Science.gov

Sample records for international statistical classification

  1. Concepts, definitions and classifications for internal migration statistics in Africa.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This brief discussion of the various data collection systems used in Africa represents the data situation with regard to African migration statistics. Population censuses are increasingly becoming the most popular source for migration statistics in Africa. The derivation of internal migration information from surrogate measures such as age and sex distributions is predicated on the assumption that the movement is selective with respect to these variables. The part attributable to migration after taking into account natural increases is made difficult in Africa because the correct levels of birth and death rates are not usually known with certainty, nationally or locally. The population census data are useful for the investigation of the national volumes and rates of migration; this provides information on broad patterns of migration for countries. However, it is not suitable for migration studies that intend to investigate in-depth such topics as determinants and impact and delineate various types of migratory movements. African countries should, in addition to the birthplace question, include at least 1 of the following supplementary questions: 1) duration of residence, 2) place of previous residence, and 3) place of residence at a fixed prior date. It is increasingly noted that sample surveys are where most of the new data required for policy ought to come from. Longitudinal surveys on migration are also required to advance our present knowledge about the various types of mobility and their seasonal character and about the consequences of the movement. Data collection systems must also be improved in the concepts, definitions, and classifications. This applies to the definition of migration as well as the spatial classifications used as the reference units for the collection of data and the definitions of rural and urban.

  2. Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny. PMID:23440448

  3. Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S K

    2012-07-01

    Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny.

  4. Manual for the Collection of Adult Education Statistics. Within the Framework of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

    The first 15 pages of the manual provide: (1) background information on the importance of adult education, the need for adult education statistics, the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), and the scope of the term adult education; (2) the application of ISCED to adult education and the ISCED classifications (levels, fields,…

  5. How to Move Beyond the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders/International Classification of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Schildkrout, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking. Neuroscience literacy allows psychiatrists to formulate biologically informed psychological theories, to follow neuroscientific literature pertinent to psychiatry, and to embark on a path toward neurologically informed clinical thinking that can help move the field away from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases conceptualizations. Psychiatrists are urged to work toward attaining neuroscience literacy to prepare for and contribute to the development of a new nosology.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  9. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their…

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  14. Proposed declassification of disease categories related to sexual orientation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11)

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Jack; Kismödi, Eszter; Giami, Alain; García-Moreno, Claudia; Atalla, Elham; Marais, Adele; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization is developing the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), planned for publication in 2017. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health was charged with reviewing and making recommendations on disease categories related to sexuality in the chapter on mental and behavioural disorders in the 10th revision (ICD-10), published in 1990. This chapter includes categories for diagnoses based primarily on sexual orientation even though ICD-10 states that sexual orientation alone is not a disorder. This article reviews the scientific evidence and clinical rationale for continuing to include these categories in the ICD. A review of the evidence published since 1990 found little scientific interest in these categories. In addition, the Working Group found no evidence that they are clinically useful: they neither contribute to health service delivery or treatment selection nor provide essential information for public health surveillance. Moreover, use of these categories may create unnecessary harm by delaying accurate diagnosis and treatment. The Working Group recommends that these categories be deleted entirely from ICD-11. Health concerns related to sexual orientation can be better addressed using other ICD categories. PMID:25378758

  15. Proposed declassification of disease categories related to sexual orientation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11).

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Drescher, Jack; Kismödi, Eszter; Giami, Alain; García-Moreno, Claudia; Atalla, Elham; Marais, Adele; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization is developing the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), planned for publication in 2017. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health was charged with reviewing and making recommendations on disease categories related to sexuality in the chapter on mental and behavioural disorders in the 10th revision (ICD-10), published in 1990. This chapter includes categories for diagnoses based primarily on sexual orientation even though ICD-10 states that sexual orientation alone is not a disorder. This article reviews the scientific evidence and clinical rationale for continuing to include these categories in the ICD. A review of the evidence published since 1990 found little scientific interest in these categories. In addition, the Working Group found no evidence that they are clinically useful: they neither contribute to health service delivery or treatment selection nor provide essential information for public health surveillance. Moreover, use of these categories may create unnecessary harm by delaying accurate diagnosis and treatment. The Working Group recommends that these categories be deleted entirely from ICD-11. Health concerns related to sexual orientation can be better addressed using other ICD categories.

  16. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  17. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  18. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  19. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  20. 14 CFR 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  1. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This monthly publication provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This document is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand and trade in OECD countries.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production, oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  9. Statistical physics for materials classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassalle, Hugues Jean

    Genetic algorithms (GA) and clustering techniques are used to study and classify materials. An analysis of the convergence speed of GA is carried out using advanced probability theory and random walk concepts. The determination of the ground-state of multicomponent alloys and Ising models with long-range interactions is accomplished using a genetic algorithm. A new GA operator, the domain-flip, is introduced and its efficiency is compared to that of traditional GA operators, crossover and mutation. The domain-flip operator destroys phase-boundaries by flipping all bits of a given domain at the same time. This operator turns out to be crucial in extracting the system from low local minima. Therefore its presence is rather essential to speed up the GA convergence. A study of GA convergence in its last stages, where all chromosomes present in the population are assumed to consist of two well-ordered domains, is performed using random walk theory and probability theory. Exact expressions for the average time needed for at least one chromosome to find the ground-state are derived. Also, the probability for two chromosomes to undergo a successful crossover, meaning the result is the ground-state, are given. Finally, clustering techniques, which belong to the field of Data Mining, are applied to the classification of materials. An improved version of the widely-used clustering algorithm, K-means, is developed. A comparison of the two clustering techniques on a two-dimensional data set shows that the guide-point approach is more powerful than the K-means algorithm. The guide-point algorithm is used successfully to partition a materials data set. This clustering results in extracting useful information from the data set for which no a priori knowledge was assumed.

  10. Statistical classification methods applied to seismic discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, F.M.; Anderson, D.N.; Anderson, K.K.; Hagedorn, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.

    1996-06-11

    To verify compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), low energy seismic activity must be detected and discriminated. Monitoring small-scale activity will require regional (within {approx}2000 km) monitoring capabilities. This report provides background information on various statistical classification methods and discusses the relevance of each method in the CTBT seismic discrimination setting. Criteria for classification method selection are explained and examples are given to illustrate several key issues. This report describes in more detail the issues and analyses that were initially outlined in a poster presentation at a recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting. Section 2 of this report describes both the CTBT seismic discrimination setting and the general statistical classification approach to this setting. Seismic data examples illustrate the importance of synergistically using multivariate data as well as the difficulties due to missing observations. Classification method selection criteria are presented and discussed in Section 3. These criteria are grouped into the broad classes of simplicity, robustness, applicability, and performance. Section 4 follows with a description of several statistical classification methods: linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, variably regularized discriminant analysis, flexible discriminant analysis, logistic discriminant analysis, K-th Nearest Neighbor discrimination, kernel discrimination, and classification and regression tree discrimination. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are summarized in Section 5.

  11. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  12. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  13. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  14. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  15. A statistical approach to root system classification

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  16. The Origins of the International Standard Classification of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John A.

    2008-01-01

    This article recalls the earliest attempts to compile international educational statistics going back into the 19th century and retraces the steps that led up to the formulation and adoption of the International Standard Classification of Education in both its original and revised versions. It is in large part the story of how international…

  17. Statistical Emulator for Expensive Classification Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Jerret; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2016-01-01

    Expensive simulators prevent any kind of meaningful analysis to be performed on the phenomena they model. To get around this problem the concept of using a statistical emulator as a surrogate representation of the simulator was introduced in the 1980's. Presently, simulators have become more and more complex and as a result running a single example on these simulators is very expensive and can take days to weeks or even months. Many new techniques have been introduced, termed criteria, which sequentially select the next best (most informative to the emulator) point that should be run on the simulator. These criteria methods allow for the creation of an emulator with only a small number of simulator runs. We follow and extend this framework to expensive classification simulators.

  18. Resolution-limited statistical image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaum, Marek; Syrkin, Mark

    1993-09-01

    We have examined the performance of a one-layer Perceptron for the detection and classification of small (resolution-limited) targets from their images, which are stochastic realizations of random processes. The processes are governed by non-Gaussian, non-white distributions. Our results show the potential of the Perceptron classifier as an Ideal Observer and suggest image detection and classification problems for which neural networks may be more reliable than human observers.

  19. Indigenous vs. International soil classification system in Ohangwena Region, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Bloemertz, Lena

    2014-05-01

    This poster will present soil diversity in North-Central Namibia, with a focus on soil fertility. It aims to show the correspondence and differences between an international and an indigenous soil classification system. International classifications, like World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), are very helpful tools to share information in soil science and agriculture. However, these classification are meaningful for large scale soil processes understanding but local specificities cannot be understood and differentiated. On the other hand, knowledge that farmers have on cultivated soils is very accurate and adapted to local agricultural use. However, their knowledge should be properly defined and translated to be used by scientists. Once their knowledge can be read by scientists, it provides very powerful tools for soil mapping and characterization. Analysis so far has focused on the area of Ondobe (30 km West from Eenhana, Ohangwena region). This area is located between two major systems, the Cuvelai floodplain to the West and the Kalahari Woodlands to the East. While all the cultivated soils from this region would be classified as Arenosols (WRB), the local classification differentiates five major soil types (Omutunda, Ehenge, Omufitu, Elondo, Ehenene). In WRB classification, these soils correspond, roughly, to specific Arenosols, respectively Hypereutric, Albic, Haplic, Rubic and Salic Arenosols. Further work will evaluate, the local variation inside each indigenous soil types. Hierarchical classification using soil field descriptors will be used to create statistic soil groups. These new groups will then be compared to each classification system.

  20. Estimation of context for statistical classification of multispectral image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, J. C.; Vardeman, S. B.; Swain, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated the effectiveness of a contextual classifier that combines spatial and spectral information employing a general statistical approach. This statistical classification algorithm exploits the tendency of certain ground cover classes to occur more frequently in some spatial contexts than in others. Indeed, a key input to this algorithm is a statistical characterization of the context: the context function. An unbiased estimator of the context function is discussed which, besides having the advantage of statistical unbiasedness, has the additional advantage over other estimation techniques of being amenable to an adaptive implementation in which the context-function estimate varies according to local contextual information. Results from applying the unbiased estimator to the contextual classification of three real Landsat data sets are presented and contrasted with results from noncontextual classifications and from contextual classifications utilizing other context-function estimation techniques.

  1. Statistical pattern classification with binary variables.

    PubMed

    Young, T Y; Liu, P S; Rondon, R J

    1981-02-01

    Binary random variables are regarded as random vectors in a binary-field (modulo-2) linear vector space. A characteristic function is defined and related results derived using this formulation. Minimax estimation of probability distributions using an entropy criterion is investigated, which leads to an A-distribution and bilinear discriminant functions. Nonparametric classification approaches using Hamming distances and their asymptotic properties are discussed. Experimental results are presented.

  2. Protein fold class prediction: new methods of statistical classification.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, J; Reczko, M; Suhai, S; Edler, L

    1999-01-01

    Feed forward neural networks are compared with standard and new statistical classification procedures for the classification of proteins. We applied logistic regression, an additive model and projection pursuit regression from the methods based on a posterior probabilities; linear, quadratic and a flexible discriminant analysis from the methods based on class conditional probabilities, and the K-nearest-neighbors classification rule. Both, the apparent error rate obtained with the training sample (n = 143) and the test error rate obtained with the test sample (n = 125) and the 10-fold cross validation error were calculated. We conclude that some of the standard statistical methods are potent competitors to the more flexible tools of machine learning.

  3. Statistical fingerprinting for malware detection and classification

    DOEpatents

    Prowell, Stacy J.; Rathgeb, Christopher T.

    2015-09-15

    A system detects malware in a computing architecture with an unknown pedigree. The system includes a first computing device having a known pedigree and operating free of malware. The first computing device executes a series of instrumented functions that, when executed, provide a statistical baseline that is representative of the time it takes the software application to run on a computing device having a known pedigree. A second computing device executes a second series of instrumented functions that, when executed, provides an actual time that is representative of the time the known software application runs on the second computing device. The system detects malware when there is a difference in execution times between the first and the second computing devices.

  4. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  5. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules. 30.61 Section 30.61 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Administrative...

  6. Applying Descriptive Statistics to Teaching the Regional Classification of Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Peter S.; Hammel, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an exercise for college and high school students that relates descriptive statistics to the regional climatic classification. The exercise introduces students to simple calculations of central tendency and dispersion, the construction and interpretation of scatterplots, and the definition of climatic regions. Forces students to engage…

  7. A statistical approach to set classification by feature selection with applications to classification of histopathology images.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungkyu; Qiao, Xingye

    2014-09-01

    Set classification problems arise when classification tasks are based on sets of observations as opposed to individual observations. In set classification, a classification rule is trained with N sets of observations, where each set is labeled with class information, and the prediction of a class label is performed also with a set of observations. Data sets for set classification appear, for example, in diagnostics of disease based on multiple cell nucleus images from a single tissue. Relevant statistical models for set classification are introduced, which motivate a set classification framework based on context-free feature extraction. By understanding a set of observations as an empirical distribution, we employ a data-driven method to choose those features which contain information on location and major variation. In particular, the method of principal component analysis is used to extract the features of major variation. Multidimensional scaling is used to represent features as vector-valued points on which conventional classifiers can be applied. The proposed set classification approaches achieve better classification results than competing methods in a number of simulated data examples. The benefits of our method are demonstrated in an analysis of histopathology images of cell nuclei related to liver cancer.

  8. Incorporating spatial context into statistical classification of multidimensional image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Tilton, J. C.; Swain, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Compound decision theory is employed to develop a general statistical model for classifying image data using spatial context. The classification algorithm developed from this model exploits the tendency of certain ground-cover classes to occur more frequently in some spatial contexts than in others. A key input to this contextural classifier is a quantitative characterization of this tendency: the context function. Several methods for estimating the context function are explored, and two complementary methods are recommended. The contextural classifier is shown to produce substantial improvements in classification accuracy compared to the accuracy produced by a non-contextural uniform-priors maximum likelihood classifier when these methods of estimating the context function are used. An approximate algorithm, which cuts computational requirements by over one-half, is presented. The search for an optimal implementation is furthered by an exploration of the relative merits of using spectral classes or information classes for classification and/or context function estimation.

  9. International petroleum statistics report, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  10. International petroleum statistics report, July 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 44 tabs.

  11. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification

    PubMed Central

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage. PMID:23846580

  12. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification.

    PubMed

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B; Ko, Alex C-T; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage.

  13. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G.

    2013-07-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage.

  14. International Petroleum Statistics Report, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993. Data for the United States are developed by the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Office of Oil and Gas. Data for other countries are derived largely from published sources, including International Energy Agency publications, the EIA International Energy Annual, and the trade press. (See sources after each section.) All data are reviewed by the International Statistics Branch of EIA. All data have been converted to units of measurement familiar to the American public. Definitions of oil production and consumption are consistent with other EIA publications.

  15. International petroleum statistics report, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  16. International petroleum statistics report, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  17. International Petroleum Statistics Report, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-31

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  18. A novel classification method of halftone image via statistics matrices.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-Qiang; Hu, Yong-Xiang; Zhu, Wen-Qiu

    2014-11-01

    Existing classification methods tend not to work well on various error diffusion patterns. Thus a novel classification method for halftone image via statistics matrices is proposed. The statistics matrix descriptor of halftone image is constructed according to the characteristic of error diffusion filters. On this basis, an extraction algorithm is developed based on halftone image patches. The feature modeling is formulated as an optimization problem and then a gradient descent method is used to seek optimum class feature matrices by minimizing the total square error. A maximum likelihood method is proposed according to priori knowledge of training samples. In experiments, the performance evaluation method is provided and comparisons of performance between our method and seven similar methods are made. Then, the influence of parameters, performance under various attacks, computational time complexity and the limitations are discussed. From our experimental study, it is observed that our method has lower classification error rate when compared with other similar methods. In addition, it is robust against usual attacks.

  19. International petroleum statistics report, May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. It presents data on international production, demand, imports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two year. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997, and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 fig., 48 tabs.

  20. [On reform of the international patent classification ].

    PubMed

    Nenakhov, G S; Bril', E M; Shpikalov, A M

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the data on reformed IPC are presented. In IPC the core and advanced levels of classification system are used. It is shown that the goal of the IPC reform is to make possible complete search using a single classification edition for all documents, regardless of their publication date.

  1. Comparison of Three Statistical Classification Techniques for Maser Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Ellen M.; Holland, Barbara R.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Breen, Shari L.; Chen, Xi; Humphries, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    We applied three statistical classification techniques-linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression, and random forests-to three astronomical datasets associated with searches for interstellar masers. We compared the performance of these methods in identifying whether specific mid-infrared or millimetre continuum sources are likely to have associated interstellar masers. We also discuss the interpretability of the results of each classification technique. Non-parametric methods have the potential to make accurate predictions when there are complex relationships between critical parameters. We found that for the small datasets the parametric methods logistic regression and LDA performed best, for the largest dataset the non-parametric method of random forests performed with comparable accuracy to parametric techniques, rather than any significant improvement. This suggests that at least for the specific examples investigated here accuracy of the predictions obtained is not being limited by the use of parametric models. We also found that for LDA, transformation of the data to match a normal distribution led to a significant improvement in accuracy. The different classification techniques had significant overlap in their predictions; further astronomical observations will enable the accuracy of these predictions to be tested.

  2. Lung sound classification using cepstral-based statistical features.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Nandini; Sahidullah, Md; Saha, Goutam

    2016-08-01

    Lung sounds convey useful information related to pulmonary pathology. In this paper, short-term spectral characteristics of lung sounds are studied to characterize the lung sounds for the identification of associated diseases. Motivated by the success of cepstral features in speech signal classification, we evaluate five different cepstral features to recognize three types of lung sounds: normal, wheeze and crackle. Subsequently for fast and efficient classification, we propose a new feature set computed from the statistical properties of cepstral coefficients. Experiments are conducted on a dataset of 30 subjects using the artificial neural network (ANN) as a classifier. Results show that the statistical features extracted from mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) of lung sounds outperform commonly used wavelet-based features as well as standard cepstral coefficients including MFCCs. Further, we experimentally optimize different control parameters of the proposed feature extraction algorithm. Finally, we evaluate the features for noisy lung sound recognition. We have found that our newly investigated features are more robust than existing features and show better recognition accuracy even in low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs).

  3. International petroleum statistics report, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. International petroleum statistics report, November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-25

    Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The International production, and on oil and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  5. International petroleum statistics report, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The International petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970--1997; OECD stocks from 1973--1997; and OECD trade from 1987--1997.

  6. International petroleum statistics report, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  7. International petroleum statistics report, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-30

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data for March 1995 on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  8. International petroleum statistics report, February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995. 4 figs., 47 tabs.

  9. International petroleum statistics report, June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 46 tabs.

  10. International petroleum statistics report, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  11. International petroleum statistics report, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  12. International petroleum statistics report, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-30

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  13. International petroleum statistics report, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. International petroleum statistics report, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  15. International petroleum statistics report, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  16. International petroleum statistics report, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  17. International petroleum statistics report, September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  18. International petroleum statistics report, December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992. 41 tabs.

  19. International petroleum statistics report, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-04

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance fore the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. International petroleum statistics report, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  1. International petroleum statistics report, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. International petroleum statistics report, August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  3. International petroleum statistics report, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  4. International petroleum statistics report, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarter data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  5. International petroleum statistics report, October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. International petroleum statistics report, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (ECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  7. International petroleum statistics report, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  8. International petroleum statistics report, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on International oil production, demand, imports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  9. International petroleum statistics report, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992. 41 tables.

  10. International petroleum statistics report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995. 4 figs., 47 tabs.

  11. International petroleum statistics report, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. The balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. International petroleum statistics report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-25

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  13. International petroleum statistics report, September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  14. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy and the international classification of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Catherine R

    2014-01-01

    This commentary provides some reactions to the rehabilitation treatment taxonomy project in relation to work already underway to develop an International Classification of Health Interventions. This commentary also includes some comments in response to questions posed by the authors.

  15. Linear and Order Statistics Combiners for Pattern Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several researchers have experimentally shown that substantial improvements can be obtained in difficult pattern recognition problems by combining or integrating the outputs of multiple classifiers. This chapter provides an analytical framework to quantify the improvements in classification results due to combining. The results apply to both linear combiners and order statistics combiners. We first show that to a first order approximation, the error rate obtained over and above the Bayes error rate, is directly proportional to the variance of the actual decision boundaries around the Bayes optimum boundary. Combining classifiers in output space reduces this variance, and hence reduces the 'added' error. If N unbiased classifiers are combined by simple averaging. the added error rate can be reduced by a factor of N if the individual errors in approximating the decision boundaries are uncorrelated. Expressions are then derived for linear combiners which are biased or correlated, and the effect of output correlations on ensemble performance is quantified. For order statistics based non-linear combiners, we derive expressions that indicate how much the median, the maximum and in general the i-th order statistic can improve classifier performance. The analysis presented here facilitates the understanding of the relationships among error rates, classifier boundary distributions, and combining in output space. Experimental results on several public domain data sets are provided to illustrate the benefits of combining and to support the analytical results.

  16. Gap Shape Classification using Landscape Indices and Multivariate Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Cheng, Chi-Chuan; Chang, Che-Chang; Lin, Chinsu; Chang, Kun-Cheng; Chuang, Yung-Chung

    2016-11-01

    This study proposed a novel methodology to classify the shape of gaps using landscape indices and multivariate statistics. Patch-level indices were used to collect the qualified shape and spatial configuration characteristics for canopy gaps in the Lienhuachih Experimental Forest in Taiwan in 1998 and 2002. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of gap clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy gap classification. The gaps for the two periods were optimally classified into three categories. In general, gap type 1 had a more complex shape, gap type 2 was more elongated and gap type 3 had the largest gaps that were more regular in shape. The results were evaluated using Wilks’ lambda as satisfactory (p < 0.001). The agreement rate of confusion matrices exceeded 96%. Differences in gap characteristics between the classified gap types that were determined using a one-way ANOVA showed a statistical significance in all patch indices (p = 0.00), except for the Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (ENN) in 2002. Taken together, these results demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed methodology to classify the shape of a gap.

  17. Gap Shape Classification using Landscape Indices and Multivariate Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Da; Cheng, Chi-Chuan; Chang, Che-Chang; Lin, Chinsu; Chang, Kun-Cheng; Chuang, Yung-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study proposed a novel methodology to classify the shape of gaps using landscape indices and multivariate statistics. Patch-level indices were used to collect the qualified shape and spatial configuration characteristics for canopy gaps in the Lienhuachih Experimental Forest in Taiwan in 1998 and 2002. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of gap clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy gap classification. The gaps for the two periods were optimally classified into three categories. In general, gap type 1 had a more complex shape, gap type 2 was more elongated and gap type 3 had the largest gaps that were more regular in shape. The results were evaluated using Wilks’ lambda as satisfactory (p < 0.001). The agreement rate of confusion matrices exceeded 96%. Differences in gap characteristics between the classified gap types that were determined using a one-way ANOVA showed a statistical significance in all patch indices (p = 0.00), except for the Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (ENN) in 2002. Taken together, these results demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed methodology to classify the shape of a gap. PMID:27901127

  18. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  19. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  20. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  1. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  2. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  3. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  4. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  5. Overview of the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bisdorff, Alexandre R; Staab, Jeffrey P; Newman-Toker, David E

    2015-08-01

    Classifications and definitions are essential to facilitate communication; promote accurate diagnostic criteria; develop, test, and use effective therapies; and specify knowledge gaps. This article describes the development of the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders (ICVD) initiative. It describes its history, scope, and goals. The Bárány Society has played a central role in organizing the ICVD by establishing internal development processes and outreach to other scientific societies. The ICVD is organized in four layers. The current focus is on disorders with a high epidemiologic importance, such as Menière disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular migraine, and behavioral aspects of vestibular disorders.

  6. Neural network approaches versus statistical methods in classification of multisource remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benediktsson, Jon A.; Swain, Philip H.; Ersoy, Okan K.

    1990-01-01

    Neural network learning procedures and statistical classificaiton methods are applied and compared empirically in classification of multisource remote sensing and geographic data. Statistical multisource classification by means of a method based on Bayesian classification theory is also investigated and modified. The modifications permit control of the influence of the data sources involved in the classification process. Reliability measures are introduced to rank the quality of the data sources. The data sources are then weighted according to these rankings in the statistical multisource classification. Four data sources are used in experiments: Landsat MSS data and three forms of topographic data (elevation, slope, and aspect). Experimental results show that two different approaches have unique advantages and disadvantages in this classification application.

  7. Robust model selection and the statistical classification of languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. E.; González-López, V. A.; Viola, M. L. L.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we address the problem of model selection for the set of finite memory stochastic processes with finite alphabet, when the data is contaminated. We consider m independent samples, with more than half of them being realizations of the same stochastic process with law Q, which is the one we want to retrieve. We devise a model selection procedure such that for a sample size large enough, the selected process is the one with law Q. Our model selection strategy is based on estimating relative entropies to select a subset of samples that are realizations of the same law. Although the procedure is valid for any family of finite order Markov models, we will focus on the family of variable length Markov chain models, which include the fixed order Markov chain model family. We define the asymptotic breakdown point (ABDP) for a model selection procedure, and we show the ABDP for our procedure. This means that if the proportion of contaminated samples is smaller than the ABDP, then, as the sample size grows our procedure selects a model for the process with law Q. We also use our procedure in a setting where we have one sample conformed by the concatenation of sub-samples of two or more stochastic processes, with most of the subsamples having law Q. We conducted a simulation study. In the application section we address the question of the statistical classification of languages according to their rhythmic features using speech samples. This is an important open problem in phonology. A persistent difficulty on this problem is that the speech samples correspond to several sentences produced by diverse speakers, corresponding to a mixture of distributions. The usual procedure to deal with this problem has been to choose a subset of the original sample which seems to best represent each language. The selection is made by listening to the samples. In our application we use the full dataset without any preselection of samples. We apply our robust methodology estimating

  8. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  9. Statistical methods and neural network approaches for classification of data from multiple sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Swain, Philip H.

    1990-01-01

    Statistical methods for classification of data from multiple data sources are investigated and compared to neural network models. A problem with using conventional multivariate statistical approaches for classification of data of multiple types is in general that a multivariate distribution cannot be assumed for the classes in the data sources. Another common problem with statistical classification methods is that the data sources are not equally reliable. This means that the data sources need to be weighted according to their reliability but most statistical classification methods do not have a mechanism for this. This research focuses on statistical methods which can overcome these problems: a method of statistical multisource analysis and consensus theory. Reliability measures for weighting the data sources in these methods are suggested and investigated. Secondly, this research focuses on neural network models. The neural networks are distribution free since no prior knowledge of the statistical distribution of the data is needed. This is an obvious advantage over most statistical classification methods. The neural networks also automatically take care of the problem involving how much weight each data source should have. On the other hand, their training process is iterative and can take a very long time. Methods to speed up the training procedure are introduced and investigated. Experimental results of classification using both neural network models and statistical methods are given, and the approaches are compared based on these results.

  10. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Classification System: An INRG Task Force Report

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Susan L.; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; London, Wendy B.; Monclair, Tom; Ambros, Peter F.; Brodeur, Garrett M.; Faldum, Andreas; Hero, Barbara; Iehara, Tomoko; Machin, David; Mosseri, Veronique; Simon, Thorsten; Garaventa, Alberto; Castel, Victoria; Matthay, Katherine K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Because current approaches to risk classification and treatment stratification for children with neuroblastoma (NB) vary greatly throughout the world, it is difficult to directly compare risk-based clinical trials. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system was developed to establish a consensus approach for pretreatment risk stratification. Patients and Methods The statistical and clinical significance of 13 potential prognostic factors were analyzed in a cohort of 8,800 children diagnosed with NB between 1990 and 2002 from North America and Australia (Children's Oncology Group), Europe (International Society of Pediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma Group and German Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Group), and Japan. Survival tree regression analyses using event-free survival (EFS) as the primary end point were performed to test the prognostic significance of the 13 factors. Results Stage, age, histologic category, grade of tumor differentiation, the status of the MYCN oncogene, chromosome 11q status, and DNA ploidy were the most highly statistically significant and clinically relevant factors. A new staging system (INRG Staging System) based on clinical criteria and tumor imaging was developed for the INRG Classification System. The optimal age cutoff was determined to be between 15 and 19 months, and 18 months was selected for the classification system. Sixteen pretreatment groups were defined on the basis of clinical criteria and statistically significantly different EFS of the cohort stratified by the INRG criteria. Patients with 5-year EFS more than 85%, more than 75% to ≤ 85%, ≥ 50% to ≤ 75%, or less than 50% were classified as very low risk, low risk, intermediate risk, or high risk, respectively. Conclusion By defining homogenous pretreatment patient cohorts, the INRG classification system will greatly facilitate the comparison of risk-based clinical trials conducted in different regions of the world and the

  11. International petroleum statistics report, June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-27

    The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  12. International petroleum statistics report: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  13. International petroleum statistics report, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  14. International Crime Rates. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Carol B.

    This study compared crime rates of the United States with those of other countries for whom statistics were available: European countries, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Statistics were provided by the United Nations for homicide, rape, robbery, burglary, and theft; the International Police Organization (Interpol) for homicide, rape, robbery,…

  15. Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J Jr

    2002-01-01

    For the linear discrimination of two stimuli in white Gaussian noise in the presence of internal noise, a method is described for estimating linear classification weights from the sum of noise images segregated by stimulus and response. The recommended method for combining the two response images for the same stimulus is to difference the average images. Weights are derived for combining images over stimuli and observers. Methods for estimating the level of internal noise are described with emphasis on the case of repeated presentations of the same noise sample. Simple tests for particular hypotheses about the weights are shown based on observer agreement with a noiseless version of the hypothesis.

  16. [Classifications of mental disorders: from Bertillon to ICD-10, the century of international collaboration].

    PubMed

    Bertolote, J M; Sartorius, N

    1993-01-01

    The first International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was approved during the Congress of the Statistical International Institute, in Chicago, in Paris, in 1893. It was based on a list of diseases prepared by Jacques Bertillon. Minor changes were introduced in this classification during decennial revisions made at international meetings and it remained in use until 1948, when the World Health Organization's Provisional Committee was charged with the task producing ICD-6. ICD-6 represented a major shift from the previous internal conceptualization, particularity in what concerns the Chapter V., dealing with mental disorders. From 1955 on Who produced with approximately a 10-year interval ICD-7, 8 and 9. Few modifications in relation to ICD-6 were introduced by these revisions, except for the introduction of a glossary of terms in the chapter on mental disorders. This glossary had a major impact towards the development of a common language in psychiatry. Based on epidemiological findings, and based also on an intensive and extensive international network of clinicians and investigators, ICD-10 was published in 1992. It represented a substantial improvement regarding the conceptualization of the classification of mental disorders, in relation to previous revisions of the ICD. Future tasks relating to ICD-10 include training of health personnel for its proper utilization, in addition to finalizing further ICD-10 versions, e.g. for research purposes and for primary health care use.

  17. [Classification of mental diseases. From Bertillon to CID-10: a century of international collaboration].

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, J M; Sartorius, N

    1994-01-01

    The first International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was approved during the Congress of the Statistical International Institute, in Chicago, in Paris, in 1893. It was based on a list of diseases prepared by Jacques Bertillon. Minor changes were introduced in this classification during decennial revisions made at international meetings and it remained in use until 1948, when the World Health Organization's Provisional Committee was charged with the task of producing ICD-6. ICD-6 represented a major shift from the previous internal conceptualization, particularly in what concerns the Chapter V., dealing with mental disorders. From 1955 on WHO produced with approximately a 10-year interval ICV-7, 8, and 9. Few modifications in relation to ICD-6 were introduced by these revisions, except for the introduction of a glossary of terms in the chapter on mental disorders. This glossary had a major impact towards the development of a common language in psychiatry. Based on epidemiological findings, and based also on an intensive and extensive international network of clinicians and investigators, ICD-10 was published in 1992. It represented a substantial improvement regarding the conceptualization of the classification of mental disorders, in relation to previous revisions of the ICD. Future tasks relating to ICD-10 include training of health personnel for its proper utilization, in addition to finalizing further ICD-10 versions, e.g. for research purposes and for primary health care use.

  18. Statistical models for the classification of vehicles in MMW imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, William; Jackson, Ralph; Lawlor, Catherine; Britton, Adrian; Webb, Andrew R.

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we exploit high resolution millimeter wave radar ISAR imagery to develop a vehicle classification algorithm, which is robust to orientation and position of the vehicle in the scene. A template based approach is presented and the effect of a number of methods of creating templates investigated. To incorporate the effect of uncertainty in vehicle position and orientation, an approach based on mixture models is developed. The specification of the model is discussed and various approaches for determining the parameters of the model have been assessed. Preliminary results using mixture models to model vehicle signatures and uncertainties in position and orientation are presented. The models and techniques reported here provide a robust approach for general radar classification problems that incorporates uncertainty in a principled manner and improves generalization.

  19. Statistical classification techniques for engineering and climatic data samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, E. C.; Shipman, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Fisher's sample linear discriminant function is modified through an appropriate alteration of the common sample variance-covariance matrix. The alteration consists of adding nonnegative values to the eigenvalues of the sample variance covariance matrix. The desired results of this modification is to increase the number of correct classifications by the new linear discriminant function over Fisher's function. This study is limited to the two-group discriminant problem.

  20. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases with classification challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kirshblum, S. C.; Biering-Sorensen, F.; Betz, R.; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D. E.; Johansen, M.; Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M. J.; Rodriguez, G. M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J. D.; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification. PMID:24559416

  1. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases With Classification Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Biering-Sørensen, F.; Betz, R.; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D.E.; Johansen, M.; Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M.J.; Rodriguez, G.M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J.D.; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification. PMID:25477729

  2. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: cases with classification challenges.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R; Burns, S; Donovan, W; Graves, D E; Johansen, M; Jones, L; Mulcahey, M J; Rodriguez, G M; Schmidt-Read, M; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K; Waring, W

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification.

  3. A statistical approach to material classification using image patch exemplars.

    PubMed

    Varma, Manik; Zisserman, Andrew

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate material classification from single images obtained under unknown viewpoint and illumination. It is demonstrated that materials can be classified using the joint distribution of intensity values over extremely compact neighborhoods (starting from as small as 3 \\times 3 pixels square) and that this can outperform classification using filter banks with large support. It is also shown that the performance of filter banks is inferior to that of image patches with equivalent neighborhoods. We develop novel texton-based representations which are suited to modeling this joint neighborhood distribution for Markov random fields. The representations are learned from training images and then used to classify novel images (with unknown viewpoint and lighting) into texture classes. Three such representations are proposed and their performance is assessed and compared to that of filter banks. The power of the method is demonstrated by classifying 2,806 images of all 61 materials present in the Columbia-Utrecht database. The classification performance surpasses that of recent state-of-the-art filter bank-based classifiers such as Leung and Malik (IJCV 01), Cula and Dana (IJCV 04), and Varma and Zisserman (IJCV 05). We also benchmark performance by classifying all of the textures present in the UIUC, Microsoft Textile, and San Francisco outdoor data sets. We conclude with discussions on why features based on compact neighborhoods can correctly discriminate between textures with large global structure and why the performance of filter banks is not superior to that of the source image patches from which they were derived.

  4. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services.

  5. Statistical Characterization and classification of Fish School Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    scatterers (D. Chu and T.K. Stanton). This work connects the results of Ehrenberg , who expressed the echo distribution (as seen through the sonar...extension to the Ehrenberg formula, summarizes the Barakat formulation, connects the two in the context of echo statistics of random scatterers in a

  6. UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS: CLASSIFICATION OF ATLANTA 2012

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Gleim Dias; SOUZA, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz; CUENCA, Ronaldo Máfia; JERÔNIMO, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros; de SOUZA, Guilherme Medeiros; VILELA, Vinícius Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are widely used due to its image quality and ability to study pancreatic and peripancreatic morphology. The understanding of the various subtypes of the disease and identification of possible complications requires a familiarity with the terminology, which allows effective communication between the different members of the multidisciplinary team. Aim: Demonstrate the terminology and parameters to identify the different classifications and findings of the disease based on the international consensus for acute pancreatitis ( Atlanta Classification 2012). Methods: Search and analysis of articles in the "CAPES Portal de Periódicos with headings "acute pancreatitis" and "Atlanta Review". Results: Were selected 23 articles containing radiological descriptions, management or statistical data related to pathology. Additional statistical data were obtained from Datasus and Population Census 2010. The radiological diagnostic criterion adopted was the Radiology American College system. The "acute pancreatitis - 2012 Rating: Review Atlanta classification and definitions for international consensus" tries to eliminate inconsistency and divergence from the determination of uniformity to the radiological findings, especially the terminology related to fluid collections. More broadly as "pancreatic abscess" and "phlegmon" went into disuse and the evolution of the collection of patient fluids can be described as "acute peripancreatic collections", "acute necrotic collections", "pseudocyst" and "necrosis pancreatic walled or isolated". Conclusion: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance represent the best techniques with sequential images available for diagnosis. Standardization of the terminology is critical and should improve the management of patients with multiple professionals care, risk stratification and adequate treatment. PMID:27759788

  7. A pilot study on the application of statistical classification procedures to molecular epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Holger; Zucknick, Manuela; Ickstadt, Katja; Bolt, Hermann M

    2004-06-15

    The development of new statistical methods for use in molecular epidemiology comprises the building and application of appropriate classification rules. The aim of this study was to assess various classification methods that can potentially handle genetic interactions. A data set comprising genotypes at 25 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) loci from 518 breast cancer cases and 586 age-matched population-based controls from the GENICA study was used to built a classification rule with the discrimination methods SVM (support vector machine), CART (classification and regression tree), Bagging, Random Forest, LogitBoost and k nearest neighbours (kNN). A blind pilot analysis of the genotypic data set was a first approach to obtain an impression of the statistical structure of the data. Furthermore, this analysis was performed to explore classification methods that may be applied to molecular-epidemiological evaluation. The results showed that all blindly applied classification methods had a slightly smaller misclassification rate than a random classification. The findings, nevertheless, suggest that SNP data might be useful for the classification of individuals into categories of high or low risk of diseases.

  8. Generalized t-statistic for two-group classification.

    PubMed

    Komori, Osamu; Eguchi, Shinto; Copas, John B

    2015-06-01

    In the classic discriminant model of two multivariate normal distributions with equal variance matrices, the linear discriminant function is optimal both in terms of the log likelihood ratio and in terms of maximizing the standardized difference (the t-statistic) between the means of the two distributions. In a typical case-control study, normality may be sensible for the control sample but heterogeneity and uncertainty in diagnosis may suggest that a more flexible model is needed for the cases. We generalize the t-statistic approach by finding the linear function which maximizes a standardized difference but with data from one of the groups (the cases) filtered by a possibly nonlinear function U. We study conditions for consistency of the method and find the function U which is optimal in the sense of asymptotic efficiency. Optimality may also extend to other measures of discriminatory efficiency such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The optimal function U depends on a scalar probability density function which can be estimated non-parametrically using a standard numerical algorithm. A lasso-like version for variable selection is implemented by adding L1-regularization to the generalized t-statistic. Two microarray data sets in the study of asthma and various cancers are used as motivating examples.

  9. Statistical Analysis of Noisy Signals Using Classification Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Sandra E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Johnson, Timothy J.; Foster, Nancy S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Amonette, James E.

    2005-06-04

    The potential use of chemicals, biotoxins and biological pathogens are a threat to military and police forces as well as the general public. Rapid identification of these agents is made difficult due to the noisy nature of the signal that can be obtained from portable, in-field sensors. In previously published articles, we created a flowchart that illustrated a method for triaging bacterial identification by combining standard statistical techniques for discrimination and identification with mid-infrared spectroscopic data. The present work documents the process of characterizing and eliminating the sources of the noise and outlines how multidisciplinary teams are necessary to accomplish that goal.

  10. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  11. Retrospective observational study comparing the international hip dysplasia institute classification with the Tonnis classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Mingyuan; Cai, Haiqing; Hu, Liwei; Wang, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Tonnis radiographic classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has been widely used. The International Hip Dysplasia Institute (IHDI) classification, a new classification system recently developed by the IHDI, is beginning to be applied to evaluate DDH with the absence of an ossification center. This study aimed to validate its reliability in evaluating DDH with an ossification center and compared the 2 classifications in evaluating all DDH hips. In addition, the prediction values of the 2 classifications on clinical management selection were compared. In total, the pelvic radiographs of 212 DDH patients (318 hips) between the ages of 6 and 48 months admitted to Shanghai Children's Medical Center between 2007 and 2014 were assessed by 3 observers retrospectively using the 2 classifications. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were evaluated using the kappa method. We also assessed the correlation of the 2 radiographic classifications in terms of treatment selection. In total, 216 hips received closed reduction, 61 hips received open reduction, and 41 hips received pelvic osteotomy. Both classifications showed excellent intraobserver and interobserver reliability. However, the IHDI demonstrated more interobserver reliability, especially for evaluating DDH without an ossification center. Both classifications were found to be relevant in detecting the DDH treatment type (P < 0.01). The Tonnis classification was also relevant, especially for evaluating DDH with an ossification center. The IHDI classification exhibited good practicability in classifying the radiographic severity of DDH compared to the Tonnis classification, particularly in hips without an ossification center. Like the Tonnis classification, the IHDI classification can predict treatment plans. Therefore, the IHDI classification seems to be the upgraded version of the Tonnis classification. PMID:28099350

  12. Statistical classification of vegetation and water depths in montane wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Julia L.; Sodja, Richard S.; Greenwood, Mark; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between water depths and density of submergent vegetation were studied in montane wetlands using statistical techniques based on clustering and an extension of regression trees. Sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) was associated with lower average water depths than water milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum). We detected a nonlinear relationship when average water depths were used to predict percent cover in S. pectinata, with depths of 30–40 cm, producing the highest predicted average percent cover of S. pectinata; higher and lower depths resulted in lower percent cover predictions. For M. sibiricum, higher water depths were monotonically associated with higher average percent cover. To foster more S. pectinata and less M. sibiricum, managers might employ water control structures to reduce water depths below 1 m, using both temporary drawdowns and average depths of 30–40 cm. Other species responded less markedly to water depth variation. Should decreased water depths become more common, these results suggest an increase in S. pectinata and a decrease in M. sibiricum.

  13. Agricultural Land Classification Based on Statistical Analysis of Full Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, M.; Homayouni, S.; Fazel, M. A.; Mohammadimanesh, F.

    2013-09-01

    The discrimination capability of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data makes them a unique source of information with a significant contribution in tackling problems concerning environmental applications. One of the most important applications of these data is land cover classification of the earth surface. These data type, make more detailed classification of phenomena by using the physical parameters and scattering mechanisms. In this paper, we have proposed a contextual unsupervised classification approach for full PolSAR data, which allows the use of multiple sources of statistical evidence. Expectation-Maximization (EM) classification algorithm is basically performed to estimate land cover classes. The EM algorithm is an iterative algorithm that formalizes the problem of parameters estimation of a mixture distribution. To represent the statistical properties and integrate contextual information of the associated image data in the analysis process we used Markov random field (MRF) modelling technique. This model is developed by formulating the maximum posteriori decision rule as the minimization of suitable energy functions. For select optimum distribution which adapts the data more efficiently we used Mellin transform which is a natural analytical tool to study the distribution of products and quotients of independent random variables. Our proposed classification method is applied to a full polarimetric L-band dataset acquired from an agricultural region in Winnipeg, Canada. We evaluate the classification performance based on kappa and overall accuracies of the proposed approach and compared with other well-known classic methods.

  14. Participation in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) programme.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Claudia; Coenen, Amy; Hong, Woi-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN) is a federation of 129 national nurses associations. The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) is a programme of the ICN. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and maintenance processes of the ICNP Programme that are used to increase participation. These include processes by which the ICNP was and continues to be developed, tested, distributed and implemented worldwide, with emphasis on the current version, ICNP Version 1.0. The ICNP is a unified nursing language that facilitates cross-mapping among local terms and existing terminologies. ICNP conforms to current terminology standards and criteria, for example, ISO standards and HL7. The ICNP Alpha and Beta Versions documented the progress of concept validation and classification of nursing phenomena and interventions. The ICNP Beta 2 Version was a combinatorial terminology organized in two multi-axial structures representing nursing phenomena and nursing actions. The ICNP Version 1.0, launched in 2005, changed the relatively straight-forward multi-axial structure into a compositional terminology through the application of description logics using Web Ontology Language (OWL) within Protégé, an ontology development environment. ICNP Version 1.0 is also represented in a multiaxial model (7-Axis) for nurses to compose nursing diagnosis, intervention and outcome statements. Language translations and clinical information systems applications are required to make the ICNP Version 1.0 available to nurses at the point of healthcare delivery. ICNP data collected in healthcare environments provide standardized terminology for nursing that allows comparison of nursing practice across health care settings, specialties and countries; facilitate data-based clinical and management decision making; and contribute to the development of guidelines and standards for best practices and optimal outcomes for patients, families and communities.

  15. The 2017 international classification of the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes.

    PubMed

    Malfait, Fransiska; Francomano, Clair; Byers, Peter; Belmont, John; Berglund, Britta; Black, James; Bloom, Lara; Bowen, Jessica M; Brady, Angela F; Burrows, Nigel P; Castori, Marco; Cohen, Helen; Colombi, Marina; Demirdas, Serwet; De Backer, Julie; De Paepe, Anne; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie; Frank, Michael; Ghali, Neeti; Giunta, Cecilia; Grahame, Rodney; Hakim, Alan; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Johnson, Diana; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Kapferer-Seebacher, Ines; Kazkaz, Hanadi; Kosho, Tomoki; Lavallee, Mark E; Levy, Howard; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Pepin, Melanie; Pope, F Michael; Reinstein, Eyal; Robert, Leema; Rohrbach, Marianne; Sanders, Lynn; Sobey, Glenda J; Van Damme, Tim; Vandersteen, Anthony; van Mourik, Caroline; Voermans, Nicol; Wheeldon, Nigel; Zschocke, Johannes; Tinkle, Brad

    2017-03-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTDs) characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility. Over the past two decades, the Villefranche Nosology, which delineated six subtypes, has been widely used as the standard for clinical diagnosis of EDS. For most of these subtypes, mutations had been identified in collagen-encoding genes, or in genes encoding collagen-modifying enzymes. Since its publication in 1998, a whole spectrum of novel EDS subtypes has been described, and mutations have been identified in an array of novel genes. The International EDS Consortium proposes a revised EDS classification, which recognizes 13 subtypes. For each of the subtypes, we propose a set of clinical criteria that are suggestive for the diagnosis. However, in view of the vast genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic variability of the EDS subtypes, and the clinical overlap between EDS subtypes, but also with other HCTDs, the definite diagnosis of all EDS subtypes, except for the hypermobile type, relies on molecular confirmation with identification of (a) causative genetic variant(s). We also revised the clinical criteria for hypermobile EDS in order to allow for a better distinction from other joint hypermobility disorders. To satisfy research needs, we also propose a pathogenetic scheme, that regroups EDS subtypes for which the causative proteins function within the same pathway. We hope that the revised International EDS Classification will serve as a new standard for the diagnosis of EDS and will provide a framework for future research purposes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An atmospheric-to-marine synoptic classification for statistical downscaling marine climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camus, Paula; Rueda, Ana; Méndez, Fernando J.; Losada, Iñigo J.

