of Applied Seismology, and show examples of seismic observations performed by new seismic equipment located at this laboratory and selected results of time-lapse seismic body wave travel-time tomography using the data of microseismic monitoring in the Pyhäsalmi Mine (northern Finland).

  19. An assessment of seismic margins in nuclear plant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.P.; Jaquay, K.R.; Chokshi, N.C.; Terao, D.

    1996-03-01

    Interim results of an ongoing program to assist the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analyses of piping and overall safety margins of piping systems are reported. Results of: (1) reviews of seismic testing of piping components performed as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping and Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) Program, and (2) assessments of safety margins inherent in the ASME Code, Section III, piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda are reported. The reviews indicate that the margins inherent in the revised criteria may be less than acceptable and that modifications to these criteria may be required.

  20. Grail Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    To probe a planet's interior, seismology provides the most direct constraints on the variables that govern the dynamic properties of the body. However, the GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) mission's high-resolution measurements of the lunar gravity field provide constraints on crustal thickness, mantle structure, core radius and stratification, and core state (solid vs. molten). These data complement seismic investigations, and joint interpretation permits improved constraints on the Moon's internal structure. Joint interpretation of disparate geophysical datasets helps reduce drawbacks that can result from analyzing them individually. The Apollo seismic network was situated on the lunar nearside surface in a roughly equilateral triangle having sides approximately 1000 km long, with stations 12/14 nearly co-located at one corner. Due to this limited geographical extent, near-surface ray coverage from moonquakes is low, but increase with depth. In comparison, gravity surveys and their resulting gravity anomaly maps have traditionally offered optimal resolution at crustal depths. Gravimetric maps and seismic data sets are therefor well suited to joint inversion, since the complementary information reduces inherent model ambiguity. We will perform a joint inversion of Apollo seismic delay times and gravity data collected by GRAIL lunar gravity mission, in order to recover seismic velocity and density as a function of latitude, longitude and depth within the Moon. We will relate density (rho) to seismic velocity (v) using a linear relationship that is allowed to be depth-dependent. The corresponding coefficient (B) can reflect a variety of material properties that vary with depth, including temperature and composition. The inversion seeks to recover the set of rho, v, and B perturbations that minimize (in a least-squares sense) the difference between the observed and calculated data.

  1. 76 FR 21108 - Advisory Committee on Structural Safety of Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... issues and structural design as they relate to seismic and other natural hazards impact on the safety of..., natural hazards, and fire safety issues that are particularly relevant to facilities owned and leased by...

  2. Bayesian identification of multiple seismic change points and varying seismic rates caused by induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Noguera, Silvana; Wang, Yu

    2017-04-01

    The Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) has experienced an abnormal increase in seismic activity, which is believed to be related to anthropogenic activities. The U.S. Geological Survey has acknowledged this situation and developed the CEUS 2016 1 year seismic hazard model using the catalog of 2015 by assuming stationary seismicity in that period. However, due to the nonstationary nature of induced seismicity, it is essential to identify change points for accurate probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). We present a Bayesian procedure to identify the most probable change points in seismicity and define their respective seismic rates. It uses prior distributions in agreement with conventional PSHA and updates them with recent data to identify seismicity changes. It can determine the change points in a regional scale and may incorporate different types of information in an objective manner. It is first successfully tested with simulated data, and then it is used to evaluate Oklahoma's regional seismicity.

  3. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douet, Vincent; Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Leroy, Nicolas; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Bes de Berc, Maxime; Sayadi, Jihane

    2016-04-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory has provided continuous broadband data to the scientific community for the past 34 years. The 31 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1, T240 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the IPGP data center, which transmits them automatically to other data centers (FDSN/IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, three stations are expected to be installed or re-installed: in Western China (WUS station), in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Island (off the East coast of Canada) and in Walis and Futuna (SouthWest Pacific Ocean). The waveform data are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. Scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the IPGP data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). Data are duplicated at the FDSN/IRIS-DMC data center and a similar duplication at the French national data center RESIF will be operational in 2016. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on global moderate-to-large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method (Vallée et al., 2011). By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45

