Science.gov

Sample records for international statistical classification

  1. Concepts, definitions and classifications for internal migration statistics in Africa.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This brief discussion of the various data collection systems used in Africa represents the data situation with regard to African migration statistics. Population censuses are increasingly becoming the most popular source for migration statistics in Africa. The derivation of internal migration information from surrogate measures such as age and sex distributions is predicated on the assumption that the movement is selective with respect to these variables. The part attributable to migration after taking into account natural increases is made difficult in Africa because the correct levels of birth and death rates are not usually known with certainty, nationally or locally. The population census data are useful for the investigation of the national volumes and rates of migration; this provides information on broad patterns of migration for countries. However, it is not suitable for migration studies that intend to investigate in-depth such topics as determinants and impact and delineate various types of migratory movements. African countries should, in addition to the birthplace question, include at least 1 of the following supplementary questions: 1) duration of residence, 2) place of previous residence, and 3) place of residence at a fixed prior date. It is increasingly noted that sample surveys are where most of the new data required for policy ought to come from. Longitudinal surveys on migration are also required to advance our present knowledge about the various types of mobility and their seasonal character and about the consequences of the movement. Data collection systems must also be improved in the concepts, definitions, and classifications. This applies to the definition of migration as well as the spatial classifications used as the reference units for the collection of data and the definitions of rural and urban. PMID:12280600

  2. Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S K

    2012-07-01

    Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny.

  3. International Standard Classification of Education. Abridged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

    The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) has been designed as an instrument suitable for assembling, compiling, and presenting statistics of education both within individual countries and internationally. The classification is designed for assembling data on current educational phenomena such as enrollment, teaching staff and…

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  6. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their parameters within each…

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  8. Proposed declassification of disease categories related to sexual orientation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11)

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Jack; Kismödi, Eszter; Giami, Alain; García-Moreno, Claudia; Atalla, Elham; Marais, Adele; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization is developing the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), planned for publication in 2017. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health was charged with reviewing and making recommendations on disease categories related to sexuality in the chapter on mental and behavioural disorders in the 10th revision (ICD-10), published in 1990. This chapter includes categories for diagnoses based primarily on sexual orientation even though ICD-10 states that sexual orientation alone is not a disorder. This article reviews the scientific evidence and clinical rationale for continuing to include these categories in the ICD. A review of the evidence published since 1990 found little scientific interest in these categories. In addition, the Working Group found no evidence that they are clinically useful: they neither contribute to health service delivery or treatment selection nor provide essential information for public health surveillance. Moreover, use of these categories may create unnecessary harm by delaying accurate diagnosis and treatment. The Working Group recommends that these categories be deleted entirely from ICD-11. Health concerns related to sexual orientation can be better addressed using other ICD categories. PMID:25378758

  9. Proposed declassification of disease categories related to sexual orientation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11).

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Drescher, Jack; Kismödi, Eszter; Giami, Alain; García-Moreno, Claudia; Atalla, Elham; Marais, Adele; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization is developing the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), planned for publication in 2017. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health was charged with reviewing and making recommendations on disease categories related to sexuality in the chapter on mental and behavioural disorders in the 10th revision (ICD-10), published in 1990. This chapter includes categories for diagnoses based primarily on sexual orientation even though ICD-10 states that sexual orientation alone is not a disorder. This article reviews the scientific evidence and clinical rationale for continuing to include these categories in the ICD. A review of the evidence published since 1990 found little scientific interest in these categories. In addition, the Working Group found no evidence that they are clinically useful: they neither contribute to health service delivery or treatment selection nor provide essential information for public health surveillance. Moreover, use of these categories may create unnecessary harm by delaying accurate diagnosis and treatment. The Working Group recommends that these categories be deleted entirely from ICD-11. Health concerns related to sexual orientation can be better addressed using other ICD categories.