    2016-12-01

    A regression-guided classification is implemented in statistical downscaling models based on weather types for downscaling multivariate wave climate and modelling extreme events. The semi-supervised method classifies the atmospheric circulation conditions (predictor) and the estimations from a regression model linking the circulation with local marine climate (filtered predictand). A weighted factor controls the influence of the predictor and predictand in the weather patterns to improve the performance of the classification to reflect local marine climate characteristics. In addition to the analysis of the variance explained by the predictor and the predictand, the selection of the optimal value of the weighted factor is based on the predictand response in order to avoid subjectivity in the solution. The statistical models using the guided classification are applied in the North Atlantic. The new technique reduces the dispersion of the multivariate predictand within weather types and improves the model skill to downscale waves and to reproduce extremes.

  17. Braiding statistics and classification of two-dimensional charge-2 m superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie

    2016-08-01

    We study braiding statistics between quasiparticles and vortices in two-dimensional charge-2 m (in units of e ) superconductors that are coupled to a Z2 m dynamical gauge field, where m is any positive integer. We show that there exist 16 m types of braiding statistics when m is odd, but only 4 m types when m is even. Based on the braiding statistics, we obtain a classification of topological phases of charge-2 m superconductors—or formally speaking, a classification of symmetry-protected topological phases, as well as invertible topological phases, of two-dimensional gapped fermions with Z2m f symmetry. Interestingly, we find that there is no nontrivial fermionic symmetry-protected topological phase with Z4f symmetry.

  18. Convexity, internal representations and the statistical mechanics of neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opper, M.; Kuhlmann, P.; Mietzner, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present an approach to the statistical mechanics of feedforward neural networks which is based on counting realizable internal representations by utilizing convexity properties of the weight space. For a toy model, our method yields storage capacities based on an annealed approximation, which are in close agreement with one-step replica symmetry-breaking results obtained from a standard approach. For a single-layer perceptron, a combinatorial result for the number of realizable output combinations is recovered and generalized to fixed stabilities.

  19. Exploring strategies for classification of external stimuli using statistical features of the plant electrical response

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Das, Saptarshi; Maharatna, Koushik; Masi, Elisa; Santopolo, Luisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Vitaletti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Plants sense their environment by producing electrical signals which in essence represent changes in underlying physiological processes. These electrical signals, when monitored, show both stochastic and deterministic dynamics. In this paper, we compute 11 statistical features from the raw non-stationary plant electrical signal time series to classify the stimulus applied (causing the electrical signal). By using different discriminant analysis-based classification techniques, we successfully establish that there is enough information in the raw electrical signal to classify the stimuli. In the process, we also propose two standard features which consistently give good classification results for three types of stimuli—sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and ozone (O3). This may facilitate reduction in the complexity involved in computing all the features for online classification of similar external stimuli in future. PMID:25631569

  20. Exploring strategies for classification of external stimuli using statistical features of the plant electrical response.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Das, Saptarshi; Maharatna, Koushik; Masi, Elisa; Santopolo, Luisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Vitaletti, Andrea

    2015-03-06

    Plants sense their environment by producing electrical signals which in essence represent changes in underlying physiological processes. These electrical signals, when monitored, show both stochastic and deterministic dynamics. In this paper, we compute 11 statistical features from the raw non-stationary plant electrical signal time series to classify the stimulus applied (causing the electrical signal). By using different discriminant analysis-based classification techniques, we successfully establish that there is enough information in the raw electrical signal to classify the stimuli. In the process, we also propose two standard features which consistently give good classification results for three types of stimuli--sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) and ozone (O₃). This may facilitate reduction in the complexity involved in computing all the features for online classification of similar external stimuli in future.

  1. Health websites in Italy: use, classification and international policy.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Maceratini, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss international policy in relation to the use of health websites and we describe the results obtained from application of a search engine to the recognition and classification of health websites in Italy. We then compare the results with health websites in other countries. Effective use of technology has led to medical advances that have not only extended life expectancy, but also fuelled an increasingly well-informed public to expect more and more from today's healthcare providers. As a consequence of the Web's rapid, chaotic growth, the resulting network of information lacks organization and structure and the quest for a method of quickly finding relevant and reliable information is spawning the growth of Internet portal sites. The US and the European Union and now Italy, have established the importance of rules to check the quality of health sites both for the non-professional users (citizens), mainly for privacy and security (for example, of medical records); and for health operators (physicians and others), where the most important thing is to evaluate the quality of content. In June 2001, the search engine used here found 2627 Italian health sites, of which only 46 exhibited the HON Code, and they can be classified into: 1% personal medical sites, 17% health portals, 18%, metasites, 27% documental sites and 37% information sites for health operators and/or for citizens.

  2. Statistical Fractal Models Based on GND-PCA and Its Application on Classification of Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Benqiang; Zhang, Libo; Chen, Yenwei

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed to establish the statistical fractal model for liver diseases classification. Firstly, the fractal theory is used to construct the high-order tensor, and then Generalized N-dimensional Principal Component Analysis (GND-PCA) is used to establish the statistical fractal model and select the feature from the region of liver; at the same time different features have different weights, and finally, Support Vector Machine Optimized Ant Colony (ACO-SVM) algorithm is used to establish the classifier for the recognition of liver disease. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, PCA eigenface method and normal SVM method are chosen as the contrast methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reconstruct liver volume better and improve the classification accuracy of liver diseases. PMID:24224174

  3. Statistical Classification of Soft Solder Alloys by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Review of Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdunek, R.; Nowak, M.; Pliński, E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews machine-learning methods that are nowadays the most frequently used for the supervised classification of spectral signals in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We analyze and compare various statistical classification methods, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes method, probabilistic neural networks (PNN), and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) method. The theoretical considerations are supported with experiments conducted for real soft-solder-alloy spectra obtained using LIBS. We consider two decision problems: binary and multiclass classification. The former is used to distinguish overheated soft solders from their normal versions. The latter aims to assign a testing sample to a given group of materials. The measurements are obtained for several laser-energy values, projection masks, and numbers of laser shots. Using cross-validation, we evaluate the above classification methods in terms of their usefulness in solving both classification problems.

  4. International Classification of Primary Care: An Indian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sajitha M. F.; Angeline, Ruby P.; Cynthia, Sharon; David, Kirubah; Christopher, Prince; Sankarapandian, Venkatesan; Kumar, Yashvanth

    2014-01-01

    Background: India is in the process of transition to universal health coverage for Indian citizens. The focus is to strengthen the primary and secondary level services. Coupled with this national scenario, the development of Family medicine as a distinct discipline is in a crucial stage. There is a nation-wide urge to build family medicine training units and service centers across the country to fulfill the unmet health needs of the population. Objectives: This study aimed to bring out reasons for encounter (RFE) and morbidity pattern of patients seen in a family physician run urban health center in South India. Methods: The study was conducted in an urban health center of a tertiary care hospital. Clinicians entered the data using International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) codes. Data included were demographics, 3 RFE, 3 diagnoses, 3 outcomes of care that include prescriptions, investigations, procedures, and referrals made. Results: During 47,590 patient encounters, 59,647 RFE, 62,283 diagnoses and 68269 outcomes of care were recorded. The majority of RFEs and diagnoses are in the following ICPC chapters: Endocrinology (38.6%), cardiovascular (35.91%), respiratory (20.26%), digestive (7.68% and musculo-skeletal (6.8%). The most frequent outcome of care was prescriptions, followed by counseling and nebulization. Conclusion: This study is the first to report on the RFE in India. This study demonstrated the breadth of clinical conditions seen by family physicians across all ages and in both genders. This study attempts to highlight the need for family physician based services as a training ground for trainees. PMID:25657944

  5. The International Coal Statistics Data Base operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data base (ICSD) is a micro- computer based system which contains informations related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven, and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Operations Manual explains how to install the programs, how to obtain reports on coal trade, what systems requirements apply, and how to update the major data files. It also explains file naming conventions, what each file does, and the programming procedures used to make the system work. The Operations Manual explains how to make the system respond to customized queries. It is organized around the ICSD menu structure and describes what each selection will do. Sample reports and graphs generated from individual menu selection are provided to acquaint the user with the various types of output. 17 figs.

  6. The International Coal Statistics Data Base program maintenance guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data Base (ICSD) is a microcomputer-based system which contains information related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase III+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual, and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Program Maintenance Manual provides the information necessary to maintain and update the ICSD system. Two major types of program maintenance documentation are presented in this manual. The first is the source code for the dBase III+ routines and related non-dBase programs used in operating the ICSD. The second is listings of the major component database field structures. A third important consideration for dBase programming, the structure of index files, is presented in the listing of source code for the index maintenance program. 1 fig.

  7. International petroleum statistics report, January 1992. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, consumption, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil consumption and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/consumption balance for the market economies (i.e., non-communist countries). This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, consumption, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD consumption data are for the years 1970 through 1990; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1990; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1990.

  8. Pediatric Aspects of Headache Classification in the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 (ICHD-3 beta version).

    PubMed

    McAbee, Gary N; Morse, Anne Marie; Assadi, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This analysis looks at the applicability of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 beta (ICHD-3 beta) to various headache syndromes of children and adolescents. Areas of similarities and differences between adult and pediatric headaches are addressed as they relate to the ICHD-3 beta.

  9. Correlation of nuclear morphometric features with animal and human World Health Organization International Histological Classifications of canine spontaneous seminomas.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, P; Restucci, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O; De Vico, G

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate nuclear morphometric features with animal and human World Health Organization International Histological Classifications in canine seminomas. Twenty-three canine seminomas were classified, according to Animal World Health Organization International Histological Classification as intratubular, intratubular with signs of invasion, or diffuse and according to Human World Health Organization International Histological Classification criteria as spermatocytic and typical. The morphonuclear characteristics of tumors were quantitatively evaluated by means of digital cell image analyses of hematoxylin and eosin-stained nuclei. In particular, the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, mean nuclear form factor, and their respective standard deviations were calculated. The relationship between the different variables and the tumor histologic types was assessed. On the basis of animal and human classification systems, statistically significant differences were observed only between intratubular seminomas with signs of invasion and the other two types and between spermatocytic and typical seminomas, respectively. In humans, it is well known that typical seminomas are more common and aggressive than spermatocytic ones. In our study, the canine seminomas classified as typical showed significantly larger and more variable nuclear area and perimeter than spermatocytic seminomas. These results support the opinion that most canine seminomas correspond to human spermatocytic seminomas and could explain the benign behavior of canine seminomas, which derive from a more differentiated type of germ cell.

  10. A Statistical Model-Based Speech Enhancement Using Acoustic Noise Classification for Robust Speech Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Hun; Chang, Joon-Hyuk

    In this paper, we present a speech enhancement technique based on the ambient noise classification that incorporates the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The principal parameters of the statistical model-based speech enhancement algorithm such as the weighting parameter in the decision-directed (DD) method and the long-term smoothing parameter of the noise estimation, are set according to the classified context to ensure best performance under each noise. For real-time context awareness, the noise classification is performed on a frame-by-frame basis using the GMM with the soft decision framework. The speech absence probability (SAP) is used in detecting the speech absence periods and updating the likelihood of the GMM.

  11. Optimizing statistical classification accuracy of satellite remotely sensed imagery for supporting fast flood hydrological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Retalis, Adrianos

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to improve classification results of multispectral satellite imagery for supporting flood risk assessment analysis in a catchment area in Cyprus. For this purpose, precipitation and ground spectroradiometric data have been collected and analyzed with innovative statistical analysis methods. Samples of regolith and construction material were in situ collected and examined in the spectroscopy laboratory for their spectral response under consecutive different conditions of humidity. Moreover, reflectance values were extracted from the same targets using Landsat TM/ETM+ images, for drought and humid time periods, using archived meteorological data. The comparison of the results showed that spectral responses for all the specimens were less correlated in cases of substantial humidity, both in laboratory and satellite images. These results were validated with the application of different classification algorithms (ISODATA, maximum likelihood, object based, maximum entropy) to satellite images acquired during time period when precipitation phenomena had been recorded.

  12. Classification.

    PubMed

    Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Kotagal, Prakash

    2008-07-01

    In this article, we review the practical approach and diagnostic relevance of current seizure and epilepsy classification concepts and principles as a basic framework for good management of patients with epileptic seizures and epilepsy. Inaccurate generalizations about terminology, diagnosis, and treatment may be the single most important factor, next to an inadequately obtained history, that determines the misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients with epilepsy. A stepwise signs and symptoms approach for diagnosis, evaluation, and management along the guidelines of the International League Against Epilepsy and definitions of epileptic seizures and epilepsy syndromes offers a state-of-the-art clinical approach to managing patients with epilepsy.

  13. Statistical shape modeling of the left ventricle: myocardial infarct classification challenge.

    PubMed

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Ablin, Pierre; Alba, Xenia; Alessandrini, Martino; Allen, Jack; Bai, W; Cimen, Serkan; Claes, Peter; Cowan, Brett R; D'hooge, Jan; Duchateau, Nicolas; Ehrhardt, Jan; Frangi, Alejandro F; Gooya, Ali; Grau, Vicente; Lekadir, Karim; Lu, Allen; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Oksuz, Ilkay; Pennec, Xavier; Pereanez, Marco; Pinto, Catarina; Piras, Paolo; Rohe, Marc-Michel; Rueckert, Daniel; Sermesant, Maxime; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Tabassian, Mahdi; Teresi, Luciano; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A; Wilms, Matthias; Young, Alistair A; Zhang, Xingyu; Medrano-Gracia, Pau

    2017-01-17

    Statistical shape modeling is a powerful tool for visualizing and quantifying geometric and functional patterns of the heart. After myocardial infarction (MI), the left ventricle typically remodels in response to physiological challenges. Several methods have been proposed in the literature to describe statistical shape changes. Which method best characterizes left ventricular remodeling after MI is an open research question. A better descriptor of remodeling is expected to provide a more accurate evaluation of disease status in MI patients. We therefore designed a challenge to test shape characterization in MI given a set of three-dimensional left ventricular surface points. The training set comprised 100 MI patients, and 100 asymptomatic volunteers (AV). The challenge was initiated in 2015 at the Statistical Atlases and Computational Models of the Heart workshop, in conjunction with the MICCAI conference. The training set with labels was provided to participants, who were asked to submit the likelihood of MI from a different (validation) set of 200 cases (100 AV and 100 MI). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were used as the outcome measures. The goals of this challenge were to (1) establish a common dataset for evaluating statistical shape modeling algorithms in MI, and (2) test whether statistical shape modeling provides additional information characterizing MI patients over standard clinical measures. Eleven groups with a wide variety of classification and feature extraction approaches participated in this challenge. All methods achieved excellent classification results with accuracy ranges from 0.83 to 0.98. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were all above 0.90. Four methods showed significantly higher performance than standard clinical measures. The dataset and software for evaluation are available from the Cardiac Atlas Project website1.

  14. Hydrometeor classification through statistical clustering of polarimetric radar measurements: a semi-supervised approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besic, Nikola; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Grazioli, Jacopo; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Berne, Alexis

    2016-09-01

    Polarimetric radar-based hydrometeor classification is the procedure of identifying different types of hydrometeors by exploiting polarimetric radar observations. The main drawback of the existing supervised classification methods, mostly based on fuzzy logic, is a significant dependency on a presumed electromagnetic behaviour of different hydrometeor types. Namely, the results of the classification largely rely upon the quality of scattering simulations. When it comes to the unsupervised approach, it lacks the constraints related to the hydrometeor microphysics. The idea of the proposed method is to compensate for these drawbacks by combining the two approaches in a way that microphysical hypotheses can, to a degree, adjust the content of the classes obtained statistically from the observations. This is done by means of an iterative approach, performed offline, which, in a statistical framework, examines clustered representative polarimetric observations by comparing them to the presumed polarimetric properties of each hydrometeor class. Aside from comparing, a routine alters the content of clusters by encouraging further statistical clustering in case of non-identification. By merging all identified clusters, the multi-dimensional polarimetric signatures of various hydrometeor types are obtained for each of the studied representative datasets, i.e. for each radar system of interest. These are depicted by sets of centroids which are then employed in operational labelling of different hydrometeors. The method has been applied on three C-band datasets, each acquired by different operational radar from the MeteoSwiss Rad4Alp network, as well as on two X-band datasets acquired by two research mobile radars. The results are discussed through a comparative analysis which includes a corresponding supervised and unsupervised approach, emphasising the operational potential of the proposed method.

  15. International Paralympic Committee position stand--background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic sport.

    PubMed

    Tweedy, S M; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2011-04-01

    The Classification Code of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), inter alia, mandates the development of evidence-based systems of classification. This paper provides a scientific background for classification in Paralympic sport, defines evidence-based classification and provides guidelines for how evidence-based classification may be achieved. Classification is a process in which a single group of entities (or units) are ordered into a number of smaller groups (or classes) based on observable properties that they have in common, and taxonomy is the science of how to classify. Paralympic classification is interrelated with systems of classification used in two fields: Health and functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is the most widely used classification in the field of functioning and health. To enhance communication, Paralympic systems of classification should use language and concepts that are consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Sport. Classification in sport reduces the likelihood of one-sided competition and in this way promotes participation. Two types of classification are used in sport-performance classification and selective classification. Paralympic sports require selective classification systems so that athletes who enhance their competitive performance through effective training will not be moved to a class with athletes who have less activity limitation, as they would in a performance classification system. Classification has a significant impact on which athletes are successful in Paralympic sport, but unfortunately issues relating to the weighting and aggregation of measures used in classification pose significant threats to the validity of current systems of classification. To improve the validity of Paralympic classification, the IPC Classification Code mandates the development of evidence-based systems of classification, an evidence

  16. Development of a new international classification of health interventions based on an ontology framework.

    PubMed

    Paviot, Béatrice Trombert; Madden, Richard; Moskal, Lori; Zaiss, Albrecht; Bousquet, Cédric; Kumar, Anand; Lewalle, Pierre; Rodrigues, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    : The WHO International Classification of Diseases is used in many national applications to plan, manage and fund through case mix health care systems and allows international comparisons of the performance of these systems. There is no such measuring tool for health interventions or procedures. To fulfil this requirement the WHO-FIC Network recommended in 2006 to develop an International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI). This initiative is aimed to harmonise the existing national classifications and to provide a basic system for the countries which have not developed their own classification systems. It is based on the CEN/ISO ontology framework standard named Categorial Structure defined from a non formal bottom up ontology approach. The process of populating the framework is ongoing to start from a common model structure encompassing the ICD 9CM Volume 3 granularity.

  17. Analysis of sexual assault evidence: statistical classification of condoms by ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Mario F; Ifa, Demian R; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) are employed here in the forensic analysis of chemical compounds found in condoms and relative traces, and their analytical performances are compared. Statistical analysis of data obtained from mass spectra only was applied in order to obtain classification rules for distinguishing ten types of condoms. In particular, two supervised chemometric techniques [linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)] were carried out on absolute and relative intensity values to test the performances of statistical models in terms of predictive capacity. The achieved classification of samples was excellent because of the high prediction percentages of the method used both for DESI and EASI mass spectrometry analyses, confirming these two as potential ambient ionization techniques for forensic analyses in case of sexual assault crimes. EASI-MS showed 99% prediction ability for LDA using relative data and 100% prediction ability for SIMCA using both absolute and relative ones, while DESI showed 94% prediction ability for both LDA and SIMCA. The absence of any sample preparation technique gives advantages in terms of sample preservation and reduced contamination, allowing successive analyses to be performed on the same sample by other techniques.

  18. Visual classification of very fine-grained sediments: Evaluation through univariate and multivariate statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohn, M. Ed; Nuhfer, E.B.; Vinopal, R.J.; Klanderman, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifying very fine-grained rocks through fabric elements provides information about depositional environments, but is subject to the biases of visual taxonomy. To evaluate the statistical significance of an empirical classification of very fine-grained rocks, samples from Devonian shales in four cored wells in West Virginia and Virginia were measured for 15 variables: quartz, illite, pyrite and expandable clays determined by X-ray diffraction; total sulfur, organic content, inorganic carbon, matrix density, bulk density, porosity, silt, as well as density, sonic travel time, resistivity, and ??-ray response measured from well logs. The four lithologic types comprised: (1) sharply banded shale, (2) thinly laminated shale, (3) lenticularly laminated shale, and (4) nonbanded shale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance showed that the lithologic classification reflects significant differences for the variables measured, difference that can be detected independently of stratigraphic effects. Little-known statistical methods found useful in this work included: the multivariate analysis of variance with more than one effect, simultaneous plotting of samples and variables on canonical variates, and the use of parametric ANOVA and MANOVA on ranked data. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  19. Scaling up the evaluation of psychotherapy: evaluating motivational interviewing fidelity via statistical text classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy are leading, evidence-based practices for a variety of problems (e.g., substance abuse), but the evaluation of provider fidelity to behavioral interventions is limited by the need for human judgment. The current study evaluated the accuracy of statistical text classification in replicating human-based judgments of provider fidelity in one specific psychotherapy—motivational interviewing (MI). Method Participants (n = 148) came from five previously conducted randomized trials and were either primary care patients at a safety-net hospital or university students. To be eligible for the original studies, participants met criteria for either problematic drug or alcohol use. All participants received a type of brief motivational interview, an evidence-based intervention for alcohol and substance use disorders. The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code is a standard measure of MI provider fidelity based on human ratings that was used to evaluate all therapy sessions. A text classification approach called a labeled topic model was used to learn associations between human-based fidelity ratings and MI session transcripts. It was then used to generate codes for new sessions. The primary comparison was the accuracy of model-based codes with human-based codes. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of model-based codes showed reasonably strong sensitivity and specificity with those from human raters (range of area under ROC curve (AUC) scores: 0.62 – 0.81; average AUC: 0.72). Agreement with human raters was evaluated based on talk turns as well as code tallies for an entire session. Generated codes had higher reliability with human codes for session tallies and also varied strongly by individual code. Conclusion To scale up the evaluation of behavioral interventions, technological solutions will be required. The current study demonstrated preliminary, encouraging findings regarding the utility

  20. Multiple-Time-Series Clinical Data Processing for Classification With Merging Algorithm and Statistical Measures.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Liang, Ja-Der; Yang, Pei-Ming; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lai, Feipei

    2015-05-01

    A description of patient conditions should consist of the changes in and combination of clinical measures. Traditional data-processing method and classification algorithms might cause clinical information to disappear and reduce prediction performance. To improve the accuracy of clinical-outcome prediction by using multiple measurements, a new multiple-time-series data-processing algorithm with period merging is proposed. Clinical data from 83 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were used in this research. Their clinical reports from a defined period were merged using the proposed merging algorithm, and statistical measures were also calculated. After data processing, multiple measurements support vector machine (MMSVM) with radial basis function (RBF) kernels was used as a classification method to predict HCC recurrence. A multiple measurements random forest regression (MMRF) was also used as an additional evaluation/classification method. To evaluate the data-merging algorithm, the performance of prediction using processed multiple measurements was compared to prediction using single measurements. The results of recurrence prediction by MMSVM with RBF using multiple measurements and a period of 120 days (accuracy 0.771, balanced accuracy 0.603) were optimal, and their superiority to the results obtained using single measurements was statistically significant (accuracy 0.626, balanced accuracy 0.459, P < 0.01). In the cases of MMRF, the prediction results obtained after applying the proposed merging algorithm were also better than single-measurement results (P < 0.05). The results show that the performance of HCC-recurrence prediction was significantly improved when the proposed data-processing algorithm was used, and that multiple measurements could be of greater value than single.

  1. New Allergic and Hypersensitivity Conditions Section in the International Classification of Diseases-11.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana K; Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Allergy and hypersensitivity, originally perceived as rare and secondary disorders, are one of the fastest growing conditions worldwide, but not adequately tracked in international information systems, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Having allergic and hypersensitivity conditions classification able to capture conditions in health international information systems in a realistic manner is crucial to the identification of potential problems, and in a wider system, can identify contextually specific service deficiencies and provide the impetus for changes. Since 2013, an international collaboration of Allergy Academies has spent tremendous efforts to have a better and updated classification of allergies in the forthcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 version, by providing scientific and technical evidences for the need for changes. The following bilateral discussions with the representatives of the ICD-11 revision, a simplification process was carried out. The new parented "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" section has been built under the "Disorders of the Immune System" chapter through the international collaboration of Allergy Academies and upon ICD WHO representatives support. The classification of allergic and hypersensitivity conditions has been updated through the ICD-11 revision and will allow the aggregation of reliable data to perform positive quality-improvements in health care systems worldwide.

  2. 47 CFR 63.10 - Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determined by the Commission, any party authorized to provide an international communications service under... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers. 63.10 Section 63.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  3. 47 CFR 63.10 - Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the Commission, any party authorized to provide an international communications service under... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers. 63.10 Section 63.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  4. 47 CFR 63.10 - Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determined by the Commission, any party authorized to provide an international communications service under... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers. 63.10 Section 63.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  5. Fifth International Workshop on Detection, Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals using Passive Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    spring 2011 in Seattle) • The Fourth International Conference on Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals using Passive Acoustics ( Pavia ...Italy, 2009) • The International BioAcoustic Congress ( Pavia , Italy, 2009) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting

  6. The International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification of the International Commission on Stratigraphy: The Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification (ISSC) was born in 1955 as an effort to promote awareness of stratigraphic principles and encourage worldwide standardization of stratigraphic approaches and terminology. The first major achievement of ISSC was the 1976 publication of the International Stratigraphic Guide. It was revised in 1994, with an abridged version appearing in 1999. These documents achieved their goals magnificently: cited innumerable times and forming the core of many national stratigraphic codes. As the discipline has evolved, particularly from technological advances and ocean drilling, new tools and methodologies have been developed and these have led to ever finer resolution of geological time and ever more exact correlation of stratigraphic units and events, thereby enhancing the understanding of the genesis of the geological record. Under the leadership of M. B. Cita, ISSC embarked in 2002 on a renewed initiative to disseminate to the global geological community these newer developments, and ultimately incorporate them into a third edition of the Guide. To this aim, traditional and new branches of stratigraphy are being treated: chemostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy. An open-access review paper is dedicated to each and published in Newsletters on Stratigraphy. The next edition of the Guide will be inclusive of all branches of stratigraphy and also embrace igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is envisaged that a textbook on stratigraphy based on these papers and the revised Guide could prove a timely contribution, especially to younger generations of practitioners, and aid global communication and understanding of stratigraphic principles and methods.

  7. Comparison of statistical clustering techniques for the classification of modelled atmospheric trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassomenos, P.; Vardoulakis, S.; Borge, R.; Lumbreras, J.; Papaloukas, C.; Karakitsios, S.

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we used and compared three different statistical clustering methods: an hierarchical, a non-hierarchical (K-means) and an artificial neural network technique (self-organizing maps (SOM)). These classification methods were applied to a 4-year dataset of 5 days kinematic back trajectories of air masses arriving in Athens, Greece at 12.00 UTC, in three different heights, above the ground. The atmospheric back trajectories were simulated with the HYSPLIT Vesion 4.7 model of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The meteorological data used for the computation of trajectories were obtained from NOAA reanalysis database. A comparison of the three statistical clustering methods through statistical indices was attempted. It was found that all three statistical methods seem to depend to the arrival height of the trajectories, but the degree of dependence differs substantially. Hierarchical clustering showed the highest level of dependence for fast-moving trajectories to the arrival height, followed by SOM. K-means was found to be the least depended clustering technique on the arrival height. The air quality management applications of these results in relation to PM10 concentrations recorded in Athens, Greece, were also discussed. Differences of PM10 concentrations, during certain clusters, were found statistically different (at 95% confidence level) indicating that these clusters appear to be associated with long-range transportation of particulates. This study can improve the interpretation of modelled atmospheric trajectories, leading to a more reliable analysis of synoptic weather circulation patterns and their impacts on urban air quality.

  8. Utilization of statistics based classification approach to investigate water supply profile of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Boyacioglu, Hayal; Boyacioglu, Hülya

    2009-05-01

    In the paper water supply profile of Turkey was examined. In this scope, the questionnaire survey conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute in 2004 to investigate annual amount of water abstracted to drinking water networks by type of resources in 81 provinces was evaluated. In the questionnaire, sources were grouped under five categories as spring, (artificial) lake, river, reservoir and well. Due to the complex and multivariate characteristics of the data sets, to replace a large collection of variables with a smaller number of factors the statistical method "factor analysis" was performed. Results revealed that, water supply systems in the country were mainly governed by groundwater sources (well and/or spring). However, in the northeastern part of the country, rivers were allocated for drinking water supply. On the other hand, reservoir dependent cities were densely located in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Southeast Anatolia Regions. This study showed that statistics based classification methods assist decision makers to extract information from multidimensional complex data sets representing environmental conditions.

  9. International Student Academic Performance: Some Statistical Evidence and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yunke; Banham, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Using time series data, this study shows that domestic students' academic performance is generally better than international students' performance, but the gap is significantly narrowing as international students' performance is improving over time. The study also shows that there is no strong correlation between the percentage of international…

  10. Updates for the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, Steven; Waring, William

    2014-08-01

    The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is the most widely used classification in the field of spinal cord injury medicine. Since its first publication in 1982, multiple revisions refining the recommended examination, scaling, and classification have taken place to improve communication, consistency, and clarity. This article describes a brief historical perspective on the development and changes over the years leading to the current ISNCSCI, detailing the most recent updates of 2011 and the worksheet 2013 as well as issues facing the ISNCSCI for the future.

  11. Introduction of the World Health Organization project of the International Classification of Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng-fei; Watanabe, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    The World Health Organization plans to incorporate "traditional medicine" into the next revision of its International Classification of Diseases-Version 11 (ICD-11). If traditional medicine is included in ICD-11, it is definitely an epoch-making issue. The expected result is the International Classification of Traditional Medicine, China, Japan and Korea Version (ICTM-CJK). The intention of the ICTM project is not only beneficial for traditional medical components, but also might be beneficial for Western biomedicine. For this shared purpose, China, Japan and Korea must understand the meaning of this project and collaborate to develop it.

  12. Spectral classification with the International Ultraviolet Explorer: An atlas of B-type spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rountree, Janet; Sonneborn, George

    1993-01-01

    New criteria for the spectral classification of B stars in the ultraviolet show that photospheric absorption lines in the 1200-1900A wavelength region can be used to classify the spectra of B-type dwarfs, subgiants, and giants on a 2-D system consistent with the optical MK system. This atlas illustrates a large number of such spectra at the scale used for classification. These spectra provide a dense matrix of standard stars, and also show the effects of rapid stellar rotation and stellar winds on the spectra and their classification. The observational material consists of high-dispersion spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer archives, resampled to a resolution of 0.25 A, uniformly normalized, and plotted at 10 A/cm. The atlas should be useful for the classification of other IUE high-dispersion spectra, especially for stars that have not been observed in the optical.

  13. Multiple Sclerosis and Employment: A Research Review Based on the International Classification of Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frain, Michael P.; Bishop, Malachy; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Chan, Fong; Tansey, Timothy N.; Strauser, David; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable, sometimes progressive chronic illness affecting people in the prime of their working lives. This article reviews the effects of MS on employment based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Correlations between employment and…

  14. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a framework for describing behaviors by viewing them from three broad and different perspectives: (1) physiologic, physical, and psychological functions; (2) a person's engagement in functional life activities; and (3) their participation in social settings. The…

  15. Utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Educational Psychologists' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah

    2014-01-01

    Despite embracing a bio-psycho-social perspective, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assessment framework has had limited application to date with children who have special educational needs (SEN). This study examines its utility for educational psychologists' work with…

  16. Using the International Classification of Functioning to Conceptualize Quality of Life among Rehabilitation Services Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Allison R.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have proposed that quality of life (QOL) is an important and useful way to measure the impact of services, although practical application of QOL in rehabilitation has been limited. In this study, a comprehensive framework (the International Classification of Functioning [ICF]) is used to compare the relationship…

  17. Evaluating Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Portugal's Special Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a national two-year project, commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education, to investigate the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) under Decree-Law 3/2008. The Decree-Law also introduced the principle that the documentation of students' functioning…

  18. Classification based hypothesis testing in neuroscience: Below-chance level classification rates and overlooked statistical properties of linear parametric classifiers.

    PubMed

    Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Alizadeh, Sarah; Schönauer, Monika; Leibold, Christian; Gais, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has recently become a popular tool for data analysis. Often, classification accuracy as quantified by correct classification rate (CCR) is used to illustrate the size of the effect under investigation. However, we show that in low sample size (LSS), low effect size (LES) data, which is typical in neuroscience, the distribution of CCRs from cross-validation of linear MVPA is asymmetric and can show classification rates considerably below what would be expected from chance classification. Conversely, the mode of the distribution in these cases is above expected chance levels, leading to a spuriously high number of above chance CCRs. This unexpected distribution has strong implications when using MVPA for hypothesis testing. Our analyses warrant the conclusion that CCRs do not well reflect the size of the effect under investigation. Moreover, the skewness of the null-distribution precludes the use of many standard parametric tests to assess significance of CCRs. We propose that MVPA results should be reported in terms of P values, which are estimated using randomization tests. Also, our results show that cross-validation procedures using a low number of folds, e.g. twofold, are generally more sensitive, even though the average CCRs are often considerably lower than those obtained using a higher number of folds. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1842-1855, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Statistically Optimal Approximations of Astronomical Signals: Implications to Classification and Advanced Study of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Chinarova, L. L.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Marsakova, V. I.; Tkachenko, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have elaborated a set of new algorithms and programs for advanced time series analysis of (generally) multi-component multi-channel observations with irregularly spaced times of observations, which is a common case for large photometric surveys. Previous self-review on these methods for periodogram, scalegram, wavelet, autocorrelation analysis as well as on "running" or "sub-interval" local approximations were self-reviewed in (2003ASPC..292..391A). For an approximation of the phase light curves of nearly-periodic pulsating stars, we use a Trigonometric Polynomial (TP) fit of the statistically optimal degree and initial period improvement using differential corrections (1994OAP.....7...49A). For the determination of parameters of "characteristic points" (minima, maxima, crossings of some constant value etc.) we use a set of methods self-reviewed in 2005ASPC..335...37A, Results of the analysis of the catalogs compiled using these programs are presented in 2014AASP....4....3A. For more complicated signals, we use "phenomenological approximations" with "special shapes" based on functions defined on sub-intervals rather on the complete interval. E. g. for the Algol-type stars we developed the NAV ("New Algol Variable") algorithm (2012Ap.....55..536A, 2012arXiv1212.6707A, 2015JASS...32..127A), which was compared to common methods of Trigonometric Polynomial Fit (TP) or local Algebraic Polynomial (A) fit of a fixed or (alternately) statistically optimal degree. The method allows determine the minimal set of parameters required for the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars", as well as an extended set of phenomenological and astrophysical parameters which may be used for the classification. Totally more that 1900 variable stars were studied in our group using these methods in a frame of the "Inter-Longitude Astronomy" campaign (2010OAP....23....8A) and the "Ukrainian Virtual Observatory" project (2012KPCB...28...85V).

  20. [ICNP- International Classification of Nursing Practice: origin, structure and development].

    PubMed

    Marucci, Anna Rita; De Caro, Walter; Petrucci, Cristina; Lancia, Loreto; Sansoni, Julita

    2015-01-01

    ICNP is a standardized nursing terminology included within acknowledged terminologies by WHO, it is a relevant aspect of ICN programs and strategies. This paper aims to describe structure and characteristics of ICNP terminology as well as to highlight how this tool can be useful both in practice and in terms of nursing professional development. This version looks like a pyramid with seven axes describing different areas of nursing and related interventions, enriched by two special axes related to pre-coordinated Diagnosis / Outcomes (DC) and Operations (IC) which facilitate daily use in practice. In order to clarify how this tool can be actually be used in daily nursing practice some examples are provided, clarifying how adopting the current version of ICNP terminology (2015 release) Diagnosis/Outcomes and Interventions can be built. The ICNP Italian Centre is committed to introduce it to Italian nurses as a tool for sharing and disseminating terminology in our Country, having as main final aim to achieve even in Italy, professional visibility objectives promoted in different ways by the International Council of Nurses.

  1. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Pumarola, Martí Batlle; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification of epilepsy and epileptic seizures. We propose a classification system which reflects new thoughts from the human ILAE but also roots in former well accepted terminology. We think that this classification system can be used by all stakeholders.

  2. Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

  3. Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

    2010-10-01

    Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models.

  4. Statistical classification of macroscopic folds as cylindrical, circular conical, or elliptical conical

    SciTech Connect

    Kelker, D.; Langenberg, C.W.

    1988-08-01

    A folded surface can be represented by the orientation of normals to the surface measured at several locations. When plotted on the unit sphere, the pattern of normals determines the type of fold. Poles from a cylindrical fold give a great circle on the unit sphere, whereas poles of a circular conical fold give a small circle, and poles from an elliptical conical fold give the projection of an ellipse onto the surface of the sphere. Several statistical tests that appear in the literature for classifying folds are discussed and compared. All but one of the tests use quantities obtained from an iterative least-squares procedure that fits the appropriate curve on the sphere. The classification procedure is illustrated with folds from the Canadian Rocky Mountains and uses for examples a cylindrical fold and a circular conical fold from the Smoky River coal field near Grande Cache, Alberta, and an elliptical conical fold near Jasper, Alberta. This methodology has resulted in new coal reserves in the Grande Cache area.

  5. Chemical indices and methods of multivariate statistics as a tool for odor classification.

    PubMed

    Mahlke, Ingo T; Thiesen, Peter H; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2007-04-01

    Industrial and agricultural off-gas streams are comprised of numerous volatile compounds, many of which have substantially different odorous properties. State-of-the-art waste-gas treatment includes the characterization of these molecules and is directed at, if possible, either the avoidance of such odorants during processing or the use of existing standardized air purification techniques like bioscrubbing or afterburning, which however, often show low efficiency under ecological and economical regards. Selective odor separation from the off-gas streams could ease many of these disadvantages but is not yet widely applicable. Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify possible model substances in selective odor separation research from 155 volatile molecules mainly originating from livestock facilities, fat refineries, and cocoa and coffee production by knowledge-based methods. All compounds are examined with regard to their structure and information-content using topological and information-theoretical indices. Resulting data are fitted in an observation matrix, and similarities between the substances are computed. Principal component analysis and k-means cluster analysis are conducted showing that clustering of indices data can depict odor information correlating well to molecular composition and molecular shape. Quantitative molecule describtion along with the application of such statistical means therefore provide a good classification tool of malodorant structure properties with no thermodynamic data needed. The approximate look-alike shape of odorous compounds within the clusters suggests a fair choice of possible model molecules.

  6. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  7. Methods for Determining the Statistical Significance of Enrichment or Depletion of Gene Ontology Classifications under Weighted Membership.

    PubMed

    Iacucci, Ernesto; Zingg, Hans H; Perkins, Theodore J

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput molecular biology studies, such as microarray assays of gene expression, two-hybrid experiments for detecting protein interactions, or ChIP-Seq experiments for transcription factor binding, often result in an "interesting" set of genes - say, genes that are co-expressed or bound by the same factor. One way of understanding the biological meaning of such a set is to consider what processes or functions, as defined in an ontology, are over-represented (enriched) or under-represented (depleted) among genes in the set. Usually, the significance of enrichment or depletion scores is based on simple statistical models and on the membership of genes in different classifications. We consider the more general problem of computing p-values for arbitrary integer additive statistics, or weighted membership functions. Such membership functions can be used to represent, for example, prior knowledge on the role of certain genes or classifications, differential importance of different classifications or genes to the experimenter, hierarchical relationships between classifications, or different degrees of interestingness or evidence for specific genes. We describe a generic dynamic programming algorithm that can compute exact p-values for arbitrary integer additive statistics. We also describe several optimizations for important special cases, which can provide orders-of-magnitude speed up in the computations. We apply our methods to datasets describing oxidative phosphorylation and parturition and compare p-values based on computations of several different statistics for measuring enrichment. We find major differences between p-values resulting from these statistics, and that some statistics recover "gold standard" annotations of the data better than others. Our work establishes a theoretical and algorithmic basis for far richer notions of enrichment or depletion of gene sets with respect to gene ontologies than has previously been available.

  8. A statistical feature selection method for lung cancer classification in CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Absi, Hamada R. H.; Samir, Brahim Belhaouari

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a computer aided diagnosis for lung nodules in CT images. The system consists of feature extraction, feature selection and classification. A two-step feature selection process is introduced to reduce the number of coefficients produced in the feature extraction step. This helps in enhancing the classification performance as it removes unneeded and redundant information. The classification rate of the system reached 98.10 % with minimum false negatives and zero false positives.

  9. Correlation between the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification and genomic signature in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Atsuko; Haga, Chizuko; Ohira, Miki; Okita, Hajime; Kamijo, Takehiko; Nakagawara, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) has a prognostic impact that distinguishes two categories of neuroblastoma: favorable histology (FH) and unfavorable histology (UH). We analyzed 92 cases of neuroblastoma with the INPC evaluation and genomic grouping to investigate the correlation between the INPC and genomic signature, together with their prognostic significance. The correlation of UH tumor and partial gains and/or losses (GGP), as well as the correlation of FH tumor and whole gains and/or losses (GGW), was statistically significant. Both UH and GGP were late-onset (median age at diagnosis was 36 and 48 months, respectively) and had poor prognosis (overall survival rate [OS], 43.1% and 42.4%, respectively). In contrast, both FH and GGW were early-onset (median age at diagnosis, 4 and 9.5 months, respectively) and had favorable prognosis (OS, 88.6% and 87.1%, respectively). Unfavorable histology and GGP had significantly inferior OS compared to FH and GGW. Overall survival was not significantly different among the genomic groups in FH; however, it was inferior in UH with GGP. In UH with a single copy MYCN, genomic subgroups GGP2s (both 1p and 11q losses) and GGP3s (partial 11q loss but not 1p loss) indicated significantly poor prognosis compared to GGP4s (no partial 1p and 11q loss). As INPC and MYCN amplification were found to be the most powerful prognostic biological factors, they should be included with genomic grouping as treatment stratification for patients with UH and single copy of MYCN.

  10. Statistical and Scientometric Analysis of International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos; Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Certain statistic and scientometric features of articles published in the journal "International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education" (IRGEE) are examined in this paper for the period 1992-2009 by applying nonparametric statistics and Shannon's entropy (diversity) formula. The main findings of this analysis are: (a) after 2004,…

  11. 75 FR 56549 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  12. 75 FR 39265 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... for Disease Control and Prevention, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards, 3311 Toledo Road... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  13. 78 FR 53148 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM..., Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  14. [International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia 2012].

    PubMed

    Hes, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Kidney tumours form a broad spectrum of distinguished histopathological and molecular genetic entities. The last WHO classification is dated to 2004. Current classification has been published in October 2013 by ISUP (International Society of Urological Pathology). There were 5 new epithelials tumours: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo-)papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. Another 3 subtypes of RCC were added as "provisional" entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Modifications were performed in already existing entities: multicystic clear cell RCC (formerly multilocular cystic RCC) is newly included as a subcategory of clear cell RCC with low malignant potential. Oncocytic papillary RCC (PRCC) has not been recognized as a distinctive subcategory of PRCC yet. Hybrid oncocytic-chromophobe tumour was placed within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC were elucidated. Outside of the epithelial category, current approach to our understanding of angiomyolipoma, including the epithelioid variant and angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts was clarified. Cystic nephroma and mixed epithelial and stromal tumour were considered as a spectrum of one entity. Synovial sarcoma was placed within the sarcoma group. The new classification is to be referred to as the International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia.

  15. International Society Of Neuropathology--Haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Perry, Arie; Burger, Peter; Ellison, David W; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Aldape, Kenneth; Brat, Daniel; Collins, V Peter; Eberhart, Charles; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Fuller, Gregory N; Giangaspero, Felice; Giannini, Caterina; Hawkins, Cynthia; Kleihues, Paul; Korshunov, Andrey; Kros, Johan M; Beatriz Lopes, M; Ng, Ho-Keung; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Paulus, Werner; Pietsch, Torsten; Rosenblum, Marc; Rushing, Elisabeth; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Wiestler, Otmar; Wesseling, Pieter

    2014-09-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neuropathologists with expertise in molecular diagnosis was held in Haarlem, the Netherlands, under the sponsorship of the International Society of Neuropathology (ISN). Prior to the meeting, participants solicited input from clinical colleagues in diverse neuro-oncological specialties. The present "white paper" catalogs the recommendations of the meeting, at which a consensus was reached that incorporation of molecular information into the next WHO classification should follow a set of provided "ISN-Haarlem" guidelines. Salient recommendations include that (i) diagnostic entities should be defined as narrowly as possible to optimize interobserver reproducibility, clinicopathological predictions and therapeutic planning; (ii) diagnoses should be "layered" with histologic classification, WHO grade and molecular information listed below an "integrated diagnosis"; (iii) determinations should be made for each tumor entity as to whether molecular information is required, suggested or not needed for its definition; (iv) some pediatric entities should be separated from their adult counterparts; (v) input for guiding decisions regarding tumor classification should be solicited from experts in complementary disciplines of neuro-oncology; and (iv) entity-specific molecular testing and reporting formats should be followed in diagnostic reports. It is hoped that these guidelines will facilitate the forthcoming update of the fourth edition of the WHO classification of central nervous system tumors.

  16. Classification of compression stockings: report of the meeting of the International Compression Club, Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Hendrik A; Partsch, Hugo; Mosti, Giovanni; Flour, Milke

    2016-04-01

    The classification of medical elastic compression stockings (MECS) according to pressure classes varies from country to country and neither provides any information on the elastic property nor on the ambulatory interface pressure profiles of the different products. Beside elasticity, MECS are also characterized by other properties such as stiffness and hysteresis. Recent research showed that MECS behaved differently in static and ambulatory conditions. Since compression therapy is most effective during ambulation, MECS should be labelled in such a way that the user can interpret its effect during walking. The importance of a more rational classification of MECS was discussed at a conference organized by the International Compression Club (ICC) attended by medical experts and representatives from MECS manufacturers. Proposals were made for labelling the MECS according to the pressure and the stiffness in an internationally acceptable format printed on the box informing both the prescribers and the patients on its properties.

  17. Development and testing of a statistical texture model for land cover classification of the Black Sea region with MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaneva, M. G.; Krezhova, D. D.; Yanev, T. K.