  4. Seismic resonances of acoustic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F. M.; Esterhazy, S.; Perugia, I.; Bokelmann, G.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to clarify at a possible testsite whether a member state of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)has violated its rules by conducting a underground nuclear test. Compared toatmospheric and underwater tests underground nuclear explosions are the mostdifficult to detect.One primary structural target for the field team during an OSI is the detectionof an underground cavity, created by underground nuclear explosions. Theapplication of seismic-resonances of the cavity for its detection has beenproposed in the CTBT by mentioning "resonance seismometry" as possibletechnique during OSIs. We modeled the interaction of a seismic wave-field withan underground cavity by a sphere filled with an acoustic medium surrounded byan elastic full space. For this setting the solution of the seismic wave-fieldcan be computed analytically. Using this approach the appearance of acousticresonances can be predicted in the theoretical calculations. Resonance peaksappear in the spectrum derived for the elastic domain surrounding the acousticcavity, which scale in width with the density of the acoustic medium. For lowdensities in the acoustic medium as for an gas-filled cavity, the spectralpeaks become very narrow and therefore hard to resolve. The resonancefrequencies, however can be correlated to the discrete set of eigenmodes of theacoustic cavity and can thus be predicted if the dimension of the cavity isknown. Origin of the resonance peaks are internal reverberations of wavescoupling in the acoustic domain and causing an echoing signal that couples outto the elastic domain again. In the gas-filled case the amplitudes in timedomain are very low.Beside theoretical considerations we seek to find real data examples fromsimilar settings. As example we analyze a 3D active seismic data set fromFelsőpetény, Hungary that has been conducted between 2012 and 2014 on behalf ofthe CTBTO. In the subsurface of this area a former clay mine is

  5. Seismic Wave Propagation in South America,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    Conference on Disarmament (Alewine, 1995; Conferencia de Desarme, 1994a; 1994b), requires an International Seismic Monitoring System and On-Site Inspections...of magnitude 3.5 in the world each day; 21,000, each year ( Conferencia de Desarme, 1994a). A considerable proportion of these events occur in South...amplitudes. Bulletin of the National Research Council 90, 198-205. Byerly, P. (1942). Seismology, Prentice-Hall, New York. Conferencia de Desarme (1994a

  6. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  7. Landslide seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  8. Numerical modeling of tunneling-induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Urpi, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Removal of rock mass in mining environment has been associated since long-time with seismic event of magnitude 3 and above, with the potential to cause damage to the infrastructures or even loss of human life. Although with similarities with mining, relatively unknown up to now are seismic events induced by tunneling. However with modern mechanized tunneling techniques, making possible to digging deeper and longer underground infrastructure, the risk is not negligible. As an example, the excavation of the 57km long Gotthard Base Tunnel has been associated more than hundred seismic events, with the largest one having magnitude of ML 2.4, damaging the tunnel infrastructures. For future scenario of deep geological storage of nuclear waste, tunneling will constitute the primary activity during site construction. Hence, it will be crucial to understand the risk associated with the underground construction operation that can reactivate seismogenic features nearby the future location of emplacement tunnels. Here we present numerical simulation aimed at understanding the potential for inducing seismicity during tunnel construction. The stress changes and their evolution during the excavation are evaluated with a finite element solver (FLAC3d). A strain-softening friction model is then used to simulate the occurrence of a sudden slip on a fault zone (if critical conditions for reactivation are reached). We also present a sensitivity analysis of the potential for inducing different seismic events by different tunnel sizes at varying distance from a nearby failure plane, with the final purpose of evaluating safety of a potential nuclear repository site on the short- and long-term.

  9. Seismic Microzonation for Refinement of Seismic Load Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Savich, A. I.; Bugaevskii, A. G. E-mail: bugaevskiy@geodyn.ru

    2016-05-15

    Functional dependencies are established for the characteristics of seismic transients recorded at various points of a studied site, which are used to propose a new approach to seismic microzonation (SMZ) that enables the creation of new SMZ maps of strong seismic motion, with due regard for dynamic parameters of recorded transients during weak earthquakes.

  10. 3D Modelling of Seismically Active Parts of Underground Faults via Seismic Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzeskakis, Theofanis; Konstantaras, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    , E. and Papathanassiou, G.: 'Aftershock relocation and frequency-size distribution, stress inversion and seismotectonic setting of the 7 August 2013 M=5.4 earthquake in Kallidromon Mountain, central Greece', Tectonophysics, vol. 617, pp. 101-113, 2014 [4] Maravelakis, E., Bilalis, N., Mantzorou, I., Konstantaras, A. and Antoniadis, A.: '3D modelling of the oldest olive tree of the world', International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research, vol. 2 (2), pp. 340-347, 2012 [5] Konstantaras, A., Katsifarakis, E, Maravelakis, E, Skounakis, E, Kokkinos, E. and Karapidakis, E.: 'Intelligent spatial-clustering of seismicity in the vicinity of the Hellenic seismic arc', Earth Science Research, vol. 1 (2), pp. 1- 10, 2012 [6] Georgoulas, G., Konstantaras, A., Katsifarakis, E., Stylios, C., Maravelakis, E and Vachtsevanos, G.: 'Seismic-mass" density-based algorithm for spatio-temporal clustering', Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 40 (10), pp. 4183-4189, 2013 [7] Konstantaras, A.: 'Classification of Distinct Seismic Regions and Regional Temporal Modelling of Seismicity in the Vicinity of the Hellenic Seismic Arc', Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of', vol. 99, pp. 1-7, 2013

  11. Extracting physical parameters from marine seismic data: New methods in seismic oceanography and velocity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Will F. J.

    internal wave pulses in the South China Sea. Coupling observations from the seismic images with turbulent patterns, we find no evidence for hydraulic jumps in the Luzon passage. Our data suggests geometric resonance may be the underlying physics behind large amplitude nonlinear internal wave pulses seen in the region. We find increased levels of turbulent diffusivity in deep water below 1000 m, associated with internal tide pulses, and near the steep slopes of both the Heng-Chun and Lan-Yu ridges.