  10. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  11. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  12. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  13. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  14. 14 CFR 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  15. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  16. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  17. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  19. Accurate statistical tests for smooth classification images.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Alan; Worsley, Keith J; Schyns, Philippe G; Arguin, Martin; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2005-10-05

    Despite an obvious demand for a variety of statistical tests adapted to classification images, few have been proposed. We argue that two statistical tests based on random field theory (RFT) satisfy this need for smooth classification images. We illustrate these tests on classification images representative of the literature from F. Gosselin and P. G. Schyns (2001) and from A. B. Sekuler, C. M. Gaspar, J. M. Gold, and P. J. Bennett (2004). The necessary computations are performed using the Stat4Ci Matlab toolbox.

  20. Adaptive, template moderated, spatially varying statistical classification.

    PubMed

    Warfield, S K; Kaus, M; Jolesz, F A; Kikinis, R

    2000-03-01

    A novel image segmentation algorithm was developed to allow the automatic segmentation of both normal and abnormal anatomy from medical images. The new algorithm is a form of spatially varying statistical classification, in which an explicit anatomical template is used to moderate the segmentation obtained by statistical classification. The algorithm consists of an iterated sequence of spatially varying classification and nonlinear registration, which forms an adaptive, template moderated (ATM), spatially varying statistical classification (SVC). Classification methods and nonlinear registration methods are often complementary, both in the tasks where they succeed and in the tasks where they fail. By integrating these approaches the new algorithm avoids many of the disadvantages of each approach alone while exploiting the combination. The ATM SVC algorithm was applied to several segmentation problems, involving different image contrast mechanisms and different locations in the body. Segmentation and validation experiments were carried out for problems involving the quantification of normal anatomy (MRI of brains of neonates) and pathology of various types (MRI of patients with multiple sclerosis, MRI of patients with brain tumors, MRI of patients with damaged knee cartilage). In each case, the ATM SVC algorithm provided a better segmentation than statistical classification or elastic matching alone. PMID:10972320

  1. Statistical physics for materials classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassalle, Hugues Jean

    Genetic algorithms (GA) and clustering techniques are used to study and classify materials. An analysis of the convergence speed of GA is carried out using advanced probability theory and random walk concepts. The determination of the ground-state of multicomponent alloys and Ising models with long-range interactions is accomplished using a genetic algorithm. A new GA operator, the domain-flip, is introduced and its efficiency is compared to that of traditional GA operators, crossover and mutation. The domain-flip operator destroys phase-boundaries by flipping all bits of a given domain at the same time. This operator turns out to be crucial in extracting the system from low local minima. Therefore its presence is rather essential to speed up the GA convergence. A study of GA convergence in its last stages, where all chromosomes present in the population are assumed to consist of two well-ordered domains, is performed using random walk theory and probability theory. Exact expressions for the average time needed for at least one chromosome to find the ground-state are derived. Also, the probability for two chromosomes to undergo a successful crossover, meaning the result is the ground-state, are given. Finally, clustering techniques, which belong to the field of Data Mining, are applied to the classification of materials. An improved version of the widely-used clustering algorithm, K-means, is developed. A comparison of the two clustering techniques on a two-dimensional data set shows that the guide-point approach is more powerful than the K-means algorithm. The guide-point algorithm is used successfully to partition a materials data set. This clustering results in extracting useful information from the data set for which no a priori knowledge was assumed.

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This monthly publication provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  5. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  6. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  7. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  8. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  9. International Community Development Statistical Bulletin. Spring 1968 General Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Development Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Spring 1968 general edition of the International Community Development Statistical Bulletin describes its reporting system based on the International Standard Classification of Community Development Activities and a special project registration and progress form; briefly summarizes overall international data; and presents statistics on…

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production, oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  14. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  15. A statistical approach to root system classification

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  16. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential.