    2010-10-01

    A statistical model is proposed for analysis of the texture of land cover types for global and regional land cover classification by using texture features extracted by multiresolution image analysis techniques. It consists of four novel indices representing second-order texture, which are calculated after wavelet decomposition of an image and after texture extraction by a new approach that makes use of a four-pixel texture unit. The model was applied to four satellite images of the Black Sea region, obtained by Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS at different spatial resolution. In single texture classification experiments, we used 15 subimages (50 × 50 pixels) of the selected classes of land covers that are present in the satellite images studied. These subimages were subjected to one-level and two-level decompositions by using orthonormal spline and Gabor-like spline wavelets. The texture indices were calculated and used as feature vectors in the supervised classification system with neural networks. The testing of the model was based on the use of two kinds of widely accepted statistical texture quantities: five texture features determined by the co-occurrence matrix (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, inverse difference moment, entropy), and four statistical texture features determined after the wavelet transformation (mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy). The supervised neural network classification was performed and the discrimination ability of the proposed texture indices was found comparable with that for the sets of five GLCM texture features and four wavelet-based texture features. The results obtained from the neural network classifier showed that the proposed texture model yielded an accuracy of 92.86% on average after orthonormal wavelet decomposition and 100% after Gabor-like wavelet decomposition for texture classification of the examined land cover types on satellite images.

  18. A novel approach to internal crown characterization for coniferous tree species classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harikumar, A.; Bovolo, F.; Bruzzone, L.

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge about individual trees in forest is highly beneficial in forest management. High density small foot- print multi-return airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data can provide a very accurate information about the structural properties of individual trees in forests. Every tree species has a unique set of crown structural characteristics that can be used for tree species classification. In this paper, we use both the internal and external crown structural information of a conifer tree crown, derived from a high density small foot-print multi-return LiDAR data acquisition for species classification. Considering the fact that branches are the major building blocks of a conifer tree crown, we obtain the internal crown structural information using a branch level analysis. The structure of each conifer branch is represented using clusters in the LiDAR point cloud. We propose the joint use of the k-means clustering and geometric shape fitting, on the LiDAR data projected onto a novel 3-dimensional space, to identify branch clusters. After mapping the identified clusters back to the original space, six internal geometric features are estimated using a branch-level analysis. The external crown characteristics are modeled by using six least correlated features based on cone fitting and convex hull. Species classification is performed using a sparse Support Vector Machines (sparse SVM) classifier.

  19. Comparison and validation of tissue modelization and statistical classification methods in T1-weighted MR brain images.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Cammoun, Leila; Butz, Torsten; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a validation study on statistical nonsupervised brain tissue classification techniques in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Several image models assuming different hypotheses regarding the intensity distribution model, the spatial model and the number of classes are assessed. The methods are tested on simulated data for which the classification ground truth is known. Different noise and intensity nonuniformities are added to simulate real imaging conditions. No enhancement of the image quality is considered either before or during the classification process. This way, the accuracy of the methods and their robustness against image artifacts are tested. Classification is also performed on real data where a quantitative validation compares the methods' results with an estimated ground truth from manual segmentations by experts. Validity of the various classification methods in the labeling of the image as well as in the tissue volume is estimated with different local and global measures. Results demonstrate that methods relying on both intensity and spatial information are more robust to noise and field inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that partial volume is not perfectly modeled, even though methods that account for mixture classes outperform methods that only consider pure Gaussian classes. Finally, we show that simulated data results can also be extended to real data.

  20. Coping with Changes in International Classifications of Sectors and Occupations: Application in Skills Forecasting. Research Paper No 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvetan, Vladimir, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and consistent time series are essential to any kind of economic forecasting. Skills forecasting needs to combine data from national accounts and labour force surveys, with the pan-European dimension of Cedefop's skills supply and demand forecasts, relying on different international classification standards. Sectoral classification (NACE)…

  1. High speed classification of individual bacterial cells using a model-based light scatter system and multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Rajwa, Bartek; Ragheb, Kathy; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Lary, Todd; Robinson, J. Paul; Hirleman, E. Daniel

    2008-02-01

    We describe a model-based instrument design combined with a statistical classification approach for the development and realization of high speed cell classification systems based on light scatter. In our work, angular light scatter from cells of four bacterial species of interest, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Enterococcus faecalis, was modeled using the discrete dipole approximation. We then optimized a scattering detector array design subject to some hardware constraints, configured the instrument, and gathered experimental data from the relevant bacterial cells. Using these models and experiments, it is shown that optimization using a nominal bacteria model (i.e., using a representative size and refractive index) is insufficient for classification of most bacteria in realistic applications. Hence the computational predictions were constituted in the form of scattering-data-vector distributions that accounted for expected variability in the physical properties between individual bacteria within the four species. After the detectors were optimized using the numerical results, they were used to measure scatter from both the known control samples and unknown bacterial cells. A multivariate statistical method based on a support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify the bacteria species based on light scatter signatures. In our final instrument, we realized correct classification of B. subtilis in the presence of E. coli,L. innocua, and E. faecalis using SVM at 99.1%, 99.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, in the optimal detector array configuration. For comparison, the corresponding values for another set of angles were only 69.9%, 71.7%, and 70.2% using SVM, and more importantly, this improved performance is consistent with classification predictions.

  2. Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzkowski, Waldemar

    The following sections are included: * NATIONAL PHYSICS OLYMPIADS * DISTRIBUTION OF PRIZES IN TWENTY INTERNATIONAL PHYSICS OLYMPIADS * NUMBERS OF PRIZES IN SUBSEQUENT INTERNATIONAL PHYSICS OLYMPIADS * PROBLEMS AND THEIR MARKING

  3. Cultures in psychiatric nosology: the CCMD-2-R and international classification of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, S

    1996-12-01

    This essay reviews the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, Second Edition, Revised (CCMD-2-R, 1995), by assuming the theoretical stance that symptom recognition, disease construction, and taxonomic strategy in psychiatry reflect, and are constrained by, the cultural norms and values as well as the political and economic organizations of the society in which they are embedded. The CCMD-2-R is an ethnomedical classification grounded in both symptomatology and etiology, in which Chinese psychiatrists seek to conform with international classifications on the one hand, and to sustain a nosology with Chinese cultural characteristics on the other. Although broad similarities between the ICD-10 and CCMD-2-R are evident, their blending is legitimately incomplete. Thus, the particular additions (e.g., travelling psychosis, qigong induced mental disorders), deletions (e.g., somatoform disorders, pathological gambling, a number of personality and sexual disorders), retentions (e.g., unipolar mania, neurosis, hysteria, homosexuality), and variations (e.g., depressive neurosis, neurasthenia) reveal not only the changing notions of illness but also the shifting social realities in contemporary China. The CCMD-2-R will be widely used by Chinese psychiatrists and should standardize diagnostic practice and facilitate research, but its impact on everyday clinical work and psychiatric training remains to be evaluated. For Western researchers, it is one avenue for achieving an understanding of the Chinese social world, and should usefully be contrasted with the ICD-10 and DSM-IV as the move towards an international nosology continues.

  4. Creating Statistically Literate Global Citizens: The Use of IPUMS-International Integrated Census Microdata in Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Ann; Lam, David

    2012-01-01

    Census microdata are ideal for developing statistical literacy of university students. Access, particularly to internationally comparable microdata, has been a significant obstacle. The IPUMS-International project offers a uniform solution to providing access for policy analysts, researchers, and students to integrated microdata and metadata, while protecting statistical confidentiality. Eighty-five official statistical agencies have endorsed IPUMS-I dissemination principles and entrusted microdata for 249 censuses to the project. From June 2010, 159 integrated samples, representing 55 countries and totaling over 325 million person records, are available at no cost to researchers and their students. The database is being expanded with the addition of samples for 5–10 countries per year as well as samples for the 2010 round of censuses. This paper illustrates two approaches to using IPUMS-I census microdata in the university curriculum to promote statistical literacy among undergraduates. PMID:25279022

  5. International Headache Society classification: interobserver reliability in the diagnosis of primary headaches.

    PubMed

    Granella, F; D'Alessandro, R; Manzoni, G C; Cerbo, R; Colucci D'Amato, C; Pini, L A; Savi, L; Zanferrari, C; Nappi, G

    1994-02-01

    We assessed interobserver reliability of the International Headache Society (IHS) classification for diagnosis of primary headaches. The study was performed on 103 patients consecutively seen at two Headache Centres. Each patient was given a structured interview recorded on videotape. Four experienced clinicians then reviewed the interviews separately and made a diagnosis of headache according to IHS criteria at the one- and two-digit levels. At both the one- and the two-digit level the agreement was substantial (Kappa = 0.74 and 0.65, respectively). The analysis of reliability for each of nine items necessary for diagnosis showed an agreement ranging from substantial (Kappa = 0.69) to almost perfect (Kappa = 0.89). Our results indicate that the IHS classification has a good reliability for the diagnosis of primary headaches at the one- and two-digit levels.

  6. Using support vector machines with tract-based spatial statistics for automated classification of Tourette syndrome children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hongwei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jishui; Peng, Yun; He, Huiguang

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder with the cardinal symptoms of motor and vocal tics which emerges in early childhood and fluctuates in severity in later years. To date, the neural basis of TS is not fully understood yet and TS has a long-term prognosis that is difficult to accurately estimate. Few studies have looked at the potential of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with machine learning algorithms in order to automate the classification of healthy children and TS children. Here we apply Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) method to 44 TS children and 48 age and gender matched healthy children in order to extract the diffusion values from each voxel in the white matter (WM) skeleton, and a feature selection algorithm (ReliefF) was used to select the most salient voxels for subsequent classification with support vector machine (SVM). We use a nested cross validation to yield an unbiased assessment of the classification method and prevent overestimation. The accuracy (88.04%), sensitivity (88.64%) and specificity (87.50%) were achieved in our method as peak performance of the SVM classifier was achieved using the axial diffusion (AD) metric, demonstrating the potential of a joint TBSS and SVM pipeline for fast, objective classification of healthy and TS children. These results support that our methods may be useful for the early identification of subjects with TS, and hold promise for predicting prognosis and treatment outcome for individuals with TS.

  7. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    PubMed

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification.

  8. IASLC/ATS/ERS International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma: novel concepts and radiologic implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Chang Hun; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Chung, Doo Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min; Austin, John H M

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society proposed a new classification for lung adenocarcinoma that included a number of changes to previous classifications. This classification now considers resection specimens, small biopsies, and cytology specimens. Two former histopathologic terms, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma, are no longer to be used. For resection specimens, the new terms of adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma are introduced for small adenocarcinomas showing pure lepidic growth and predominantly lepidic growth, with invasion ≤5 mm, respectively. Invasive adenocarcinomas are now classified by their predominant pattern as lepidic, acinar, papillary, and solid; a micropapillary pattern is newly added. This classification also provides guidance for small biopsies and cytology specimens. For adenocarcinomas that include both an invasive and a lepidic component, it is suggested that for T staging the size of the T-factor may be best measured on the basis of the size of the invasive component rather than on the total size of tumors including lepidic components, both on pathologic and computed tomography assessment. This suggestion awaits confirmation in clinical-radiologic trials. An implication for M staging is that comprehensive histologic subtyping along with other histologic and molecular features can be very helpful in determining whether multiple pulmonary nodules are separate primaries or intrapulmonary metastases. In this review article, we provide an illustrated overview of the proposed new classification for lung adenocarcinoma with an emphasis upon what the radiologist needs to know in order to successfully contribute to the multidisciplinary strategic management of patients with this common histologic subtype of lung cancer.

  9. Second International Conference on a classification of ectodermal dysplasias: development of a multiaxis model.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos F; Irvine, Alan D; Itin, Peter H; Di Giovanna, John J; Schneider, Holm; Clarke, Angus J; McGovern, Laura Sternesky; Fete, Mary

    2014-10-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) comprise a large clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by abnormalities in tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Controversy exists over which syndromes should be classified as EDs and which should be excluded from the classification. The challenge will be to balance comprehensiveness within the classification with usability and accessibility so that the benefits truly serve the needs of researchers, health-care providers, and ultimately the individuals and families directly affected by EDs. The overarching goal of the Second International Conference was to develop a consensus on EDs classifications, with the ultimate goal of creating a system that integrates clinical and molecular knowledge, using an interactive Internet-based database that clinicians, researchers, and laymen can use. The Conference, brought together a group of experts from around the world, including a diverse health-care providers, researchers, patient advocate representatives, and administrators. The Conference was modeled after the 2008 conference, with plenary sessions, scientific updates, and small group discussions. Based on the present clinical knowledge, new molecular advances and both coupled with new bioinformatics developments, the participants agree to develop a multi-axis system approach for the classification of EDs. The multi-axis approach will include a clinical/phenotype axis, a gene-based axis, and a functional/pathways axis. The significance of the conference outcomes includes, a new classification approach that will foster a better understanding of EDs, open new fields of research and develop a nosologic approach that may have broad implications for classifying other hereditary conditions.

  10. New coding in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, for children's interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Popler, Jonathan; Lesnick, Burton; Dishop, Megan K; Deterding, Robin R

    2012-09-01

    The term "children's interstitial lung disease" (chILD) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare and diffuse lung diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These disorders include neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, surfactant dysfunction mutations, and alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins. Diagnosis can be challenging, which may lead to a delay in recognition and treatment of these disorders. Recently, International Classifications of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes have been added for several of the chILD disorders. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the chILD disorders and appropriate diagnostic coding.

  11. Health Policy Basics: Implementation of the International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision.

    PubMed

    Outland, Brian; Newman, Mary M; William, Margo J

    2015-10-06

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) standardizes diagnostic codes into meaningful criteria to enable the storage and retrieval of information regarding patient care. Whereas other countries have been using ICD, 10th Revision (ICD-10), for years, the United States will transition from ICD, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), to ICD-10, on 1 October 2015. This transition is one of the largest and most technically challenging changes that the medical community has experienced in the past several decades. This article outlines the implications of moving to ICD-10 and recommends resources to facilitate the transition.

  12. Maxillofacial Fractures: Midface and Internal Orbit-Part I: Classification and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mast, Gerson; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Litschel, Ralph; Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2015-08-01

    Fractures of the midface and internal orbit occur isolated or in combination with other injuries. Frequently, the patients are first seen in emergency rooms responsible for the coordination of initial diagnostic procedures, followed by the transfer to specialties for further treatment. It is, therefore, important for all physicians treating facial trauma patients to understand the basic principles of injuries to the midface. Thus, this article aims to describe the anatomy and the current classification systems in use, the related clinical symptoms, and the essential diagnostic measures to obtain precise information about the injury pattern.

  13. Integrated Internet based tools for learning and evaluating the International Classification of Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Alecu, C S; Jitaru, E; Moisil, I

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents some tools designed and implemented for learning-related purposes; these tools can be downloaded or run on the TeleNurse web site. Among other facilities, TeleNurse web site is hosting now the version 1.2 of SysTerN (terminology system for nursing) which can be downloaded on request and also the "Evaluation of Translation" form which has been designed in order to improve the Romanian translation of the ICNP (the International Classification of Nursing Practice). SysTerN has been developed using the framework of the TeleNurse ID--ENTITY Telematics for Health EU project. This version is using the beta version of ICNP containing Phenomena and Actions classification. This classification is intended to facilitate documentation of nursing practice, by providing a terminology or vocabulary for use in the description of the nursing process. The TeleNurse site is bilingual, Romanian-English, in order to enlarge the discussion forum with members from other CEE (or Non-CEE) countries.

  14. Classification of Gunshot Residue Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry and Offline Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Perez, Johnny J; Watson, David A; Levis, Robert J

    2016-12-06

    Nonresonant laser vaporization combined with high-resolution electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry enables analysis of a casing after discharge of a firearm revealing organic signature molecules including methyl centralite (MC), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (N-NO-DPA), 4-nitrodiphenylamine (4-NDPA), a DPA adduct, and multiple unidentified features not observed in previous mass spectral measurements. Collision-induced dissociation measurements of unknown GSR signature ions reveals inorganic barium and derivatives BaOH, BaOHCH3, BaCH3COO remaining from the primer. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic signatures are detected using water-methanol electrospray solution. Offline principal component analysis and discrimination of the laser electrospray mass spectral (LEMS) measurements resulted in perfect classification of the gun shot residue with respect to the manufacturer. Principal component analysis of recycled and reloaded casings resulted in classification of the penultimate manufacturer with an accuracy of 89%.

  15. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Srigley, John R; Delahunt, Brett; Eble, John N; Egevad, Lars; Epstein, Jonathan I; Grignon, David; Hes, Ondrej; Moch, Holger; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tickoo, Satish K; Zhou, Ming; Argani, Pedram

    2013-10-01

    The classification working group of the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference on renal neoplasia was in charge of making recommendations regarding additions and changes to the current World Health Organization Classification of Renal Tumors (2004). Members of the group performed an exhaustive literature review, assessed the results of the preconference survey and participated in the consensus conference discussion and polling activities. On the basis of the above inputs, there was consensus that 5 entities should be recognized as new distinct epithelial tumors within the classification system: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. In addition, there are 3 rare carcinomas that were considered as emerging or provisional new entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Further reports of these entities are required to better understand the nature and behavior of these highly unusual tumors. There were a number of new concepts and suggested modifications to the existing World Health Organization 2004 categories. Within the clear cell RCC group, it was agreed upon that multicystic clear cell RCC is best considered as a neoplasm of low malignant potential. There was agreement that subtyping of papillary RCC is of value and that the oncocytic variant of papillary RCC should not be considered as a distinct entity. The hybrid oncocytic chromophobe tumor, which is an indolent tumor that occurs in 3 settings, namely Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome, renal oncocytosis, and as a sporadic neoplasm, was placed, for the time being, within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC

  16. Military Vehicle Classification via Acoustic and Seismic Signals Using Statistical Learning Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hanguang; Cai, Congzhong; Chen, Yuzong

    It is a difficult and important task to classify the types of military vehicles using the acoustic and seismic signals generated by military vehicles. For improving the classification accuracy and reducing the computing time and memory size, we investigated different pre-processing technology, feature extraction and selection methods. Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) was employed for feature extraction. Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used for feature selection and extraction further. A new feature vector construction method was proposed by uniting PCA and another feature selection method. K-Nearest Neighbor Classifier (KNN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were used for classification. The experimental results showed the accuracies of KNN and SVM were affected obviously by the window size which was used to frame the time series of the acoustic and seismic signals. The classification results indicated the performance of SVM was superior to that of KNN. The comparison of the four feature selection and extraction methods showed the proposed method is a simple, none time-consuming, and reliable technique for feature selection and helps the classifier SVM to achieve more better results than solely using PCA, GA, or combination.

  17. 2009 Review and Revisions of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M.J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI. PMID:21061894

  18. _ 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI.

  19. Utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for educational psychologists’ work

    PubMed Central

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah

    2014-01-01

    Despite embracing a bio-psycho-social perspective, the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assessment framework has had limited application to date with children who have special educational needs (SEN). This study examines its utility for educational psychologists’ work with children who have Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Mothers of 40 children with ASD aged eight to 12 years were interviewed using a structured protocol based on the ICF framework. The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorder (DISCO) was completed with a subset of 19 mothers. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the interview assessments were found to be acceptable and there was evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity. Despite some limitations, initial support for the utility of the ICF model suggests its potential value across educational, health and care fields. Further consideration of its relevance to educational psychologists in new areas of multi-agency working is warranted. PMID:26157197

  20. Applying the WHO conceptual framework for the International Classification for Patient Safety to a surgical population

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, L. M.; Woods, D. M.; Yanes, A. F.; Skaro, A. I.; Daud, A.; Curtis, T.; Wymore, E.; Holl, J. L.; Abecassis, M. M.; Ladner, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Efforts to improve patient safety are challenged by the lack of universally agreed upon terms. The International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS) was developed by the World Health Organization for this purpose. This study aimed to test the applicability of the ICPS to a surgical population. Design A web-based safety debriefing was sent to clinicians involved in surgical care of abdominal organ transplant patients. A multidisciplinary team of patient safety experts, surgeons and researchers used the data to develop a system of classification based on the ICPS. Disagreements were reconciled via consensus, and a codebook was developed for future use by researchers. Results A total of 320 debriefing responses were used for the initial review and codebook development. In total, the 320 debriefing responses contained 227 patient safety incidents (range: 0–7 per debriefing) and 156 contributing factors/hazards (0–5 per response). The most common severity classification was ‘reportable circumstance,’ followed by ‘near miss.’ The most common incident types were ‘resources/organizational management,’ followed by ‘medical device/equipment.’ Several aspects of surgical care were encompassed by more than one classification, including operating room scheduling, delays in care, trainee-related incidents, interruptions and handoffs. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a framework for patient safety can be applied to facilitate the organization and analysis of surgical safety data. Several unique aspects of surgical care require consideration, and by using a standardized framework for describing concepts, research findings can be compared and disseminated across surgical specialties. The codebook is intended for use as a framework for other specialties and institutions. PMID:26803539

  1. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  2. A guide on how to develop an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set.

    PubMed

    Selb, M; Escorpizo, R; Kostanjsek, N; Stucki, G; Üstün, B; Cieza, A

    2015-02-01

    International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets are purpose-tailored shortlists of ICF categories from the whole ICF classification for describing functioning and disability. Although the 34 ICF Core Sets developed up to now already cover many health conditions, there may still be a need to develop additional ICF Core Sets that tackle other health conditions and address other purposes. This paper provides a detailed description of the standard process for developing ICF Core Sets that will serve as a guide for future ICF Core Set development projects. ICF Core Sets are developed by means of a three-phase, multi-method scientific process. The process involves four preparatory studies - an empirical multicentre study, a systematic literature review, a qualitative study and an expert survey. The results of the preparatory studies serve as the starting point for a structured decision-making and consensus process at an international conference, during which participating experts decide on the ICF categories to be included in the Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets. The first version of the ICF Core Set may necessitate modifications for specific applications and implementation in specific settings.

  3. Disability, human rights, and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aluas, Maria; Colombetti, Elena; Osimani, Barbara; Musio, Alessio; Pessina, Adriano

    2012-02-01

    This literature review focuses on the literature on disability from the ethical and human rights perspective in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in the period from January 1, 2008, to June 30, 2010. This article identifies and examines studies that deal with the subject of disability with reference to rights, ethical issues, and justice. A total of 42 articles and 33 books were selected. The subject most frequently dealt with in studies on disability is that of human rights (76% of the articles and 79% of the books examined), followed by topics relating to welfare (52% of articles and 64% of books), International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (38% of articles and 45% of books), justice (24% of articles and 48% of books), education (21% of articles and 61% of books), and work (19% of articles and 39% of books). The subject of disability is dealt with in various fields of study and various disciplines. Most of the studies are based on the legal approach. It is to be hoped that there will be an increase in the philosophical and ethical study of disability, which has only recently entered the European debate.

  4. Asymmetric statistical features of the Chinese domestic and international gold price fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Zhao, Yingchao; Han, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Analyzing the statistical features of fluctuation is remarkably significant for financial risk identification and measurement. In this study, the asymmetric detrended fluctuation analysis (A-DFA) method was applied to evaluate asymmetric multifractal scaling behaviors in the Shanghai and New York gold markets. Our findings showed that the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold spot markets were asymmetric. The gold return series persisted longer in an increasing trend than in a decreasing trend. Moreover, the asymmetric degree of multifractals in the Chinese and international gold markets decreased with the increase in fluctuation range. In addition, the empirical analysis using sliding window technology indicated that multifractal asymmetry in the Chinese and international gold markets was characterized by its time-varying feature. However, the Shanghai and international gold markets basically shared a similar asymmetric degree evolution pattern. The American subprime mortgage crisis (2008) and the European debt crisis (2010) enhanced the asymmetric degree of the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold markets. Furthermore, we also make statistical tests for the results of multifractatity and asymmetry, and discuss the origin of them. Finally, results of the empirical analysis using the threshold autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (TARCH) and exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) models exhibited that good news had a more significant effect on the cyclical fluctuation of the gold market than bad news. Moreover, good news exerted a more significant effect on the Chinese gold market than on the international gold market.

  5. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: Position Paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robert S; Cross, J Helen; French, Jacqueline A; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirsch, Edouard; Jansen, Floor E; Lagae, Lieven; Moshé, Solomon L; Peltola, Jukka; Roulet Perez, Eliane; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Zuberi, Sameer M

    2017-04-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents a revised operational classification of seizure types. The purpose of such a revision is to recognize that some seizure types can have either a focal or generalized onset, to allow classification when the onset is unobserved, to include some missing seizure types, and to adopt more transparent names. Because current knowledge is insufficient to form a scientifically based classification, the 2017 Classification is operational (practical) and based on the 1981 Classification, extended in 2010. Changes include the following: (1) "partial" becomes "focal"; (2) awareness is used as a classifier of focal seizures; (3) the terms dyscognitive, simple partial, complex partial, psychic, and secondarily generalized are eliminated; (4) new focal seizure types include automatisms, behavior arrest, hyperkinetic, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional; (5) atonic, clonic, epileptic spasms, myoclonic, and tonic seizures can be of either focal or generalized onset; (6) focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure replaces secondarily generalized seizure; (7) new generalized seizure types are absence with eyelid myoclonia, myoclonic absence, myoclonic-atonic, myoclonic-tonic-clonic; and (8) seizures of unknown onset may have features that can still be classified. The new classification does not represent a fundamental change, but allows greater flexibility and transparency in naming seizure types.

  6. Identification of AE Bursts by Classification of Physical and Statistical Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mieza, J.I.; Oliveto, M.E.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Armeite, M.; Ruzzante, J.E.; Piotrkowski, R.

    2005-04-09

    Physical and statistical parameters obtained with the Principal Components method, extracted from Acoustic Emission bursts coming from triaxial deformation tests were analyzed. The samples came from seamless steel tubes used in the petroleum industry and some of them were provided with a protective coating. The purpose of our work was to identify bursts originated in the breakage of the coating, from those originated in damage mechanisms in the bulk steel matrix. Analysis was performed by statistical distributions, fractal analysis and clustering methods.

  7. Live-site UXO classification studies using advanced EMI and statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamatava, I.; Shubitidze, F.; Fernandez, J. P.; Bijamov, A.; Barrowes, B. E.; O'Neill, K.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present the inversion and classification performance of the advanced EMI inversion, processing and discrimination schemes developed by our group when applied to the ESTCP Live-Site UXO Discrimination Study carried out at the former Camp Butner in North Carolina. The advanced models combine: 1) the joint diagonalization (JD) algorithm to estimate the number of potential anomalies from the measured data without inversion, 2) the ortho-normalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS) to represent targets' EMI responses and extract their intrinsic "feature vectors," and 3) the Gaussian mixture algorithm to classify buried objects as targets of interest or not starting from the extracted discrimination features. The studies are conducted using cued datasets collected with the next-generation TEMTADS and MetalMapper (MM) sensor systems. For the cued TEMTADS datasets we first estimate the data quality and the number of targets contributing to each signal using the JD technique. Once we know the number of targets we proceed to invert the data using a standard non-linear optimization technique in order to determine intrinsic parameters such as the total ONVMS for each potential target. Finally we classify the targets using a library-matching technique. The MetalMapper data are all inverted as multi-target scenarios, and the resulting intrinsic parameters are grouped using an unsupervised Gaussian mixture approach. The potential targets of interest are a 37-mm projectile, an M48 fuze, and a 105-mm projectile. During the analysis we requested the ground truth for a few selected anomalies to assist in the classification task. Our results were scored independently by the Institute for Defense Analyses, who revealed that our advanced models produce superb classification when starting from either TEMTADS or MM cued datasets.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Categorical Time Series of Atmospheric Elementary Circulation Mechanisms - Dzerdzeevski Classification for the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    Northern hemisphere elementary circulation mechanisms, defined with the Dzerdzeevski classification and published on a daily basis from 1899–2012, are analysed with statistical methods as continuous categorical time series. Classification consists of 41 elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM), which are assigned to calendar days. Empirical marginal probabilities of each ECM were determined. Seasonality and the periodicity effect were investigated with moving dispersion filters and randomisation procedure on the ECM categories as well as with the time analyses of the ECM mode. The time series were determined as being non-stationary with strong time-dependent trends. During the investigated period, periodicity interchanges with periods when no seasonality is present. In the time series structure, the strongest division is visible at the milestone of 1986, showing that the atmospheric circulation pattern reflected in the ECM has significantly changed. This change is result of the change in the frequency of ECM categories; before 1986, the appearance of ECM was more diverse, and afterwards fewer ECMs appear. The statistical approach applied to the categorical climatic time series opens up new potential insight into climate variability and change studies that have to be performed in the future. PMID:27116375

  9. Statistical Analysis of Categorical Time Series of Atmospheric Elementary Circulation Mechanisms - Dzerdzeevski Classification for the Northern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    Northern hemisphere elementary circulation mechanisms, defined with the Dzerdzeevski classification and published on a daily basis from 1899-2012, are analysed with statistical methods as continuous categorical time series. Classification consists of 41 elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM), which are assigned to calendar days. Empirical marginal probabilities of each ECM were determined. Seasonality and the periodicity effect were investigated with moving dispersion filters and randomisation procedure on the ECM categories as well as with the time analyses of the ECM mode. The time series were determined as being non-stationary with strong time-dependent trends. During the investigated period, periodicity interchanges with periods when no seasonality is present. In the time series structure, the strongest division is visible at the milestone of 1986, showing that the atmospheric circulation pattern reflected in the ECM has significantly changed. This change is result of the change in the frequency of ECM categories; before 1986, the appearance of ECM was more diverse, and afterwards fewer ECMs appear. The statistical approach applied to the categorical climatic time series opens up new potential insight into climate variability and change studies that have to be performed in the future.

  10. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: An Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chapel, Helen; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Fischer, Alain; Franco, Jose Luis; Geha, Raif S.; Hammarström, Lennart; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Notarangelo, Luigi Daniele; Ochs, Hans Dieter; Puck, Jennifer M.; Roifman, Chaim M.; Seger, Reinhard; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiency diseases, compiled by the ad hoc Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. As compared to the previous edition, more than 15 novel disease entities have been added in the updated version. For each disorders, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This updated classification is meant to help in the diagnostic approach to patients with these diseases. PMID:22566844

  11. Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  12. A New Approach to the Detection and Statistical Classification of Ca2+ Sparks

    PubMed Central

    Bányász, Tamás; Chen-Izu, Ye; Balke, C. W.; Izu, Leighton T.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D) confocal microscopes and the expanding armamentarium of fluorescent probes presents unprecedented opportunities and new challenges for studying the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellular processes. The need to remove subjectivity from the detection process, the difficulty of the human eye to detect subtle changes in fluorescence in these 2-D images, and the large volume of data produced by these confocal microscopes call for the need to develop algorithms to automatically mark the changes in fluorescence. These fluorescence signal changes are often subtle, so the statistical estimate of the likelihood that the detected signal is not noise is an integral part of the detection algorithm. This statistical estimation is fundamental to our new approach to detection; in earlier Ca2+ spark detectors, this statistical assessment was incidental to detection. Importantly, the use of the statistical properties of the signal local to the spark, instead of over the whole image, reduces the false positive and false negative rates. We developed an automatic spark detection algorithm based on these principles and used it to detect sparks on an inhomogeneous background of transverse tubule-labeled rat ventricular cells. Because of the large region of the cell surveyed by the confocal microscope, we can detect a large enough number of sparks to measure the dynamic changes in spark frequency in individual cells. We also found, in contrast to earlier results, that cardiac sparks are spatially symmetric. This new approach puts the detection of fluorescent signals on a firm statistical foundation. PMID:17400702

  13. A new approach to the detection and statistical classification of Ca2+ sparks.

    PubMed

    Bányász, Tamás; Chen-Izu, Ye; Balke, C W; Izu, Leighton T

    2007-06-15

    The availability of high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D) confocal microscopes and the expanding armamentarium of fluorescent probes presents unprecedented opportunities and new challenges for studying the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellular processes. The need to remove subjectivity from the detection process, the difficulty of the human eye to detect subtle changes in fluorescence in these 2-D images, and the large volume of data produced by these confocal microscopes call for the need to develop algorithms to automatically mark the changes in fluorescence. These fluorescence signal changes are often subtle, so the statistical estimate of the likelihood that the detected signal is not noise is an integral part of the detection algorithm. This statistical estimation is fundamental to our new approach to detection; in earlier Ca(2+) spark detectors, this statistical assessment was incidental to detection. Importantly, the use of the statistical properties of the signal local to the spark, instead of over the whole image, reduces the false positive and false negative rates. We developed an automatic spark detection algorithm based on these principles and used it to detect sparks on an inhomogeneous background of transverse tubule-labeled rat ventricular cells. Because of the large region of the cell surveyed by the confocal microscope, we can detect a large enough number of sparks to measure the dynamic changes in spark frequency in individual cells. We also found, in contrast to earlier results, that cardiac sparks are spatially symmetric. This new approach puts the detection of fluorescent signals on a firm statistical foundation.

  14. IPUMS-International Statistical Disclosure Controls: 159 Census Microdata Samples in Dissemination, 100+ in Preparation

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matt

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, a revolution has occurred in access to census microdata for social and behavioral research. More than 325 million person records (55 countries, 159 samples) representing two-thirds of the world’s population are now readily available to bona fide researchers from the IPUMS-International website: www.ipums.org/international hosted by the Minnesota Population Center. Confidentialized extracts are disseminated on a restricted access basis at no cost to bona fide researchers. Over the next five years, from the microdata already entrusted by National Statistical Office-owners, the database will encompass more than 80 percent of the world’s population (85 countries, ~100 additional datasets) with priority given to samples from the 2010 round of censuses. A profile of the most frequently used samples and variables is described from 64,248 requests for microdata extracts. The development of privacy protection standards by National Statistical Offices, international organizations and academic experts is fundamental to eliciting world-wide cooperation and, thus, to the success of the IPUMS initiative. This paper summarizes the legal, administrative and technical underpinnings of the project, including statistical disclosure controls, as well as the conclusions of a lengthy on-site review by the former Australian Statistician, Mr. Dennis Trewin.

  15. On exact statistics and classification of ergodic systems of integer dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Guralnik, Zachary Guralnik, Gerald; Pehlevan, Cengiz

    2014-06-01

    We describe classes of ergodic dynamical systems for which some statistical properties are known exactly. These systems have integer dimension, are not globally dissipative, and are defined by a probability density and a two-form. This definition generalizes the construction of Hamiltonian systems by a Hamiltonian and a symplectic form. Some low dimensional examples are given, as well as a discretized field theory with a large number of degrees of freedom and a local nearest neighbor interaction. We also evaluate unequal-time correlations of these systems without direct numerical simulation, by Padé approximants of a short-time expansion. We briefly speculate on the possibility of constructing chaotic dynamical systems with non-integer dimension and exactly known statistics. In this case there is no probability density, suggesting an alternative construction in terms of a Hopf characteristic function and a two-form.

  16. Statistical inference for classification of RRIM clone series using near IR reflectance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Faridatul Aima; Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Hashim, Hadzli; Abdullah, Noor Ezan; Khairuzzaman, Noor Aishah; Azmi, Azrie Faris Mohd; Sampian, Ahmad Faiz Mohd; Harun, Muhammad Hafiz

    2015-08-01

    RRIM clone is a rubber breeding series produced by RRIM (Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia) through "rubber breeding program" to improve latex yield and producing clones attractive to farmers. The objective of this work is to analyse measurement of optical sensing device on latex of selected clone series. The device using transmitting NIR properties and its reflectance is converted in terms of voltage. The obtained reflectance index value via voltage was analyzed using statistical technique in order to find out the discrimination among the clones. From the statistical results using error plots and one-way ANOVA test, there is an overwhelming evidence showing discrimination of RRIM 2002, RRIM 2007 and RRIM 3001 clone series with p value = 0.000. RRIM 2008 cannot be discriminated with RRIM 2014; however both of these groups are distinct from the other clones.

  17. Water Polo Game-Related Statistics in Women’s International Championships: Differences and Discriminatory Power

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Yolanda; Saavedra, Jose M.; Tella, Victor; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dominguez, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare women’s water polo game-related statistics by match outcome (winning and losing teams) and phase (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal), and (ii) identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 124 women’s matches played in five International Championships (World and European Championships) were analyzed. Differences between winning and losing teams in each phase were determined using the chi-squared. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to context in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables were both offensive (centre goals, power-play goals, counterattack goal, assists, offensive fouls, steals, blocked shots, and won sprints) and defensive (goalkeeper-blocked shots, goalkeeper-blocked inferiority shots, and goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots). The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases: preliminary, classificatory, and final phases (92%, 90%, and 83%, respectively). Two variables were discriminatory by match outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three phases: goals and goalkeeper-blocked shots. Key pointsThe preliminary phase that more than one variable was involved in this differentiation, including both offensive and defensive aspects of the game.The game-related statistics were found to have a high discriminatory power in predicting the result of matches with shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots being discriminatory variables in all three phases.Knowledge of the characteristics of women’s water polo game-related statistics of the winning teams and their power to predict match outcomes will allow coaches to take these characteristics into account when planning training and match preparation. PMID

  18. Test performance and classification statistics for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in selected clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Dawson, Kyra A; Duff, Kevin; Patton, Doyle; Scott, James G; Adams, Russell L

    2006-10-01

    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT; Rey, A. (1941). L'examen psychologique dans les cas d'encéphalopathie traumatique. Archives de Psychologie, 28, 21] is a commonly used neuropsychological measure that assesses verbal learning and memory. Normative data have been compiled [Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services]. When assessing an individual suspected of neurological dysfunction, useful comparisons include the extent that the patient deviates from healthy peers and also how closely the subject's performance matches those with known brain injury. This study provides the means and S.D.'s of 392 individuals with documented neurological dysfunction [closed head TBI (n=68), neoplasms (n=57), stroke (n=47), Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (n=158), and presurgical epilepsy left seizure focus (n=28), presurgical epilepsy right seizure focus (n=34)] and 122 patients with no known neurological dysfunction and psychiatric complaints. Patients were stratified into three age groups, 16-35, 36-59, and 60-88. Data were provided for trials I-V, List B, immediate recall, 30-min delayed recall, and recognition. Classification characteristics of the RAVLT using [Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] meta-norms found the RAVLT to best distinguish patients suspected of Alzheimer's disease from the psychiatric comparison group.

  19. Statistical classification of flow morphology in rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, David; Rubio, Antonio M.; Julien, Keith

    2014-08-01

    In rapidly rotating convection four flow regimes with distinct characteristics have been identified via simulations of asymptotically reduced equations as a function of a reduced Rayleigh number RaE4/3 and Prandtl number σ (K. Julien, A. Rubio, I. Grooms, and E. Knobloch, "Statistical and physical balances in low Rossby number Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 106, 392-428 (2012)). In each regime the flow organizes, with varying intensity, into coherent vertical structures. The identified morphologies, in order of increasing RaE4/3, consist of the cellular regime, the convective Taylor column regime, the plume regime, and a regime characterized by geostrophic turbulence. Presently, physical limitations on laboratory experiments and spatio-temporal resolution challenges on direct numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations inhibit an exhaustive analysis of the flow morphology in the rapid rotating limit. In this paper the flow morphologies obtained from simulations of the reduced equations are investigated from a statistical perspective. We utilize auto- and cross-correlations of temporal and spatial signals that synthesize experimental data obtained from thermistor measurements or particle image velocimetry. We show how these statistics can be employed in laboratory experiments to (i) identify transitions in the flow morphology, (ii) capture the radial profiles of coherent structures, and (iii) extract transport properties of these structures. These results provide a foundation for comparison and a measure for understanding the extent to which rotationally constrained regime has been accessed by laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations.

  20. Calibration of back-analysed model parameters for landslides using classification statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Jose; Henderson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Back-analyses are useful for characterizing the geomorphological and mechanical processes and parameters involved in the initiation and propagation of landslides. These processes and parameters can in turn be used for improving forecasts of scenarios and hazard assessments in areas or sites which have similar settings to the back-analysed cases. The selection of the modeled landslide that produces the best agreement with the actual observations requires running a number of simulations by varying the type of model and the sets of input parameters. The comparison of the simulated and observed parameters is normally performed by visual comparison of geomorphological or dynamic variables (e.g., geometry of scarp and final deposit, maximum velocities and depths). Over the past six years, a method developed by NGI has been used by some researchers for a more objective selection of back-analysed input model parameters. That method includes an adaptation of the equations for calculation of classifiers, and a comparative evaluation of classifiers of the selected parameter sets in the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) space. This contribution presents an updating of the methodology. The proposed procedure allows comparisons between two or more "clouds" of classifiers. Each cloud represents the performance of a model over a range of input parameters (e.g., samples of probability distributions). Considering the fact that each cloud does not necessarily produce a full ROC curve, two new normalised ROC-space parameters are introduced for characterizing the performance of each cloud. The first parameter is representative of the cloud position relative to the point of perfect classification. The second parameter characterizes the position of the cloud relative to the theoretically perfect ROC curve and the no-discrimination line. The methodology is illustrated with back-analyses of slope stability and landslide runout of selected case studies. This research activity has been

  1. Monitoring the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: data and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper approaches the general issue of the complex challenges in the relationship between those who generate data -- researchers, scientists, and state statistical offices -- and those who use data -- researchers and policy-makers -- in light of the more specific policy challenges created by the monitoring requirement of the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD: Article 33). International Conventions and Treaties standardly suffer from being persistently ineffectual primarily because of the absence of implementation mechanisms. The CRPD, by contrast, explicitly requires State Parties who have ratified it to institute data generation and monitoring mechanisms for its implementation. This paper argues that WHO’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be brought into the service of the CRPD data generation and monitoring mandate, both in the shaping of relevant data streams and in the creation of relevant indicators, and concludes by reviewing the challenges that remain. PMID:21624194

  2. Internal Representations of Temporal Statistics and Feedback Calibrate Motor-Sensory Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Luigi; Wolpert, Daniel M.; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been shown to adapt to the temporal statistics of timing tasks so as to optimize the accuracy of their responses, in agreement with the predictions of Bayesian integration. This suggests that they build an internal representation of both the experimentally imposed distribution of time intervals (the prior) and of the error (the loss function). The responses of a Bayesian ideal observer depend crucially on these internal representations, which have only been previously studied for simple distributions. To study the nature of these representations we asked subjects to reproduce time intervals drawn from underlying temporal distributions of varying complexity, from uniform to highly skewed or bimodal while also varying the error mapping that determined the performance feedback. Interval reproduction times were affected by both the distribution and feedback, in good agreement with a performance-optimizing Bayesian observer and actor model. Bayesian model comparison highlighted that subjects were integrating the provided feedback and represented the experimental distribution with a smoothed approximation. A nonparametric reconstruction of the subjective priors from the data shows that they are generally in agreement with the true distributions up to third-order moments, but with systematically heavier tails. In particular, higher-order statistical features (kurtosis, multimodality) seem much harder to acquire. Our findings suggest that humans have only minor constraints on learning lower-order statistical properties of unimodal (including peaked and skewed) distributions of time intervals under the guidance of corrective feedback, and that their behavior is well explained by Bayesian decision theory. PMID:23209386

  3. Classification of regimes of internal solitary waves transformation over a shelf-slope topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Talipova, Tatiana; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2015-04-01

    The internal waves shoal and dissipate as they cross abrupt changes of the topography in the coastal ocean, estuaries and in the enclosed water bodies. They can form near the coast internal bores propagating into the shallows and re-suspend seabed pollutants that may have serious ecological consequences. Internal solitary waves (ISW) with trapped core can transport masses of water and marine organisms for some distance. The transport of cold, low-oxygen waters results in nutrient pumping. These facts require development of classification of regimes of the ISWs transformation over a shelf-slope topography to recognize 'hot spots' of wave energy dissipation on the continental shelf. A new classification of regimes of internal solitary wave interaction with the shelf-slope topography in the framework of two-layer fluid is proposed. We introduce a new three-dimensional diagram based on parameters α ,β , γ. Here α is the nondimensional wave amplitude normalized on the thermocline thickness α = ain/h1 (α > 0), β is the blocking parameter introduced in (Talipova et al., 2013) that is the ratio of the height of the bottom layer on the the shelf step h2+ to the incident wave amplitude ain, β = h2+/ain (β > -3), and γ is the parameter inverse to the slope inclination (γ > 0.01). Two mechanisms are important during wave shoaling: (i) wave breaking resulting in mixing and (ii) changing of the polarity of the initial wave of depression on the slope. Range of the parameters at which wave breaking occurs can be defined using the criteria, obtained empirically (Vlasenko and Hutter, 2002). In the three-dimensional diagram this criteria is represented by the surface f1(β,γ) = 0 that separates the region of parameters where breaking takes place from the region without breaking. The polarity change surface f2(α,β) = 0 is obtained from the condition of equality of the depth of upper layer h1 to the depth of the lower layer h2. In the two-layer stratification waves of

  4. Assessment of Patients with Intellectual Disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Evaluate Dental Treatment Tolerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, S.; Kita, F.; Miyawaki, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Ishida, R.; Egusa, M.; Shimada, M.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with serious intellectual disability (ID) are occasionally unable to tolerate dental treatment when intravenous sedation or general anaesthesia (IVSGA) is involved. In order to make a decision regarding the application of IVSGA, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is useful. Therefore, in this…

  5. [Current classification and nomenclature of plant viruses (by materials of the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy). Part I].

    PubMed

    Kraev, V G

    2000-01-01

    The rules of classification and nomenclature of plant viruses are reviewed in connection with the reports of the International Committee on Viruses Taxonomy. The characteristics of the families and genera of plant viruses approved by the Committee in 1995 are presented.

  6. Classification of childhood epilepsies in a tertiary pediatric neurology clinic using a customized classification scheme from the international league against epilepsy 2010 report.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Teik-Beng

    2013-01-01

    In its 2010 report, the International League Against Epilepsy Commission on Classification and Terminology had made a number of changes to the organization, terminology, and classification of seizures and epilepsies. This study aims to test the usefulness of this revised classification scheme on children with epilepsies aged between 0 and 18 years old. Of 527 patients, 75.1% only had 1 type of seizure and the commonest was focal seizure (61.9%). A specific electroclinical syndrome diagnosis could be made in 27.5%. Only 2.1% had a distinctive constellation. In this cohort, 46.9% had an underlying structural, metabolic, or genetic etiology. Among the important causes were pre-/perinatal insults, malformation of cortical development, intracranial infections, and neurocutaneous syndromes. However, 23.5% of the patients in our cohort were classified as having "epilepsies of unknown cause." The revised classification scheme is generally useful for pediatric patients. To make it more inclusive and clinically meaningful, some local customizations are required.

  7. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: accurate diagnosis of orofacial pain?