  12. Seismic ruggedness of relays

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  13. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  14. Controllable seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrell, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2015-09-29

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  15. Controllable seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrel, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2014-08-19

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  16. Induced seismicity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1997-09-18

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

  17. Unraveling Megathrust Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funiciello, Francesca; Corbi, Fabio; van Dinther, Ylona; Heuret, Arnauld

    2013-12-01

    The majority of global seismicity originates at subduction zones, either within the converging plates or along the plate interface. In particular, events with Mw ≥ 8.0 usually occur at the subduction megathrust, which is the frictional interface between subducting and overriding plates. Consequently, seismicity at subduction megathrusts is responsible for most of the seismic energy globally released during the last century [Pacheco and Sykes, 1992]. What's more, during the last decade giant megathrust earthquakes occurred at an increased rate with respect to the last century [Ammon et al., 2010], often revealing unexpected characteristics and resulting in catastrophic effects. Determining the controlling factors of these events would have fundamental implications for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment.

  18. Observation of seismicity based on DOMERAPI and BMKG seismic networks: A preliminary result from DOMERAPI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Widiyantoro, Sri; Kristyawan, Said; Sembiring, Andry Syaly; Mtaxian, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    DOMERAPI project has involved earth scientists from Indonesia and France to conduct comprehensively a study of the internal structure of Mt. Merapi and its vicinity based on seismic tomographic imaging. The DOMERAPI seismic network was running from October 2013 to April 2015 consisting of 53 broad-band seismometers, covering Mt. Merapi and Mt. Merbabu, and some geological features such as Opak and Dengkeng faults. Earthquake hypocenter determination conducted in this study is an important step before seismic tomographic imaging. The earthquake events were identified and picked manually and carefully. The majority of earthquakes occured outside the DOMERAPI network. The ray paths of seismic waves from these earthquakes passed through the deep part of the study area around Merapi. The joint data of BMKG and DOMERAPI networks can minimize the azimuthal gap, which is often used to obtain an indication of the reliability of the epicentral solution. Our preliminary results show 279 events from October 2013 to mid August 2014. For future work, we will incorporate the BPPTKG (Center for Research and Technology Development of Geological Disaster) data catalogue in order to enrich seismic ray paths. The combined data catalogues will provide information as input for further advanced studies and volcano hazards mitigation.

  19. Interpolation of aliased seismic traces

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, D.J.; McBeath, R.G.; Wason, C.B.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of interpolating seismic traces comprising the steps of: (a) processing seismic data to produce input seismic traces; (b) transforming the input seismic traces from the x, y, and time domain into the x-slope, y-slope and time domain (domains) by using a two dimensional power diversity slant stack; and (c) transforming the product of step (b) back into the x, y, and time domain using an inverse slant stack.

  20. Seismic and infrasound monitoring at Cotopaxi volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M.; Yepes, H.; Palacios, P.; Troncoso, L.; Mothes, P.; Kumagai, H.

    2012-04-01

    Cotopaxi is an active ice-capped volcano (5967m) located 60 km SE from Quito and is one of the largest and more hazardous volcanoes in the Northern Andes. Monitoring of Cotopaxi, using seismic and infrasound techniques has improving significantly since 1976, when three short-period stations were deployed temporarily in response to an increase of fumarolic activity. Later in May 1977, a short-period vertical seismometer was installed on the NW flank at 7 km from the crater. Since 1986 a short-period seismic station is working at the northern flank of Cotopaxi and transmitting analog data to the Instituto Geofisico. In 1993 a network of 4 short-period seismic stations were installed on all flanks of the volcano. Between March 1996 and June 1997 a temporal network of 16 stations were deployed for several months in order to study local seismicity and internal structure (Metaxian et al., 1999). Since 2006, a network of five broad band stations (0.02-60 s) and low-frequency infrasound sensors (0.01-10 s) were installed through a JICA Cooperation Project (Kumagai et al., 2007). Data is transmitted to the Instituto Geofisico via a digital radio system. Through this network, LP and VLP events have been recorded and analyzed (Molina et al., 2008). VLP events were located beneath the north and north-eastern flank using waveform inversion and amplitude distribution methods (Kumagai et al., 2010).