  17. Educational Statistics: National and International Sources and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Documentation and Information, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The Unesco data collection system is described. Data suppliers and national publications on educational statistics are listed, as well as 57 publications on education by Unesco's Office of Statistics since 1974. A progress report on the implementation of the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) concludes this issue of the…

  18. Statistical Emulator for Expensive Classification Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Jerret; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2016-01-01

    Expensive simulators prevent any kind of meaningful analysis to be performed on the phenomena they model. To get around this problem the concept of using a statistical emulator as a surrogate representation of the simulator was introduced in the 1980's. Presently, simulators have become more and more complex and as a result running a single example on these simulators is very expensive and can take days to weeks or even months. Many new techniques have been introduced, termed criteria, which sequentially select the next best (most informative to the emulator) point that should be run on the simulator. These criteria methods allow for the creation of an emulator with only a small number of simulator runs. We follow and extend this framework to expensive classification simulators.

  19. International migration statistics in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garcia Y Griego, M

    1987-01-01

    During the past decade, Mexico has experienced both large-scale emigration directly, mostly to the US, and the mass immigration of Central American refugees. The implementation of the US Immigration and Control Act of 1986 and the possible escalation of armed conflicts in Central America may result in expanded inflows either of returning citizens or of new refugee waves. To develop appropriate policy responses, Mexico needs reliable information on international migration flows. This research note reviews available sources of that information--arrival and departure statistics, population censuses, refugee censuses, and survey data--and concludes that most of them are relatively weak. Currently, the published data on entries and departures provide little information on the demographic impact of legal migration, although they suggest that the inflow of foreigners is small. The census corroborates such findings, but it yields inadequate demographic detail. The movement of Mexican nationals, on the other hand, is poorly reflected by both sources. The void they leave has been palliated somewhat by surveys, but the only nationally representative survey on emigration was carried out in the late 1970s and might be a less than ideal basis for current policy formulation. It is hoped that as the relevance of international migration becomes more evident, steps towards the improvement of existing statistical systems may be undertaken. In the absence of such measures, policy-makers and researchers will have to continue relying on ad hoc surveys to answer the most pressing questions on the subject. PMID:12280914

  20. Wide Wide World of Statistics: International Statistics on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foudy, Geraldine

    2000-01-01

    Explains how to find statistics on the Internet, especially international statistics. Discusses advantages over print sources, including convenience, currency of information, cost effectiveness, and value-added formatting; sources of international statistics; United Nations agencies; search engines and power searching; and evaluating sources. (LRW)

  1. Statistically invalid classification of high throughput gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Barbash, Shahar; Soreq, Hermona

    2013-01-01

    Classification analysis based on high throughput data is a common feature in neuroscience and other fields of science, with a rapidly increasing impact on both basic biology and disease-related studies. The outcome of such classifications often serves to delineate novel biochemical mechanisms in health and disease states, identify new targets for therapeutic interference, and develop innovative diagnostic approaches. Given the importance of this type of studies, we screened 111 recently-published high-impact manuscripts involving classification analysis of gene expression, and found that 58 of them (53%) based their conclusions on a statistically invalid method which can lead to bias in a statistical sense (lower true classification accuracy then the reported classification accuracy). In this report we characterize the potential methodological error and its scope, investigate how it is influenced by different experimental parameters, and describe statistically valid methods for avoiding such classification mistakes.

  2. International energy indicators. [International and US statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.K.

    1980-03-01

    For the international sector, a table of data is first presented followed by corresponding graph of the data for the following: (1) Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to February 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia (same as Iran); (3) OPEC (ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to January 1980; (4) non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, 1973 to January 1980; (5) oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to 1979; (6) petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to October 1979; (7) USSR crude oil production, 1974 to February 1980; (8) Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to January 1980. For the United States, the same data format is used for the following: (a) US imports of crude oil and products 1973 to January 1980; (b) landed cost of Saudi Arabia crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, 1974 to October 1979; (c) US trade in coal, 1973 to 1979; (d) summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to January 1980; and (e) US energy/GNP ratio (in 1972 dollars), 1947 to 1979.

  3. Statistical fingerprinting for malware detection and classification

    DOEpatents

    Prowell, Stacy J.; Rathgeb, Christopher T.