    PubMed

    Benoliel, R; Birman, N; Eliav, E; Sharav, Y

    2008-07-01

    The aim was to apply diagnostic criteria, as published by the International Headache Society (IHS), to the diagnosis of orofacial pain. A total of 328 consecutive patients with orofacial pain were collected over a period of 2 years. The orofacial pain clinic routinely employs criteria published by the IHS, the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDCTMD). Employing IHS criteria, 184 patients were successfully diagnosed (56%), including 34 with persistent idiopathic facial pain. In the remaining 144 we applied AAOP/RDCTMD criteria and diagnosed 120 as masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) resulting in a diagnostic efficiency of 92.7% (304/328) when applying the three classifications (IHS, AAOP, RDCTMD). Employing further published criteria, 23 patients were diagnosed as neurovascular orofacial pain (NVOP, facial migraine) and one as a neuropathy secondary to connective tissue disease. All the patients were therefore allocated to predefined diagnoses. MMP is clearly defined by AAOP and the RDCTMD. However, NVOP is not defined by any of the above classification systems. The features of MMP and NVOP are presented and analysed with calculations for positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). In MMP the combination of facial pain aggravated by jaw movement, and the presence of three or more tender muscles resulted in a PPV = 0.82 and a NPV = 0.86. For NVOP the combination of facial pain, throbbing quality, autonomic and/or systemic features and attack duration of > 60 min gave a PPV = 0.71 and a NPV = 0.95. Expansion of the IHS system is needed so as to integrate more orofacial pain syndromes.

  8. Statistical separability and classification of land use classes using image-100. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Kumar, R.; Niero, M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The statistical separability of land use classes in the subsets of one to four spectral channels was investigated. Using ground observations and aerial photography, the MSS data of LANDSAT were analyzed with the Image-100. In the subsets of one to three spectral channels, channel 4, channel 4 & 7, and channels 4, 5, & 7 were found to be the best choices (ch.4 - 0.5 to 0.6 microns, ch. 5 - 0.6 to 0.7 microns, ch. 6 - 0.7 to 0.8 microns, and ch. 7 - 0.8 to 1.1 microns). For the single cell option of the Image-100, the errors of omission varied from 5% for the industrial class to 46% for the institutional class. The errors of commission varied from 11% for the commercial class to 39% for the industrial class. On the whole, the sample classifier gave considerably more accurate results compared to the single cell or multicell option.

  9. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  10. Classification of bioaccumulative and non-bioaccumulative chemicals using statistical learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuli; Li, Yan; Liu, Xianjie; Ding, Jun; Wang, Yonghua; Shen, Hui; Chang, Yaqing

    2008-01-01

    The present work aimed at developing in silico models allowing for a reliable prediction of bioaccumulative compounds and non-bioaccumulative compounds based on the definition of Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) using a diverse data set of 238 organic molecules. The partial least squares analysis (PLS), C4.5, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) algorithms were applied, and their performance classifying these compounds in terms of their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) was evaluated and verified with 5-fold cross-validation and an independent evaluation data set. The obtained results show that the overall prediction accuracies (Q) of the optimal PLS, C4.5, SVM and RF models are 84.5-87.7% for the internal cross-validation, with prediction accuracy (CO) of 86.3-91.1% in the external test sets, and C4.5 is slightly better than the three other methods which presents a Q of 87.7%, and a CO of 91.1% for the test sets. All these results prove the reliabilities of the in silico models, which should be valuable for the environmental risk assessment of the substances.

  11. Analysis methodology and development of a statistical tool for biodistribution data from internal contamination with actinides.

    PubMed

    Lamart, Stephanie; Griffiths, Nina M; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a computational tool that integrates several statistical analysis features for biodistribution data from internal contamination experiments. These data represent actinide levels in biological compartments as a function of time and are derived from activity measurements in tissues and excreta. These experiments aim at assessing the influence of different contamination conditions (e.g. intake route or radioelement) on the biological behavior of the contaminant. The ever increasing number of datasets and diversity of experimental conditions make the handling and analysis of biodistribution data difficult. This work sought to facilitate the statistical analysis of a large number of datasets and the comparison of results from diverse experimental conditions. Functional modules were developed using the open-source programming language R to facilitate specific operations: descriptive statistics, visual comparison, curve fitting, and implementation of biokinetic models. In addition, the structure of the datasets was harmonized using the same table format. Analysis outputs can be written in text files and updated data can be written in the consistent table format. Hence, a data repository is built progressively, which is essential for the optimal use of animal data. Graphical representations can be automatically generated and saved as image files. The resulting computational tool was applied using data derived from wound contamination experiments conducted under different conditions. In facilitating biodistribution data handling and statistical analyses, this computational tool ensures faster analyses and a better reproducibility compared with the use of multiple office software applications. Furthermore, re-analysis of archival data and comparison of data from different sources is made much easier. Hence this tool will help to understand better the influence of contamination characteristics on actinide biokinetics. Our approach can aid

  12. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: An Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chatila, Talal; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Franco, Jose Luis; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Holland, Steven M.; Klein, Christoph; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D.; Oksenhendler, Erik; Picard, Capucine; Puck, Jennifer M.; Sullivan, Kate; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) compiled by the Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. In comparison to the previous version, more than 30 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. In addition, we have added a table of acquired defects that are phenocopies of PIDs. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This classification is the most up-to-date catalog of all known PIDs and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases. PMID:24795713

  13. Linking Frailty Instruments to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Roberta Vella; Vermeiren, Sofie; Gorus, Ellen; Habbig, Ann-Katrin; Petrovic, Mirko; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; De Vriendt, Patricia; Bautmans, Ivan; Beyer, Ingo

    2016-11-01

    To date, the major dilemma concerning frailty is the lack of a standardized language regarding its operationalization. Considering the demographic challenge that the world is facing, standardization of frailty identification is indeed the first step in tackling the burdensome consequences of frailty. To demonstrate this diversity in frailty assessment, the available frailty instruments have been linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): a standardized and hierarchically coded language developed by World Health Organization regarding health conditions and their positive (functioning) and negative (disability) consequences. A systematic review on frailty instruments was carried out in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO. The items of the identified frailty instruments were then linked to the ICF codes. 79 original or adapted frailty instruments were identified and categorized into single (n = 25) and multidomain (n = 54) groups. Only 5 frailty instruments (indexes) were linked to all 5 ICF components. Whereas the ICF components Body Functions and Activities and Participation were frequently linked to the frailty instruments, Body Structures, Environmental and Personal factors were sparingly represented mainly in the multidomain frailty instruments. This review highlights the heterogeneity in frailty operationalization. Environmental and personal factors should be given more thought in future frailty assessments. Being unambiguous, structured, and neutral, the ICF language allows comparing observations made with different frailty instruments. In conclusion, this systematic overview and ICF translation can be a cornerstone for future standardization of frailty assessment.

  14. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Catalyst for interprofessional education and collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Snyman, Stefanus; Von Pressentin, Klaus B; Clarke, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centred and community-based care is required for promotion of health equity. To enhance patient-centred interprofessional care, the World Health Organization recommends using the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Stellenbosch University's Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice (IPECP) strategy has promoted using ICF since 2010. Undergraduate medical students on rural clinical placements are expected to use ICF in approaching and managing patients. Students' ability to develop interprofessional care plans using ICF is assessed by a team of preceptors representing various health professions. This study explored the experiences of medical students and their preceptors using ICF in IPECP, and how patients perceived care received. Associative Group Analysis methodology was used to collect data for this study. In total, 68 study participants were enrolled of which 37 were medical students, 16 preceptors and 15 patients. Students found ICF enabled a patient-centred approach and reinforce the importance of context. Patients felt listened to and cared for. Preceptors, obliged to use ICF, came to appreciate the advantages of interprofessional care, promoting mutually beneficial teamwork and job satisfaction. The value of integrating IPECP as an authentic learning experience was demonstrated as was ICF as a catalyst in pushing boundaries for change.

  15. Mapping SAGE questionnaire to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Quintas, Rui; Russo, Emanuela; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Costardi, Daniela; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Ojala, Matti; Peña, Sebastián; Perales, Jaime; Chatterji, Somnath; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Frattura, Lucilla; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    The collaborative research on ageing in Europe protocol was based on that of the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) project that investigated the relationship between health and well-being and provided a set of instruments that can be used across countries to monitor health and health-related outcomes of older populations as well as the strategies for addressing issues concerning the ageing process. To evaluate the degree to which SAGE protocol covered the spectrum of disability given the scope of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a mapping exercise was performed with SAGE protocol. Results show that the SAGE protocol covers ICF domains in a non-uniform way, with environmental factors categories being underrepresented, whereas mental, cardiovascular, sensory functions and mobility were overrepresented. To overcome this partial coverage of ICF functioning categories, new assessment instruments have been developed. PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: Mapping exercises are valid procedures to understand the extent to which a survey protocol covers the spectrum of functioning. The mapping exercise with SAGE protocol shows that it provides only a partial representation of body functions and activities and participation domains, and the coverage of environmental factors is poor. New instruments are therefore needed for researchers to properly understand the health and disability of ageing populations.

  16. Statistical construction of a Japanese male liver phantom for internal radionuclide dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mofrad, Farshid Babapour; Zoroofi, Reza Aghaeizadeh; Tehrani-Fard, Ali Abbaspour; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram; Hori, Masatoshi; Chen, Yen-Wei; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2010-09-01

    A computational framework is presented, based on statistical shape modelling, for construction of race-specific organ models for internal radionuclide dosimetry and other nuclear-medicine applications. This approach was applied to the construction of a Japanese liver phantom, using the liver of the digital Zubal phantom as the template and 35 liver computed tomography (CT) scans of male Japanese individuals as a training set. The first step was the automated object-space registration (to align all the liver surfaces in one orientation), using a coherent-point-drift maximum-likelihood alignment algorithm, of each CT scan-derived manually contoured liver surface and the template Zubal liver phantom. Six landmark points, corresponding to the intersection of the contours of the maximum-area sagittal, transaxial and coronal liver sections were employed to perform the above task. To find correspondence points in livers (i.e. 2000 points for each liver), each liver surface was transformed into a mesh, was mapped for the parameter space of a sphere (parameterisation), yielding spherical harmonics (SPHARMs) shape descriptors. The resulting spherical transforms were then registered by minimising the root-mean-square distance among the SPHARMs coefficients. A mean shape (i.e. liver) and its dispersion (i.e. covariance matrix) were next calculated and analysed by principal components. Leave-one-out-tests using 5-35 principal components (or modes) demonstrated the fidelity of the foregoing statistical analysis. Finally, a voxelisation algorithm and a point-based registration is utilised to convert the SPHARM surfaces into its corresponding voxelised and adjusted the Zubal phantom data, respectively. The proposed technique used to create the race-specific statistical phantom maintains anatomic realism and provides the statistical parameters for application to radionuclide dosimetry.

  17. Awareness and the arguments for and against the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health among representatives of disability organisations.

    PubMed

    Lundälv, Jörgen; Törnbom, Marie; Larsson, Per-Olof; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2015-03-18

    Disability organisations have not been engaged in the debate about the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Sweden. We wanted to know representatives' attitudes about the ICF. The aim of the study was to elucidate the arguments for and against the ICF among representatives of disability organisations. The study consisted of eighteen representatives (from six disability organisations) that answered electronic questionnaires. The questionnaires involved ten open questions about the arguments for and against the ICF. The answers of the questionnaires have been categorized according to qualitative content analysis. Our results indicated four themes: awareness, arguments for and against, influence and the future. More than half of the representatives had very limited awareness of the ICF. There was an explicit criticism of individual classification but more positive comments about classification on an aggregated level. The most important issue for representatives was influencing social policy in society, not learning and spreading information about the ICF.

  18. Awareness and the Arguments for and against the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health among Representatives of Disability Organisations

    PubMed Central

    Lundälv, Jörgen; Törnbom, Marie; Larsson, Per-Olof; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S.

    2015-01-01

    Disability organisations have not been engaged in the debate about the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Sweden. We wanted to know representatives’ attitudes about the ICF. The aim of the study was to elucidate the arguments for and against the ICF among representatives of disability organisations. The study consisted of eighteen representatives (from six disability organisations) that answered electronic questionnaires. The questionnaires involved ten open questions about the arguments for and against the ICF. The answers of the questionnaires have been categorized according to qualitative content analysis. Our results indicated four themes: awareness, arguments for and against, influence and the future. More than half of the representatives had very limited awareness of the ICF. There was an explicit criticism of individual classification but more positive comments about classification on an aggregated level. The most important issue for representatives was influencing social policy in society, not learning and spreading information about the ICF. PMID:25794190

  19. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis.

  20. A tool for enhancing strategic health planning: a modeled use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Lisa Bundara; Fox, Michael H; Betts, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This article describes use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for strategic planning. The ICF is the international classification system for factors that influence health, including Body Structures, Body Functions, Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors. An overview of strategic planning and the ICF are provided. Selected ICF concepts and nomenclature are used to demonstrate its utility in helping develop a classic planning framework, objectives, measures and actions. Some issues and resolutions for applying the ICF are described. Applying the ICF for strategic health planning is an innovative approach that fosters the inclusion of social ecological health determinants and broad populations. If employed from the onset of planning, the ICF can help public health organizations systematically conceptualize, organize and communicate a strategic health plan.

  1. Empirical analysis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) using structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Fabiana C. M. S.; Mancini, Marisa C.; Neves, Jorge A.; Kirkwood, Renata N.; Sampaio, Rosana F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To empirically test the relationships proposed by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) among its domains. Method: The cross-sectional study was completed with 226 adult patients with different health conditions who attended a Brazilian rehabilitation unit. The ICF components were measured with the following instruments: World Health Organization Disability Assessment Instrument II, Functional Independence Measure, Participation Scale, Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors, and a protocol designed to gather information on body structure and function and personal factors. Results: Structural equation modeling showed good model adjustment, GFI=0.863; AGFI=0.795; RMSEA=0.028 (90% CI=0.014-0.043). Significant relationships were found between activity and both body structure and function (standard coefficient=0.32; p<0.0001) and participation components (standard coefficient=–0.70; p<0.0001). Environmental and personal factors had a significant effect on the three functioning components (standard coefficient =0.39; p<0.0001; standard coefficient =-0.35; p<0.001, respectively). In contrast, body structure and function had no significant effect on participation (standard coefficient=–0.10; p=0.111) and health conditions had no significant effect on any of the functioning components, i.e., body structure and function, activity, and participation (standard coefficient=–0.12; p=0.128). Conclusion: Some of the ICF’s proposed relationships across domains were confirmed, while others were not found to be significant. Our results reinforce the contextual dependency of the functioning and disability processes, in addition to putting into perspective the impact of health conditions. PMID:27878225

  2. Derivation and Validation of Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Michelle; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Gordon, Caroline; Merrill, Joan T.; Fortin, Paul R.; Bruce, Ian N.; Isenberg, David; Wallace, Daniel J.; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Hanly, John G.; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Clarke, Ann; Aranow, Cynthia; Manzi, Susan; Urowitz, Murray; Gladman, Dafna; Kalunian, Kenneth; Costner, Melissa; Werth, Victoria P.; Zoma, Asad; Bernatsky, Sasha; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Khamashta, Munther A.; Jacobsen, Soren; Buyon, Jill P.; Maddison, Peter; Dooley, Mary Anne; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Ginzler, Ellen; Stoll, Thomas; Peschken, Christine; Jorizzo, Joseph L.; Callen, Jeffrey P.; Lim, S. Sam; Fessler, Barri J.; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L.; Rahman, Anisur; Steinsson, Kristjan; Franks, Andrew G.; Sigler, Lisa; Hameed, Suhail; Fang, Hong; Pham, Ngoc; Brey, Robin; Weisman, Michael H.; McGwin, Gerald; Magder, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements and incorporate new knowledge in SLE immunology. Methods The classification criteria were derived from a set of 702 expert-rated patient scenarios. Recursive partitioning was used to derive an initial rule that was simplified and refined based on SLICC physician consensus. SLICC validated the classification criteria in a new validation sample of 690 SLE patients and controls. Results Seventeen criteria were identified. The SLICC criteria for SLE classification requires: 1) Fulfillment of at least four criteria, with at least one clinical criterion AND one immunologic criterion OR 2) Lupus nephritis as the sole clinical criterion in the presence of ANA or anti-dsDNA antibodies. In the derivation set, the SLICC classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications than the current ACR classification criteria (49 versus 70, p=0.0082), had greater sensitivity (94% versus 86%, p<0.0001) and equal specificity (92% versus 93%, p=0.39). In the validation set, the SLICC Classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications (62 versus 74, p=0.24), had greater sensitivity (97% versus 83%, p<0.0001) but less specificity (84% versus 96%, p<0.0001). Conclusions The new SLICC classification criteria performed well on a large set of patient scenarios rated by experts. They require that at least one clinical criterion and one immunologic criterion be present for a classification of SLE. Biopsy confirmed nephritis compatible with lupus (in the presence of SLE autoantibodies) is sufficient for classification. PMID:22553077

  3. Waveform classification and statistical analysis of seismic precursors to the July 2008 Vulcanian Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Mel; Smith, Patrick; Pyle, David; Mather, Tamsin

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the transition between quiescence and eruption at dome-forming volcanoes, such as Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, is important for monitoring volcanic activity during long-lived eruptions. Statistical analysis of seismic events (e.g. spectral analysis and identification of multiplets via cross-correlation) can be useful for characterising seismicity patterns and can be a powerful tool for analysing temporal changes in behaviour. Waveform classification is crucial for volcano monitoring, but consistent classification, both during real-time analysis and for retrospective analysis of previous volcanic activity, remains a challenge. Automated classification allows consistent re-classification of events. We present a machine learning (random forest) approach to rapidly classify waveforms that requires minimal training data. We analyse the seismic precursors to the July 2008 Vulcanian explosion at SHV and show systematic changes in frequency content and multiplet behaviour that had not previously been recognised. These precursory patterns of seismicity may be interpreted as changes in pressure conditions within the conduit during magma ascent and could be linked to magma flow rates. Frequency analysis of the different waveform classes supports the growing consensus that LP and Hybrid events should be considered end members of a continuum of low-frequency source processes. By using both supervised and unsupervised machine-learning methods we investigate the nature of waveform classification and assess current classification schemes.

  4. Why is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders so hard to revise? Path-dependence and "lock-in" in classification.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the D.S.M.-5, was published in May 2013. In the lead up to publication, radical changes to the classification were anticipated; there was widespread dissatisfaction with the previous edition and it was accepted that a "paradigm shift" might be required. In the end, however, and despite huge efforts at revision, the published D.S.M.-5 differs far less than originally envisaged from its predecessor. This paper considers why it is that revising the D.S.M. has become so difficult. The D.S.M. is such an important classification that this question is worth asking in its own right. The case of the D.S.M. can also serve as a study for considering stasis in classification more broadly; why and how can classifications become resistant to change? I suggest that classifications like the D.S.M. can be thought of as forming part of the infrastructure of science, and have much in common with material infrastructure. In particular, as with material technologies, it is possible for "path dependent" development to cause a sub-optimal classification to become "locked in" and hard to replace.

  5. Statistical investigation of simulated intestinal fluid composition on the equilibrium solubility of biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs.

    PubMed

    Khadra, Ibrahim; Zhou, Zhou; Dunn, Claire; Wilson, Clive G; Halbert, Gavin

    2015-01-25

    A drug's solubility and dissolution behaviour within the gastrointestinal tract is a key property for successful administration by the oral route and one of the key factors in the biopharmaceutics classification system. This property can be determined by investigating drug solubility in human intestinal fluid (HIF) but this is difficult to obtain and highly variable, which has led to the development of multiple simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) recipes. Using a statistical design of experiment (DoE) technique this paper has investigated the effects and interactions on equilibrium drug solubility of seven typical SIF components (sodium taurocholate, lecithin, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, pH, pancreatin and sodium oleate) within concentration ranges relevant to human intestinal fluid values. A range of poorly soluble drugs with acidic (naproxen, indomethacin, phenytoin, and piroxicam), basic (aprepitant, carvedilol, zafirlukast, tadalafil) or neutral (fenofibrate, griseofulvin, felodipine and probucol) properties have been investigated. The equilibrium solubility results determined are comparable with literature studies of the drugs in either HIF or SIF indicating that the DoE is operating in the correct space. With the exception of pancreatin, all of the factors individually had a statistically significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds and drug specific interactions were evident. Interestingly for the neutral compounds pH was the factor with the second largest solubility effect. Around one third of all the possible factor combinations showed a significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in interaction significance and magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds. The least number of significant media component interactions were noted for the acidic compounds with three and the greatest for the neutral compounds at seven

  6. Surgical management of morbidity due to lymphatic filariasis: the usefulness of a standardized international clinical classification of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Capuano, G P; Capuano, C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries to guide their surgical management. 64 patients with hydroceles were operated in 2009-2010, in Level II hospitals (WHO classification), during two visits to Fiji, by the same mobile surgical team. The number of hydroceles treated was 83. We developed and evaluated a much needed clinical classification of hydroceles based on four criteria: Type (uni/bilateral); Side (left/right); Stage of enlargement of the scrotum rated from I to VI; Grade of burial of the penis rated from 0 to 4. It lead to the conclusion that 1) A Stage I or II hydrocele, associated with Grade 0 or 1 penis burial could be considered a "Simple Hydrocele". The surgical treatment is simple with no anticipated early complication. WHO Level II of health care structure seems adapted. 2) A Stage III or IV hydrocele associated with Grade 2, 3 or 4 penis burial could be considered a "Complicated Hydrocele". The operation is longer, more complicated and the possibility of occurrence of complications seems greater. A level III health care facility would be more adapted under the normal functioning of the health system. We conclude that a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles based on the Stage of enlargement of the scrotum and the Grade of burial of the penis appears to be a useful tool to guide the decision about the level of care and the surgical technique required. We use the same classification for penoscrotal lymphoedema. A decision tree is presented for the management of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries which could usefully complement the "Algorithm for management of scrotal swelling" proposed by WHO in 2002. An international classification system of hydroceles would also allow standardization and facilitate study design and comparisons of their results.

  7. Perspectives on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) and Occupational Therapy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Heidi; Aiken, Alice B.; Stewart, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Classifying disability for children and youth has typically meant describing a diagnosis or developmental lag. The publication of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child & Youth" version (ICF-CY) marks a global paradigm shift in the conceptualization and classification of childhood disability. Knowledge and…

  8. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  9. Dynamical and statistical effects of the intrinsic curvature of internal space of molecules.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Hiroshi; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2005-02-15

    The Hamilton dynamics of a molecule in a translationally and/or rotationally symmetric field is kept rigorously constrained in its phase space. The relevant dynamical laws should therefore be extracted from these constrained motions. An internal space that is induced by a projection of such a limited phase space onto configuration space is an intrinsically curved space even for a system of zero total angular momentum. In this paper we discuss the general effects of this curvedness on dynamics and structures of molecules in such a manner that is invariant with respect to the selection of coordinates. It is shown that the regular coordinate originally defined by Riemann is particularly useful to expose the curvature correction to the dynamics and statistical properties of molecules. These effects are significant both qualitatively and quantitatively and are studied in two aspects. One is the direct effect on dynamics: A trajectory receives a Lorentz-like force from the curved space as though it was placed in a magnetic field. The well-known problem of the trapping phenomenon at the transition state is analyzed from this point of view. By showing that the trapping force is explicitly described in terms of the curvature of the internal space, we clarify that the physical origin of the trapped motion is indeed originated from the curvature of the internal space and hence is not dependent of the selection of coordinate system. The other aspect is the effect of phase space volume arising from the curvedness: We formulate a general expression of the curvature correction of the classical density of states and extract its physical significance in the molecular geometry along with reaction rate in terms of the scalar curvature and volume loss (gain) due to the curvature. The transition state theory is reformulated from this point of view and it is applied to the structural transition of linear chain molecules in the so-called dihedral angle model. It is shown that the

  10. Proposal of Classification Method of Time Series Data in International Emissions Trading Market Using Agent-based Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Tomohiro; Takadama, Keiki; Watanabe, Shigeyoshi

    This paper proposes the classification method using Bayesian analytical method to classify the time series data in the international emissions trading market depend on the agent-based simulation and compares the case with Discrete Fourier transform analytical method. The purpose demonstrates the analytical methods mapping time series data such as market price. These analytical methods have revealed the following results: (1) the classification methods indicate the distance of mapping from the time series data, it is easier the understanding and inference than time series data; (2) these methods can analyze the uncertain time series data using the distance via agent-based simulation including stationary process and non-stationary process; and (3) Bayesian analytical method can show the 1% difference description of the emission reduction targets of agent.

  11. Improved equilibrium reconstructions by advanced statistical weighting of the internal magnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Murari, A; Gelfusa, M; Peluso, E; Gaudio, P; Mazon, D; Hawkes, N; Point, G; Alper, B; Eich, T

    2014-12-01

    In a Tokamak the configuration of the magnetic fields remains the key element to improve performance and to maximise the scientific exploitation of the device. On the other hand, the quality of the reconstructed fields depends crucially on the measurements available. Traditionally in the least square minimisation phase of the algorithms, used to obtain the magnetic field topology, all the diagnostics are given the same weights, a part from a corrective factor taking into account the error bars. This assumption unduly penalises complex diagnostics, such as polarimetry, which have a limited number of highly significant measurements. A completely new method to choose the weights, to be given to the internal measurements of the magnetic fields for improved equilibrium reconstructions, is presented in this paper. The approach is based on various statistical indicators applied to the residuals, the difference between the actual measurements and their estimates from the reconstructed equilibrium. The potential of the method is exemplified using the measurements of the Faraday rotation derived from JET polarimeter. The results indicate quite clearly that the weights have to be determined carefully, since the inappropriate choice can have significant repercussions on the quality of the magnetic reconstruction both in the edge and in the core. These results confirm the limitations of the assumption that all the diagnostics have to be given the same weight, irrespective of the number of measurements they provide and the region of the plasma they probe.

  12. Statistical characterization of the internal structure of noiselike pulses using a nonlinear optical loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiez, O.; Paez-Aguirre, R.; Cruz, J. L.; Andrés, M. V.; Kuzin, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study statistically the internal structure of noiselike pulses generated by a passively mode-locked fiber laser. For this purpose, we use a technique that allows estimating the distribution of the amplitudes of the sub-pulses in the bunch. The technique takes advantage of the fast response of the optical Kerr effect in a fiber nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM). It requires the measurement of the energy transfer characteristic of the pulses through the NOLM, and the numerical resolution of a system of nonlinear algebraic equations. The results yield a strongly asymmetric distribution, with a high-amplitude tail that is compatible with the existence of extreme-intensity sub-pulses in the bunch. Following the recent discovery of pulse-energy rogue waves and spectral rogue waves in the noiselike pulse regime, we propose a new way to look for extreme events in this particular mode of operation of mode-locked fiber lasers, and confirm that rogue wave generation is a key ingredient in the complex dynamics of these unconventional pulses.

  13. Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a Functional Assessment Tool for Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Bo-ram; Shin, Hyung Ik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop a patient self-completed questionnaire from the items of the Brief Core Set Questionnaire for Breast Cancer (BCSQ-BC) and to investigate the prevalence of specific dysfunctions throughout the course of cancer and treatments. Methods From January 2010 to February 2011, 96 breast cancer patients were evaluated with BCSQ-BC developed for clinical application of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Quality of life and upper limb dysfunction using disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) were assessed. Content validity was evaluated using correlations between BCSQ-BC and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ and DASH scores. Construct validity was computed using exploratory factor analysis. Kappa statistics were computed for agreement between test-retest ICF data. The level of significance and odds ratios were reported for individuals with early post-acute and long-term context and with total mastectomy and breast conservative surgery. Results There was consistently good test-retest agreement in patient-completed questionnaires (kappa value, 0.76). Body function, activity and participation subscales are significantly related with EORTC QLQ and DASH. Problems with activity and participation were strongly associated with physical functional domains of EORTC QLQ (r=-0.708, p<0.001) and DASH (r=0.761, p<0.001). The prevalence of dysfunctions varied with type of surgery and time after cancer. Immobility of joint (15% vs. 7%) and lymphatic dysfunction (17% vs. 3%) were indexed more frequently in extensive surgery cases than in conservative surgery. Muscle power (16% vs. 8%), exercise tolerance functions (12% vs. 4%) and looking after one's health (10% vs. 2%) were impaired within 1 year after surgery, while sleep dysfunction (8% vs. 14%) was a major problem over 1 year after surgery. Conclusion The BCSQ-BC identifies the problems comprehensively in functioning of patients with breast

  14. Classification of bones from MR images in torso PET-MR imaging using a statistical shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Ay, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Afshin; Ahmadian, Alireza; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    There have been exclusive features for hybrid PET/MRI systems in comparison with its PET/CT counterpart in terms of reduction of radiation exposure, improved soft-tissue contrast and truly simultaneous and multi-parametric imaging capabilities. However, quantitative imaging on PET/MR is challenged by attenuation of annihilation photons through their pathway. The correction for photon attenuation requires the availability of patient-specific attenuation map, which accounts for the spatial distribution of attenuation coefficients of biological tissues. However, the lack of information on electron density in the MR signal poses an inherent difficulty to the derivation of the attenuation map from MR images. In other words, the MR signal correlates with proton densities and tissue relaxation properties, rather than with electron density and, as such, it is not directly related to attenuation coefficients. In order to derive the attenuation map from MR images at 511 keV, various strategies have been proposed and implemented on prototype and commercial PET/MR systems. Segmentation-based methods generate an attenuation map by classification of T1-weighted or high resolution Dixon MR sequences followed by assignment of predefined attenuation coefficients to various tissue types. Intensity-based segmentation approaches fail to include bones in the attenuation map since the segmentation of bones from conventional MR sequences is a difficult task. Most MR-guided attenuation correction techniques ignore bones owing to the inherent difficulties associated with bone segmentation unless specialized MR sequences such as ultra-short echo (UTE) sequence are utilized. In this work, we introduce a new technique based on statistical shape modeling to segment bones and generate a four-class attenuation map. Our segmentation approach requires a torso bone shape model based on principle component analysis (PCA). A CT-based training set including clearly segmented bones of the torso region

  15. The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN): proposal for text changes for improved differentiation of viral taxa and viruses.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B

    2013-07-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is responsible for the classification of viruses into taxa. Importantly, the ICTV is currently not responsible for the nomenclature of viruses or their subclassification into strains, lineages, or genotypes. ICTV rules for classification of viruses and nomenclature of taxa are laid out in a code, the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). The most recent version of the Code makes it difficult for the unfamiliar reader to distinguish between viruses and taxa, thereby often giving the impression that certain Rules apply to viruses. Here, Code text changes are proposed to address this problem.

  16. Application of PCA and SIMCA statistical analysis of FT-IR spectra for the classification and identification of different slag types with environmental origin.

    PubMed

    Stumpe, B; Engel, T; Steinweg, B; Marschner, B

    2012-04-03

    In the past, different slag materials were often used for landscaping and construction purposes or simply dumped. Nowadays German environmental laws strictly control the use of slags, but there is still a remaining part of 35% which is uncontrolled dumped in landfills. Since some slags have high heavy metal contents and different slag types have typical chemical and physical properties that will influence the risk potential and other characteristics of the deposits, an identification of the slag types is needed. We developed a FT-IR-based statistical method to identify different slags classes. Slags samples were collected at different sites throughout various cities within the industrial Ruhr area. Then, spectra of 35 samples from four different slags classes, ladle furnace (LF), blast furnace (BF), oxygen furnace steel (OF), and zinc furnace slags (ZF), were determined in the mid-infrared region (4000-400 cm(-1)). The spectra data sets were subject to statistical classification methods for the separation of separate spectral data of different slag classes. Principal component analysis (PCA) models for each slag class were developed and further used for soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Precise classification of slag samples into four different slag classes were achieved using two different SIMCA models stepwise. At first, SIMCA 1 was used for classification of ZF as well as OF slags over the total spectral range. If no correct classification was found, then the spectrum was analyzed with SIMCA 2 at reduced wavenumbers for the classification of LF as well as BF spectra. As a result, we provide a time- and cost-efficient method based on FT-IR spectroscopy for processing and identifying large numbers of environmental slag samples.

  17. Internal representations for face detection: an application of noise-based image classification to BOLD responses.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Adrian; Vettel, Jean M; Tarr, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    What basic visual structures underlie human face detection and how can we extract such structures directly from the amplitude of neural responses elicited by face processing? Here, we address these issues by investigating an extension of noise-based image classification to BOLD responses recorded in high-level visual areas. First, we assess the applicability of this classification method to such data and, second, we explore its results in connection with the neural processing of faces. To this end, we construct luminance templates from white noise fields based on the response of face-selective areas in the human ventral cortex. Using behaviorally and neurally-derived classification images, our results reveal a family of simple but robust image structures subserving face representation and detection. Thus, we confirm the role played by classical face selective regions in face detection and we help clarify the representational basis of this perceptual function. From a theory standpoint, our findings support the idea of simple but highly diagnostic neurally-coded features for face detection. At the same time, from a methodological perspective, our work demonstrates the ability of noise-based image classification in conjunction with fMRI to help uncover the structure of high-level perceptual representations.

  18. Measuring elimination of podoconiosis, endemicity classifications, case definition and targets: an international Delphi exercise

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; Muheki Tukahebwa, Edridah; Umulisa, Irenee; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is one of the major causes of lymphoedema in the tropics. Nonetheless, currently there are no endemicity classifications or elimination targets to monitor the effects of interventions. This study aimed at establishing case definitions and indicators that can be used to assess endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis. Methods This paper describes the result of a Delphi technique used among 28 experts. A questionnaire outlining possible case definitions, endemicity classifications, elimination targets and clinical outcomes was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to experts working on podoconiosis and other neglected tropical diseases in two rounds. The experts rated the importance of case definitions, endemic classifications, elimination targets and the clinical outcome measures. Median and mode were used to describe the central tendency of expert responses. The coefficient of variation was used to describe the dispersals of expert responses. Results Consensus on definitions and indicators for assessing endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis directed at policy makers and health workers was achieved following the two rounds of Delphi approach among the experts. Conclusions Based on the two Delphi rounds we discuss potential indicators and endemicity classification of this disabling disease, and the ongoing challenges to its elimination in countries with the highest prevalence. Consensus will help to increase effectiveness of podoconiosis elimination efforts and ensure comparability of outcome data. PMID:26185194

  19. 6th International workshop on the Detection, Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Dr Douglas Gillespie Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of St Andrews, Scottish Oceans Institute,Sea Mammal

  20. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Travis, William D.; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Geisinger, Kim R.; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G.; Powell, Charles A.; Riely, Gregory J.; Van Schil, Paul E.; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H. M.; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M.; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A.; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. Methods An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection

  1. [A contemporary conception of insomnia syndrome and its treatments in view of International classification of sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Poluektov, M G; Tsenteradze, S L

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is one of the most common and wide-spread sleep disorders. It includes difficulties of sleep initiation, sustaining and daytime impairment. A condition of cerebral hyperarousal plays the most important role in the genesis of insomnia. Cognitive, electrophysiological and metabolic parameters are correlated with hyperarousal state. According to the International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD-3), insomnia is divided into acute, chronic and unclassified. Treatment of insomnia includes specific and nonspecific approaches. Regardless of the origin of insomnia, sleep hygiene and behavioral therapy remain the methods of choice for the treatment.

  2. [Anthropometry: the modern statistical analysis and significance for clinics of internal diseases and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Petykhov, A B; Maev, I V; Deriabin, V E

    2012-01-01

    Anthropometry--a technique, allowing to obtain the necessary features for the characteristic of human body's changes in norm and at pathology. Statistical analysis of anthropometric parameters, such as--body mass, length, waist line, hip, shoulder and wrist circumferences, skin rolls of fat thickness: on triceps, under a bladebone, on a breast, on a venter and on a biceps, with calculation of indexes and an assessment of possible age influence was carried out for the first time in domestic medicine. Complexes of showing interrelations anthropometric characteristics were detected. Correlation coefficients (r) were counted and the factorial (on a method main a component with the subsequent rotation--a varimax method), covariance and discriminative analyses (with application of the Kaiser and Wilks criterions and F-test) is applied. Study of intergroup variability of body composition was carried out on separate characteristics in healthy individuals groups (135 surveyed aged 45,6 +/- 1,2 years, 56,3% men and 43,7% women) and at internal pathology: patients after a gastrectomy--121 (57,7 +/- 1,2 years, 52% men and 48% women); after Billroth operation--214 (56,1 +/- 1,0 years, 53% men and 47% women); after enterectomy--103 (44,5 +/- 1,8 years, 53% men and 47% women); after mixed genesis protein-energy wasting--206 (29,04 +/- 1,6 years, 79% men and 21% women). The group of interlocking characteristics which includes anthropometric parameters of hypodermic lipopexia (rolls of fat thickness on triceps, a biceps, under a bladebone, on a venter) and fatty body mass was defined by results of the analysis. These characteristics are interconnected with age and growth and have more expressed dependence at women, that reflects development of a fatty component of a body, at assessment of body mass index at women (unlike men). The waist-hip circumference index differs irrespective of body composition indicators that doesn't allow to characterize it with the terms of truncal or

  3. Functions and Statistics: International Space Station: Up to Us. NASA Connect: Program 5 in the 2000-2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of functions and statistics in the context of the International Space Station (ISS). The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each…

  4. [The practical application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in medical rehabilitation of psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, J; Keller, K; Bräuning-Edelmann, M

    2005-12-01

    The WHO Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health enables the description of functional health, disability and impairment on an international and interdisciplinary level in a common language. The fundamental underlying assumption of this Classification, which is orientated around a bio-psycho-social model of health and impairment, has been accepted by rehabilitation scientists in general. Unfortunately, the WHO does not make any recommendations as to how this classification could be applied in practice. In this article, various problems are outlined which could occur when the ICF is applied. Furthermore an example from a psychiatric rehabilitation institution illustrates the way the ICF could serve as an instrument for an extensive rehabilitation management programme. Here, Stucki's use will be made of Rehab-Cycle model. This describes a comprehensive sequence of steps which help analyse the patients problems from a patient-centred standpoint, to set up a schedule for treatment and to evaluate the results. Within Stucki's model the ICF is used as a system to analyse problems upon which intervention can be set. This method is illustrated with an example from a rehabilitation case. Summarizing, it is pointed out that through easier communication (as a result of the ICF) interdisciplinary productivity and efficiency will increase. On this basis it is possible to achieve a more comprehensive multimodal approach in the treatment of people suffering from psychic impairments or disability.

  5. [Quality control in the therapy of chronic pain. Results obtained by a task force of the German Section of the International Association for the Study of Pain on psychological assessment of chronic pain. XI. Assessment and multiaxial classification of pain].

    PubMed

    Klinger, R; Denecke, H; Glier, B; Kröner-Herwig, B; Nilges, P; Redegeld, M; Weiss, L

    1997-12-12

    This paper reviews instruments in German language for the psychological assessment and classification of pain. Usually chronic pain syndromes are classified within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Instead of the psychiatric chapter of the ICD, it is possible to use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The proposed classification system of the International Association of the Study of Pain (IASP) is based on a multiaxial solution. The numerous ways to classify chronic pain include many problems and limits, especially in the case of an interdisciplinary assessment. They provide no specific system for classifying pain syndromes. They are impractical to handle and restrict classifying pain as either somatogenic or psychogenic. It is not possible to describe both sides in one diagnosis without loss of information. As a result of this situation, a task force of the German Chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain developed a Multiaxial Classification of Pain (Multiaxiale Schmerzklassifikation; MASK) as an advanced system of pain assessment and an alternative to the common classification systems. MASK embraces a somatic (MASK-S) and a psychological (MASK-P) part. Both parts constitute an 'interdisciplinary diagnosis'. MASK-S enables classifying a pain syndrome using hierarchical levels, with progredient specific degrees of differentiation. In addition there are 6 axes to describe pain syndromes qualitatively and quantitatively (e.g. localization, quality). The psychosocial part (MASK-P) embraces 5 main levels (1. behavioral, 2. emotional, 3. cognitive, 4. stress-related, 5. habitual personal factors) and 2 additional levels (6. functional coherence, 7. ICD/DSM-diagnosis additional). The MASK-P part of the diagnosis is composed of graduation on these levels. Differential axis of the pain syndromes are described phenomenologically and specifically. MASK provides the possibility of establishing an

  6. Automated Internal Classification of Beadless Chinese ZhuJi Fleshwater Pearls based on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Tiebing; Shi, Yang; Chen, Zhengwei; Mao, Jianwei; Zhou, Wujie

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied to inspect the internal defect of beadless Chinese ZhuJi fleshwater pearls. A novel fully automated algorithm is proposed to classify between normal and defective sub-layer in nacre layer. Our algorithm utilizes the graph segmentation approach to estimate the up and down boundaries of defect sub-layers from flattened and cropped image, and also proposes the strategy for edge and weight construction in segmentation process. The vertical gradients of boundary pixels are used to make grading decision. The algorithm is tested by typical pearl samples, and achieves 100% classification accuracy. The experiment result shows the feasibility and adaptability of the proposed approach, and proves that the OCT technique combined with proposed algorithm is a potential tool for fast and non-destructive diagnosis of internal structure of beadless pearl. PMID:27666087

  7. Automated Internal Classification of Beadless Chinese ZhuJi Fleshwater Pearls based on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Tiebing; Shi, Yang; Chen, Zhengwei; Mao, Jianwei; Zhou, Wujie

    2016-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied to inspect the internal defect of beadless Chinese ZhuJi fleshwater pearls. A novel fully automated algorithm is proposed to classify between normal and defective sub-layer in nacre layer. Our algorithm utilizes the graph segmentation approach to estimate the up and down boundaries of defect sub-layers from flattened and cropped image, and also proposes the strategy for edge and weight construction in segmentation process. The vertical gradients of boundary pixels are used to make grading decision. The algorithm is tested by typical pearl samples, and achieves 100% classification accuracy. The experiment result shows the feasibility and adaptability of the proposed approach, and proves that the OCT technique combined with proposed algorithm is a potential tool for fast and non-destructive diagnosis of internal structure of beadless pearl.

  8. An anomalous metal-rich phosphogypsum: Characterization and classification according to international regulations.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Cánovas, Carlos R; Cruz-Hernández, Pablo; Carrero, Sergio; Asta, Maria P; Nieto, José Miguel; Pérez-López, Rafael

    2017-06-05

    Phosphogypsum is the main waste generated by the phosphate fertilizer industry. Despite the high level of pollutants found in phosphogypsum and the proximity of stacks to cities, there are no specific regulations for the management of this waste. This study addresses this issue by applying to phosphogypsum, from a fertilizer plant in Huelva (SW Spain), the leaching tests proposed by the current European and US environmental regulations for wastes management and classification. Two main conclusions were obtained: 1) the anomalous metal and metalloid concentrations (e.g. As, Fe, Pb, Sb, Mn, V and Cu) and higher mobility observed in the Huelva phosphogypsum compared to other stacks worldwide, and 2) the discrepancies observed between EU and US regulations dealing with hazardousness classification of these materials. This latter finding suggests the need to use complementary assessment protocols to obtain a better characterization and classification of these wastes. An evaluation of the potential risk to the aquatic life according to the US EPA regulation is proposed in this study. The results warn about the acute and chronic effects on the aquatic life of this waste and suggest the adoption of more strict measures for a safe disposal of phosphogypsum stacks.

  9. [Contribution of the 10th International Classification of Diseases to pediatric and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Vojtík, V

    1993-12-01

    The 10th revision of the classification of mental disorders and behavioural disorders is due to description of clinical symptoms and diagnostic criteria more accurate and enriches the activities of departments of child and adolescent psychiatry. Diagnostics, therapy and prevention profit not only from sections dealing with newly conceived disorders which begin in childhood and adolescence but also other sections where problems relating to children and adolescents are pointed out. The Czech translation inovates clinical pictures given in our textbook of Child psychiatry published in 1963 and thus replaces partly a hitherto not published modern Czech textbook of child and adolescent psychiatry.

  10. Detection and Classification of Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Using Parallel Filter Arrays and Higher Order Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Resulting Plots for Different LPI Radar Signals (1) FMCW Table 9 shows a FMCW signal with carrier frequency equal to 1 KHz, sampling frequency equal to...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Detection and Classification of LPI Radar Signals using Parallel Filter...In order to detect LPI radar waveforms new signal processing techniques are required. This thesis first develops a MATLAB® toolbox to generate

  11. Intervention categories for physiotherapists treating patients with internal medicine conditions on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Bürge, Elisabeth; Cieza, Alarcos; Allet, Lara; Finger, Monika Elisabeth; Stucki, Gerold; Huber, Erika Omega

    2008-03-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is considered to be a useful tool to overcome differences among different health professionals and to facilitate a common understanding of the patient and of what constitutes care. Three lists of ICF intervention categories for internal medicine have been developed. The next step of the development process is to address their content validity. The data for this study were derived from 300 clinical records. The study was conducted as a retrospective cross-sectional multicentre study in Switzerland. It was performed using convenience samples of records of patients with internal medicine conditions. The validation process enabled the identification of 36 ICF intervention categories in the acute, 41 in the rehabilitation and 38 in the long-term contexts. The developed lists might help define the core competencies of the profession of physiotherapy. These intervention categories are available for intervention documentation in a standardized common language, the ICF, and they offer the possibility of responding to the health-political demand for transparency regarding services offered by health care providers.

  12. A systematic literature review of the situation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-Children and Youth version in education: a useful tool or a flight of fancy?

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marta; Alves, Ines; Maxwell, Gregor

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the outcome of a systematic literature review exploring the applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and its Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) at various levels and in processes within the education systems in different countries. A systematic database search using selected search terms has been used. The selection of studies was then refined further using four protocols: inclusion and exclusion protocols at abstract and full text and extraction levels along with a quality protocol. Studies exploring the direct relationship between education and the ICF/ICF-CY were sought.As expected, the results show a strong presence of studies from English-speaking countries, namely from Europe and North America. The articles were mainly published in noneducational journals. The most used ICF/ICF-CY components are activity and participation, participation, and environmental factors. From the analysis of the papers included, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY is currently used as a research tool, theoretical framework, and tool for implementing educational processes. The ICF/ICF-CY can provide a useful language to the education field where there is currently a lot of disparity in theoretical, praxis, and research issues. Although the systematic literature review does not report a high incidence of the use of the ICF/ICF-CY in education, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY model and classification have potential to be applied in education systems.

  13. Hunting statistics: what data for what use? An account of an international workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Lebreton, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Hunting interacts with the underlying dynamics of game species in several different ways and is, at the same time, a source of valuable information not easily obtained from populations that are not subjected to hunting. Specific questions, including the sustainability of hunting activities, can be addressed using hunting statistics. Such investigations will frequently require that hunting statistics be combined with data from other sources of population-level information. Such reflections served as a basis for the meeting, ?Hunting Statistics: What Data for What Use,? held on January 15-18, 2001 in Saint-Benoist, France. We review here the 20 talks held during the workshop and the contribution of hunting statistics to our knowledge of the population dynamics of game species. Three specific topics (adaptive management, catch-effort models, and dynamics of exploited populations) were highlighted as important themes and are more extensively presented as boxes.

  14. Reliability and Validity of the Sensory Component of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hales, M.; Biros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 1982, the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) has been used to classify sensation of spinal cord injury (SCI) through pinprick and light touch scores. The absence of proprioception, pain, and temperature within this scale creates questions about its validity and accuracy. Objectives: To assess whether the sensory component of the ISNCSCI represents a reliable and valid measure of classification of SCI. Methods: A systematic review of studies examining the reliability and validity of the sensory component of the ISNCSCI published between 1982 and February 2013 was conducted. The electronic databases MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, PEDro, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. A secondary search of reference lists was also completed. Chosen articles were assessed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine hierarchy of evidence and critically appraised using the McMasters Critical Review Form. A statistical analysis was conducted to investigate the variability of the results given by reliability studies. Results: Twelve studies were identified: 9 reviewed reliability and 3 reviewed validity. All studies demonstrated low levels of evidence and moderate critical appraisal scores. The majority of the articles (~67%; 6/9) assessing the reliability suggested that training was positively associated with better posttest results. The results of the 3 studies that assessed the validity of the ISNCSCI scale were confounding. Conclusions: Due to the low to moderate quality of the current literature, the sensory component of the ISNCSCI requires further revision and investigation if it is to be a useful tool in clinical trials. PMID:26363591

  15. A complete solution classification and unified algorithmic treatment for the one- and two-step asymmetric S-transverse mass event scale statistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Joel W.

    2014-08-01

    The M T2, or "s-transverse mass", statistic was developed to associate a parent mass scale to a missing transverse energy signature, given that escaping particles are generally expected in pairs, while collider experiments are sensitive to just a single transverse momentum vector sum. This document focuses on the generalized extension of that statistic to asymmetric one- and two-step decay chains, with arbitrary child particle masses and upstream missing transverse momentum. It provides a unified theoretical formulation, complete solution classification, taxonomy of critical points, and technical algorithmic prescription for treatment of the event scale. An implementation of the described algorithm is available for download, and is also a deployable component of the author's selection cut software package AEAC uS (Algorithmic Event Arbiter and C ut Selector). appendices address combinatoric event assembly, algorithm validation, and a complete pseudocode.

  16. Evaluation of post-stroke functionality based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: a proposal for use of assessment tools

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Soraia Micaela; Corrêa, Fernanda Ishida; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais; Buchalla, Cássia Maria; Silva, Paula Fernanda da Costa; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories addressed by the assessment tools commonly used in post-stroke rehabilitation and characterize patients based on its evaluation model. [Subjects and Methods] An exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 35 individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Handgrip strength was assessed to evaluate body functions and structures. The 10-meter gait speed test and Timed Up and Go test were administered to evaluate activity. The Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale was used to evaluate participation. Moreover, a systematic review of the literature was performed to identify studies that have associated these assessment tools with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories. [Results] The tools employed in this study for evaluating function addressed 63 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories: 24 related to body functions and structures; 36 related to activity and participation; and 3 related to environmental factors. [Conclusion] The assessment tools employed in this study addressed 63 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories and allowed a more complete evaluation of stroke survivors with hemiparesis. Use of this classification can therefore be more easily incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:26180294

  17. Characterization of hourly NOx atmospheric concentrations near the Venice International Airport with additive semi-parametric statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Varin, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    An additive modeling approach is employed to provide a statistical description of hourly variation in concentrations of NOx measured in proximity of the Venice "Marco Polo" International Airport, Italy. Differently from several previous studies on airport emissions based on daily time series, the paper analyzes hourly data because variations of NOx concentrations during the day are informative about the prevailing emission source. The statistical analysis is carried out using a one-year time series. Confounder effects due to seasonality, meteorology and airport traffic volume are accounted for by suitable covariates. Four different model specifications of increasing complexity are considered. The model with the aircraft source expressed as the NOx emitted near the airport is found to have the best predictive quality. Although the aircraft source is statistically significant, the comparison of model-based predictions suggests that the relative impact of aircraft emissions to ambient NOx concentrations is limited and the road traffic is the likely dominant source near the sampling point.

  18. Security Classification Using Automated Learning (SCALE): Optimizing Statistical Natural Language Processing Techniques to Assign Security Labels to Unstructured Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    techniques de traitement du langage naturel statistique et d’apprentissage automa- tique pour attribuer automatiquement une classification de sécurité à...automatique de la sensibilité d’un document ont été publiées. Dans le présent document, nous examinons l’efficacité du traitement du langage na...résultats démontrent que le traitement du langage naturel statistique combiné à l’apprentissage automatique est un moyen efficace qui permet

  19. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXI. Nomenclature and Classification of Adenosine Receptors—An Update

    PubMed Central

    IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Linden, Joel; Müller, Christa E.

    2011-01-01

    In the 10 years since our previous International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology report on the nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors, no developments have led to major changes in the recommendations. However, there have been so many other developments that an update is needed. The fact that the structure of one of the adenosine receptors has recently been solved has already led to new ways of in silico screening of ligands. The evidence that adenosine receptors can form homo- and heteromultimers has accumulated, but the functional significance of such complexes remains unclear. The availability of mice with genetic modification of all the adenosine receptors has led to a clarification of the functional roles of adenosine, and to excellent means to study the specificity of drugs. There are also interesting associations between disease and structural variants in one or more of the adenosine receptors. Several new selective agonists and antagonists have become available. They provide improved possibilities for receptor classification. There are also developments hinting at the usefulness of allosteric modulators. Many drugs targeting adenosine receptors are in clinical trials, but the established therapeutic use is still very limited. PMID:21303899

  20. Revised diagnostic criteria and classification for the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS): report from the 2009 NIH International Workshop.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joao B; Bleesing, Jack J; Dianzani, Umberto; Fleisher, Thomas A; Jaffe, Elaine S; Lenardo, Michael J; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic; Siegel, Richard M; Su, Helen C; Teachey, David T; Rao, V Koneti

    2010-10-07

    Lymphadenopathy in children for which no infectious or malignant cause can be ascertained constitutes a challenging diagnostic dilemma. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human genetic disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis resulting in an accumulation of lymphocytes and childhood onset chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, multilineage cytopenias, and an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. In 1999, investigators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) suggested criteria to establish the diagnosis of ALPS. Since then, with approximately 500 patients with ALPS studied worldwide, significant advances in our understanding of the disease have prompted the need for revisions to the existing diagnostic criteria and classification scheme. The rationale and recommendations outlined here stem from an international workshop held at NIH on September 21 and 22, 2009, attended by investigators from the United States, Europe, and Australia engaged in clinical and basic science research on ALPS and related disorders. It is hoped that harmonizing the diagnosis and classification of ALPS will foster collaborative research and better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune cytopenias and B-cell lymphomas.

  1. Diagnosis of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. An update based on the International classification of sleep disorders, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Billiard, Michel

    2007-10-01

    Defining the precise nosological limits of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia is an ongoing process dating back to the first description of the two conditions. The most recent step forward has been done within the preparation of the second edition of the "International classification of sleep disorders" published in June 2005. Appointed by Dr Emmanuel Mignot, the Task Force on "Hypersomnias of central origin, not due to a circadian rhythm sleep disorder, sleep related breathing disorder, or other causes of disturbed nocturnal sleep" thoroughly revisited the nosology of narcolepsy and of idiopathic hypersomnia. Narcolepsy is now distinguished into three different entities, narcolepsy with cataplexy, narcolepsy without cataplexy and narcolepsy due to medical condition, and idiopathic hypersomnia into two entities, idiopathic hypersomnia with long sleep time and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time. Nevertheless there are still a number of pending issues. What are the limits of narcolepsy without cataplexy? Is there a continuum in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with and without cataplexy? Should sporadic and familial forms of narcolepsy with cataplexy appear as subgroups in the classification? Are idiopathic hypersomnia with long sleep time and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time, two forms of the same condition or two different conditions? Is there a pathophysiological relationship between narcolepsy without cataplexy and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time?

  2. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  3. Descriptors for Competence: Towards an International Standard Classification for Skills and Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Plaimauer, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of already existing skills and competence ontologies to benefit European transparency tools and especially the implementation of the European Qualification Framework. Furthermore, it asks whether any of them could serve as a starting point to develop an International Standard…

  4. Development and Validation of the "Student Internalizing Behavior Screener": Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Classification Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Rasetshwane, Kutlo B.; Truelson, Erica; Grant, Stephanie; Dart, Evan H.; Collins, Tai A.; Sprague, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Students with internalizing behavior patterns are often overlooked and underserved in schools, which is problematic in that they are at risk for a host of negative outcomes. As a result, there is a need for universal screening procedures to proactively detect students with these behavior patterns and to provide them with early, ongoing supports.…

  5. Introduction to the international classification of functioning disability and health - ICF - in the context of vestibular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Mariella

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation focuses at decreasing the impact of symptoms, such as vertigo dizziness and imbalance have on people's daily life and their role in society. The international Classification of Functioning Disability and Health - ICF offers a unified and standard language and framework for describing health and health related states. The ICF aims at facilitating communication information about health, like functioning and disability. For this purpose the ICF has a systematic coding scheme for health data with more than 1400 categories. The big number of categories is impractical to apply in a specific area like vestibular disorders. Therefore a narrowing down to the relevant categories in a comprehensive core set for vertigo (100 categories) and a brief core set (29 categories) were developed. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the potential use of ICF in vestibular rehabilitation.

  6. Comparing existing national and international classification systems of surgical procedures with the CEN/ISO 1828 ontology framework standard.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jean M; Casey, Ann; Bousquet, Cédric; Kumar, Anand; Lewalle, Pierre; Trombert Paviot, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    Among different standardization strategies for biomedical terminologies the European Standard Body CEN TC 251 followed by ISO TC 215 have stated that it was not possible to convince the different European or international member states using different national languages to agree on a reference clinical terminology or to standardize a detailed language independent biomedical ontology. Since 1990 they have developed since an approach named the Categorial Structure that standardises only the terminologies' model structure. The methodology for the Categorial Structure development and a comparison of the different existing classification systems based on this ontology framework is presented as a step towards increased interoperability between biomedical terminologies through conformity to a minimum set of ontological requirements.

  7. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in women with breast cancer: a proposal for measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Flávia Nascimento de; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Bergmann, Anke

    2013-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) aims at standardization, but its applicability requires consistent instruments. In Brazil, invasive therapeutic approaches are frequent, leading to functional alterations. The current study thus aimed to identify and discuss instruments capable of measuring ICF core set codes for breast cancer. The review included ICF studies in women with breast cancer diagnosis and studies with the objective of translating and validating instruments for the Brazilian population, and consistent with the codes. Review studies, systematic or not, were excluded. Eight instruments were selected, and the WHOQOL-Bref was the most comprehensive. The use of various instruments showed 19 coinciding codes, and the instruments as a whole covered 58 of the total of 81 codes. The use of multiple instruments is time-consuming, so new studies are needed to propose parsimonious tools capable of measuring functioning in women treated for breast cancer.

  8. High-frequency normal-mode statistics in shallow water: the combined effect of random surface and internal waves.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A

    2015-05-01

    In an earlier article, the statistical properties of mode propagation were studied at a frequency of 1 kHz in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves, using a hybrid transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulations. Here, the analysis is extended to include the effects of random linear surface waves, in isolation and in combination with internal waves. Mode coupling rates for both surface and internal waves are found to be significant, but strongly dependent on mode number. Mode phase randomization by surface waves is found to be dominated by coupling effects, and therefore a full transport theory treatment of the range evolution of the cross mode coherence matrix is needed. The second-moment of mode amplitudes is calculated using transport theory, thereby providing the mean intensity while the fourth-moment is calculated using Monte Carlo simulations, which provides the scintillation index. The transport theory results for second-moment statistics are shown to closely reproduce Monte Carlo simulations. Both surface waves and internal waves strongly influence the acoustic field fluctuations.

  9. Proposed Framework for Presenting Injury Data Using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) Diagnosis Codes.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Holly; Johnson, Renee L; Warner, Margaret; Chen, Li-Hui; Annest, J Lee

    2016-01-22

    Frameworks based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) provide injury researchers and epidemiologists with standard approaches for presenting and analyzing injury-related mortality and morbidity data. Injury diagnosis frameworks, such as the Barell Matrix for the ICD Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and the Injury Mortality Diagnosis Matrix for the ICD Tenth Revision (ICD-10), categorize ICD codes into major body region (e.g., head, chest, abdomen, or extremity) by nature-of-injury (e.g., fracture, laceration, organ injury, or vascular injury) categories. In the United States, morbidity coding transitioned from ICD-9- CM to ICD-10-CM on October 1, 2015. In preparation for the use of ICD-10-CMcoded morbidity data for injury surveillance and data analysis, the National Center for Health Statistics and the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control propose an ICD-10-CM Injury Diagnosis Matrix to provide a standard approach for categorizing injuries by body region and nature of injury. This report provides a brief description of the differences between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM injury diagnosis codes, introduces the proposed framework and the methods used to create it, and provides a list of additional considerations for review and comment by researchers and subjectmatter experts in injury data and surveillance.

  10. Spatio-temporal dependencies between hospital beds, physicians and health expenditure using visual variables and data classification in statistical table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medyńska-Gulij, Beata; Cybulski, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyses the use of table visual variables of statistical data of hospital beds as an important tool for revealing spatio-temporal dependencies. It is argued that some of conclusions from the data about public health and public expenditure on health have a spatio-temporal reference. Different from previous studies, this article adopts combination of cartographic pragmatics and spatial visualization with previous conclusions made in public health literature. While the significant conclusions about health care and economic factors has been highlighted in research papers, this article is the first to apply visual analysis to statistical table together with maps which is called previsualisation.

  11. Internationally Comparable Statistics on Education, Training and Skills: Current State and Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline; Nestler, Katja; Tessaring, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Comparable statistics on education, training and skills are not only used by research and analysis to provide explanation and evidence of the functioning of European labour markets and of education and training systems, but also to construct indicators comparing EU Member States, comparing the EU with competitors and assessing the achievement of…

  12. Standardization by Bivariate Adjustment of Internal Assessments: Sex Bias and Other Statistical Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    ASAT scores are examined statistically with respect to gender differences, and a rationale for removing the gender bias from the aggregate achievement assessments is described. The inadequacy of relying solely on aptitude tests to produce comparisons of achievements is noted. (Author/MLW)

  13. The Coming of Age of Statistics Education in New Zealand, and Its Influence Internationally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Sharleen

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand has been leading the world in terms of the data handling, and in more recent years, data visualisation approach in its school statistics curriculum. In 2013, bootstrapping and randomisation were added to the senior secondary school (Ministry of Education 2012). This paper gives an historical perspective of the people and groups that…

  14. Editorial: International Conference on “Unconventional Applications of Statistical Physics”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In his presidential address before the British Association in 1871, William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) said, “the greatest achievement yet made in molecular theory of the properties of matter is the kinetic theory of gases, shadowed forth by Lucretius, definitely stated by Daniel Bernoulli, largely developed by Herapath, made a reality by Joule, and worked out to its present advanced state by Clausius and Maxwell”. Then, in 1889, in an obituary tribute to Rudolf Clausius, Josiah Willard Gibbs wrote that the kinetic theory of gases “is mainly the work of three men, Clausius, Maxwell and Boltzmann”. However, it was Gibbs himself who put statistical mechanics on a solid foundation in 1902 by developing the general formalisms in his classic book “Elementary Principles of Statistical Mechanics”. These formalisms were not restricted merely to gases but were applicable to all forms of matter. But, despite relentless efforts of statistical physicists over the last one century, an equally strong foundation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics remains elusive.

  15. Comparison of game-related statistics in men's international championships between winning and losing teams according to margin of victory.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jose M; Escalantel, Yolanda; Madera, Joaquin; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare water polo game-related statistics by game outcome (winning and losing teams) and margins of victory (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games), and (ii) to identify characteristics that mark the differences in performances for each group of margin of victory. The game-related statistics of the 308 men's matches played in seven International Championships (Olympic Games, World and European Championships) were analysed. A cluster analysis established three groups (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games) according to the margin of victory. Differences between game outcomes (winning or losing teams) and margins of victory (close, unbalanced, and very unbalanced games) were determined using the chi-squared statistic, also calculating the effect sizes of the differences. A discriminant analysis was then performed applying the sample-splitting method according to game outcome (winning and losing teams) by margin of victory. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each final score group, with 7 (offensive and defensive) variables differentiating winners from losers in close games, 16 in unbalanced games, and 11 in very unbalanced games. In all three types of game, the game-related statistics were shown to discriminate performance (85% or more), with two variables being discriminatory by game outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three cases: shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots.

  16. A statistical study of variations of internal gravity wave energy characteristics in meteor zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavrilov, N. M.; Kalov, E. D.

    1987-01-01

    Internal gravity wave (IGW) parameters obtained by the radiometer method have been considered by many other researchers. The results of the processing of regular radiometeor measurements taken during 1979 to 1980 in Obninsk (55.1 deg N, 36.6 deg E) are presented.

  17. International Myeloma Working Group molecular classification of multiple myeloma: spotlight review.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, R; Bergsagel, P L; Drach, J; Shaughnessy, J; Gutierrez, N; Stewart, A K; Morgan, G; Van Ness, B; Chesi, M; Minvielle, S; Neri, A; Barlogie, B; Kuehl, W M; Liebisch, P; Davies, F; Chen-Kiang, S; Durie, B G M; Carrasco, R; Sezer, Orhan; Reiman, Tony; Pilarski, Linda; Avet-Loiseau, H

    2009-12-01

    Myeloma is a malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. Although morphologically similar, several subtypes of the disease have been identified at the genetic and molecular level. These genetic subtypes are associated with unique clinicopathological features and dissimilar outcome. At the top hierarchical level, myeloma can be divided into hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid subtypes. The latter is mainly composed of cases harboring IgH translocations, generally associated with more aggressive clinical features and shorter survival. The three main IgH translocations in myeloma are the t(11;14)(q13;q32), t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23). Trisomies and a more indolent form of the disease characterize hyperdiploid myeloma. A number of genetic progression factors have been identified including deletions of chromosomes 13 and 17 and abnormalities of chromosome 1 (1p deletion and 1q amplification). Other key drivers of cell survival and proliferation have also been identified such as nuclear factor- B-activating mutations and other deregulation factors for the cyclin-dependent pathways regulators. Further understanding of the biological subtypes of the disease has come from the application of novel techniques such as gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The combination of data arising from these studies and that previously elucidated through other mechanisms allows for most myeloma cases to be classified under one of several genetic subtypes. This paper proposes a framework for the classification of myeloma subtypes and provides recommendations for genetic testing. This group proposes that genetic testing needs to be incorporated into daily clinical practice and also as an essential component of all ongoing and future clinical trials.

  18. International Myeloma Working Group molecular classification of multiple myeloma: spotlight review

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, R; Bergsagel, PL; Drach, J; Shaughnessy, J.; Gutierrez, N; Stewart, AK; Morgan, G; Van Ness, B; Chesi, M; Minvielle, S; Neri, A; Barlogie, B; Kuehl, WM; Liebisch, P; Davies, F; Chen-Kiang, S; Durie, BGM; Carrasco, R; Sezer, Orhan; Reiman, Tony; Pilarski, Linda; Avet-Loiseau, H

    2010-01-01

    Myeloma is a malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. Although morphologically similar, several subtypes of the disease have been identified at the genetic and molecular level. These genetic subtypes are associated with unique clinico-pathological features and dissimilar outcome. At the top hierarchical level, myeloma can be divided into hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid subtypes. The latter is mainly composed of cases harboring IgH translocations, generally associated with more aggressive clinical features and shorter survival. The three main IgH translocations in myeloma are the t(11;14)(q13;q32), t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23). Trisomies and a more indolent form of the disease characterize hyperdiploid myeloma. A number of genetic progression factors have been identified including deletions of chromosomes 13 and 17 and abnormalities of chromosome 1 (1p deletion and 1q amplification). Other key drivers of cell survival and proliferation have also been identified such as nuclear factor- B-activating mutations and other deregulation factors for the cyclin-dependent pathways regulators. Further understanding of the biological subtypes of the disease has come from the application of novel techniques such as gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The combination of data arising from these studies and that previously elucidated through other mechanisms allows for most myeloma cases to be classified under one of several genetic subtypes. This paper proposes a framework for the classification of myeloma subtypes and provides recommendations for genetic testing. This group proposes that genetic testing needs to be incorporated into daily clinical practice and also as an essential component of all ongoing and future clinical trials. PMID:19798094

  19. Risk assessment of student performance in the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Science Examination by the use of statistical modeling

    PubMed Central

    David, Michael C; Eley, Diann S; Schafer, Jennifer; Davies, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA) for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Science Examination (CSE). A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International Standard of Competence. Methods Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53) and international status (B: −37.40; 95% CI: −57.85 to −16.96) from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82) and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78) were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Conclusion Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International Standard of Competence. PMID:27980449

  20. Relationships between World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" Constructs and Participation in Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A.; Chan, Fong; Brooks, Jessica; Bezyak, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF) constructs as correlates of community participation of people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). Methods: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlational techniques was used to…

  1. Clinical diagnoses in 216 insomnia patients using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories: a report from the APA/NIMH DSM-IV Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Buysse, D J; Reynolds, C F; Kupfer, D J; Thorpy, M J; Bixler, E; Manfredi, R; Kales, A; Vgontzas, A; Stepanski, E; Roth, T

    1994-10-01

    Three diagnostic classifications for sleep disorders have been developed recently: the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV), and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10). No data have yet been published regarding the frequency of specific diagnoses within these systems or how the diagnostic systems relate to each other. To address these issues, we examined clinical sleep disorder diagnoses (without polysomnography) in 257 patients (216 insomnia patients and 41 medical/psychiatric patients) evaluated at five sleep centers. A sleep specialist interviewed each patient and assigned clinical diagnoses using ICSD, DSM-IV and ICD-10 classifications. "Sleep disorder associated with mood disorder" was the most frequent ICSD primary diagnosis (32.3% of cases), followed by "Psychophysiological insomnia" (12.5% of cases). The most frequent DSM-IV primary diagnoses were "Insomnia related to another mental disorder" (44% of cases) and "Primary insomnia" (20.2% of cases), and the most frequent ICD-10 diagnoses were "Insomnia due to emotional causes" (61.9% of cases) and "Insomnia of organic origin" (8.9% of cases). When primary and secondary diagnoses were considered, insomnia related to psychiatric disorders was diagnosed in over 75% of patients. The more narrowly defined ICSD diagnoses nested logically within the broader DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories. We found substantial site-related differences in diagnostic patterns. These results confirm the importance of psychiatric and behavioral factors in clinicians' assessments of insomnia patients across all three diagnostic systems. ICSD and DSM-IV sleep disorder diagnoses have similar patterns of use by experienced clinicians.

  2. Non-destructive characterisation and classification of ceramic artefacts using pEDXRF and statistical pattern recognition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (pEDXRF) spectrometry analysis was applied for the characterisation of archaeological ceramic findings from three Neolithic sites in Serbia. Two dimension reduction techniques, principal component analysis (PCA) and scattering matrices-based dimension reduction were used to examine the possible classification of those findings, and to extract the most discriminant features. Results A decision-making procedure is proposed, whose goal is to classify unknown ceramic findings based on their elemental compositions derived by pEDXRF spectrometry. As a major part of decision-making procedure, the possibilities of two dimension reduction methods were tested. Scattering matrices-based dimension reduction was found to be the more efficient method for the purpose. Linear classifiers designed based on the desired output allowed for 7 of 8 unknown samples from the test set to be correctly classified. Conclusions Based on the results, the conclusion is that despite the constraints typical of the applied analytical technique, the elemental composition can be considered as viable information in provenience studies. With a fully-developed procedure, ceramic artefacts can be classified based on their elemental composition and well-known provenance. PMID:22978788

  3. [Vancouver classification of renal tumors: Recommendations of the 2012 consensus conference of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Delahunt, B; Srigley, J R; Lüders, C; Lunkenheimer, J-M; Gevensleben, H; Thiesler, T; Montironi, R; Egevad, L

    2015-05-01

    The 2012 consensus conference of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) has formulated recommendations on classification, prognostic factors and staging as well as immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology of renal tumors. Agreement was reached on the recognition of five new tumor entities: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic kidney disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor family RCC, in particular t(6;11) RCC and hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC. In addition three rare forms of carcinoma were considered as emerging or provisional entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC, succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation RCC. In the new ISUP Vancouver classification, modifications to the existing 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) specifications are also suggested. Tumor morphology, a differentiation between sarcomatoid and rhabdoid and tumor necrosis were emphasized as being significant prognostic parameters for RCC. The consensus ISUP grading system assigns clear cell and papillary RCCs to grades 1-3 due to nucleolar prominence and grade 4 is reserved for cases with extreme nuclear pleomorphism, sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation. Furthermore, consensus guidelines were established for the preparation of samples. For example, agreement was also reached that renal sinus invasion is diagnosed when the tumor is in direct contact with the fatty tissue or loose connective tissue of the sinus (intrarenal peripelvic fat) or when endothelialized cavities within the renal sinus are invaded by the tumor, independent of the size. The importance of biomarkers for the diagnostics or prognosis of renal tumors was also emphasized and marker profiles were formulated for use in specific differential diagnostics.

  4. Health professionals identify components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in questionnaires for the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Philbois, Stella V.; Martins, Jaqueline; Souza, Cesário S.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Oliveira, Anamaria S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several Brazilian studies have addressed the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), but few have analyzed the knowledge of the health professionals with regards to the ICF. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the classification of the items in the Brazilian-Portuguese versions of The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and The Disabilities Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires, obtained from health professionals who worked with patients having upper limb injuries, could be related to ICF components as defined by others studies. METHOD: There were 4 participants for the group "professionals with high familiarity of the ICF (PHF)" and 19 for the group of "professionals with some or no familiarity of the ICF (PSNF)". The participants judged whether the items on the two questionnaires belonged to the ICF body function, body structure or activity-participation component, and marked a confidence level for each trial using a numerical scale ranging from zero to 10. The items were classified by the discriminant content validity method using the Student'st-test and the Hochberg correction. The ratings were compared to the literature by the percentage of agreement and Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: The percentage of agreement of the rating from the PSNF and the PHF groups with the literature was equal to or greater than 77%. For the DASH, the agreement of the PSNF and PHF groups with the literature were, respectively, moderate (Kappa=0.46 to 0.48) and substantial (Kappa=0.62 to 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals were able to correlate the three components of the ICF for most items on the 2 questionnaires, demonstrating some ease of understanding the ICF components. However, the relation of concept of pain with body function component is not clear for professional and deserves a more attentive approach. PMID:26786076

  5. Lung nodule malignancy classification using only radiologist-quantified image features as inputs to statistical learning algorithms: probing the Lung Image Database Consortium dataset with two statistical learning methods.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Matthew C; Magnan, Jerry F

    2016-10-01

    In the assessment of nodules in CT scans of the lungs, a number of image-derived features are diagnostically relevant. Currently, many of these features are defined only qualitatively, so they are difficult to quantify from first principles. Nevertheless, these features (through their qualitative definitions and interpretations thereof) are often quantified via a variety of mathematical methods for the purpose of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). To determine the potential usefulness of quantified diagnostic image features as inputs to a CAD system, we investigate the predictive capability of statistical learning methods for classifying nodule malignancy. We utilize the Lung Image Database Consortium dataset and only employ the radiologist-assigned diagnostic feature values for the lung nodules therein, as well as our derived estimates of the diameter and volume of the nodules from the radiologists' annotations. We calculate theoretical upper bounds on the classification accuracy that are achievable by an ideal classifier that only uses the radiologist-assigned feature values, and we obtain an accuracy of 85.74 [Formula: see text], which is, on average, 4.43% below the theoretical maximum of 90.17%. The corresponding area-under-the-curve (AUC) score is 0.932 ([Formula: see text]), which increases to 0.949 ([Formula: see text]) when diameter and volume features are included and has an accuracy of 88.08 [Formula: see text]. Our results are comparable to those in the literature that use algorithmically derived image-based features, which supports our hypothesis that lung nodules can be classified as malignant or benign using only quantified, diagnostic image features, and indicates the competitiveness of this approach. We also analyze how the classification accuracy depends on specific features and feature subsets, and we rank the features according to their predictive power, statistically demonstrating the top four to be spiculation, lobulation, subtlety, and

  6. A statistical analysis of the internal organ weights of normal Japanese people

    SciTech Connect

    Ogiu, Nobuko; Nakamura, Yuji; Ogiu, Toshiaki

    1997-03-01

    Correlation of weights of various organs with age, body weight, and/or body height was statistically analyzed using data on the Japanese physique collected by the Medico-Legal Society from Universities and Research Institutes in almost all areas of Japan. After exclusion of unsuitable individual data for statistical analysis, findings for 4,667 Japanese, aged 0-95 y, including 3,023 males and 1,644 females were used in the present study. Analyses of age-dependent changes in weights of the brain, heart, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, thyroid gland and adrenal gland and also of correlations between organ weights and body height, weight, or surface area were carried out. It was concluded that organ weights in the growing generation (under 19 y) generally increased with a coefficient expressed as (body height X body weight{sup 0.5}). Because clear age-dependent changes were not observed in adults over 20 y, they were classified into 4 physical types, thin, standard, plump and obese, and the relations of organ weights with these physical types were assessed. Some organs were relatively heavier in fat groups and light in thin individuals, or vice versa. 36 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. A comprehensive classification of complex statistical systems and an axiomatic derivation of their entropy and distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, R.; Thurner, S.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the hope that the thermodynamical framework might be extended to strongly interacting statistical systems —complex systems in particular— a number of generalized entropies has been proposed in the past. So far the understanding of their fundamental origin has remained unclear. Here we address this question from first principles. We start by observing that many statistical systems fulfill a set of three general conditions (Shannon-Khinchin axioms, K1-K3). A fourth condition (separability) holds for non-interacting, uncorrelated or Markovian systems only (Shannon-Khinchin axiom, K4). If all four axioms hold the Shannon theorem provides a unique entropy, S=\\sum_i^W p_i \\ln p_i , i.e. Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. Here we ask about the consequences of violating the 4th axiom while assuming the first three to hold. By a simple scaling argument we prove that under these conditions each statistical system is characterized by a unique pair of scaling exponents (c, d) in the large size limit. These exponents define equivalence classes for all interacting and non-interacting systems and parametrize a unique entropy, S_{c,d}\\propto \\sum_i ^W \\Gamma(d+1, 1- c \\ln p_i) , where Γ(a,b) is the incomplete Gamma function. It covers all systems respecting K1-K3. A series of known entropies can be classified in terms of these equivalence classes. Corresponding distribution functions are special forms of Lambert-{\\cal W} exponentials containing —as special cases— Boltzmann, stretched exponential and Tsallis distributions (power laws) —all widely abundant in Nature. In the derivation we assume S=\\sum_i g(p_i) , with g some function, however more general entropic forms can be classified along the same lines. This is to our knowledge the first ab initio justification for generalized entropies. We discuss a physical example displaying two sets of scaling exponents depending on the external parameters.

  8. Statistical tools and control of internal lubricant content of inhalation grade HPMC capsules during manufacture.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Guillermo; Díez, Fernando; Gassó, María T; Jones, Brian E; Martín-Portugués, Rafael; Ramiro-Aparicio, Juan

    2016-04-30

    The internal lubricant content (ILC) of inhalation grade HPMC capsules is a key factor to ensure good powder release when the patient inhales a medicine from a dry powder inhaler (DPI). Powder release from capsules has been shown to be influenced by the ILC. The characteristics used to measure this are the emitted dose, fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter. In addition the ILC level is critical for capsule shell manufacture because it is an essential part of the process that cannot work without it. An experiment has been applied to the manufacture of inhalation capsules with the required ILC. A full factorial model was used to identify the controlling factors and from this a linear model has been proposed to improve control of the process.

  9. Report of International NanoSPD Steering Committee and statistics on recent NanoSPD activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    Abstract. The Université de Lorraine in Metz, France, is the selected site for the 6th International Conference on Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation (NanoSPD6) following a series of five earlier conferences. This introductory paper reports on several major developments in NanoSPD activities as well as on very recent NanoSPD citation data which confirm the continued growth and expansion of this important research area. Close attention is given to the topics of workshops, conferences and seminars organized during these last three years as well as on books and reviews published prior to the NanoSPD6 conference. A special concern of the committee is in introducing and discussing the appropriate terminology to be applied in this new field of materials science and engineering.

  10. Seasonal precipitation forecasts for selected regions in West Africa using circulation type classifications in combination with further statistical approaches - Conceptual framework and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliefernicht, Jan; Laux, Patrik; Waongo, Moussa; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Providing valuable forecasts of the seasonal precipitation amount for the upcoming rainy season is one of the big challenges for the national weather services in West Africa. Every year a harmonized forecast of the seasonal precipitation amount for the West African region is issued by the national weather services within the PRESAO framework. The PREASO forecast is based on various statistical approaches ranging from a simple subjective analog method based on the experiences of a meteorological expert to objective regression-based approaches by using various sources of input information such as predicted monsoon winds or observed sea surface temperature anomalies close to the West African coastline. The objective of this study is to perform an evaluation of these techniques for selected West African regions and to introduce classification techniques in the current operational practices and to combine these approaches with further techniques for an additional refinement of the forecasting procedure. We use a fuzzy-rule based technique for a classification of (sub-) monthly large-scale atmospheric and oceanic patterns which are combined to further statistical approaches such as an analog method and a data depth approach for the prediction of the (sub-) seasonal precipitation amounts and additional precipitation indices. The study regions are located from the Edges of the Sahel region in the North of Burkina Faso to the coastline of Ghana. A novel precipitation archive based on daily observations provided by the meteorological services of Burkina Faso and Ghana is the basis for the predictands and is used as reference for model evaluation. The performance of the approach is evaluated over a long period (e.g. 50 years) using cross-validation techniques and sophisticated verification measures for an evaluation of a probability forecast. The precipitation forecast of the classification techniques are also compared to the techniques of the PREASAO community, the

  11. The new World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) classification for TA, T1 bladder tumors: is it an improvement?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jonathan I

    2003-08-01

    The World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) consensus classification of urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder was developed in an attempt to both improve upon prior classification systems as well as to adopt a classification system that would have widespread acceptance. Prior to this classification system, numerous diverse grading schemes for bladder cancer existed whereby the same lesion seen by different pathologists would result in very different diagnoses solely based on definitional differences of lesions. Another strength of the consensus classification system is that it provides detailed histological criteria for papillary urothelial lesions. In contrast, prior grading systems for bladder tumors were vague and subjective. The current classification system allows for designation of a lesion (papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential), which biologically has a very low risk of progression, yet is not entirely benign. In the past, these lesions were a source of controversy, as some experts in the field required very restrictive criteria for the diagnosis of papilloma and would label such lesions as malignant. Other experts in the field, not wanting to label a patient with such a low-grade papillary lesion as having carcinoma, would diagnose these lesions as papilloma. This intermediate category allows both schools of thought to diagnose a lesion as not fully malignant, yet still documents need for additional follow-up. Since its inception, several studies have been published documenting the relationship of tumors classified using the WHO/ISUP system to prognosis. These articles are summarized within this review.

  12. High frequency normal mode statistics in a shallow water waveguide: the effect of random linear internal waves.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A

    2014-07-01

    Using transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulation, the statistical properties of mode propagation at a frequency of 1 kHz are studied in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves. The environment is typical of summer conditions in the mid-Atlantic bight during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. Observables of interest include the second and fourth moments of the mode amplitudes, which are relevant to full-field mean intensity and scintillation index. It is found that mode phase randomization has a strong adiabatic component while at the same time mode coupling rates are significant. As a consequence, a computationally efficient transport theory is presented, which models cross-mode correlation adiabatically, but accounts for mode coupling using the mode energy equations of Creamer [(1996). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2825-2838]. The theory also has closed-form expressions for the internal wave scattering matrix and a correction for an edge effect. The hybrid transport theory is shown to accurately reproduce many statistical quantities from the Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Computerised cognitive training in acquired brain injury: A systematic review of outcomes using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF).

    PubMed

    Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Longley, Wendy A; Tate, Robyn L

    2016-10-01

    Computerised cognitive training (CCT) is an increasingly popular intervention for people experiencing cognitive symptoms. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for CCT in adults with acquired brain injury (ABI), focusing on how outcome measures used reflect efficacy across components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Database searches were conducted of studies investigating CCT to treat cognitive symptoms in adult ABI. Scientific quality was rated using the PEDro-P and RoBiNT Scales. Ninety-six studies met the criteria. Most studies examined outcomes using measures of mental functions (93/96, 97%); fewer studies included measures of activities/participation (41/96, 43%) or body structures (8/96, 8%). Only 14 studies (15%) provided Level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials with a PEDro-P score ≥ 6/10), with these studies suggesting strong evidence for CCT improving processing speed in multiple sclerosis (MS) and moderate evidence for improving memory in MS and brain tumour populations. There is a large body of research examining the efficacy of CCT, but relatively few Level 1 studies and evidence is largely limited to body function outcomes. The routine use of outcome measures of activities/participation would provide more meaningful evidence for the efficacy of CCT. The use of body structure outcome measures (e.g., neuroimaging) is a newly emerging area, with potential to increase understanding of mechanisms of action for CCT.

  14. Prevalence of Prescription Opioid Misuse/Abuse as Determined by International Classification of Diseases Codes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roland, Carl L; Lake, Joanita; Oderda, Gary M

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a systematic review to evaluate worldwide human English published literature from 2009 to 2014 on prevalence of opioid misuse/abuse in retrospective databases where International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes were used. Inclusion criteria for the studies were use of a retrospective database, measured abuse, dependence, and/or poisoning using ICD codes, stated prevalence or it could be derived, and documented time frame. A meta-analysis was not performed. A qualitative narrative synthesis was used, and 16 studies were included for data abstraction. ICD code use varies; 10 studies used ICD codes that encompassed all three terms: abuse, dependence, or poisoning. Eight studies limited determination of misuse/abuse to an opioid user population. Abuse prevalence among opioid users in commercial databases using all three terms of ICD codes varied depending on the opioid; 21 per 1000 persons (reformulated extended-release oxymorphone; 2011-2012) to 113 per 1000 persons (immediate-release opioids; 2010-2011). Abuse prevalence in general populations using all three ICD code terms ranged from 1.15 per 1000 persons (commercial; 6 months 2010) to 8.7 per 1000 persons (Medicaid; 2002-2003). Prevalence increased over time. When similar ICD codes are used, the highest prevalence is in US government-insured populations. Limiting population to continuous opioid users increases prevalence. Prevalence varies depending on ICD codes used, population, time frame, and years studied. Researchers using ICD codes to determine opioid abuse prevalence need to be aware of cautions and limitations.

  15. Developing core sets for patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    PubMed Central

    Duijnisveld, B. J.; Saraç, Ç.; Malessy, M. J. A.; Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M.; Nelissen, R. G. H. H.; Brachial Plexus Advisory Board, The ICF

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptoms of obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) vary widely over the course of time and from individual to individual and can include various degrees of denervation, muscle weakness, contractures, bone deformities and functional limitations. To date, no universally accepted overall framework is available to assess the outcome of patients with OBPI. The objective of this paper is to outline the proposed process for the development of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for patients with an OBPI. Methods The first step is to conduct four preparatory studies to identify ICF categories important for OBPI: a) a systematic literature review to identify outcome measures, b) a qualitative study using focus groups, c) an expert survey and d) a cross-sectional, multicentre study. A first version of ICF Core Sets will be defined at a consensus conference, which will integrate the evidence from the preparatory studies. In a second step, field-testing among patients will validate this first version of Core Sets for OBPI. Discussion The proposed method to develop ICF Core Sets for OBPI yields a practical tool for multiple purposes: for clinicians to systematically assess and evaluate the individual’s functioning, for researchers to design and compare studies, and for patients to get more insight into their health problems and their management. PMID:23836476

  16. Assessing the accuracy of the International Classification of Diseases codes to identify abusive head trauma: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rachel P; Parks, Sharyn; Fromkin, Janet; Rubin, Pamela; Pecora, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy of an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code-based operational case definition for abusive head trauma (AHT). Methods Subjects were children <5 years of age evaluated for AHT by a hospital-based Child Protection Team (CPT) at a tertiary care paediatric hospital with a completely electronic medical record (EMR) system. Subjects were designated as non-AHT traumatic brain injury (TBI) or AHT based on whether the CPT determined that the injuries were due to AHT. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICD-based definition were calculated. Results There were 223 children evaluated for AHT: 117 AHT and 106 non-AHT TBI. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICD-based operational case definition were 92% (95% CI 85.8 to 96.2) and 96% (95% CI 92.3 to 99.7), respectively. All errors in sensitivity and three of the four specificity errors were due to coder error; one specificity error was a physician error. Conclusions In a paediatric tertiary care hospital with an EMR system, the accuracy of an ICD-based case definition for AHT was high. Additional studies are needed to assess the accuracy of this definition in all types of hospitals in which children with AHT are cared for. PMID:24167034

  17. Crossmapping of Nursing Problem and Action Statements in Telephone Nursing Consultation Documentations with International Classification for Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study is to cross-map telephone nursing consultation documentations with International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP; ver. 1.0 concepts). Methods The narrative telephone nursing consultation documentations of 170 ophthalmology nursing unit patients were analyzed. The nursing statements were examined and cross-mapped with the Korean version of the ICNP ver. 1.0. If all the concepts of a statement were mapped to ICNP concepts, it was classified as 'completely mapped'. If any concept of a statement wasnot mapped, it was classified as 'partially mapped'. If none of the concepts were mapped, it was classified as 'not mapped'. Results A total of 738 statements wereused for documenting telephone nursing consultations. These statements were divided into 3 groups according to their content: 1) 294 nursing phenomena-related statements (72 unique statements), 2) 440 nursing actions-related statements (76 unique statements), and 3) 4 other statements (2 unique statements). In total, 189 unique nursing concepts extracted from 150 unique statements and 108 concepts (62.44%) were mapped onto ICNP concepts. Conclusions This study demonstrated the feasibility of computerizing narrative nursing documentations for electronic telephone triagein the ophthalmology nursing unit. PMID:21818446

  18. Upper limb prosthetic outcome measures: review and content comparison based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Helen Y N; Nätterlund, Birgitta Sjöqvist; Hermansson, Liselotte M Norling

    2010-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has been recommended as a framework for evaluation of aspects of health. The aim of this study was to compare the contents of outcome measures for upper limb prosthesis users by using the ICF. Measurement focus and psychometric properties of these measures were also investigated. Outcome measures that used upper limb prosthesis users as subjects in their development and psychometric evaluations were selected. The psychometric studies (n = 14) were reviewed and scored and the items in the measures were linked to the ICF. One measure for all ages (ACMC), five paediatric measures (CAPP-FSI, CAPP-PSI, PUFI, UBET and UNB) and two adult measures (OPUS and TAPES) were selected. The concepts extracted (n = 393) were linked to 54 categories in the ICF. The ACMC, CAPP-FSI, UBET, UNB and PUFI measure categories mostly under the ICF component 'Activity and participation'. The TAPES and OPUS also measure ICF categories that describe the emotional and social status of a person. The main conclusion is that the use of a mixture of outcome measures would give a better picture on the aspects of our clients. Measures that focus on the social interaction in paediatric users are required.

  19. Functionality in Women with Breast Cancer: The Use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento de Carvalho, Flávia; Bergmann, Anke; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the functionality of women diagnosed with breast cancer according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). [Subjects and Methods] This was a cross-sectional study. We applied instruments consistent with the summary of ICF codes for breast cancer: quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL), upper limb symptoms and function (DASH), social support, physical examination and functional medical record data. [Results] The study included 105 women who were 55 years old and subjected to surgical treatment within an average of 1.63 year previously. The ‘function’ component considered in the WHOQOL, the DASH and physical examination. There were high prevalences of positive responses for most codes, and only b130, d430, d445, d640, d650, d920 and codes of environmental factors considered by the Social Support Questionnaire showed high prevalences of negative responses (47.6%, 61%, 43.8%, 63.8%, 56.2%, 52.4%, and 35.2%, respectively). [Conclusion] There was a lower prevalence of disability, with the exception of issues related to strenuous activity and load. Some findings showed conflicting results between different instruments that measure the same code, and studies that propose more accurate tools and are able to consider the ICF codes specific to this pathology are necessary. PMID:24926139

  20. Vocational rehabilitation from the client's perspective using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference.

    PubMed

    Glässel, Andrea; Finger, Monika E; Cieza, Alarcos; Treitler, Christine; Coenen, Michaela; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2011-06-01

    INTRODUCTION A mixed-methods (qualitative-quantitative), multicenter study was conducted using a focus group design to explore the lived experiences of persons in vocational rehabilitation (VR) with regard to functioning and contextual factors using six open-ended questions related to the ICF components. The results were classified by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a frame of reference. METHODS The meaningful concepts within the transcribed data were identified and linked to ICF categories according to established linking rules. RESULTS The seven focus groups with 26 participants yielded a total of 4,813 relevant concepts which were linked to a total of 160 different second-level ICF categories. From the client perspective, the ICF components (a) body functions, (b) activities and participation and (c) environmental factors were equally represented, while (d) body structures appeared less frequently. Out of the total number of concepts, 864 concepts (18%) were assigned to the ICF component personal factors which is not yet classified but could indicate important aspects of resource management and strategy development of patients in VR. CONCLUSION Therefore, VR of patients must not be limited to anatomical and pathophysiologic changes, but should also consider a more comprehensive view which includes client's demands, strategies and resources in daily life and the context around the individual and social circumstances of their work situation.

  1. Statistical approaches for identifying air pollutant mixtures associated with aircraft departures at Los Angeles International Airport.

    PubMed

    Diez, David M; Dominici, Francesca; Zarubiak, Darcy; Levy, Jonathan I

    2012-08-07

    Aircraft departures emit multiple pollutants common to other near-airport sources, making it challenging to determine relative source contributions. While there may not be unique tracers of aircraft emissions, examination of multipollutant concentration patterns in combination with flight activity can facilitate source attribution. In this study, we examine concentrations of continuously monitored air pollutants measured in 2008 near a departure runway at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), considering single-pollutant associations with landing and takeoff (LTO) of the aircraft (LTO activity, weighted by LTO cycle fuel burn), as well as multipollutant predictors of binary LTO activity. In the single-pollutant analyses, one-minute average concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide are positively associated with fuel burn-weighted departures on the runway proximate to the monitor, whereas ozone is negatively associated with fuel burn-weighted departures. In analyses in which the flight departure is predicted by pollutant concentrations, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the best individual predictors, but including all five pollutants greatly increases the power of prediction compared to single-pollutant models. Our results demonstrate that air pollution impacts from aircraft departures can be isolated using time-resolved monitoring data, and that combinations of simultaneously measured pollutants can best identify contributions from flight activity.