    2015-09-15

    A system detects malware in a computing architecture with an unknown pedigree. The system includes a first computing device having a known pedigree and operating free of malware. The first computing device executes a series of instrumented functions that, when executed, provide a statistical baseline that is representative of the time it takes the software application to run on a computing device having a known pedigree. A second computing device executes a second series of instrumented functions that, when executed, provides an actual time that is representative of the time the known software application runs on the second computing device. The system detects malware when there is a difference in execution times between the first and the second computing devices.

  4. Statistics over features for internal carotid arterial disorders detection.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to extract the representative features of the internal carotid arterial (ICA) Doppler ultrasound signals and to present the accurate classification model. This paper presented the usage of statistics over the set of the extracted features (Lyapunov exponents and the power levels of the power spectral density estimates obtained by the eigenvector methods) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the extracted feature vectors. Since classification is more accurate when the pattern is simplified through representation by important features, feature extraction and selection play an important role in classifying systems such as neural networks. Mixture of experts (ME) and modified mixture of experts (MME) architectures were formulated and used as basis for detection of arterial disorders. Three types of ICA Doppler signals (Doppler signals recorded from healthy subjects, subjects having stenosis, and subjects having occlusion) were classified. The classification results confirmed that the proposed ME and MME has potential in detecting the arterial disorders. PMID:18179791

  5. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  6. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  7. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules. 30.61 Section 30.61 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Administrative...

  8. Support vector machines for classification: a statistical portrait.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonkyung

    2010-01-01

    The support vector machine is a supervised learning technique for classification increasingly used in many applications of data mining, engineering, and bioinformatics. This chapter aims to provide an introduction to the method, covering from the basic concept of the optimal separating hyperplane to its nonlinear generalization through kernels. A general framework of kernel methods that encompass the support vector machine as a special case is outlined. In addition, statistical properties that illuminate both advantage and limitation of the method due to its specific mechanism for classification are briefly discussed. For illustration of the method and related practical issues, an application to real data with high-dimensional features is presented.

  9. Incorporating spatial context into statistical classification of multidimensional image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Tilton, J. C.; Swain, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Compound decision theory is employed to develop a general statistical model for classifying image data using spatial context. The classification algorithm developed from this model exploits the tendency of certain ground-cover classes to occur more frequently in some spatial contexts than in others. A key input to this contextural classifier is a quantitative characterization of this tendency: the context function. Several methods for estimating the context function are explored, and two complementary methods are recommended. The contextural classifier is shown to produce substantial improvements in classification accuracy compared to the accuracy produced by a non-contextural uniform-priors maximum likelihood classifier when these methods of estimating the context function are used. An approximate algorithm, which cuts computational requirements by over one-half, is presented. The search for an optimal implementation is furthered by an exploration of the relative merits of using spectral classes or information classes for classification and/or context function estimation.

  10. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G.

    2013-07-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage.

  11. International petroleum statistics report, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992. Data for the United States are developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Office of Oil and Gas. Data for other countries are derived largely from published sources including International Energy Agency publications, the EIA International Energy Annual, and the trade press. (See sources after each section). All data are reviewed by the International Statistics Branch of EIA. All data have been converted to units of measurement familiar to the American public. Definitions of oil production and consumption are consistent with other EIA publications.

  12. Using statistical text classification to identify health information technology incidents

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Kevin E K; Anthony, Stephen; Coiera, Enrico; Magrabi, Farah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility of using statistical text classification to automatically identify health information technology (HIT) incidents in the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. Design We used a subset of 570 272 incidents including 1534 HIT incidents reported to MAUDE between 1 January 2008 and 1 July 2010. Text classifiers using regularized logistic regression were evaluated with both ‘balanced’ (50% HIT) and ‘stratified’ (0.297% HIT) datasets for training, validation, and testing. Dataset preparation, feature extraction, feature selection, cross-validation, classification, performance evaluation, and error analysis were performed iteratively to further improve the classifiers. Feature-selection techniques such as removing short words and stop words, stemming, lemmatization, and principal component analysis were examined. Measurements κ statistic, F1 score, precision and recall. Results Classification performance was similar on both the stratified (0.954 F1 score) and balanced (0.995 F1 score) datasets. Stemming was the most effective technique, reducing the feature set size to 79% while maintaining comparable performance. Training with balanced datasets improved recall (0.989) but reduced precision (0.165). Conclusions Statistical text classification appears to be a feasible method for identifying HIT reports within large databases of incidents. Automated identification should enable more HIT problems to be detected, analyzed, and addressed in a timely manner. Semi-supervised learning may be necessary when applying machine learning to big data analysis of patient safety incidents and requires further investigation. PMID:23666777