  2. Statistical classification of flow morphology in rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection: A numerical and experimental synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, David; Rubio, Antonio; Julien, Keith

    2013-11-01

    We use experimentally accessible statistical measures to distinguish between flow morphologies in rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RRBC). Transitions between different flow regimes are identified for the fixed non-dimensional Prandtl number σ = 7 in terms of the reduced Rayleigh number Rã =RaE 4 / 3 , where E is the non-dimensional Ekman number. Using cross-correlations of synthetic thermistor time signals we find that the flow transitions from the cellular regime to the convective Taylor column (CTC) regime at Rã ~ 20 , and from the CTC regime to the plume regime at Rã ~ 57 . Additionally, the horizontal flow structure is elucidated via spatial cross-correlations of vertically separated thermal fluctuations. Length, time, and velocity scales are produced for coherent columnar structures via spatial and temporal cross-correlations. Length, time and velocity scale data is seen to fit power-laws of the form α (Rã -Rãc)β , where Rãc is the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of stationary convection. Through direct numerical simulation of non-hydrostatic quasi-geostrophic equations, a detailed examination of the flow morphology in RRBC is carried out. NSF FRG No. DMS-0855010.

  3. Detection and Classification of Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Using Parallel Filter Arrays and Higher Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, Fernando L.

    2002-09-01

    Low probability of intercept (LPI) is that property of an emitter that because of its low power, wide bandwidth, frequency variability, or other design attributes, makes it difficult to be detected or identified by means of passive intercept devices such as radar warning, electronic support and electronic intelligence receivers. In order to detect LPI radar waveforms new signal processing techniques are required. This thesis first develops a MATLAB toolbox to generate important types of LPI waveforms based on frequency and phase modulation. The power spectral density and the periodic ambiguity function are examined for each waveforms. These signals are then used to test a novel signal processing technique that detects the waveforms parameters and classifies the intercepted signal in various degrees of noise. The technique is based on the use of parallel filter (sub-band) arrays and higher order statistics (third-order cumulant estimator). Each sub-band signal is treated individually and is followed by the third-order estimator in order to suppress any symmetrical noise that might be present. The significance of this technique is that it separates the LPI waveforms in small frequency bands, providing a detailed time-frequency description of the unknown signal. Finally, the resulting output matrix is processed by a feature extraction routine to detect the waveforms parameters. Identification of the signal is based on the modulation parameters detected.

  4. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  5. The bimodality of the 10k zCOSMOS-bright galaxies up to z ~ 1: a new statistical and portable classification based on optical galaxy properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppa, G.; Mignoli, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Lilly, S. J.; Bolzonella, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Vergani, D.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Cimatti, A.; Zucca, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Le Fèvre, O.; Renzini, A.; Mainieri, V.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K. I.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Memeo, P.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scarlata, C.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Fumana, M.; Guzzo, L.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Scoville, N.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: Our goal is to develop a new and reliable statistical method to classify galaxies from large surveys. We probe the reliability of the method by comparing it with a three-dimensional classification cube, using the same set of spectral, photometric and morphological parameters. Methods: We applied two different methods of classification to a sample of galaxies extracted from the zCOSMOS redshift survey, in the redshift range 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 1.3. The first method is a combination of three independent classification schemes - a spectroscopic one based on the strength of the continuum break at 4000 Å and the rest-frame equivalent width of the [O ii] emission line, a photometric one based on the observed B - z colours, and a morphological one. The second method exploits an entirely new approach based on statistical analyses like principal component analysis (PCA) and unsupervised fuzzy partition (UFP) clustering method. The PCA+UFP method has also been applied to a lower redshift sample (z ≲ 0.5), exploiting the same set of data but replacing the spectroscopic indicators with the equivalent width of Hα. Results: The comparison between the two methods shows fairly good agreement on the definition on the two main populations, the early-type and the late-type galaxies. Our PCA+UFP method of classification is robust, flexible and capable of identifying the two main populations of galaxies as well as an intermediate population. The intermediate galaxy population shows many of the properties of "green valley" galaxies, and constitutes a more coherent and homogeneous population. The large redshift range of the studied sample allows us to characterize downsizing: galaxies with masses of the order of 3 × 1010 M⊙ are predominantly found in the transition from the late-type to the early-type group at z > 0.5, while galaxies with lower masses, of the order of 1010 M⊙, are in transition at later epochs. Galaxies with M < 1010 M⊙ have not yet begun to transition, while

  6. The World Health Organization 2016 classification of testicular germ cell tumours: a review and update from the International Society of Urological Pathology Testis Consultation Panel.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Delahunt, Brett; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Algaba, Ferran; Egevad, Lars; Ulbright, Thomas M; Tickoo, Satish K; Srigley, John R; Epstein, Jonathan I; Berney, Daniel M

    2017-02-01

    Since the last World Health Organization (WHO) classification scheme for tumours of the urinary tract and male genital organs, there have been a number of advances in the understanding, classification, immunohistochemistry and genetics of testicular germ cell tumours. The updated 2016 draft classification was discussed at an International Society of Urological Pathology Consultation on Testicular and Penile Cancer. This review addresses the main updates to germ cell tumour classification. Major changes include a pathogenetically derived classification using germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) as a new name for the precursor lesion, and the distinction of prepubertal tumours (non-GCNIS-derived) from postpubertal-type tumours (GCNIS-derived), acknowledging the existence of rare benign prepubertal-type teratomas in the postpubertal testis. Spermatocytic tumour is adopted as a replacement for spermatocytic seminoma, to avoid potential confusion with the unrelated usual seminoma. The spectrum of trophoblastic tumours arising in the setting of testicular germ cell tumour continues to expand, to include epithelioid and placental site trophoblastic tumours analogous to those of the gynaecological tract. Currently, reporting of anaplasia (seminoma or spermatocytic tumour) or immaturity (teratoma) is not required, as these do not have demonstrable prognostic importance. In contrast, overgrowth of a teratomatous component (somatic-type malignancy) and sarcomatous change in spermatocytic tumour indicate more aggressive behaviour, and should be reported.

  7. [Vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane: classification and assessment of carcinogenicity, guidelines, threshold values, and standards developed by national and international entities, organizations, and agencies].

    PubMed

    Binetti, R; Costamagna, F M; Marcello, I

    2001-01-01

    International, national and regulatory classification, evaluation, guidelines and occupational exposure values regarding vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, carried out by European Union (EU). Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), World Health Organization (WHO), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and other institutions, have been considered with particular reference to the carcinogenic effects. Moreover information is reported in support of classification and evaluation and a short historical review since early 1970s, when first evidence that occupational exposure to VC could lead to angiosarcoma was published.

  8. Prognostic value of the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification in Neuroblastoma (Schwannian stroma-poor) and comparison with other prognostic factors: a study of 182 cases from the Spanish Neuroblastoma Registry.

    PubMed

    Burgues, Octavio; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Pellín, Antonio; Ruiz, Amparo; Castel, Victoria; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    In addition to clinical and biological factors, further valuable prognostic information in neuroblastoma (Schwannian stroma-poor) (NB) patients is provided by the histopathologic analysis and the application of the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) system. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic impact of the INPC classification in a series of NB (Schwannian stroma-poor) and its relation with other prognostic factors. One hundred eighty-two cases of NB were collected from the files of the Spanish Neuroblastoma Registry. Slides were reviewed, and NB cases were grouped into favorable and unfavorable categories according to INPC criteria, taking into account morphological features (mitosis-karyorrhexis index, histological subtype) and patient's age at diagnosis. Other pathological [presence of calcifications, tissular components, and number of mitotic cells per 10 high-power field (HPF)], immunohistochemical (P-glycoprotein and Ki-67 protein expression) and genetic (MYCN amplification and chromosome 1p deletion) features were also studied. Statistical analyses of overall survival with Kaplan-Meier curves and a multivariate study using Cox regression were performed (40.3% of NBs were considered favorable and 59.7% unfavorable). Unfavorable NB showed a mean survival time of 57 months compared with 89 months in favorable cases. Advanced stage, more than ten mitoses per 10 HPF, Ki-67 expression in more than 30% of tumor cells, MYCN oncogene amplification and chromosome 1p deletion were observed more frequently in unfavorable NB. The Cox regression analysis demonstrated that clinical stage (International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage 4) and histological subtype (undifferentiated NB) were the most important factors that influence the overall survival (p<0.001). INPC classification results are major prognostic indicators in NB and should be considered in the therapeutic stratification of NB patients.

  9. Comparing contents of outcome measures in cerebral palsy using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF-CY): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schiariti, Veronica; Klassen, Anne F; Cieza, Alarcos; Sauve, Karen; O'Donnell, Maureen; Armstrong, Robert; Mâsse, Louise C

    2014-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning children and youth version (ICF-CY) provides a universal framework for defining and classifying functioning and disability in children worldwide. To facilitate the application of the ICF in practice, ICF based-tools like the "ICF Core Sets" are being developed. In the context of the development of the ICF-CY Core Sets for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), the aims of this study were as follows: to identify and compare the content of outcome measures used in studies of children with CP using the ICF-CY coding system; and to describe the most frequently addressed areas of functioning in those studies. We searched multiple databases likely to capture studies involving children with CP from January 1998 to March 2012. We included all English language articles that studied children aged 2-18 years and described an interventional or observational study. Constructs of the outcome measures identified in studies were linked to the ICF-CY by two trained professionals. We found 231 articles that described 238 outcome measures. The outcome measures contained 2193 concepts that were linked to the ICF-CY and covered 161 independent ICF-CY categories. Out of the 161 categories, 53 (33.5%) were related to body functions, 75 (46%) were related to activities/participation, 26 (16.1%) were related to environmental factors, and 7 (4.3%) were related to body structures. This systematic review provides information about content of measures that may guide researchers and clinicians in their selection of an outcome measure for use in a study and/or clinical practice with children with CP.

  10. Amyloid fibril proteins and amyloidosis: chemical identification and clinical classification International Society of Amyloidosis 2016 Nomenclature Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sipe, Jean D; Benson, Merrill D; Buxbaum, Joel N; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi; Merlini, Giampaolo; Saraiva, Maria J M; Westermark, Per

    2016-12-01

    The Nomenclature Committee of the International Society of Amyloidosis (ISA) met during the XVth Symposium of the Society, 3 July-7 July 2016, Uppsala, Sweden, to assess and formulate recommendations for nomenclature for amyloid fibril proteins and the clinical classification of the amyloidoses. An amyloid fibril must exhibit affinity for Congo red and with green, yellow or orange birefringence when the Congo red-stained deposits are viewed with polarized light. While congophilia and birefringence remain the gold standard for demonstration of amyloid deposits, new staining and imaging techniques are proving useful. To be included in the nomenclature list, in addition to congophilia and birefringence, the chemical identity of the protein must be unambiguously characterized by protein sequence analysis when possible. In general, it is insufficient to identify a mutation in the gene of a candidate amyloid protein without confirming the variant changes in the amyloid fibril protein. Each distinct form of amyloidosis is uniquely characterized by the chemical identity of the amyloid fibril protein that deposits in the extracellular spaces of tissues and organs and gives rise to the disease syndrome. The fibril proteins are designated as protein A followed by a suffix that is an abbreviation of the parent or precursor protein name. To date, there are 36 known extracellular fibril proteins in humans, 2 of which are iatrogenic in nature and 9 of which have also been identified in animals. Two newly recognized fibril proteins, AApoCII derived from apolipoprotein CII and AApoCIII derived from apolipoprotein CIII, have been added. AApoCII amyloidosis and AApoCIII amyloidosis are hereditary systemic amyloidoses. Intracellular protein inclusions displaying some of the properties of amyloid, "intracellular amyloid" have been reported. Two proteins which were previously characterized as intracellular inclusions, tau and α-synuclein, are now recognized to form extracellular

  11. Classification of the medicinal plants of the genus Atractylodes using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection combined with multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kim, Unyong; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Eom, Han Young; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Seul Gi; Choi, Yong Seok; Han, Sang Beom

    2016-04-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection were developed for the discrimination of the rhizomes of four Atractylodes medicinal plants: A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. chinensis, and A. lancea. A quantitative study was performed, selecting five bioactive components, including atractylenolide I, II, III, eudesma-4(14),7(11)-dien-8-one and atractylodin, on twenty-six Atractylodes samples of various origins. Sample extraction was optimized to sonication with 80% methanol for 40 min at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was established using a C18 column with a water/acetonitrile gradient system at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 236 nm. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to certify the reliability of the quantitative results. The developed methods were validated by ensuring specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, recovery, robustness, and stability. Results showed that cangzhu contained higher amounts of atractylenolide I and atractylodin than baizhu, and especially atractylodin contents showed the greatest variation between baizhu and cangzhu. Multivariate statistical analysis, such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, were also employed for further classification of the Atractylodes plants. The established method was suitable for quality control of the Atractylodes plants.

  12. Statistical parameters for gloss evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Juuti, Mikko

    2006-02-13

    The measurement of minute changes in local gloss has not been presented in international standards due to a lack of suitable glossmeters. The development of a diffractive-element-based glossmeter (DOG) made it possible to detect local variation of gloss from planar and complex-shaped surfaces. Hence, a demand for proper statistical gloss parameters for classifying surface quality by gloss, similar to the standardized surface roughness classification, has become necessary. In this letter, we define statistical gloss parameters and utilize them as an example in the characterization of gloss from metal surface roughness standards by the DOG.

  13. International Classification of Diseases 10th edition-based disability adjusted life years for measuring of burden of specific injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Park, Hye Sook; Song, Kyoung Jun; Cho, Jin Sung; Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Sung Chun; Park, Ju Ok; Ahn, Ki Ok; Park, Yu Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to develop an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10th edition injury code-based disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to measure the burden of specific injuries. Methods Three independent panels used novel methods to score disability weights (DWs) of 130 indicator codes sampled from 1,284 ICD injury codes. The DWs were interpolated into the remaining injury codes (n=1,154) to estimate DWs for all ICD injury codes. The reliability of the estimated DWs was evaluated using the test-retest method. We calculated ICD-DALYs for individual injury episodes using the DWs from the Korean National Hospital Discharge Injury Survey (HDIS, n=23,160 of 2004) database and compared them with DALY based on a global burden of disease study (GBD-DALY) regarding validation, correlation, and agreement for 32 injury categories. Results Using 130 ICD 10th edition injury indicator codes, three panels determined the DWs using the highest reliability (person trade-off 1, Spearman r=0.724, 0.788, and 0.875 for the three panel groups). The test-retest results for the reliability were excellent (Spearman r=0.932) (P<0.001). The HDIS database revealed injury burden (years) as follows: GBD-DALY (138,548), GBD-years of life disabled (130,481), and GBD-years of life lost (8,117) versus ICD-DALY (262,246), ICD-years of life disabled (255,710), and ICD-years of life lost (6,537), respectively. Spearman’s correlation coefficient of the DALYs between the two methods was 0.759 (P<0.001), and the Bland-Altman test displayed an acceptable agreement, with exception of two categories among 32 injury groups. Conclusion The ICD-DALY was developed to calculate the burden of injury for all injury codes and was validated with the GBD-DALY. The ICD-DALY was higher than the GBD-DALY but showed acceptable agreement. PMID:28168229

  14. A Consensus for Classification and Pathologic Reporting of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Associated Appendiceal Neoplasia: The Results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) Modified Delphi Process.

    PubMed

    Carr, Norman J; Cecil, Thomas D; Mohamed, Faheez; Sobin, Leslie H; Sugarbaker, Paul H; González-Moreno, Santiago; Taflampas, Panos; Chapman, Sara; Moran, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a complex disease with unique biological behavior that usually arises from appendiceal mucinous neoplasia. The classification of PMP and its primary appendiceal neoplasia is contentious, and an international modified Delphi consensus process was instigated to address terminology and definitions. A classification of mucinous appendiceal neoplasia was developed, and it was agreed that "mucinous adenocarcinoma" should be reserved for lesions with infiltrative invasion. The term "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was supported and it was agreed that "cystadenoma" should no longer be recommended. A new term of "high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was proposed for lesions without infiltrative invasion but with high-grade cytologic atypia. Serrated polyp with or without dysplasia was preferred for tumors with serrated features confined to the mucosa with an intact muscularis mucosae. Consensus was achieved on the pathologic classification of PMP, defined as the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia characterized by the redistribution phenomenon. Three categories of PMP were agreed-low grade, high grade, and high grade with signet ring cells. Acellular mucin should be classified separately. It was agreed that low-grade and high-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei should be considered synonymous with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, respectively. A checklist for the pathologic reporting of PMP and appendiceal mucinous neoplasms was also developed. By adopting the classifications and definitions that were agreed, different centers will be able to use uniform terminology that will allow meaningful comparison of their results.

  15. Biomedical system based on the Discrete Hidden Markov Model using the Rocchio-Genetic approach for the classification of internal carotid artery Doppler signals.

    PubMed

    Uğuz, Harun; Güraksın, Gür Emre; Ergün, Uçman; Saraçoğlu, Rıdvan

    2011-07-01

    When the maximum likelihood approach (ML) is used during the calculation of the Discrete Hidden Markov Model (DHMM) parameters, DHMM parameters of the each class are only calculated using the training samples (positive training samples) of the same class. The training samples (negative training samples) not belonging to that class are not used in the calculation of DHMM model parameters. With the aim of supplying that deficiency, by involving the training samples of all classes in calculating processes, a Rocchio algorithm based approach is suggested. During the calculation period, in order to determine the most appropriate values of parameters for adjusting the relative effect of the positive and negative training samples, a Genetic algorithm is used as an optimization technique. The purposed method is used to classify the internal carotid artery Doppler signals recorded from 136 patients as well as of 55 healthy people. Our proposed method reached 97.38% classification accuracy with fivefold cross-validation (CV) technique. The classification results showed that the proposed method was effective for the classification of internal carotid artery Doppler signals.

  16. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: an Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency 2015.

    PubMed

    Picard, Capucine; Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chatila, Talal; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Holland, Steven M; Klein, Christoph; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D; Oksenhendler, Eric; Puck, Jennifer M; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Tang, Mimi L K; Franco, Jose Luis; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2015-11-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies compiled by the Primary Immunodeficiency Expert Committee (PID EC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). In the two years since the previous version, 34 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. In this new version we continue to see the increasing overlap between immunodeficiency, as manifested by infection and/or malignancy, and immune dysregulation, as manifested by auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, and/or allergy. There is also an increased number of genetic defects that lead to susceptibility to specific organisms which reflects the finely tuned nature of immune defense systems. This classification is the most up to date catalogue of all known and published primary immunodeficiencies and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the genetic and molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases.

  17. Assessing the Effectiveness of Statistical Classification Techniques in Predicting Future Employment of Participants in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Isaac D.

    2008-01-01

    Three classification techniques (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection [CHAID], Classification and Regression Tree [CART], and discriminant analysis) were tested to determine their accuracy in predicting Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program recipients' future employment. Technique evaluation was based on proportion of correctly…

  18. Classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in South-eastern Europe: review of 632 cases from the international non-Hodgkin lymphoma classification project.

    PubMed

    Dotlic, Snjezana; Perry, Anamarija M; Petrusevska, Gordana; Fetica, Bogdan; Diebold, Jacques; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Nathwani, Bharat N; Boilesen, Eugene; Bast, Martin; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes varies around the world, but a systematic study of South-eastern Europe (SEEU) has never been done. Therefore, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in three SEEU countries--Croatia, Romania and Macedonia. Five expert haematopathologists reviewed 632 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed NHL from the three SEEU countries using the World Health Organization classification. The results were compared to 399 cases from North America (NA) and 580 cases from Western Europe (WEU). The proportions of B- and T-cell NHL and the sex distribution in SEEU were similar to WEU and NA. However, the median ages of patients with low- and high-grade B-NHL in SEEU (60 and 59 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively; P < 0·05). SEEU had a significantly lower proportion of low-grade B-NHL (46·6%) and higher proportion of high-grade B-NHL (44·5%) compared to both WEU (54·5% and 36·4%, respectively) and NA (56·1% and 34·3%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the relative frequencies of T-NHL subtypes. This study provides new insights into differences in the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in different geographic regions. Epidemiological studies are needed to better characterize and explain these differences.

  19. International Classification of Primary Care-2 coding of primary care data at the general out-patients’ clinic of General Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olagundoye, Olawunmi Abimbola; van Boven, Kees; van Weel, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary care serves as an integral part of the health systems of nations especially the African continent. It is the portal of entry for nearly all patients into the health care system. Paucity of accurate data for health statistics remains a challenge in the most parts of Africa because of inadequate technical manpower and infrastructure. Inadequate quality of data systems contributes to inaccurate data. A simple-to-use classification system such as the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) may be a solution to this problem at the primary care level. Objectives: To apply ICPC-2 for secondary coding of reasons for encounter (RfE), problems managed and processes of care in a Nigerian primary care setting. Furthermore, to analyze the value of selected presented symptoms as predictors of the most common diagnoses encountered in the study setting. Materials and Methods: Content analysis of randomly selected patients’ paper records for data collection at the end of clinic sessions conducted by family physicians at the general out-patients’ clinics. Contents of clinical consultations were secondarily coded with the ICPC-2 and recorded into excel spreadsheets with fields for sociodemographic data such as age, sex, occupation, religion, and ICPC elements of an encounter: RfE/complaints, diagnoses/problems, and interventions/processes of care. Results: Four hundred and one encounters considered in this study yielded 915 RfEs, 546 diagnoses, and 1221 processes. This implies an average of 2.3 RfE, 1.4 diagnoses, and 3.0 processes per encounter. The top 10 RfE, diagnoses/common illnesses, and processes were determined. Through the determination of the probability of the occurrence of certain diseases beginning with a RfE/complaint, the top five diagnoses that resulted from each of the top five RfE were also obtained. The top five RfE were: headache, fever, pain general/multiple sites, visual disturbance other and abdominal pain/cramps general. The

  20. ICPC Multilingual Collaboratory: a Web- and Unicode-based system for distributed editing/translating/viewing of the multilingual International Classification of Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R P Channing; Sherwin, Ziying; Lamberts, Henk; Okkes, Inge M

    2004-01-01

    The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) is a clinical classification containing 726 clinical concepts, available in over 20 languages, augmented by links to ICD-10 concepts. It is employed in clinical information systems in several European countries, Israel, Japan, and Australia. In translating ICPC, it has been challenging to manage the flow of multilingual information, maintain its quality, and optimize its portability, particularly in light of the numerous character encodings used to represent its content. The ICPC Multilingual Collaboratory (IMC) is a World Wide Web-based environment, created to allow the viewing, maintenance, and translation of ICPC content by a dispersed international editorial staff. Based upon open-source software, it represents ICPC content using the Unicode standard for character encoding. The system implements three interfaces to ICPC data: 1) a password-protected editorial interface which instantiates a hierarchical authority model and communication channels for review and control of content, including a means of up-loading new candidate translations; 2) an openly accessible read-only interface, with e-mail access to the editors (providing another level of content review); and, 3) a management interface for the system administrator. The completed system powerfully demonstrates the ability of the World Wide Web, open-source software, and Unicode to expedite and simplify international multilingual collaboration, even in a world in which Unicode support is incomplete on existing computing platforms.

  1. 5th International ACC Symposium: Classification of Adrenocortical Cancers from Pathology to Integrated Genomics: Real Advances or Lost in Translation?

    PubMed

    de Krijger, Ronald E; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2016-02-01

    For the clinician, despite its rarity, adrenocortical cancer is a heterogeneous tumor both in term of steroid excess and tumor evolution. For patient management, it is crucial to have an accurate vision of this heterogeneity, in order to use a correct tumor classification. Pathology is the best way to classify operated adrenocortical tumors: to recognize their adrenocortical nature and to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. Among malignant tumors pathology also aims at prognosis assessment. Although progress has being made for prognosis assessment, there is still a need for improvement. Recent studies have established the value of Ki67 for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) prognostication, aiming also at standardization to reduce variability. The use of genomics to study adrenocortical tumors gives a very new insight in their pathogenesis and molecular classification. Genomics studies of ACC give now a clear description of the mRNA (transcriptome) and miRNA expression profile, as well as chromosomal and methylation alterations. Exome sequencing also established firmly the list of the main ACC driver genes. Interestingly, genomics study of ACC also revealed subtypes of malignant tumors with different pattern of molecular alterations, associated with different outcome. This leads to a new vision of adrenocortical tumors classification based on molecular analysis. Interestingly, these molecular classifications meet also the results of pathological analysis. This opens new perspectives on the development and use of various molecular tools to classify, along with pathological analysis, ACC, and guides patient management at the area of precision medicine.

  2. Classification, diagnosis, and approach to treatment for angioedema: consensus report from the Hereditary Angioedema International Working Group.

    PubMed

    Cicardi, M; Aberer, W; Banerji, A; Bas, M; Bernstein, J A; Bork, K; Caballero, T; Farkas, H; Grumach, A; Kaplan, A P; Riedl, M A; Triggiani, M; Zanichelli, A; Zuraw, B

    2014-05-01

    Angioedema is defined as localized and self-limiting edema of the subcutaneous and submucosal tissue, due to a temporary increase in vascular permeability caused by the release of vasoactive mediator(s). When angioedema recurs without significant wheals, the patient should be diagnosed to have angioedema as a distinct disease. In the absence of accepted classification, different types of angioedema are not uniquely identified. For this reason, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology gave its patronage to a consensus conference aimed at classifying angioedema. Four types of acquired and three types of hereditary angioedema were identified as separate forms from the analysis of the literature and were presented in detail at the meeting. Here, we summarize the analysis of the data and the resulting classification of angioedema.

  3. Mapping the Content of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Using the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Carole A; Escorpizo, Reuben; Cieza, Alarcos; Lai, Jin Shei; Stucki, Gerold; Ustun, T. Bedirhan; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Cella, David; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) is a U.S. National Institutes of Health initiative that has produced self-reported item banks for physical, mental, and social health. Objective To describe the content of PROMIS at the item level using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods All PROMIS adult items (publicly available as of 2012) were assigned to relevant ICF concepts. The content of the PROMIS adult item banks were then described using the mapped ICF code descriptors. Results The 1006 items in the PROMIS instruments could all be mapped to ICF concepts at the second level of classification, with the exception of 3 items of global or general health that mapped across the first-level classification of ICF activity and participation component (d categories). Individual PROMIS item banks mapped from 1 to 5 separate ICF codes indicating one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-one mappings between PROMIS item banks and ICF second level classification codes. PROMIS supports measurement of the majority of major concepts in the ICF Body Functions (b) and Activity & Participation (d) components using PROMIS item banks or subsets of PROMIS items that could, with care, be used to develop customized instruments. Given the focus of PROMIS is on measurement of person health outcomes, concepts in body structures (s) and some body functions (b), as well as many ICF environmental factor have minimal coverage in PROMIS. Discussion The PROMIS-ICF mapped items provide a basis for users to evaluate the ICF related content of specific PROMIS instruments, and to select PROMIS instruments in ICF based measurement applications. PMID:24760532

  4. Statistics Canada's Definition and Classification of Postsecondary and Adult Education Providers in Canada. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 071

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Larry

    2009-01-01

    This document outlines the definitions and the typology now used by Statistics Canada's Centre for Education Statistics to identify, classify and delineate the universities, colleges and other providers of postsecondary and adult education in Canada for which basic enrollments, graduates, professors and finance statistics are produced. These new…

  5. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed.

  6. The Effect of Unequal Samples, Heterogeneity of Covariance Matrices, and Number of Variables on Discriminant Analysis Classification Tables and Related Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Debra; Woehlke, Paula

    To assess the effect on discriminant analysis in terms of correct classification into two groups, the following parameters were systematically altered using Monte Carlo techniques: sample sizes; proportions of one group to the other; number of independent variables; and covariance matrices. The pairing of the off diagonals (or covariances) with…

  7. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... international classification pursuant to § 2.85(e)(3). (b) Prior United States classification system. Section 6... pursuant to § 2.85(e)(3); or (2) The registration was issued under a classification system prior to that... application. (e) Changes to Nice Agreement. The international classification system changes...

  8. Administrative simplification: change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-08-04

    This final rule implements section 212 of the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 by changing the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2014 to October 1, 2015. It also requires the continued use of the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, Volumes 1 and 2 (diagnoses), and 3 (procedures) (ICD-9-CM), including the Official ICD-9-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, through September 30, 2015.

  9. International Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (4th). International Workshop on Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (1st)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-13

    Mars 55 Characterisation of sound subunits for humpback whale song analysis. F. Pace, P.R. White, O. Adam 56 Passive acoustic detection of Minke...International Monitoring System. Samaran Flore, Adam Olivier, Guinet Christophe 58 Detection of Minke whale sounds in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine...September 8.40 Characterisation of sound subunits for humpback whale song analysis. F. Pace, P.R. White, O. Adam 9.00 Passive acoustic detection of

  10. Burn patients' return to daily activities and participation as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Candice L; Meyer, Walter J; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Arcari, Christine M

    2016-12-29

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a universal classification system of health and health-related domains. The ICF has been successfully applied to a wide range of health conditions and diseases; however, its application in the field of burn recovery has been minimal. This systematic review uses the domains of the ICF component 'activities and participation' to explore: (1) the extent to which return to daily activities and community participation after burn has been examined in the pediatric population, (2) the most common assessments used to determine activity and participation outcomes, and (3) what activity and participation areas are most affected in the pediatric burn population after discharge from acute care. Results determined that it is difficult to draw overarching conclusions in the area of return to 'activities and participation' for children with burn based on the paucity of current evidence. Of the studies conducted, few examined the same subtopics or used similar measurements. This suggests a need for more robust studies in this area in order to inform and improve burn rehabilitation practices to meet the potential needs of burn patients beyond an acute care setting.

  11. Impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions of the international classification of functioning, disability, and health model in children with ambulatory cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Akmer; Büğüsan, Sema; Kara, Özgün K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions in children with spastic unilateral and bilateral cerebral palsy (CP). We investigated the relationship between these factors according to the international classification of functioning, disability, and health (ICF) model. Methods: This prospective cross sectional study included 60 children aged between 4-18 years with spastic CP (30 unilateral, 30 bilateral involvement) classified as Levels I and II on the gross motor function classification system. Children had been referred to the Pediatric Rehabilitation Unit in the Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between March 2014 and March 2015. The Physician Rating scale was used to assess body functions and structures. The Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire 22-item skill set, Pediatric Functional Independence Measure, and Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument were used to assess activity and participation levels. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between impairments and activity limitations (r=0.558; p=0.000), as well as between activity limitations and participation restrictions (r=0.354, p=0.005). Conclusion: These results show that activity limitations in children with unilateral and bilateral ambulatory CP may be related to their impairments and participation restrictions, although the sample size of our study is not large enough for generalizations. Overall, our study highlights the need for up-to-date, practical evaluation methods according to the ICF model. PMID:28133691

  12. Enhanced capture of healthcare-related harms and injuries in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).

    PubMed

    Southern, Danielle A; Pincus, Harold A; Romano, Patrick S; Burnand, Bernard; Harrison, James; Forster, Alan J; Moskal, Lori; Quan, Hude; Droesler, Saskia E; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Colin, Cyrille; Gurevich, Yana; Brien, Susan E; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Üstün, Bedirhan; Ghali, William A

    2016-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) plans to submit the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to the World Health Assembly in 2018. The WHO is working toward a revised classification system that has an enhanced ability to capture health concepts in a manner that reflects current scientific evidence and that is compatible with contemporary information systems. In this paper, we present recommendations made to the WHO by the ICD revision's Quality and Safety Topic Advisory Group (Q&S TAG) for a new conceptual approach to capturing healthcare-related harms and injuries in ICD-coded data. The Q&S TAG has grouped causes of healthcare-related harm and injuries into four categories that relate to the source of the event: (a) medications and substances, (b) procedures, (c) devices and (d) other aspects of care. Under the proposed multiple coding approach, one of these sources of harm must be coded as part of a cluster of three codes to depict, respectively, a healthcare activity as a 'source' of harm, a 'mode or mechanism' of harm and a consequence of the event summarized by these codes (i.e. injury or harm). Use of this framework depends on the implementation of a new and potentially powerful code-clustering mechanism in ICD-11. This new framework for coding healthcare-related harm has great potential to improve the clinical detail of adverse event descriptions, and the overall quality of coded health data.

  13. Expression of a domain ontology model in unified modeling language for the World Health Organization International classification of impairment, disability, and handicap, version 2.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, A P; Elkin, P L; Solbrig, H; Chute, C G

    2001-01-01

    The International Classification of Impairment, Disability, and Handicap Version 2(ICIDH-2), an anticipated addition to the World Health Organization suite of terminologies, has been put forth as a means for standardized representation of generic health and/or functional status data. In an attempt to make explicit the ontology upon which ICIDH-2 is based the authors derived a concept model expressed as a Unified Modeling Language static class diagram through abstraction of concept-terms in the documentation provided with the Full Version Pre-Final Draft of ICIDH-2 (December 2000). ICIDH-2's semantic structure is analyzed and evaluated for its semantic consistency. Discussion is presented on the utility of domain ontology models in terminology development and potential roles ICIDH-2 might play, as it undergoes refinement towards a representational standard. It is intended that the proposed UML rendering will stimulate domain discourse and consensus that will lead to enhancement of conceptual clarity in the ICIDH-2 ontological hierarchy and further enable its study and development as a healthcare classification.

  14. Incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in a population-based cohort using revised 1997 American College of Rheumatology and the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, P; Sagar, V; Crowson, C S; Amin, S; Makol, A; Ernste, F C; Osborn, T G; Moder, K G; Niewold, T B; Maradit-Kremers, H; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Chowdhary, V R

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group published a new set of classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Studies applying these criteria to real-life scenarios have found either equal or greater sensitivity and equal or lower specificity to the 1997 ACR classification criteria (ACR 97). Nonetheless, there are no studies that have used the SLICC 12 criteria to investigate the incidence of lupus. We used the resource of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify incident SLE patients in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1993 to 2005, who fulfilled the ACR 97 or SLICC 12 criteria. A total of 58 patients met criteria by SLICC 12 and 44 patients met criteria by ACR 97. The adjusted incidence of 4.9 per 100,000 person-years by SLICC 12 was higher than that by ACR 97 (3.7 per 100,000 person-years, p = 0.04). The median duration from the appearance of first criterion to fulfillment of the criteria was shorter for the SLICC 12 than for ACR 97 (3.9 months vs 8.1 months). The higher incidence by SLICC 12 criteria came primarily from the ability to classify patients with renal-limited disease, the expansion of the immunologic criteria and the expansion of neurologic criteria.

  15. Daily life dialogue assessment in psychiatric care-face validity and inter-rater reliability of a tool based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Catrin; Åström, Sture; Kauffeldt, Anders; Carlström, Eric

    2013-12-01

    This article describes the development of an assessment tool based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) adapted to a psychiatric nursing context where both the patient and the nurse assess the patient's ability to participate in various spheres of life. The aim was to test psychometric properties, focusing on face validity and inter-rater reliability. Three Swedish expert groups participated. Analysis of inter-rater reliability was conducted through simulated patient cases. The results of an unweighted kappa value of 0.38, a linear weighted kappa value of 0.65 and a quadratic weighted kappa value of 0.73 were considered as acceptable when using simulated patient cases.

  16. AMPH-CLASS: An Excel spreadsheet for the classification and nomenclature of amphiboles based on the 1997 recommendations of the International Mineralogical Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esawi, E. K.

    2004-08-01

    AMPH-CLASS is an MS Excel spreadsheet designed to carry out the classification of amphiboles based on the 1997 recommendations of the International Mineralogical Association. AMPH-CLASS can be used for either microprobe or wet chemical analysis. Given a chemical analysis of amphibole and the number of oxygen atoms (23, 24, etc) per analysis, AMPH-CLASS can be used to obtain amphibole's cation names, cation values, structural formula names, structural formula values, group, name, prefixes, and modifiers. The ferric-ferrous calculation method is chosen to be the one that produces the best estimates of measured ferric-ferrous values of an amphibole data set (˜600 analyses). Detailed structural formula and other amphibole parameters calculated by the AMPH-CLASS can be used for pressure-temperature and other petrogenetic determinations.

  17. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a Framework for Providing Patient- and Family-Centered Audiological Care for Older Adults and Their Significant Others.

    PubMed

    Grenness, Caitlin; Meyer, Carly; Scarinci, Nerina; Ekberg, Katie; Hickson, Louise

    2016-08-01

    Hearing impairment is highly prevalent in the older population, and it impacts communication and quality of life for both the people with the hearing difficulties and their significant others. In this article, typical audiological assessment and management of an older adult is contrasted with a best practice approach wherein the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework is applied. The aim of the comparison is to demonstrate how the ICF expands our focus: rather than merely focusing on impairment, we also consider the activities, participation, and contextual factors for both the person with the hearing impairment and his or her family. A case example of an older patient and her spouse is provided, and their shared experience of the patient's hearing impairment is mapped onto the ICF framework. Family-centered hearing care is recommended for individualizing care and improving outcomes for older patients and their families.

  18. Using social capital to construct a conceptual International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Children and Youth version-based framework for stronger inclusive education policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Gregor; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2012-02-01

    Inclusive education is part of social inclusion; therefore, social capital can be linked to an inclusive education policy and practice. This association is explored in this article, and a practical measure is proposed. Specifically, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) is proposed as the link between social capital and inclusive education. By mapping participation and trust indicators of social capital to the ICF-CY and by using the Matrix to Analyse Functioning in Education Systems (MAFES) to analyze the functioning of inclusive education policies and systems, a measure for stronger inclusive education policies is proposed. Such a tool can be used for policy planning and monitoring to ensure better inclusive education environments. In conclusion, combining enhanced social capital linked to stronger inclusive education policies, by using the ICF-CY, can lead to better health and well-being for all.

  19. Hospital Use by Children in the United States and Canada. Comparative International Vital and Health Statistics Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Lola Jean; McCarthy, Eileen

    1984-01-01

    This document presents a statistical study of hospital use by children in the United States and Canada designed to determine why the hospital discharge rate of children in the United States is lower than many other Western industrialized nations, although the discharge rate for the general U.S. population is higher. Several reasons for the lower…

  20. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Southern Africa: review of 487 cases from The International Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Classification Project.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Perner, Yvonne; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-03-01

    Comparative data on the distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes in Southern Africa (SAF) is scarce. In this study, five expert haematopathologists classified 487 consecutive cases of NHL from SAF using the World Health Organization classification, and compared the results to North America (NA) and Western Europe (WEU). Southern Africa had a significantly lower proportion of low-grade (LG) B-NHL (34·3%) and a higher proportion of high-grade (HG) B-NHL (51·5%) compared to WEU (54·5% and 36·4%) and NA (56·1% and 34·3%). High-grade Burkitt-like lymphoma was significantly more common in SAF (8·2%) than in WEU (2·4%) and NA (2·5%), most likely due to human immunodeficiency virus infection. When SAF patients were divided by race, whites had a significantly higher frequency of LG B-NHL (60·4%) and a lower frequency of HG B-NHL (32·7%) compared to blacks (22·5% and 62·6%), whereas the other races were intermediate. Whites and other races had a significantly higher frequency of follicular lymphoma and a lower frequency of Burkitt-like lymphoma compared to blacks. The median ages of whites with LG B-NHL, HG B-NHL and T-NHL (64, 56 and 67 years) were significantly higher than those of blacks (55, 41 and 34 years). Epidemiological studies are needed to better understand these differences.

  1. The Statistical and Methodological Acuity of Scholarship Appearing in the "International Journal of Listening" (1987-2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the quality of social scientific listening research that reports numerical data to substantiate claims appearing in the "International Journal of Listening" between 1987 and 2011. Of the 225 published articles, 100 included one or more studies reporting numerical data. We frame our results in terms of eight…

  2. Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to people with dysphagia following non-surgical head and neck cancer management.

    PubMed

    Nund, Rebecca L; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Ward, Elizabeth C; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2014-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is an internationally recognized framework which allows its user to describe the consequences of a health condition on an individual in the context of their environment. With growing recognition that dysphagia can have broad ranging physical and psychosocial impacts, the aim of this paper was to identify the ICF domains and categories that describe the full functional impact of dysphagia following non-surgical head and neck cancer (HNC) management, from the perspective of the person with dysphagia. A secondary analysis was conducted on previously published qualitative study data which explored the lived experiences of dysphagia of 24 individuals with self-reported swallowing difficulties following HNC management. Categories and sub-categories identified by the qualitative analysis were subsequently mapped to the ICF using the established linking rules to develop a set of ICF codes relevant to the impact of dysphagia following HNC management. The 69 categories and sub-categories that had emerged from the qualitative analysis were successfully linked to 52 ICF codes. The distribution of these codes across the ICF framework revealed that the components of Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental Factors were almost equally represented. The findings confirm that the ICF is a valuable framework for representing the complexity and multifaceted impact of dysphagia following HNC. This list of ICF codes, which reflect the diverse impact of dysphagia associated with HNC on the individual, can be used to guide more holistic assessment and management for this population.

  3. Computer implementation of the international standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury for consistent and efficient derivation of its subscores including handling of data from not testable segments.

    PubMed

    Schuld, Christian; Wiese, Julia; Hug, Andreas; Putz, Cornelia; Hedel, Hubertus J A van; Spiess, Martina R; Weidner, Norbert; Rupp, Rüdiger

    2012-02-10

    The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI), defined by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), and particularly the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) are widely used for research and clinical purposes. Although detailed procedures for scaling, scoring, and classification have been defined, misclassifications remain a major problem, especially for cases with missing (i.e., not testable [NT]) data. This work aimed to implement computer-based classification algorithms that included rules for handling NT data. A consistent and structured algorithmic scoring, scaling, and classification scheme, and a computerized application have been developed by redefining logical/mathematical imprecisions. Existing scoring rules are extended for handling NT segments. Design criterion is a pure logical approach so that substitution of non-testability for all valid examination scores leads to concordant results. Nine percent of 5542 datasets from 1594 patients in the database of the European Multicenter Study of Human Spinal Cord Injury (EM-SCI) contained NT segments. After adjusting computational algorithms, the classification accuracy was equivalent between clinical experts and the computational approach and resulted in 84% valid AIS classifications within datasets containing NT. Additionally, the computational method is much more efficient, processing approximately 200,000 classifications/sec. Computational algorithms offer the ability to classify ISNCSCI subscores efficiently and without the risk of human-induced errors. This is of particular clinical relevance, since these scores are used for early predictions of neurological recovery and functional outcome for patients with spinal cord injuries.

  4. Statistical and dynamical analysis of internal waves on the continental shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight from Space Shuttle photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Klemas, Vic

    1993-01-01

    The internal waves on the continental shelf on the Middle Atlantic Bight seen on Space Shuttle photographs taken during the STS-40 mission in June 1991 are measured and analyzed. The internal wave field in the sample area has a three-level structure which consists of packet groups, packets, and solitons. An average packet group wavelength of 17.5 km and an average soliton wavelength of 0.6 km are measured. Finite-depth theory is used to derive the dynamic parameters of the internal solitons: the maximum amplitude of 5.6 m, the characteristic phase speed of 0.42 m/s, the characteristic period of 23.8 min, the velocity amplitude of the water particles in the upper and lower layers of 0.13 m/s and 0.030 m/s respectively, and the theoretical energy per unit crest line of 6.8 x 10 exp 4 J/m. The frequency distribution of solitons is triple-peaked rather than continuous. The major generation source is at 160 m water depth, and a second is at 1800 m depth, corresponding to the upper and lower edges of the shelf break.

  5. The Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY), in Portuguese Special Education Assessment and Eligibility Procedures: The Professionals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first country decreeing the mandatory use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child and Youth (ICF-CY) framework for guiding special education assessment process and to base eligibility decision-making on students' functioning profiles--in contrast with traditional approaches centred on…

  6. Does Shamblin's classification predict postoperative morbidity in carotid body tumors? A proposal to modify Shamblin's classification.

    PubMed

    Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Rascon-Ortiz, Mario; Villavicencio-Valencia, Veronica; Herrera-Gomez, Angel

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the possible correlation between Shamblin's classification and post-surgical morbidity in the treatment of carotid body tumors (CBTs). Seventy-two patients with carotid body tumors were seen over a 22-year period. Twenty-three patients were excluded as they did not comply with the criteria of the objectives. All patients were grouped according to Shamblin's classification. We propose a modification to this classification and make a comparison by analyzing the surgical time and bleeding, as well as the neurological and vascular damage. We resected 50 CBTs in 49 patients, ranging in age from 18 to 73 years. Three groups were formed: group I with 8 (16%) patients, group II with 17 (34%) and group III with 24 (49%). Post-surgical neurological damage was observed in one patient (12.5%) from group I, in six (35%) from group II and in nine patients (37.5%) from group III. Vascular sacrifice had to be performed in 21% of class II tumors and in 8.7% of class III. None of the class I tumors required vascular sacrifice. No statistically significant difference existed for vascular or neurological risk in relation to Shamblin's classification. However, when analyzed according to the classification proposed herein, there was a correlation between Shamblin's classification and vascular sacrifice (P =0.001). There was a statistically significant correlation between the original Shamblin and the modified Shamblin regarding surgical time and bleeding. Shamblin's classification predicts only vascular morbidity. Neurological morbidity is not reflected in it and only reflects the surgeon's experience with CBT resections. Surgical time and bleeding are directly related to the Shamblin as it reflects the size of tumors in relation to the blood vessels. Shamblin's classification must be modified to be more objective so that the international reports can accurately reflect the morbidity related to it.

  7. Supporting the validation of the new allergic and hypersensitivity conditions section of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases-11

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Moises; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The new International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" section has been constructed as a result of a detailed and careful action plan based on scientific evidences for the necessity of changes and collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) ICD-11 revision governance. All the efforts are being acknowledged by the Joint Allergy Academies. Objective Considering the new classification model addressed to the allergic and hypersensitivity conditions and following the ICD WHO agenda, we believe it is the appropriate time to start supporting the validation process in collaboration with the WHO ICD governance. Methods We conducted a mapping of ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions in the ICD-11 beta phase structure and categorized the conditions as fitting by "precoordination," "postcoordination," "indexed to the ICD-11 Foundation," "no code fit properly" or "no correspondence" in the ICD-11. Results From overall 125 ICD-10 entities spread in 6 chapters, 57.6% were able to be precoordinated, 4% postcoordinated, 12% indexed to the Foundation, 9.6% had no code fitting properly and 18.6% had no correspondence in the ICD-11 framework. Conclusion We have been able to demonstrate that 83.2% of the ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions could be captured by the current ICD-11 beta draft framework. We strongly believe that our findings constitute a key step forward for a softer transition of the ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions to the ICD-11, supporting the WHO in this process as well as strengthening the visibility of the Allergy specialty and ensuring quality management of allergic patients. PMID:27489786

  8. Multi-attribute utility function or statistical inference models: a comparison of health state valuation models using the HUI2 health state classification system.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Katherine; McCabe, Christopher; Brazier, John; Roberts, Jennifer

    2007-09-01

    A key issue in health state valuation modelling is the choice of functional form. The two most frequently used preference based instruments adopt different approaches; one based on multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), the other on statistical analysis. There has been no comparison of these alternative approaches in the context of health economics. We report a comparison of these approaches for the health utilities index mark 2. The statistical inference model predicts more accurately than the one based on MAUT. We discuss possible explanations for the differences in performance, the importance of the findings, and implications for future research.

  9. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for patients with vertigo, dizziness and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Grill, Eva; Bronstein, Adolfo; Furman, Joseph; Zee, David S; Müller, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Vertigo, dizziness and balance disorders have major impact on independence, employability, activities and participation. There are many measures for the assessment of the impact of vertigo, but no consensus exists on which aspects should be measured. The objective of this study was to develop international standards (ICF Core Sets) for patients with vertigo and dizziness to describe functioning. The development of the ICF Core Sets involved a formal decision-making and consensus process, integrating evidence from preparatory studies including qualitative interviews with patients, a systematic review of the literature, a survey with health professionals, and empirical data collection from patients. Twenty-seven experts selected 100 second level categories for the comprehensive Core Set and 29 second level categories for the Brief Core Set. The largest number of categories was selected from the ICF component Activities and Participation (40). Twenty-five categories were selected from the component Body Functions, six from Body Structures, and 29 from Environmental Factors. The ICF Core Set for vertigo is designed for physicians, nurses, therapists and other health professionals working in inpatient or ambulatory settings. ICF Core Sets create patient-relevant outcomes that can be used as evidence for the success of treatments.

  10. Chest x ray films from construction workers: International Labour Office (ILO 1980) classification compared with routine readings.

    PubMed Central

    Albin, M; Engholm, G; Fröström, K; Kheddache, S; Larsson, S; Swantesson, L

    1992-01-01

    The extent of agreement between International Labour Office (ILO) and clinical readings of chest x ray films from construction workers was studied. From a survey of 5898 workers 258 subjects with a profusion of small opacities of > or = 1/1 and a stratified sample of subjects with profusion < 1/1 were selected. Only 41% of the films classified as ILO profusion category > or = 1/1 were clinically recorded as non-normal for the parenchyma. The proportion of films recorded as pneumoconiotic (or possibly so) was especially low for irregular opacities (22%), but increased with the profusion category (both rounded and irregular) as well as with the size of rounded opacities (p 3/11, q 12/25, r 3/4). Only with the profusion category > or = 2/1 were most of the films recorded as pneumoconiotic. The specificity and sensitivity were highest in the geographical areas where a few clinical readers had assessed many films each. The proportion of false negative clinical reports was low for circumscribed pleural thickening of the chest wall (9%) and diaphragmatic pleural thickening (6%). For calcified pleural changes and for the combination of diffuse pleural thickening and obliteration of the costophrenic angle, false negative reports were absent. The present study shows an unsatisfactory sensitivity for clinical compared with ILO readings as a means for screening the parenchyma of workers with a risk of pneumoconiosis. PMID:1472445

  11. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to Describe Children Referred to Special Care or Paediatric Dental Services

    PubMed Central

    Faulks, Denise; Norderyd, Johanna; Molina, Gustavo; Macgiolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Scagnet, Gabriela; Eschevins, Caroline; Hennequin, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child’s capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) (WHO), provides a wider picture of a child’s real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ±3.6yrs). International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%), Down syndrome (22.0%), mental retardation (17.0%), autistic disorders (16.1%), and dental anxiety alone (11.0%). The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were ‘Intellectual functions’, ‘High-level cognitive functions’, and ‘Attention functions’. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including ‘Handling stress’, ‘Caring for body parts’, ‘Looking after one’s health’ and ‘Speaking’. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included ‘Support of friends’, ‘Attitude of friends’ and ‘Support of immediate family’. One item was reported as an environmental barrier – ‘Societal attitudes’. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical

  12. A brief statistical analysis of stomatology papers published in international journals by researchers from the mainland of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-hua; Pan, Yun-tao; Hong, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    This paper has briefly analyzed the publication status of Chinese stomatology papers in 2009 with statistics from Journal Citation Reports® provided by Thomson Scientific. Only those papers with the first author coming from the mainland of China were included for calculations. We have found a significant increase in the number of SCIE-indexed papers, most of which were published by six dental institutions in China. Among all Chinese medical institutions, West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University is the first dental institution to enter the top-20 list with the most publications, and it also ranks the 9th in the number of outstanding articles. West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University and the Forth Military Medical University are the only two dental institutions in China which have published SCIE-indexed papers over a hundred. The former has published the most SCIE-indexed stomatology papers, while the latter has the highest average impact factor. As the laboratories and funds in China have close connections with various dental hospitals, the pratice of translational medicine in dentistry is fast and fluent. PMID:21449209

  13. Statistical coherence of primary schooling in IPUMS-International integrated population samples for China, India, Vietnam, and ten other Asia-Pacific countries1

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Cleveland, Lara; Kelly-Hall, Patricia; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international disseminates harmonized census microdata for more than 80 countries at no cost, although access is restricted to bona-fide researchers and students who agree to the stringent conditions of use license. Currently over 270 samples are available, totalling more than 600 million person records. Each year 15–20 additional samples are released, as more countries cooperate with the IPUMS initiative and the integration of 2010 round census samples is completed. With so much microdata so readily available, questions of data quality naturally arise. This paper focusses on the concept of statistical coherence over time for a single concept, primary schooling completed. From an analysis of the percentage completing primary schooling by birth year for pairs of samples for thirteen Asia-Pacific countries, we find outstanding coherence for four—China, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Indonesia—with mean differences of less than 0.5 percentage points, regression coefficient (b) ranging from 0.93 to 1.07 and R2 =.99. For the thirteen countries as a group there is considerable variation overall with mean absolute difference as high as 16 percentage points, b ranging from 0.62–1.44 and R2=.65–.99. As a whole, statistical coherence of primary schooling is outstanding. Nonetheless, to make expert use of the harmonized microdata, researchers are cautioned to carefully study the IPUMS integrated metadata as well as the original source documentation. National Statistical Offices not currently cooperating or that have not yet entrusted 2010 round census microdata are invited to do so. PMID:26478685

  14. Investigating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework to Capture User Needs in the Concept Stage of Rehabilitation Technology Development.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Holt, Ray; Weightman, Andy; Levesley, Martin; Bhakta, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework provides a useful basis to ensure that key user needs are identified in the development of a home-based arm rehabilitation system for stroke patients. Using a qualitative approach, nine people with residual arm weakness after stroke and six healthcare professionals with expertise in stroke rehabilitation were enrolled in the user-centered design process. They were asked, through semi-structured interviews, to define the needs and specification for a potential home-based rehabilitation device to facilitate self-managed arm exercise. The topic list for the interviews was derived by brainstorming ideas within the clinical and engineering multidisciplinary research team based on previous experience and existing literature in user-centered design. Meaningful concepts were extracted from questions and responses of these interviews. These concepts obtained were matched to the categories within the ICF comprehensive core set for stroke using ICF linking rules. Most of the concepts extracted from the interviews matched to the existing ICF Core Set categories. Person factors like gender, age, interest, compliance, motivation, choice, and convenience that might determine device usability are yet to be categorized within the ICF comprehensive core set. The results suggest that the categories of the comprehensive ICF Core Set for stroke provide a useful basis for structuring interviews to identify most users needs. However some personal factors (related to end users and healthcare professionals) need to be considered in addition to the ICF categories.

  15. The assessment of the spondyloarthritis international society concept and criteria for the classification of axial spondyloarthritis and peripheral spondyloarthritis: A critical appraisal for the pediatric rheumatologist

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review refers to the origin and current state of the assessment of the SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria for the classification of axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the possible implications in the pediatric population. The ASAS criteria evolved from the idea that the earlier the recognition of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, the better the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor blockers. Strategies included the development of new concepts, definitions, and techniques for the study of clinical signs and symptoms. Of relevance, the new definition of inflammatory back pain (IBP) and the introduction of sacroiliitis by magnetic resonance imaging represented the most important advance in the early identification of AS in the “pre-radiographic stage” of the disease. AS is considered in this paper as a disease continuum with symptoms depending on age at onset. The application of those specific strategies in children and adolescents with SpA seems limited because the most important manifestation in the early stage of disease is not IBP, but peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. In this instance, the logical approach to juvenile onset SpA according to ASAS criteria should not be through the axial criteria but rather the peripheral set of criteria. PMID:22650358

  16. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades. PMID:25810443

  17. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets: application to a postmenopausal woman with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis of the spine.

    PubMed

    Lorbergs, Amanda L; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2013-10-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework facilitates systematic assessment of functioning across four components. ICF Core Sets are proposed to be beneficial for clinicians in multidisciplinary care settings because they provide a common language for communication. A clinical vignette of a postmenopausal woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a non-traumatic vertebral fracture is presented to discuss how the ICF Core Sets for RA and osteoporosis (OP) can be helpful in structuring clinical decisions. To demonstrate how condition-specific ICF Core Sets can be used to evaluate and treat women with two comorbidities, each component of the ICF Core Sets is compared across conditions and integrated into clinical decision-making. Topics covered include: exercise tolerance, urinary continence, bone mass, fear of falling, and environmental factors. The benefits of thorough communication with the client and a common language across healthcare disciplines are highlighted as the potential benefits of the ICF framework; however, limitations to uptake of the ICF in clinical practice are also addressed.

  18. Identification of aspects of functioning, disability and health relevant to patients experiencing vertigo: a qualitative study using the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Aims of this study were to identify aspects of functioning and health relevant to patients with vertigo expressed by ICF categories and to explore the potential of the ICF to describe the patient perspective in vertigo. Methods We conducted a series of qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews using a descriptive approach. Data was analyzed using the meaning condensation procedure and then linked to categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Results From May to July 2010 12 interviews were carried out until saturation was reached. Four hundred and seventy-one single concepts were extracted which were linked to 142 different ICF categories. 40 of those belonged to the component body functions, 62 to the component activity and participation, and 40 to the component environmental factors. Besides the most prominent aspect “dizziness” most participants reported problems within “Emotional functions (b152), problems related to mobility and carrying out the daily routine. Almost all participants reported “Immediate family (e310)” as a relevant modifying environmental factor. Conclusions From the patients’ perspective, vertigo has impact on multifaceted aspects of functioning and disability, mainly body functions and activities and participation. Modifying contextual factors have to be taken into account to cover the complex interaction between the health condition of vertigo on the individuals’ daily life. The results of this study will contribute to developing standards for the measurement of functioning, disability and health relevant for patients suffering from vertigo. PMID:22738067

  19. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  20. Validation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for chronic widespread pain from the perspective of fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Hieblinger, Robin; Coenen, Michaela; Stucki, Gerold; Winkelmann, Andreas; Cieza, Alarcos

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Functioning is recognized as an important study outcome in chronic widespread pain (CWP). The Comprehensive ICF Core Set for CWP is an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) with the purpose of representing the typical spectrum of functioning of patients with CWP. The objective of the study was to add evidence to the validation of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for CWP from the patient perspective. The specific aims were to explore the aspects of functioning and health important to patients with fibromyalgia, and to examine to what extent these aspects are represented by the current version of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for CWP. Methods The sampling of patients followed the maximum variation strategy. Sample size was determined by saturation. The focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The meaning condensation procedure was used for qualitative data analysis. After qualitative data analysis, the identified concepts were linked to ICF categories. Results Thirty-three patients participated in six focus groups. Fifty-four ICF categories out of 67 categories of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for CWP were reported by the patients. Forty-eight additional categories that are not covered in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for CWP were raised. Conclusions Most ICF categories of the existing version of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for CWP could be confirmed from the patient perspective. However, several categories not included in the Core Set emerged and should be considered for inclusion. PMID:19442275

  1. Examining the Disability Model From the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Using a Large Data Set of Community-Dwelling Malaysian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Seng Cheong; Lim, Wee Shiong; Someya, Yoshiko; Hamid, Tengku A.; Nudin, Siti S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model (ICF) using a data set of 2,563 community-dwelling elderly with disease-independent measures of mobility, physical activity, and social networking, to represent ICF constructs. Method: The relationship between chronic disease and disability (independent and dependent variables) was examined using logistic regression. To demonstrate variability in activity performance with functional impairment, graphing was used. The relationship between functional impairment, activity performance, and social participation was examined graphically and using ANOVA. The impact of cognitive deficits was quantified through stratifying by dementia. Results: Disability is strongly related to chronic disease (Wald 25.5, p < .001), functional impairment with activity performance (F = 34.2, p < .001), and social participation (F= 43.6, p < .001). With good function, there is considerable variability in activity performance (inter-quartile range [IQR] = 2.00), but diminishes with high impairment (IQR = 0.00) especially with cognitive deficits. Discussion: Environment modification benefits those with moderate functional impairment, but not with higher grades of functional loss. PMID:26472747

  2. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    PubMed Central

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  3. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international.

    PubMed

    McCAA, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70(th) anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world's population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  4. Statistical classification of hydrogeologic regions in the fractured rock area of Maryland and parts of the District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Brandon J.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogeologic regions in the fractured rock area of Maryland were classified using geographic information system tools with principal components and cluster analyses. A study area consisting of the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) watersheds with rivers that flow through the fractured rock area of Maryland and bounded by the Fall Line was further subdivided into 21,431 catchments from the National Hydrography Dataset Plus. The catchments were then used as a common hydrologic unit to compile relevant climatic, topographic, and geologic variables. A principal components analysis was performed on 10 input variables, and 4 principal components that accounted for 83 percent of the variability in the original data were identified. A subsequent cluster analysis grouped the catchments based on four principal component scores into six hydrogeologic regions. Two crystalline rock hydrogeologic regions, including large parts of the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan regions that represent over 50 percent of the fractured rock area of Maryland, are distinguished by differences in recharge, Precipitation minus Potential Evapotranspiration, sand content in soils, and groundwater contributions to streams. This classification system will provide a georeferenced digital hydrogeologic framework for future investigations of groundwater availability in the fractured rock area of Maryland.

  5. Use of the K ppen-Trewartha Climate Classification to Evaluate Climatic Refugia in Statistically Derived Ecoregions for the People's Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Barry; Diaz, Henry; HargroveJr., William Walter; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2010-01-01

    Changes in climate as projected by state-of-the-art climate models are likely to result in novel combinations of climate and topo-edaphic factors that will have substantial impacts on the distribution and persistence of natural vegetation and animal species. We have used multivariate techniques to quantify some of these changes; the method employed was the Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Clustering (MSTC) algorithm. We used the MSTC to quantitatively define ecoregions for the People s Republic of China for historical and projected future climates. Using the K ppen Trewartha classification system we were able to quantify some of the temperature and precipitation relationships of the ecoregions. We then tested the hypothesis that impacts to environments will be lower for ecoregions that retain their approximate geographic locations. Our results showed that climate in 2050, as projected from anthropogenic forcings using the Hadley Centre HadCM3 general circulation model, were sufficient to create novel environmental conditions even where ecoregions remained spatially stable; cluster number was found to be of paramount importance in detecting novelty. Continental-scale analyses are generally able to locate potentially static ecoregions but they may be insufficient to define the position of those reserves at a grid cell-by-grid cell basis.

  6. Classiology and soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    Classiology can be defined as a science studying the principles and rules of classification of objects of any nature. The development of the theory of classification and the particular methods for classifying objects are the main challenges of classiology; to a certain extent, they are close to the challenges of pattern recognition. The methodology of classiology integrates a wide range of methods and approaches: from expert judgment to formal logic, multivariate statistics, and informatics. Soil classification assumes generalization of available data and practical experience, formalization of our notions about soils, and their representation in the form of an information system. As an information system, soil classification is designed to predict the maximum number of a soil's properties from the position of this soil in the classification space. The existing soil classification systems do not completely satisfy the principles of classiology. The violation of logical basis, poor structuring, low integrity, and inadequate level of formalization make these systems verbal schemes rather than classification systems sensu stricto. The concept of classification as listing (enumeration) of objects makes it possible to introduce the notion of the information base of classification. For soil objects, this is the database of soil indices (properties) that might be applied for generating target-oriented soil classification system. Mathematical methods enlarge the prognostic capacity of classification systems; they can be applied to assess the quality of these systems and to recognize new soil objects to be included in the existing systems. The application of particular principles and rules of classiology for soil classification purposes is discussed in this paper.

  7. PIXE multivariate statistics and OSL investigation for the classification and dating of archaeological pottery excavated at Tell Al-Rawda site, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Rihawy, M. S.; Castel, C.; Abboud, R.

    2015-03-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been utilised to study 48 Syrian ancient pottery fragments taken from excavations at Tell Al-Rawda site. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, and Pb) were determined. The elements concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, to classify the pottery where one main group and other two small groups were defined. In addition, four samples from different places on the site were subjected to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The average age obtained using a single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol was found to be 4350 ± 240 year.

  8. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research

    PubMed Central

    Maglo, Koffi N.; Mersha, Tesfaye B.; Martin, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to “frictional” effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the “cluster” and “cline” constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin's argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces, and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors, and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response. PMID:26925096

  9. Are they relevant? A critical evaluation of the international classification of functioning, disability, and health core sets for osteoarthritis from the perspective of patients with knee osteoarthritis in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Xie, F; Thumboo, J; Fong, K‐Y; Lo, N‐N; Yeo, S‐J; Yang, K‐Y; Li, S‐C

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine the extent to which health items identified from the perspective of patients with knee osteoarthritis can be linked with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF); and to evaluate critically the content validity of ICF comprehensive and brief core sets for osteoarthritis. Methods Items identified from a focus group study were linked independently by two researchers based on the 10 a priori linking rules. Both percentage agreement and κ statistics were calculated to measure interobserver agreement. Any disagreements were resolved by reaching a consensus among the researchers. The categories linked with all items were compared with the comprehensive core set, while the categories linked with those items reported as important by over 30% of subjects within each of three local ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) were compared with the brief core set. Both comparisons were made only at the second level of the ICF. Results In all, 74 items were linked with 44 different ICF categories through 105 linkages with generally good interobserver agreement. The 69 items were linked with the ICF at the third or fourth levels. Both commonalities and disparities were found through comparison between the categories linked with these items and both core sets. Conclusions All items could be successfully linked with the ICF. The comprehensive core set showed good content validity, while the brief core set needs to be supported by more empirical evidence in various sociocultural contexts. This study specifically complemented the development and refinement of both core sets from the perspective of patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:16396981

  10. Challenges in prosthesis classification.

    PubMed

    Robertsson, Otto; Mendenhall, Stan; Paxton, Elizabeth W; Inacio, Maria C S; Graves, Stephen

    2011-12-21

    Accurate prosthesis classification is critical for total joint arthroplasty surveillance and assessment of comparative effectiveness. Historically, prosthesis classification was based solely on the names of the prosthesis manufacturers. As a result, prosthesis designs changed without corresponding name changes, and other prostheses' names changed over time without substantial design modifications. As the number of prostheses used in total joint arthroplasty on the market increased, catalog and lot numbers associated with prosthesis descriptions were introduced by manufacturers. Currently, these catalog and lot numbers are not standardized, and there is no consensus on categorization of these numbers into brands or subbrands. Classification of the attributes of a prosthesis also varies, limiting comparisons of prostheses across studies and reports. The development of a universal prosthesis classification system would standardize prosthesis classification and enhance total joint arthroplasty research collaboration worldwide. This is a current area of focus for the International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries (ICOR).

  11. Triacylglycerol Analysis in Human Milk and Other Mammalian Species: Small-Scale Sample Preparation, Characterization, and Statistical Classification Using HPLC-ELSD Profiles.

    PubMed

    Ten-Doménech, Isabel; Beltrán-Iturat, Eduardo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Sancho-Llopis, Juan Vicente; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a method for the separation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in human milk and from other mammalian species by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a core-shell particle packed column with UV and evaporative light-scattering detectors is described. Under optimal conditions, a mobile phase containing acetonitrile/n-pentanol at 10 °C gave an excellent resolution among more than 50 TAG peaks. A small-scale method for fat extraction in these milks (particularly of interest for human milk samples) using minimal amounts of sample and reagents was also developed. The proposed extraction protocol and the traditional method were compared, giving similar results, with respect to the total fat and relative TAG contents. Finally, a statistical study based on linear discriminant analysis on the TAG composition of different types of milks (human, cow, sheep, and goat) was carried out to differentiate the samples according to their mammalian origin.

  12. 2016 Classification Criteria for Macrophage Activation Syndrome Complicating Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation Collaborative Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Angelo; Minoia, Francesca; Davì, Sergio; Horne, AnnaCarin; Bovis, Francesca; Pistorio, Angela; Aricò, Maurizio; Avcin, Tadej; Behrens, Edward M; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Filipovic, Lisa; Grom, Alexei A; Henter, Jan-Inge; Ilowite, Norman T; Jordan, Michael B; Khubchandani, Raju; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Lehmberg, Kai; Lovell, Daniel J; Miettunen, Paivi; Nichols, Kim E; Ozen, Seza; Pachlopnik Schmid, Jana; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Russo, Ricardo; Schneider, Rayfel; Sterba, Gary; Uziel, Yosef; Wallace, Carol; Wouters, Carine; Wulffraat, Nico; Demirkaya, Erkan; Brunner, Hermine I; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Cron, Randy Q

    2016-03-01

    To develop criteria for the classification of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A multistep process, based on a combination of expert consensus and analysis of real patient data, was conducted. A panel of 28 experts was first asked to classify 428 patient profiles as having or not having MAS, based on clinical and laboratory features at the time of disease onset. The 428 profiles comprised 161 patients with systemic JIA-associated MAS and 267 patients with a condition that could potentially be confused with MAS (active systemic JIA without evidence of MAS, or systemic infection). Next, the ability of candidate criteria to classify individual patients as having MAS or not having MAS was assessed by evaluating the agreement between the classification yielded using the criteria and the consensus classification of the experts. The final criteria were selected in a consensus conference. Experts achieved consensus on the classification of 391 of the 428 patient profiles (91.4%). A total of 982 candidate criteria were tested statistically. The 37 best-performing criteria and 8 criteria obtained from the literature were evaluated at the consensus conference. During the conference, 82% consensus among experts was reached on the final MAS classification criteria. In validation analyses, these criteria had a sensitivity of 0.73 and a specificity of 0.99. Agreement between the classification (MAS or not MAS) obtained using the criteria and the original diagnosis made by the treating physician was high (κ=0.76). We have developed a set of classification criteria for MAS complicating systemic JIA and provided preliminary evidence of its validity. Use of these criteria will potentially improve understanding of MAS in systemic JIA and enhance efforts to discover effective therapies, by ensuring appropriate patient enrollment in studies.

  13. A comprehensive scoping review of ability and disability in ADHD using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY).

    PubMed

    de Schipper, Elles; Lundequist, Aiko; Wilteus, Anna Löfgren; Coghill, David; de Vries, Petrus J; Granlund, Mats; Holtmann, Martin; Jonsson, Ulf; Karande, Sunil; Levy, Florence; Al-Modayfer, Omar; Rohde, Luis; Tannock, Rosemary; Tonge, Bruce; Bölte, Sven

    2015-08-01

    This is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The objective here was to use a comprehensive scoping review approach to identify the concepts of functional ability and disability used in the scientific ADHD literature and link these to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY. Systematic searches were conducted using Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, to extract the relevant concepts of functional ability and disability from the identified outcome studies of ADHD. These concepts were then linked to ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. Data from identified studies were analysed until saturation of ICF-CY categories was reached. Eighty studies were included in the final analysis. Concepts contained in these studies were linked to 128 ICF-CY categories. Of these categories, 68 were considered to be particularly relevant to ADHD (i.e., identified in at least 5 % of the studies). Of these, 32 were related to Activities and participation, 31 were related to Body functions, and five were related to environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were school education (53 %), energy and drive functions (50 %), psychomotor functions (50 %), attention functions (49 %), and emotional functions (45 %). The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study underlines the necessity to consider ability and disability in ADHD across all dimensions of life, for which the ICF-CY provides a valuable and universally applicable framework. These results, in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, clinical study), will provide a scientific basis to define the ICF Core Sets for ADHD for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research, and every day clinical practice.

  14. Characteristics of Elderly-Onset (≥65 years) Headache Diagnosed Using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Yong-Jae; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kim, Byung-Su; Kim, Jae-Moon; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Moon, Heui-Soo; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Chu, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose New-onset headache in elderly patients is generally suggestive of a high probability of secondary headache, and the subtypes of primary headache diagnoses are still unclear in the elderly. This study investigated the characteristics of headache with an older age at onset (≥65 years) and compared the characteristics between younger and older age groups. Methods We prospectively collected demographic and clinical data of 1,627 patients who first visited 11 tertiary hospitals in Korea due to headache between August 2014 and February 2015. Headache subtype was categorized according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version. Results In total, 152 patients (9.3%, 106 women and 46 men) experienced headache that began from 65 years of age [elderly-onset group (EOG)], while the remaining 1,475 patients who first experienced headache before the age of 65 years were classified as the younger-age-at-onset group (YOG). Among the primary headache types, tension-type headache (55.6% vs. 28.8%) and other primary headache disorders (OPH, 31.0% vs. 17.3%) were more common in the EOG than in the YOG, while migraine was less frequent (13.5% vs. 52.2%) (p=0.001) in the EOG. Among OPH, primary stabbing headache (87.2%) was more frequent in the EOG than in the YOG (p=0.032). The pain was significantly less severe (p=0.026) and the frequency of medication overuse headache was higher in EOG than in YOG (23.5% vs. 7.6%, p=0.040). Conclusions Tension-type headache and OPH headaches, primarily stabbing headache, were more common in EOG patients than in YOG patients. The pain intensity, distribution of headache diagnoses, and frequency of medication overuse differed according to the age at headache onset. PMID:27819415

  15. Moderators, mediators, and bidirectional relationships in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework: An empirical investigation using a longitudinal design and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).

    PubMed

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Badley, Elizabeth M; Falissard, Bruno; Dub, Timothée; Leplege, Alain; Coste, Joël

    2015-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) published in 2001 describes the consequences of health conditions with three components of impairments in body structures or functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Two of the new features of the conceptual model were the possibility of feedback effects between each ICF component and the introduction of contextual factors conceptualized as moderators of the relationship between the components. The aim of this longitudinal study is to provide empirical evidence of these two kinds of effect. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a French population-based cohort of 548 patients with knee osteoarthritis recruited between April 2007 and March 2009 and followed for three years. Indicators of the body structure and function, activity and participation components of the ICF were derived from self-administered standardized instruments. The measurement model revealed four separate factors for body structures impairments, body functions impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The classic sequence from body impairments to participation restrictions through activity limitations was found at each assessment time. Longitudinal study of the ICF component relationships showed a feedback pathway indicating that the level of participation restrictions at baseline was predictive of activity limitations three years later. Finally, the moderating role of personal (age, sex, mental health, etc.) and environmental factors (family relationships, mobility device use, etc.) was investigated. Three contextual factors (sex, family relationships and walking stick use) were found to be moderators for the relationship between the body impairments and the activity limitations components. Mental health was found to be a mediating factor of the effect of activity limitations on participation restrictions.

  16. The International Classification of Function Disability and Health (ICF) in adults visiting the HIV outpatient clinic at a regional hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van As, Melissa; Myezwa, Hellen; Stewart, Aimee; Maleka, Douglas; Musenge, Eustasius

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, 16.6% of South Africans between 15 and 49 years of age were HIV positive. The advent of anti-retroviral therapy has led to improved longevity, CD4 counts and clinical well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Physical impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions of PLWHA have profound effects on the Health-related Quality of Life and functional abilities of those with the disease, and understanding thereof may assist in the formulation of rehabilitation protocols, health care interventions as well as vocational and legislative policies. The International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) is a standardised tool, endorsed by the World Health Assembly for international use, which aims to classify functioning and disability. It is structured to assess body functions and structure, functional activities and associated personal and environmental factors.This study aimed to develop a profile of the level of functional activity, using the ICF Checklist, of an urban cohort of 45 South African individuals who are HIV positive attending an outpatient clinic at the Helen Joseph Memorial Hospital, Gauteng, South Africa. The results showed a high prevalence of physical impairments, participation restrictions and selective activity limitations and that environmental factors influence their level of ability. Specific impairments where patients had problems were mental functions (69% (n=31), sensory and pain -- 71% (n=32), digestive and metabolic functions 45% (n=20) and neuromuscular 27% (n=12). Activity limitations included major life areas' 58% (n=26), interpersonal relationships 56% (n=25), mobility 40% (n=18) and general tasks and demands 38% (n=17). Limitations in mobility were significantly associated with problems of sensory functions (p=0.05), pain (p=0.006), neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions (p=0.006), muscle power (p=0.006) as well as energy and drive functions (p=0.001). The study identifies

  17. The classification of conversion disorder (functional neurologic symptom disorder) in ICD and DSM.

    PubMed

    Levenson, J L; Sharpe, M

    2017-01-01

    The name given to functional neurologic symptoms has evolved over time in the different editions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), reflecting a gradual move away from an etiologic conception rooted in hysterical conversion to an empiric phenomenologic one, emphasizing the central role of the neurologic examination and testing in demonstrating that the symptoms are incompatible with recognized neurologic disease pathophysiology, or are internally inconsistent.

  18. Comparative study of some robust statistical methods: weighted, parametric, and nonparametric linear regression of HPLC convoluted peak responses using internal standard method in drug bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Korany, Mohamed A; Maher, Hadir M; Galal, Shereen M; Ragab, Marwa A A

    2013-05-01

    This manuscript discusses the application and the comparison between three statistical regression methods for handling data: parametric, nonparametric, and weighted regression (WR). These data were obtained from different chemometric methods applied to the high-performance liquid chromatography response data using the internal standard method. This was performed on a model drug Acyclovir which was analyzed in human plasma with the use of ganciclovir as internal standard. In vivo study was also performed. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response ratio data was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x i polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). This work studies and also compares the application of WR method and Theil's method, a nonparametric regression (NPR) method with the least squares parametric regression (LSPR) method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. When the assumption of homoscedasticity is not met for analytical data, a simple and effective way to counteract the great influence of the high concentrations on the fitted regression line is to use WR method. WR was found to be superior to the method of LSPR as the former assumes that the y-direction error in the calibration curve will increase as x increases. Theil's NPR method was also found to be superior to the method of LSPR as the former assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and that might not be normally distributed. Most of the results showed a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy on applying WR and NPR methods relative to LSPR.

  19. Content comparison of quality of life questionnaires used in head and neck cancer based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tschiesner, U; Rogers, S N; Harréus, U; Berghaus, A; Cieza, A

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a content comparison of frequently used questionnaires that assess health-related quality of life (hrQOL) in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. This systematic content comparison describes which specific areas of hr-QOL research are covered by each questionnaire. Thereby, it shall assist the clinician in the decision process of instrument selection depending on the content of the study question. As a reference, we chose the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF), which was adopted by the WHO in 2001. A systematic literature review identified current hrQOL questionnaires relevant for HNC. The concepts of functioning contained in each questionnaire were translated (linked") to the ICF according to standardized guidelines. Nine questionnaires were selected for further analyses: EORTC-QLQ (C30 + HN35), FACT (G + HN), UW_QOL, QOL-RTI, HN-QOL, PSS-HN, VHI, LORQ, XQ. Within the selected questionnaires, there are 474 concepts, matching 74 second-level ICF categories. The results are presented in tables, showing for each of the validated questionnaires, which of these 74 categories of functioning are addressed. In terms of diversification of content among the questionnaires, there are just eight categories that are used rather frequently and apply to at least five (out of nine) of the questionnaires: e110 Products for personal consumption (i.e., food, drugs), b510 ingestion function, b152 emotional function, b280 sensation of pain, b310 voice, d550 eating, b130 energy and drive function and d850 employment. This ICF-based content comparison provides detailed information on the content that is covered in each questionnaire and thereby assists questionnaire selection. The results question the assumption that HNC-specific questionnaires generally cover the same content. Depending on the study question, the population to be studied and the intervention, there is no unique ideal questionnaire

  20. General practitioner management related to skin cancer prevention and screening during standard medical encounters: a French cross-sectional study based on the International Classification of Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Rat, Cédric; Houd, Sara; Gaultier, Aurélie; Grimault, Charlotte; Quereux, Gaelle; Mercier, Alain; Letrilliart, Laurent; Dreno, Brigitte; Nguyen, Jean Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess general practitioner (GP) management practices related to skin cancer prevention and screening during standard medical encounters. Setting Data on medical encounters addressing skin cancer issues were obtained from a French database containing information from 17 019 standard primary care consultations. Participants Data were collected between December 2011 and April 2012 by 54 trainees who reported the regular practice of 128 GPs using the International Classification of Primary Care. Outcome measures Reasons for encounters and the following care processes were recorded: counselling, clinical examinations and referral to a specialist. Medical encounters addressing skin cancer issues were compared with medical encounters that addressed other health problems using a multivariate analysis. Results Only 0.7% of medical encounters addressed skin cancer issues. When patients did require management of a skin cancer-related issue, this was more likely initiated by the doctor than the patient (70.7% vs 29.3%; p<0.001). Compared with medical encounters addressing other health problems, encounters that addressed skin cancer problems required more tasks (3.7 vs 2.5; p<0.001) and lasted 1 min and 20 s longer (p=0.003). GPs were less involved in clinical examinations (67.5% vs 97.1%; p<0.001), both complete (7.3% vs 22.3%, p<0.001) and partial examinations (60.2% vs 74.9%), and were less involved in counselling (5.7% vs 16.9%; p<0.001). Patients presenting skin cancer issues were referred to a specialist more often than patients consulting for other health problems (39.0% vs 12.1%; p<0.001). GPs performed a biopsy in 6.7% of all skin cancer-related encounters. Conclusions This study demonstrates discrepancies between the high prevalence of skin cancer and the low rate of medical encounters addressing these issues in general practice. Our findings should be followed by qualitative interviews to better understand the observed

  1. Prevalence of disability in a composite ≥75 year-old population in Spain: A screening survey based on the International Classification of Functioning

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability of elderly people have been studied in several European countries including Spain. However, there has been no population-based study incorporating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework as the basis for assessing disability. The present study reports prevalence rates for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability by the domains of activities and participation of the ICF. Methods Nine populations surveyed in previous prevalence studies contributed probabilistic and geographically defined samples in June 2005. The study sample was composed of 503 subjects aged ≥75 years. We implemented a two-phase screening design using the MMSE and the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule 2nd edition (WHO-DAS II, 12 items) as cognitive and disability screening tools, respectively. Participants scoring within the positive range of the disability screening were administered the full WHO-DAS II (36 items; score range: 0-100) assessing the following areas: Understanding and communication, Getting along with people, Life activities, Getting around, Participation in society, and Self-care. Each disability area assessed by WHO-DAS II (36 items) was reported according to the ICF severity ranges (No problem, 0-4; Mild disability, 5-24; Moderate disability, 25-49; Severe/Extreme disability, 50-100). Results The age-adjusted disability prevalence figures were: 39.17 ± 2.18%, 15.31 ± 1.61%, and 10.14 ± 1.35% for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability, respectively. Severe and extreme disability prevalence in mobility and life activities was three times higher than the average, and highest among women. Sex variations were minimal, although life activities for women of 85 years and over had more severe/extreme disability as compared to men (OR = 5.15 95% CI 3.19-8.32). Conclusions Disability is highly prevalent among the Spanish elderly

  2. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference. Papers of the Management and Technology Division: Statistics Section (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17-22, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Peter; Dosunmu, J. A.

    Two papers on library statistics describe national programs to collect such statistics in a Western European country and a developing country in Africa: "Establishment and Organisation of National Library Statistics: The Nigerian Experience," by J. A. Dosunmu; and "German Library Statistics," by Peter Gruber. Dosunmu's paper…

  3. Classification of edible oils by employing 31P and 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. A proposal for the detection of seed oil adulteration in virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Vigli, Georgia; Philippidis, Angelos; Spyros, Apostolos; Dais, Photis

    2003-09-10

    A combination of (1)H NMR and (31)P NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis was used to classify 192 samples from 13 types of vegetable oils, namely, hazelnut, sunflower, corn, soybean, sesame, walnut, rapeseed, almond, palm, groundnut, safflower, coconut, and virgin olive oils from various regions of Greece. 1,2-Diglycerides, 1,3-diglycerides, the ratio of 1,2-diglycerides to total diglycerides, acidity, iodine value, and fatty acid composition determined upon analysis of the respective (1)H NMR and (31)P NMR spectra were selected as variables to establish a classification/prediction model by employing discriminant analysis. This model, obtained from the training set of 128 samples, resulted in a significant discrimination among the different classes of oils, whereas 100% of correct validated assignments for 64 samples were obtained. Different artificial mixtures of olive-hazelnut, olive-corn, olive-sunflower, and olive-soybean oils were prepared and analyzed by (1)H NMR and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. Subsequent discriminant analysis of the data allowed detection of adulteration as low as 5% w/w, provided that fresh virgin olive oil samples were used, as reflected by their high 1,2-diglycerides to total diglycerides ratio (D > or = 0.90).

  4. Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the ICF Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) within the context of augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Pless, Mia; Granlund, Mats

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and the ICF version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY), within the context of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). First, the use of the ICF and the ICF-CY in AAC research is analyzed. Second, examples of training and implementation of ICF from other contexts besides AAC are provided. Finally, we synthesize data to provide directions for future implementation of the ICF and ICF-CY in the field of AAC. We conclude that, within AAC, organizational routines and intervention documents need to be adapted to the universal language and classification framework of the ICF and ICF-CY. Furthermore, examples are needed to demonstrate how factors affect implementation at organizational and individual levels.

  5. Developing the diagnostic and statistical manual V: what will "statistical" mean in DSM-V?

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Shrout, Patrick E; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza

    2007-04-01

    In February of 2004, the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE) hosted a Launch and Methodology Conference to discuss the role statistics might play in the eventual revision of the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Ninth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD9). The conference consisted of talks on specific topics by statisticians and epidemiologists from North America and Great Britain, followed by group discussion by experts in nosology and psychopathology. We report here on the development of specific themes related to the future interaction between statisticians and nosologists in DSM-V development that arose as a result of that meeting. The themes are related to (1) the nature of the statistician/nosologist interaction; (2) specific areas of concern in that interaction, and (3) the use of novel and complex statistical methods to challenge and inspire new avenues of thinking among nosologists.

  6. [Classification of Histopathological Findings in the Liver Cited in the Pesticides Risk Assessment Reports Published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan and Thesaurus Construction Based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Umemura, Takashi; Yoshida, Midori

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological findings are important to the understanding of toxicity profiles of pesticides. The liver is often a target organ of chemicals. In the present study, histopathological findings in the liver cited in the pesticides risk assessment reports published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan were classified. The histopathological findings were obtained in repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity studies of mice, rats and dogs and carcinogenicity studies of rodents. After the classification, a thesaurus was constructed based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria. We recommend the use of INHAND criteria in risk assessment reports to improve mutual understanding between applicants and risk assessors.

  7. Initial Special Reports Submitted by Member States on the Action Taken by Them Upon the Recommendation Concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, Adopted by the General Conference During its Sixteenth Session. Item 21 of the Provisional Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Reports, some only partial, from the member states regarding their action on the topic of international standards for library statistics are presented. The 22 countries represented in this report are: Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Cuba, Dahomey, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Libya, Nepal,…

  8. Global classification and coding of hypersensitivity diseases - An EAACI - WAO survey, strategic paper and review.

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Tanno, L K; Akdis, C A; Lau, S; Calderon, M A; Santos, A F; Sanchez-Borges, M; Rosenwasser, L J; Pawankar, R; Papadopoulos, N G

    2014-05-01

    Hypersensitivity diseases are not adequately coded in the International Coding of Diseases (ICD)-10 resulting in misclassification, leading to low visibility of these conditions and general accuracy of official statistics. To call attention to the inadequacy of the ICD-10 in relation to allergic and hypersensitivity diseases and to contribute to improvements to be made in the forthcoming revision of ICD, a web-based global survey of healthcare professionals' attitudes toward allergic disorders classification was proposed to the members of European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) (individuals) and World Allergy Organization (WAO) (representative responding on behalf of the national society), launched via internet and circulated for 6 week. As a result, we had 612 members of 144 countries from all six World Health Organization (WHO) global regions who answered the survey. ICD-10 is the most used classification worldwide, but it was not considered appropriate in clinical practice by the majority of participants. The majority indicated the EAACI-WAO classification as being easier and more accurate in the daily practice. They saw the need for a diagnostic system useful for nonallergists and endorsed the possibility of a global, cross-culturally applicable classification system of allergic disorders. This first and most broadly international survey ever conducted of health professionals' attitudes toward allergic disorders classification supports the need to update the current classifications of allergic diseases and can be useful to the WHO in improving the clinical utility of the classification and its global acceptability for the revised ICD-11.

  9. Practice, science and governance in interaction: European effort for the system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Gerold; Zampolini, Mauro; Juocevicius, Alvydas; Negrini, Stefano; Christodoulou, Nicolas

    2016-11-24

    Since its launch in 2001, relevant international, regional and national PRM bodies have aimed to implement the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), whereby contributing to the development of suitable practical tools. These tools are available for implementing the ICF in day-to-day clinical practice, standardized reporting of functioning outcomes in quality management and research, and guiding evidence-informed policy. Educational efforts have reinforced PRM physicians' and other rehabilitation professionals' ICF knowledge, and numerous implementation projects have explored how the ICF is applied in clinical practice, research and policy. Largely lacking though is the system-wide implementation of ICF in day-to-day practice across all rehabilitation services of national health systems. In Europe, system-wide implementation of ICF requires the interaction between practice, science and governance. Considering its mandate, the UEMS PRM Section and Board have decided to lead a European effort towards system-wide ICF implementation in PRM, rehabilitation and health care at large, in interaction with governments, non-governmental actors and the private sector, and aligned with ISPRM's collaboration plan with WHO. In this paper we present the current PRM internal and external policy agenda towards system-wide ICF implementation and the corresponding implementation action plan, while highlighting priority action steps - promotion of ICF-based standardized reporting in national quality management and assurance programs, development of unambiguous rehabilitation service descriptions using the International Classification System for Service Organization in Health-related Rehabilitation, development of Clinical Assessment Schedules, qualitative linkage and quantitative mapping of data to the ICF, and the cultural adaptation of the ICF Clinical Data Collection Tool in European languages.

  10. Modern Statistical Methods for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, G. Jogesh

    2012-07-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Probability; 3. Statistical inference; 4. Probability distribution functions; 5. Nonparametric statistics; 6. Density estimation or data smoothing; 7. Regression; 8. Multivariate analysis; 9. Clustering, classification and data mining; 10. Nondetections: censored and truncated data; 11. Time series analysis; 12. Spatial point processes; Appendices; Index.

  11. A Comparison of Two-Group Classification Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Jocelyn E.; Finch, W. Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The statistical classification of "N" individuals into "G" mutually exclusive groups when the actual group membership is unknown is common in the social and behavioral sciences. The results of such classification methods often have important consequences. Among the most common methods of statistical classification are linear discriminant analysis,…

  12. Context distribution estimation for contextual classification of multispectral image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, J. C.; Swain, P. H.; Vardeman, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    A classification algorithm incorporating contextual information in a general, statistical manner is presented. Methods are investigated for obtaining adequate estimates of the context distribution (a statistical characterization of context) upon which the classification algorithm depends. Finally, a method of estimating optimal algorithm parameters prior to performing preliminary classifications is explored.

  13. The World Health Organization 2016 classification of testicular non-germ cell tumours: a review and update from the International Society of Urological Pathology Testis Consultation Panel.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Muhammad T; Ulbright, Thomas M; Oliva, Esther; Young, Robert H; Montironi, Rodolfo; Egevad, Lars; Berney, Daniel; Srigley, John R; Epstein, Jonathan I; Tickoo, Satish K

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released a new tumour classification for the genitourinary system in early 2016 after consensus by pathologists with expertise in these organs. It utilized the framework of the 2004 classification, and incorporated the most up-to-date information concerning these tumours. In testicular tumours, the majority of the changes occurred in the nomenclature and classification of germ cell tumours; however, several modifications were also made for non-germ cell tumours. Among sex cord-stromal tumours, sclerosing Sertoli cell tumour (SCT) is no longer recognized as a separate entity but as a morphological variant of SCT not otherwise specified (NOS), as CTNNB1 gene mutations have been noted in both neoplasms but not in the other forms of SCT. Similarly, the lipid cell variant is not separately classified, but is considered to be a morphological variant of SCT NOS. Large-cell calcifying SCT is recognized as a distinct entity that occurs either sporadically or in association with Carney complex, with the latter patients having a distinct germline PRKAR1A gene mutation. Intratubular large-cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia is also accepted as a separate entity linked with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subcategories of 'mixed' and 'incompletely differentiated' forms of sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours have been replaced by 'mixed and unclassified sex cord-stromal tumours'. New entities introduced in the latest WHO revision include: myoid gonadal stromal tumour and 'undifferentiated gonadal tissue', a putative precursor lesion of gonadoblastoma, whereas juvenile xanthogranuloma and haemangioma are included in the miscellaneous category of tumours.

  14. Survival of patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a review of the IGCC classification by Cox regression and recursive partitioning.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, M R; Steyerberg, E W; Stenning, S P; Dusseldorp, E; Habbema, J D F

    2004-03-22

    The International Germ Cell Consensus (IGCC) classification identifies good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups among patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT). It uses the risk factors primary site, presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastases and tumour markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). The IGCC classification is easy to use and remember, but lacks flexibility. We aimed to examine the extent of any loss in discrimination within the IGCC classification in comparison with alternative modelling by formal weighing of the risk factors. We analysed survival of 3048 NSGCT patients with Cox regression and recursive partitioning for alternative classifications. Good, intermediate and poor prognosis groups were based on predicted 5-year survival. Classifications were further refined by subgrouping within the poor prognosis group. Performance was measured primarily by a bootstrap corrected c-statistic to indicate discriminative ability for future patients. The weights of the risk factors in the alternative classifications differed slightly from the implicit weights in the IGCC classification. Discriminative ability, however, did not increase clearly (IGCC classification, c=0.732; Cox classification, c=0.730; Recursive partitioning classification, c=0.709). Three subgroups could be identified within the poor prognosis groups, resulting in classifications with five prognostic groups and slightly better discriminative ability (c=0.740). In conclusion, the IGCC classification in three prognostic groups is largely supported by Cox regression and recursive partitioning. Cox regression was the most promising tool to define a more refined classification. British Journal of Cancer (2004) 90, 1176-1183. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601665 www.bjcancer.com Published online 24 February 2004

  15. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

  16. Classification of seizures and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Riviello, James J

    2003-07-01

    The management of seizures and epilepsy begins with forming a differential diagnosis, making the diagnosis, and then classifying seizure type and epileptic syndrome. Classification guides treatment, including ancillary testing, management, prognosis, and if needed, selection of the appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED). Many AEDs are available, and certain seizure types or epilepsy syndromes respond to specific AEDs. The identification of the genetics, molecular basis, and pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy has resulted from classification of specific epileptic syndromes. The classification system used by the International League Against Epilepsy is periodically revised. The proposed revision changes the classification emphasis from the anatomic origin of seizures (focal vs generalized) to seizure semiology (ie, the signs or clinical manifestations). Modified systems have been developed for specific circumstances (eg, neonatal seizures, infantile seizures, status epilepticus, and epilepsy surgery). This article reviews seizure and epilepsy classification, emphasizing new data.

  17. The DSM-5: Classification and criteria changes

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Darrel A; Kuhl, Emily A; Kupfer, David J

    2013-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) marks the first significant revision of the publication since the DSM-IV in 1994. Changes to the DSM were largely informed by advancements in neuroscience, clinical and public health need, and identified problems with the classification system and criteria put forth in the DSM-IV. Much of the decision-making was also driven by a desire to ensure better alignment with the International Classification of Diseases and its upcoming 11th edition (ICD-11). In this paper, we describe select revisions in the DSM-5, with an emphasis on changes projected to have the greatest clinical impact and those that demonstrate efforts to enhance international compatibility, including integration of cultural context with diagnostic criteria and changes that facilitate DSM-ICD harmonization. It is anticipated that this collaborative spirit between the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) will continue as the DSM-5 is updated further, bringing the field of psychiatry even closer to a singular, cohesive nosology. PMID:23737408

  18. Contextual classification of multispectral image data: Approximate algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    An approximation to a classification algorithm incorporating spatial context information in a general, statistical manner is presented which is computationally less intensive. Classifications that are nearly as accurate are produced.

  19. Elements of Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.

    2016-05-01

    This chapter is devoted to two objectives. The first one is to answer the request expressed by attendees of the first Astrostatistics School (Annecy, October 2013) to be provided with an elementary vademecum of statistics that would facilitate understanding of the given courses. In this spirit we recall very basic notions, that is definitions and properties that we think sufficient to benefit from courses given in the Astrostatistical School. Thus we give briefly definitions and elementary properties on random variables and vectors, distributions, estimation and tests, maximum likelihood methodology. We intend to present basic ideas in a hopefully comprehensible way. We do not try to give a rigorous presentation, and due to the place devoted to this chapter, can cover only a rather limited field of statistics. The second aim is to focus on some statistical tools that are useful in classification: basic introduction to Bayesian statistics, maximum likelihood methodology, Gaussian vectors and Gaussian mixture models.

  20. Using Context Variety and Students' Discussions in Recognizing Statistical Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, José Luis Ángel Rodríguez; Aguilar, Mario Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    We present a proposal for helping students to cope with statistical word problems related to the classification of different cases of confidence intervals. The proposal promotes an environment where students can explicitly discuss the reasons underlying their classification of cases.

  1. United States Environmental Protection Agency perchlorate method 332.0 via microbore and capillary chromatographic formats: statistical evaluation of the use of (18)O-perchlorate internal standard with deionized-water matrices.

    PubMed

    Vanatta, L E; Slingsby, R W

    2009-08-01

    A statistically sound evaluation is made of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's perchlorate Method 332.0 by tandem ion chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Two microbore formats and one capillary format are used with a deionized-water matrix. The evaluation is made for raw peak-area data and for analyte responses scaled by the internal standard, over an analyte concentration range of 0.25 to 200 microg/L. Results indicate that: (i) the internal-standard signal is suppressed by the analyte in both microbore formats; (ii) the analyte signal is not affected by the internal standard; (iii) models for the calibration curves usually contain bias; (iv) the measurement uncertainty is similar in magnitude for both the peak-area- and ratio-based curves.

  2. The holistic claims of the biopsychosocial conception of WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): a conceptual analysis on the basis of a pluralistic-holistic ontology and multidimensional view of the human being.

    PubMed

    Solli, Hans Magnus; da Silva, António Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), designed by the WHO, attempts to provide a holistic model of functioning and disability by integrating a medical model with a social one. The aim of this article is to analyze the ICF's claim to holism. The following components of the ICF's complexity are analyzed: (1) health condition, (2) body functions and structures, (3) activity, (4) participation, (5) environmental factors, (6) personal factors, and (7) health. Although the ICF claims to be holistic, it presupposes a monistic materialistic ontology. We indicate some limitations of this ontology, proposing instead: (a) a pluralistic-holistic ontology (PHO) and (b) a multidimensional view of the human being, with individual and environmental aspects, in relation to three levels of reality implied by the PHO. For the ICF to attain its holistic claim, the interactions between its components should be based on (a) and (b).

  3. [The planning and evaluation of the effectiveness of rehabilitation of the patients presenting with osteoarthritis: application of the core set of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health].

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, G N; Shoshmin, A V; Besstrashnova, Ya K; Cherkashina, I V

    2017-01-01

    This article was designed to report the results of analysis of the comprehensive rehabilitation programs for the patients presenting with osteoarthritis. The analysis was based on the Core Set of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF Core Set). The authors carried out the evaluation of the effectiveness of rehabilitation for two groups of the patients suffering from osteoarthritis who had previously undergone the combined treatment based at different healthcare facilities (an in-patient clinic, a spa and health resort). It was shown that the application of the ICF Core Set for the management of osteoarthritis may be helpful for the development of a comprehensive rehabilitation program, the distribution of various tasks between the professionals in the most optimal way, and the correct evaluation of the effectiveness of their accomplishment. The rehabilitation program elaborated based on the ICF Core Set made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the cycle of the rehabilitation measures.

  4. The APA classification of mental disorders: future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Regier, Darrel A; Narrow, William E; First, Michael B; Marshall, Tina

    2002-01-01

    After 8-10 years of experience with the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) and the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), it is an ideal time to begin looking at the clinical and research consequences of these diagnostic systems. The American Psychiatric Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, has initiated a research development process intended to accelerate an evaluation of existing criteria while developing and testing hypotheses that would improve the validity of our diagnostic concepts. Over the past year, a multidisciplinary, international panel has developed a series of six white papers which define research opportunities in the following broad areas: Nomenclature, Disability and Impairment, Personality Disorders, Relational Disorders, Developmental Psychopathology, Neuroscience, and Cross-Cultural aspects of Psychopathology. Recommendations for future national and international research in each of these areas will be discussed.

  5. Classification Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geoffrey H.

    Sorting things into groups is a basic intellectual task that allows people to simplify with minimal reduction in information. Classification techniques, which include both clustering and discrimination, provide step-by-step computer-based procedures for sorting things based on notions of generalized similarity and on the "class description"…

  6. Proceedings of the International Conference on Teaching Statistics (1st, University of Sheffield, England, August 9-13, 1982). Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, D. R., Ed.; And Others

    The second volume of these conference proceedings includes 35 papers presented under seven topic headings. The topic headings are: (1) education and training in statistics in developing countries; (2) co-operation between academic and practicing statisticians; (3) teaching survey sampling; (4) teaching design and analysis of experiments; (5)…

  7. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications.

  8. Predictive value of the Diverticular Inflammation and Complication Assessment (DICA) endoscopic classification on the outcome of diverticular disease of the colon: An international study

    PubMed Central

    Brandimarte, Giovanni; Di Mario, Francesco; Annunziata, Maria L; Bafutto, Mauro; Bianco, Maria A; Colucci, Raffaele; Conigliaro, Rita; Danese, Silvio; De Bastiani, Rudi; Elisei, Walter; Escalante, Ricardo; Faggiani, Roberto; Ferrini, Luciano; Forti, Giacomo; Latella, Giovanni; Graziani, Maria G; Oliveira, Enio C; Papa, Alfredo; Penna, Antonio; Portincasa, Piero; Søreide, Kjetil; Spadaccini, Antonio; Usai, Paolo; Bonovas, Stefanos; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Picchio, Marcello; Lecca, Piera G; Zampaletta, Costantino; Cassieri, Claudio; Damiani, Alberto; Desserud, Kari F; Fiorella, Serafina; Landi, Rosario; Goni, Elisabetta; Lai, Maria A; Pigò, Flavia; Rotondano, Gianluca; Schiaccianoce, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Diverticular Inflammation and Complication Assessment (DICA) endoscopic classification has been recently developed for patients suffering from diverticulosis and diverticular disease. Aims We assessed retrospectively the predictive value of DICA in patients for whom endoscopic data and clinical follow-up were available. Methods For each patient, we recorded: age, severity of DICA, presence of abdominal pain, C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin test (if available) at the time of diagnosis; months of follow-up; therapy taken during the follow-up to maintain remission (if any); occurrence/recurrence of diverticulitis; need of surgery. Results We enrolled 1651 patients (793 M, 858 F, mean age 66.6 ± 11.1 years): 939 (56.9%) patients were classified as DICA 1, 501 (30.3%) patients as DICA 2 and 211 (12.8%) patients as DICA 3. The median follow-up was 24 (9–38) months. Acute diverticulitis (AD) occurred/recurred in 263 (15.9%) patients; surgery was necessary in 57 (21.7%) cases. DICA was the only factor significantly associated to the occurrence/recurrence of diverticulitis and surgery either at univariate (χ2 = 405.029; p < 0.0001) or multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 4.319, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.639–5.126; p < 0.0001). Only in DICA 2 patients was therapy effective for prevention of AD occurrence/recurrence with a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.598 (0.391–0.914) (p = 0.006, log rank test). Mesalazine-based therapies reduced the risk of AD occurrence/recurrence and needs of surgery with a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.2103 (0.122–0.364) and 0.459 (0.258–0.818), respectively. Conclusions DICA classification is a valid parameter to predict the risk of diverticulitis occurrence/recurrence in patients suffering from diverticular disease of the colon. PMID:27536372

  9. Statistical Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callamaras, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)

  10. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are presented.

  11. Internal Staff Allocation and the Changing Workload of Japanese Professoriate: A Multilevel Statistical Analysis with Simulations. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.1.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Murasawa, Masataka; Abe, Yasumi

    2013-01-01

    The increasingly competitive and globalizing environment of today's higher education market has compelled many colleges and universities around the world to revamp their academic programs and organizational structures by responsively addressing various contemporary issues raised by internal as well as external stakeholders. It is no exception that…

  12. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  13. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  14. Biomechanical influence of crown-to-implant ratio on stress distribution over internal hexagon short implant: 3-D finite element analysis with statistical test.

    PubMed

    Ramos Verri, Fellippo; Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; de Faria Almeida, Daniel Augusto; de Oliveira, Guilherme Bérgamo Brandão; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Marques Honório, Heitor; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2015-01-02

    The study of short implants is relevant to the biomechanics of dental implants, and research on crown increase has implications for the daily clinic. The aim of this study was to analyze the biomechanical interactions of a singular implant-supported prosthesis of different crown heights under vertical and oblique force, using the 3-D finite element method. Six 3-D models were designed with Invesalius 3.0, Rhinoceros 3D 4.0, and Solidworks 2010 software. Each model was constructed with a mandibular segment of bone block, including an implant supporting a screwed metal-ceramic crown. The crown height was set at 10, 12.5, and 15 mm. The applied force was 200 N (axial) and 100 N (oblique). We performed an ANOVA statistical test and Tukey tests; p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The increase of crown height did not influence the stress distribution on screw prosthetic (p>0.05) under axial load. However, crown heights of 12.5 and 15 mm caused statistically significant damage to the stress distribution of screws and to the cortical bone (p<0.001) under oblique load. High crown to implant (C/I) ratio harmed microstrain distribution on bone tissue under axial and oblique loads (p<0.001). Crown increase was a possible deleterious factor to the screws and to the different regions of bone tissue.

  15. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Far East: review of 730 cases from the international non-Hodgkin lymphoma classification project.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-01-01

    Large and systematic studies of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the Far East (FE) with good comparative data are scarce in the literature. In this study, five expert hematopathologists classified 730 consecutive cases of newly-diagnosed NHL from four sites in the FE (excluding Japan) using the World Health Organization classification. The results were compared to 399 cases from North America (NA). We found a significantly higher male to female ratio in the FE compared to NA (1.7 versus 1.1; p < 0.05). The median ages of patients with low-grade (LG) and high-grade (HG) B-NHL in the FE (58 and 51 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively). The FE had a significantly lower relative frequency of B-NHL and a higher frequency of T-NHL (82 vs. 18 %) compared to NA (90.5 vs. 9.5 %). Among mature B cell lymphomas, the FE had a significantly higher relative frequency of HG B-NHL (54.8 %) and a lower frequency of LG B-NHL (27.2 %) than NA (34.3 and 56.1 %, respectively). Diffuse large B cell lymphoma was more common in the FE (49.4 %) compared to NA (29.3 %), whereas the relative frequency of follicular lymphoma was lower in the FE (9.4 %) compared to NA (33.6 %). Among T-NHL, nasal NK/T cell NHL was more frequent in the FE (5.2 %) compared to NA (0 %). Peripheral T cell lymphoma was also more common in the FE (9.1 %) than in NA (5.3 %). Further epidemiologic studies are needed to better understand the pathobiology of these differences.

  16. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the developing world: review of 4539 cases from the International Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Classification Project.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-10-01

    The distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes varies around the world, but a large systematic comparative study has never been done. In this study, we evaluated the clinical features and relative frequencies of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in five developing regions of the world and compared the findings to the developed world. Five expert hematopathologists classified 4848 consecutive cases of lymphoma from 26 centers in 24 countries using the World Health Organization classification, and 4539 (93.6%) were confirmed to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with a significantly greater number of males than females in the developing regions compared to the developed world (P<0.05). The median age at diagnosis was significantly lower for both low- and high-grade B-cell lymphoma in the developing regions. The developing regions had a significantly lower frequency of B-cell lymphoma (86.6%) and a higher frequency of T- and natural killer-cell lymphoma (13.4%) compared to the developed world (90.7% and 9.3%, respectively). Also, the developing regions had significantly more cases of high-grade B-cell lymphoma (59.6%) and fewer cases of low-grade B-cell lymphoma (22.7%) compared to the developed world (39.2% and 32.7%, respectively). Among the B-cell lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was the most common subtype (42.5%) in the developing regions. Burkitt lymphoma (2.2%), precursor B- and T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (1.1% and 2.9%, respectively) and extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (2.2%) were also significantly increased in the developing regions. These findings suggest that differences in etiologic and host risk factors are likely responsible, and more detailed epidemiological studies are needed to better understand these differences.

  17. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  18. Critical Evaluation of Headache Classifications

    PubMed Central

    ÖZGE, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a subjective sense like headache into an objective state and establishing a common language for this complaint which can be both a symptom and a disease all by itself have kept the investigators busy for years. Each recommendation proposed has brought along a set of patients who do not meet the criteria. While almost the most ideal and most comprehensive classification studies continued at this point, this time criticisims about withdrawing from daily practice came to the fore. In this article, the classification adventure of scientists who work in the area of headache will be summarized. More specifically, 2 classifications made by the International Headache Society (IHS) and the point reached in relation with the 3rd classification which is still being worked on will be discussed together with headache subtypes. It has been presented with the wish and belief that it will contribute to the readers and young investigators who are interested in this subject.

  19. Commentary: statistics for biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lovell, David P

    2012-05-01

    This short commentary discusses Biomarkers' requirements for the reporting of statistical analyses in submitted papers. It is expected that submitters will follow the general instructions of the journal, the more detailed guidance given by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the specific guidelines developed by the EQUATOR network, and those of various specialist groups. Biomarkers expects that the study design and subsequent statistical analyses are clearly reported and that the data reported can be made available for independent assessment. The journal recognizes that there is continuing debate about different approaches to statistical science. Biomarkers appreciates that the field continues to develop rapidly and encourages the use of new methodologies.

  20. Automated classification of mouse pup isolation syllables: from cluster analysis to an Excel-based "mouse pup syllable classification calculator".

    PubMed

    Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Gadziola, Marie A; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Mouse pups vocalize at high rates when they are cold or isolated from the nest. The proportions of each syllable type produced carry information about disease state and are being used as behavioral markers for the internal state of animals. Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified 10 syllable types based on their spectro-temporal features. However, manual classification of mouse syllables is time consuming and vulnerable to experimenter bias. This study uses an automated cluster analysis to identify acoustically distinct syllable types produced by CBA/CaJ mouse pups, and then compares the results to prior manual classification methods. The cluster analysis identified two syllable types, based on their frequency bands, that have continuous frequency-time structure, and two syllable types featuring abrupt frequency transitions. Although cluster analysis computed fewer syllable types than manual classification, the clusters represented well the probability distributions of the acoustic features within syllables. These probability distributions indicate that some of the manually classified syllable types are not statistically distinct. The characteristics of the four classified clusters were used to generate a Microsoft Excel-based mouse syllable classifier that rapidly categorizes syllables, with over a 90% match, into the syllable types determined by cluster analysis.

  1. Classification tree method for bacterial source tracking with antibiotic resistance analysis data.

    PubMed

    Price, Bertram; Venso, Elichia A; Frana, Mark F; Greenberg, Joshua; Ware, Adam; Currey, Lee

    2006-05-01

    Various statistical classification methods, including discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and cluster analysis, have been used with antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) data to construct models for bacterial source tracking (BST). We applied the statistical method known as classification trees to build a model for BST for the Anacostia Watershed in Maryland. Classification trees have more flexibility than other statistical classification approaches based on standard statistical methods to accommodate complex interactions among ARA variables. This article describes the use of classification trees for BST and includes discussion of its principal parameters and features. Anacostia Watershed ARA data are used to illustrate the application of classification trees, and we report the BST results for the watershed.

  2. [The Russian and international standards of age-related allocation of population for medical statistics, medical demographic analysis and risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Demin, V F; Paltsev, M A

    2013-01-01

    The actual European standard of age-related allocation of population in action is largely implemented in medical demographic studies of international (WHO etc.) and national organizations. The Rosstat also implements this standard in its demographic yearbooks and other publications. The standard is applied in computing the standardized indicator of population mortality in different countries and territories and also in assessing risk factors. The standard is based on the idea of evaluating mortality with an integrated standard in order to compare between different countries mortality of population, genders and calendar years. The analysis of results of testing calculations of values of standardized indicator of mortality of population of Russia and EU countries applying European standard in action revealed serious shortcomings. For example. unfounded overstating of values of standardized indicator, of mortality for males and its understating for females artificially increases already wide difference in mortality of males and females in the Russian Federation. The calculation on this background of standardized indicator of mortality for particular causes of death results in erroneous values due to neglected concurrence of risks. Because of necessity of improvement of standard a new concept of development of national and international standards is proposed. This concept is based on application of notion of balanced age-related allocation of population and its number values.

  3. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  4. Estimating Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces procedures for the computation and asymptotic statistical inference for classification consistency and accuracy indices specifically designed for cognitive diagnostic assessments. The new classification indices can be used as important indicators of the reliability and validity of classification results produced by…

  5. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  6. Content comparison of haemophilia specific patient-rated outcome measures with the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF, ICF-CY)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) are considered important outcomes because they reflect the patient's experience in clinical trials. PROs have been included in the field of haemophilia only recently. Purpose Comparing the contents of PROs measures used in haemophilia, based on the ICF/ICF-CY as frame of reference. Methods Haemophilia-specific PROs for adults and children were selected on the grounds of international accessibility. The content of the selected instruments were examined by linking the concepts within the items of these instruments to the ICF/ICF-CY. Results Within the 5 selected instruments 365 concepts were identified, of which 283 concepts were linked to the ICF/ICF CY and mapped into 70 different categories. The most frequently used categories were "b152: Emotional functions" and "e1101: Drugs". Conclusions The present paper provides an overview on current PROs in haemophilia and facilitates the selection of appropriate instruments for specific purposes in clinical and research settings. This work was made possible by the grant of the European Murinet Project (Multidisciplinary Research Network on Health and Disability in Europe). PMID:21108796

  7. Holistic facial expression classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  8. [csapAIH: a function to classify ambulatory care sensitive conditions in the statistical software R].

    PubMed

    Nedel, Fúlvio Borges

    2017-01-01

    Hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) are an indirect indicator of primary health care. A package in the R program was developed in order to automatize the classification of codes of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - 10th Revision (ICD-10), according to the Brazilian list of ACSC, and provide functionalities for the management of the "reduced files" of the inpatient hospital authorization (AIH). The csapAIH package contains a homonym function, which reads the data according to its nature (file or data frame with AIH structure, or a factor with ICD-10 codes) and returns, according to defined options, a databank or vector containing the classification for the hospitalization. This article presents the package and the function csapAIH, its installation mode and use, and examples of its functionalities, which may add quickness, precision and validity to the research of ACSC in Brazil.

  9. Chicago Classification Criteria of Esophageal Motility Disorders Defined in High Resolution Esophageal Pressure Topography (EPT)†

    PubMed Central

    Bredenoord, Albert J; Fox, Mark; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E; Schwizer, Werner; Smout, AJPM; Conklin, Jeffrey L; Cook, Ian J; Gyawali, Prakash; Hebbard, Geoffrey; Holloway, Richard H; Ke, Meiyun; Keller, Jutta; Mittal, Ravinder K; Peters, Jeff; Richter, Joel; Roman, Sabine; Rommel, Nathalie; Sifrim, Daniel; Tutuian, Radu; Valdovinos, Miguel; Vela, Marcelo F; Zerbib, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chicago Classification of esophageal motility was developed to facilitate the interpretation of clinical high resolution esophageal pressure topography (EPT) studies, concurrent with the widespread adoption of this technology into clinical practice. The Chicago Classification has been, and will continue to be, an evolutionary process, molded first by published evidence pertinent to the clinical interpretation of high resolution manometry (HRM) studies and secondarily by group experience when suitable evidence is lacking. Methods This publication summarizes the state of our knowledge as of the most recent meeting of the International High Resolution Manometry Working Group in Ascona, Switzerland in April 2011. The prior iteration of the Chicago Classification was updated through a process of literature analysis and discussion. Key Results The major changes in this document from the prior iteration are largely attributable to research studies published since the prior iteration, in many cases research conducted in response to prior deliberations of the International High Resolution Manometry Working Group. The classification now includes criteria for subtyping achalasia, EGJ outflow obstruction, motility disorders not observed in normal subjects (Distal esophageal spasm, Hypercontractile esophagus, and Absent peristalsis), and statistically defined peristaltic abnormalities (Weak peristalsis, Frequent failed peristalsis, Rapid contractions with normal latency, and Hypertensive peristalsis). Conclusions & Inferences The Chicago Classification is an algorithmic scheme for diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders from clinical EPT studies. Moving forward, we anticipate continuing this process with increased emphasis placed on natural history studies and outcome data based on the classification. PMID:22248109

  10. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B).

    PubMed

    Offermanns, Stefan; Colletti, Steven L; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Semple, Graeme; Wise, Alan; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2011-06-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptors GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B share significant sequence homology and form a small group of receptors, each of which is encoded by clustered genes. In recent years, endogenous ligands for all three receptors have been described. These endogenous ligands have in common that they are hydroxy-carboxylic acid metabolites, and we therefore have proposed that this receptor family be named hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA) receptors. The HCA(1) receptor (GPR81) is activated by 2-hydroxy-propanoic acid (lactate), the HCA(2) receptor (GPR109A) is a receptor for the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, and the HCA(3) receptor (GPR109B) is activated by the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. HCA(1) and HCA(2) receptors are found in most mammalian species, whereas the HCA(3) receptor is present only in higher primates. The three receptors have in common that they are expressed in adipocytes and are coupled to G(i)-type G-proteins mediating antilipolytic effects in fat cells. HCA(2) and HCA(3) receptors are also expressed in a variety of immune cells. HCA(2) is a receptor for the antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) and related compounds, and there is an increasing number of synthetic ligands mainly targeted at HCA(2) and HCA(3) receptors. The aim of this article is to give an overview on the discovery and pharmacological characterization of HCAs, and to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature. We will also discuss open questions regarding this receptor family as well as their physiological role and therapeutic potential.

  11. Quantification of the UK 5-point breast imaging classification and mapping to BI-RADS to facilitate comparison with international literature

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, K; Britton, P; O'Keeffe, S; Wallis, M G

    2011-01-01

    Objective The UK 5-point breast imaging scoring system, recently formalised by the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group, does not specify the likelihood of malignancy in each category. The breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) is widely used throughout North America and much of Europe. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the cancer likelihood of each of the UK 5-point categories and map them to comparable BI-RADS categories to facilitate comparison with North American and European literature and publication of UK research abroad. Methods During the 8 year study period, mammogram and ultrasound results were UK scored and the percentage of cancer outcomes within each group calculated. These were then compared with the percentage incidence of the BI-RADS categories. Results Of 23 741 separate assessment episodes, 15 288 mammograms and 10 642 ultrasound examinations were evaluated. There was a direct correlation between UK scoring and BI-RADS for categories 1 and 5. UK Score 2 lipomas and simple cysts correlated with BI-RADS 2, with the remaining UK Score 2 lesions (mostly fibroadenomas) assigned to BI-RADS 3. BI-RADS 4 incorporates a wide range of cancer risk (2–95%) with subdivisions a, b and c indicating increasing, but unspecified, likelihood of malignancy. UK Score 3 correlated with BI-RADS 4 a/b and UK Score 4 corresponded with BI-RADS 4c. Conclusion This study quantifies the cancer likelihood of the UK scoring and maps them to parallel BI-RADS categories, with equivalent cancer risks. This facilitates the ability to share UK research data and clinical practice on an international scale. PMID:22011830

  12. Statistics Clinic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  13. Improving TMD classification using the Delphi technique.

    PubMed

    John, M T

    2010-10-01

    The classification of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is still controversial. Consensus methods such as the Delphi technique, a method that polls experts' anonymous opinion in an iterative process with controlled feedback and statistical aggregation of group response, could be valuable to improve this challenging topic. The article illustrates the application of the Delphi technique for deciding whether the terms myalgia or myofascial pain should be used in a TMD classification system and discusses the technique's potential for TMD classification in general. In three Delphi rounds, 14 TMD experts from the Division of TMD and Orofacial Pain of the University of Minnesota reached a consensus about which TMD diagnoses should be included in a TMD classification system. They preferred the term myofascial pain over myalgia. The Delphi technique has the potential to provide answers to complex questions in TMD classification, e.g., TMD nomenclature and range as well as scope of conditions included in a future TMD classification system.

  14. Bayesian classification criterion for forensic multivariate data.

    PubMed

    Bozza, S; Broséus, J; Esseiva, P; Taroni, F

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a classification criteria for two-class Cannabis seedlings. As the cultivation of drug type cannabis is forbidden in Switzerland, law enforcement authorities regularly ask laboratories to determine cannabis plant's chemotype from seized material in order to ascertain that the plantation is legal or not. In this study, the classification analysis is based on data obtained from the relative proportion of three major leaf compounds measured by gas-chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The aim is to discriminate between drug type (illegal) and fiber type (legal) cannabis at an early stage of the growth. A Bayesian procedure is proposed: a Bayes factor is computed and classification is performed on the basis of the decision maker specifications (i.e. prior probability distributions on cannabis type and consequences of classification measured by losses). Classification rates are computed with two statistical models and results are compared. Sensitivity analysis is then performed to analyze the robustness of classification criteria.

  15. The Transporter Classification Database

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317

  16. A Geometric Classification of Jaw Deformities

    PubMed Central

    Gateno, Jaime; Alfi, David; Xia, James J.; Teichgraeber, John F.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the most widely used classification system for jaw deformities is the one provided by the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD-CM), a taxonomy scheme that is based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The last iteration of ICD-CM, version 10, sorts jaw deformities according to geometry, into 3 groups: anomalies of jaw size, anomalies of jaw-cranial base relationship, or unspecified. Yet these deformities can affect 6 different geometric attributes: size, position, orientation, shape, symmetry, and completeness. In clinical practice and in teaching we have found the ICD-CM classification to be incomplete and disjointed. With this in mind, we have developed a better classification system. The purpose of this paper is to present it. PMID:26608152

  17. A brief statistical analysis of stomatology papers published in international journals by researchers from the mainland of China--based on Thomson Reuters' journal citation reports for 2009.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Hua; Pan, Yun-Tao; Hong, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    This paper has briefly analyzed the publication status of Chinese stomatology papers in 2009 with statistics from Journal Citation Reports provided by Thomson Scientific. Only those papers with the first author coming from the mainland of China were included for calculations. We have found a significant increase in the number of SCIE-indexed papers, most of which were published by six dental institutions in China. Among all Chinese medical institutions, West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University is the first dental institution to enter the top-20 list with the most publications, and it also ranks the 9th in the number of outstanding articles. West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University and the Forth Military Medical University are the only two dental institutions in China which have published SCIE-indexed papers over a hundred. The former has published the most SCIE-indexed stomatology papers, while the latter has the highest average impact factor. As the laboratories and funds in China have close connections with various dental hospitals, the pratice of translational medicine in dentistry is fast and fluent.

  18. Quick Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... population, or about 25 million Americans, has experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes in the past ... by NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program staff: (1) tinnitus prevalence was obtained from the 2008 National Health ...

  19. Evaluation of Medicinal Categorization of Atractylodes japonica Koidz. by Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequencing Analysis and HPLC Fingerprinting Combined with Statistical Tools

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Doh, Eui-Jeong; Lee, Guemsan

    2016-01-01

    Atractylodes rhizomes have been used as the herbal medicine “Changchul” or “Baekchul,” according to their clinical purpose, in Korea, China, and Japan. Among the Atractylodes species, the medicinal use of Atractylodes japonica has been controversial, as it is categorized as both Changchul and Baekchul in those countries, and, moreover, parts of the rhizome have been differently used, depending on age of the plant, in Korea. Chromatographic fingerprinting by using HPLC combined with chemometric analyses and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing analysis were conducted to classify and identify 34 crude drugs derived from Atractylodes rhizomes. The identification of the samples, authenticated by their morphological features as A. japonica Koidz. (Changchul and Baekchul), A. chinensis Koidz., and A. macrocephala Koidz., was confirmed as A. japonica, A. chinensis, and A. macrocephala by ITS sequencing. The results from chemometric analyses showed that the chemical components of the crude drugs from A. japonica were significantly different from those from A. macrocephala but were similar to those from A. chinensis. The analyses also suggested that the categorization by age of A. japonica as Changchul or Baekchul is not recommended. The results indicate that A. japonica should be categorized as “Changchul” and should not be further categorized by age. PMID:27190530

  20. Classification Based on Hierarchical Linear Models: The Need for Incorporation of Social Contexts in Classification Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qui

    2009-01-01

    Many areas in educational and psychological research involve the use of classification statistical analysis. For example, school districts might be interested in attaining variables that provide optimal prediction of school dropouts. In psychology, a researcher might be interested in the classification of a subject into a particular psychological…

  1. Using a Limited Number of Dermatomes as a Predictor of the 56-Dermatome Test of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: For young children with spinal cord injury (SCI), the sensory exam of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is long and arduous, often making it impossible to complete. Objectives: In this study, we determine whether an abbreviated sensory exam provides comparable information to the full 56-dermatome exam. Method: A total of 726 56-dermatome sensory exams were completed with 190 children and youth with SCI ranging in age from 3 to 21 years. The cohort was randomly split into test and validation groups. For the test group, a principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out separately for pin prick (PP) and light touch (LT) scores. From the PCA, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify the most influential set of 4, 8, 12, and 16 dermatomes. From the sensory exam data obtained from the validation group, a linear regression was performed to compare the limited-dermatome composite scores to the total 56-dermatome scores. Results: For both LT and PP, the 16-dermatome test resulted in the best fit (0.86 and 0.87, respectively) with the 56-dermatome test and was comprised of dermatomes from both the left (7 dermatomes) and right (9 dermatomes) sides and at least 1 dermatome from each vertebral region bilaterally (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral). Conclusion: A 16-dermatome sensory exam provided a good correlation to the 56-dermatome exam. The shortened exam may be useful for evaluating children with SCI who cannot tolerate the full examination. PMID:23671381

  2. Employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to capture user feedback in the design and testing stage of development of home-based arm rehabilitation technology.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Holt, Ray; Weightman, Andrew; O'Connor, Rory; Levesley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework to ensure that key aspects of user feedback are identified in the design and testing stages of development of a home-based upper limb rehabilitation system. Seventeen stroke survivors with residual upper limb weakness, and seven healthcare professionals with expertise in stroke rehabilitation, were enrolled in the user-centered design process. Through semi-structured interviews, they provided feedback on the hardware, software and impact of a home-based rehabilitation device to facilitate self-managed arm exercise. Members of the multidisciplinary clinical and engineering research team, based on previous experience and existing literature in user-centred design, developed the topic list for the interviews. Meaningful concepts were extracted from participants' interviews based on existing ICF linking rules and matched to categories within the ICF Comprehensive Core Set for stroke. Most of the interview concepts (except personal factors) matched the existing ICF Comprehensive Core Set categories. Personal factors that emerged from interviews e.g. gender, age, interest, compliance, motivation, choice and convenience that might determine device usability are yet to be categorised within the ICF framework and hence could not be matched to a specific Core Set category.

  3. Environmental factors that influence communication between people with communication disability and their healthcare providers in hospital: a review of the literature within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Robyn; Hickson, Louise; Worrall, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The importance of effective healthcare communication between healthcare providers and people needing healthcare is well established. People with communication disabilities are at risk of not being able to communicate effectively with their healthcare providers and this might directly compromise their health, healthcare and their right to participate actively in decisions about their healthcare. This paper reviews the literature on the environmental factors that influence communication between adults with communication disabilities and their healthcare providers in the acute hospital setting within the framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (2001). It focuses in particular on the environmental factors that facilitate or create barriers for people with communication disabilities because environmental factors can be modified so that acute care hospitals can become more accessible communicative environments for all people. The paper describes the particular environmental factors that have been identified in acute hospitals that influence the ability of people with specific types of communication disabilities and their healthcare providers to communicate. It then goes on to describe the common environmental factors that have been identified across people with different types of communication disabilities when they are communicating with their healthcare providers. This paper concludes with suggestions for directions of future research.

  4. Comprehensive gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical studies support application of immunophenotypic algorithm for molecular subtype classification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program Study.

    PubMed

    Visco, C; Li, Y; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Miranda, R N; Green, T M; Li, Y; Tzankov, A; Wen, W; Liu, W-m; Kahl, B S; d'Amore, E S G; Montes-Moreno, S; Dybkær, K; Chiu, A; Tam, W; Orazi, A; Zu, Y; Bhagat, G; Winter, J N; Wang, H-Y; O'Neill, S; Dunphy, C H; Hsi, E D; Zhao, X F; Go, R S; Choi, W W L; Zhou, F; Czader, M; Tong, J; Zhao, X; van Krieken, J H; Huang, Q; Ai, W; Etzell, J; Ponzoni, M; Ferreri, A J M; Piris, M A; Møller, M B; Bueso-Ramos, C E; Medeiros, L J; Wu, L; Young, K H

    2012-09-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) has stratified diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into molecular subgroups that correspond to different stages of lymphocyte development-namely germinal center B-cell like and activated B-cell like. This classification has prognostic significance, but GEP is expensive and not readily applicable into daily practice, which has lead to immunohistochemical algorithms proposed as a surrogate for GEP analysis. We assembled tissue microarrays from 475 de novo DLBCL patients who were treated with rituximab-CHOP chemotherapy. All cases were successfully profiled by GEP on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Sections were stained with antibodies reactive with CD10, GCET1, FOXP1, MUM1 and BCL6 and cases were classified following a rationale of sequential steps of differentiation of B cells. Cutoffs for each marker were obtained using receiver-operating characteristic curves, obviating the need for any arbitrary method. An algorithm based on the expression of CD10, FOXP1 and BCL6 was developed that had a simpler structure than other recently proposed algorithms and 92.6% concordance with GEP. In multivariate analysis, both the International Prognostic Index and our proposed algorithm were significant independent predictors of progression-free and overall survival. In conclusion, this algorithm effectively predicts prognosis of DLBCL patients matching GEP subgroups in the era of rituximab therapy.

  5. Exploring connections between statistical mechanics and Green's functions for realistic systems: Temperature dependent electronic entropy and internal energy from a self-consistent second-order Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welden, Alicia Rae; Rusakov, Alexander A.; Zgid, Dominika

    2016-11-01

    Including finite-temperature effects from the electronic degrees of freedom in electronic structure calculations of semiconductors and metals is desired; however, in practice it remains exceedingly difficult when using zero-temperature methods, since these methods require an explicit evaluation of multiple excited states in order to account for any finite-temperature effects. Using a Matsubara Green's function formalism remains a viable alternative, since in this formalism it is easier to include thermal effects and to connect the dynamic quantities such as the self-energy with static thermodynamic quantities such as the Helmholtz energy, entropy, and internal energy. However, despite the promising properties of this formalism, little is known about the multiple solutions of the non-linear equations present in the self-consistent Matsubara formalism and only a few cases involving a full Coulomb Hamiltonian were investigated in the past. Here, to shed some light onto the iterative nature of the Green's function solutions, we self-consistently evaluate the thermodynamic quantities for a one-dimensional (1D) hydrogen solid at various interatomic separations and temperatures using the self-energy approximated to second-order (GF2). At many points in the phase diagram of this system, multiple phases such as a metal and an insulator exist, and we are able to determine the most stable phase from the analysis of Helmholtz energies. Additionally, we show the evolution of the spectrum of 1D boron nitride to demonstrate that GF2 is capable of qualitatively describing the temperature effects influencing the size of the band gap.

  6. Overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to three BMI classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Roy, Cynthia; Muckle, Gina; Lucas, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the suitability of three commonly-used body mass index (BMI) classification system for Indigenous children. This study aims to estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification systems, to measure agreement between those classification systems, and to investigate whether BMI status as defined by these classification systems is associated with levels of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Methods Data were collected on 290 school-aged children (8–14 years; 50.7% girls) from the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS) with data collected in 2005–2010. Anthropometric parameters were measured and blood sampled. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight and obese according to BMI classification systems. Weighted Kappa (kw) statistics assessed agreement between different BMI classification systems and multivariate analysis of variance ascertained their relationship with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Results The combined prevalence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.9% (with 6.6% obesity) with IOTF, 24.1% (11.0%) with CDC, and 40.4% (12.8%) with WHO classification systems. Agreement was the highest between IOTF and CDC (kw=0.87) classifications, and substantial for IOTF and WHO (kw=0.69), and CDC and WHO (kw=0.73). Insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein plasma levels were significantly higher from normal weight to obesity, regardless of classification system. Among obese subjects, higher insulin level was observed with IOTF. Conclusion Compared with other systems, IOTF classification appears to be more specific to identify overweight and obesity in Inuit children. PMID:26095406

  7. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  8. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  9. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  10. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  11. The revised classification of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Adl, Sina M; Simpson, Alastair G B; Lane, Christopher E; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S; Brown, Matthew W; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; Le Gall, Line; Lynn, Denis H; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A D; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E; Parfrey, Laura W; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Laura; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad L; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W

    2012-09-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52 (2005) 399], retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information.

  12. Effects of composite and coordinated interactions between populations of particle-like individuals involving forces and internal states — A statistical-mechanical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Øien, Alf H.

    2008-09-01

    In this analogue modeling of interacting species we consider in particular interactions we refer to as composite interactions between particles called “daphnicles” and “food particles” that evolve on a third particle component in the background. Other force interactions are also taken account of but they play a smaller role in this study. The states of daphnicles and food particles are not only given by their position- and velocity-variables but also by variables of internal properties they have, which we shall call “saturation” for daphnicles and “nutrition” for food particles. The “laws” of variations of all these variables, where the rates of change of saturation and nutrition take place in the central region of the force interaction range where daphnicles and food particles come close together in their movements, are coupled in the composite interactions we consider. Due to this coupling of the “outer” force interaction to the “inner” saturation-nutrition interaction the inner interaction can be raised or diminished and in this way the distribution of say saturation of daphnicles may be regulated. From an extended Liouville equation for a system of a large number of particles where in particular interactions like these are baked in on the level of individual particles we aim to derive equations for daphnicle and food particle distribution functions on a kinetic level; this derivation constitutes the main part of the paper. Proper equations on a coarser grained level of description are then found quite easily: this “mixed” kinetic/moment level is in between the kinetic- and the full moment (macroscopic) levels such that distribution of saturation and nutrition still play a role and the equations still retain essential characteristics of the composite interactions taking place on the microscopic level, besides other force interactions. Though the terminology used suites modeling of biological systems and the results may throw some

  13. Classification of hyperlipidaemias and hyperlipoproteinaemias*

    PubMed Central

    1970-01-01

    Many studies of atherosclerosis have indicated hyperlipidaemia as a predisposing factor to vascular disease. The relationship holds even for mild degrees of hyperlipidaemia, a fact that underlines the importance of this category of disorders. Both primary and secondary hyperlipidaemias represent such a variety of abnormalities that an internationally acceptable provisional classification is highly desirable in order to facilitate communication between scientists with different backgrounds. The present memorandum presents such a classification; it briefly describes the criteria for diagnosis of the main types of hyperlipidaemia as well as the methods of their determination. Because lipoproteins offer more information than analysis of plasma lipids (most of the plasma lipids being bound to various proteins), the classification is based on lipoprotein analyses by electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. Simpler methods, however, such as the observation of plasma and measurements of cholesterol and triglycerides, are used to the fullest possible extent in determining the lipoprotein patterns. PMID:4930042

  14. Detection, Classification, and Localization Workshop 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    The Fourth International Conference on Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals using Passive Acoustics ( Pavia , Italy, 2009) • The...International BioAcoustic Congress ( Pavia , Italy, 2009) The workshop was also announced through postings to these electronic mailing lists: • the

  15. Statistics Revelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicot, Katie; Holmes, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    The use, and misuse, of statistics is commonplace, yet in the printed format data representations can be either over simplified, supposedly for impact, or so complex as to lead to boredom, supposedly for completeness and accuracy. In this article the link to the video clip shows how dynamic visual representations can enliven and enhance the…

  16. Book Trade Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Stephen; Ink, Gary; Lofquist, William S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides data on prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices, 1996 final and 1997 preliminary figures; book sales statistics, 1997--AAP preliminary estimates; U.S. trade in books, 1997; international book title output, 1990-95; book review media statistics; and number of book outlets in the U.S. and Canada. (PEN)

  17. Sources of variation in hydrological classifications: Time scale, flow series origin and classification procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñas, Francisco J.; Barquín, José; Álvarez, César

    2016-07-01

    Classification of flow regimes in water management and hydroecological research has grown significantly in recent years. However, depending on available data and the procedures applied, there may be several credible classifications for a specific catchment. In this study, three inductive classifications derived from different initial flow data and one expert-driven classification were defined. The hydrological interpretation, statistical performance and spatial correspondence of these classifications were compared. Daily Gauged Classification (DC) was derived from daily flow data while Monthly Gauged Classification (MC) and Monthly Modeled Classification (MMC) were derived from monthly flow series, using gauged and modeled flow data, respectively. Expert-Driven Classification (EDC) was based on a Spanish nationwide hydrological classification, which is being used in the current River Basin Management Plans. The results showed that MC accounted for much of the critical hydrological information variability comprised within the DC. However, it also presented limitations regarding the inability to represent important hydroecological attributes, especially those related to droughts and high flow events. In addition, DC and MC presented an equivalent performance more than 60% of the time and obtained a mean ARI value of 0.4, indicating a similar classification structure. DC and MC outperformed MMC 100% and more than 50% of the times when they were compared by means of the classification strength and ANOVA, respectively. MMC also showed low correspondence with these classifications (ARI = 0.20). Thus, the use of modeled flow series should be limited to poorly gauged areas. Finally, the significantly reduced performance and the uneven distribution of classes found in EDC questions its application for different management objectives. This study shows that the selection of the most suitable approach according to the available data has significant implications for the

  18. Statistical Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahjahan

    Often scientific information on various data generating processes are presented in the from of numerical and categorical data. Except for some very rare occasions, generally such data represent a small part of the population, or selected outcomes of any data generating process. Although, valuable and useful information is lurking in the array of scientific data, generally, they are unavailable to the users. Appropriate statistical methods are essential to reveal the hidden "jewels" in the mess of the row data. Exploratory data analysis methods are used to uncover such valuable characteristics of the observed data. Statistical inference provides techniques to make valid conclusions about the unknown characteristics or parameters of the population from which scientifically drawn sample data are selected. Usually, statistical inference includes estimation of population parameters as well as performing test of hypotheses on the parameters. However, prediction of future responses and determining the prediction distributions are also part of statistical inference. Both Classical or Frequentists and Bayesian approaches are used in statistical inference. The commonly used Classical approach is based on the sample data alone. In contrast, increasingly popular Beyesian approach uses prior distribution on the parameters along with the sample data to make inferences. The non-parametric and robust methods are also being used in situations where commonly used model assumptions are unsupported. In this chapter,we cover the philosophical andmethodological aspects of both the Classical and Bayesian approaches.Moreover, some aspects of predictive inference are also included. In the absence of any evidence to support assumptions regarding the distribution of the underlying population, or if the variable is measured only in ordinal scale, non-parametric methods are used. Robust methods are employed to avoid any significant changes in the results due to deviations from the model

  19. Statistical Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahjahan

    Often scientific information on various data generating processes are presented in the from of numerical and categorical data. Except for some very rare occasions, generally such data represent a small part of the population, or selected outcomes of any data generating process. Although, valuable and useful information is lurking in the array of scientific data, generally, they are unavailable to the users. Appropriate statistical methods are essential to reveal the hidden “jewels” in the mess of the row data. Exploratory data analysis methods are used to uncover such valuable characteristics of the observed data. Statistical inference provides techniques to make valid conclusions about the unknown characteristics or parameters of the population from which scientifically drawn sample data are selected. Usually, statistical inference includes estimation of population parameters as well as performing test of hypotheses on the parameters. However, prediction of future responses and determining the prediction distributions are also part of statistical inference. Both Classical or Frequentists and Bayesian approaches are used in statistical inference. The commonly used Classical approach is based on the sample data alone. In contrast, increasingly popular Beyesian approach uses prior distribution on the parameters along with the sample data to make inferences. The non-parametric and robust methods are also being used in situations where commonly used model assumptions are unsupported. In this chapter,we cover the philosophical andmethodological aspects of both the Classical and Bayesian approaches.Moreover, some aspects of predictive inference are also included. In the absence of any evidence to support assumptions regarding the distribution of the underlying population, or if the variable is measured only in ordinal scale, non-parametric methods are used. Robust methods are employed to avoid any significant changes in the results due to deviations from the model

  20. Classification issues related to neuropathic trigeminal pain.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2004-01-01

    The goal of a classification system of medical conditions is to facilitate accurate communication, to ensure that each condition is described uniformly and universally and that all data banks for the storage and retrieval of research and clinical data related to the conditions are consistent. Classification entails deciding which kinds of diagnostic entities should be recognized and how to order them in a meaningful way. Currently there are 3 major pain classification systems of relevance to orofacial pain: The International Association for the Study of Pain classification system, the International Headache Society classification system, and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). All use different methodologies, and only the RDC/TMD take into account social and psychologic factors in the classification of conditions. Classification systems need to be reliable, valid, comprehensive, generalizable, and flexible, and they need to be tested using consensus views of experts as well as the available literature. There is an urgent need for a robust classification system for neuropathic trigeminal pain.