  13. International petroleum statistics report, July 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 44 tabs.

  14. International petroleum statistics report, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  15. Multispectral data acquisition and classification - Statistical models for system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we relate the statistical processes that are involved in multispectral data acquisition and classification to a simple radiometric model of the earth surface and atmosphere. If generalized, these formulations could provide an analytical link between the steadily improving models of our environment and the performance characteristics of rapidly advancing device technology. This link is needed to bring system analysis tools to the task of optimizing remote sensing and (real-time) signal processing systems as a function of target and atmospheric properties, remote sensor spectral bands and system topology (e.g., image-plane processing), radiometric sensitivity and calibration accuracy, compensation for imaging conditions (e.g., atmospheric effects), and classification rates and errors.

  16. International Petroleum Statistics Report, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993. Data for the United States are developed by the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Office of Oil and Gas. Data for other countries are derived largely from published sources, including International Energy Agency publications, the EIA International Energy Annual, and the trade press. (See sources after each section.) All data are reviewed by the International Statistics Branch of EIA. All data have been converted to units of measurement familiar to the American public. Definitions of oil production and consumption are consistent with other EIA publications.

  17. Comparison of Three Statistical Classification Techniques for Maser Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Ellen M.; Holland, Barbara R.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Breen, Shari L.; Chen, Xi; Humphries, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    We applied three statistical classification techniques-linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression, and random forests-to three astronomical datasets associated with searches for interstellar masers. We compared the performance of these methods in identifying whether specific mid-infrared or millimetre continuum sources are likely to have associated interstellar masers. We also discuss the interpretability of the results of each classification technique. Non-parametric methods have the potential to make accurate predictions when there are complex relationships between critical parameters. We found that for the small datasets the parametric methods logistic regression and LDA performed best, for the largest dataset the non-parametric method of random forests performed with comparable accuracy to parametric techniques, rather than any significant improvement. This suggests that at least for the specific examples investigated here accuracy of the predictions obtained is not being limited by the use of parametric models. We also found that for LDA, transformation of the data to match a normal distribution led to a significant improvement in accuracy. The different classification techniques had significant overlap in their predictions; further astronomical observations will enable the accuracy of these predictions to be tested.

  18. Automated Classification of Glandular Tissue by Statistical Proximity Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Jimmy C.; Simonsson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the complexity of biological tissue and variations in staining procedures, features that are based on the explicit extraction of properties from subglandular structures in tissue images may have difficulty generalizing well over an unrestricted set of images and staining variations. We circumvent this problem by an implicit representation that is both robust and highly descriptive, especially when combined with a multiple instance learning approach to image classification. The new feature method is able to describe tissue architecture based on glandular structure. It is based on statistically representing the relative distribution of tissue components around lumen regions, while preserving spatial and quantitative information, as a basis for diagnosing and analyzing different areas within an image. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method in extracting discriminative features for obtaining high classification rates for tubular formation in both healthy and cancerous tissue, which is an important component in Gleason and tubule-based Elston grading. The proposed method may be used for glandular classification, also in other tissue types, in addition to general applicability as a region-based feature descriptor in image analysis where the image represents a bag with a certain label (or grade) and the region-based feature vectors represent instances. PMID:25685143

  19. International petroleum statistics report, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. International petroleum statistics report, May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. It presents data on international production, demand, imports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two year. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997, and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 fig., 48 tabs.

  1. Linear and Order Statistics Combiners for Pattern Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several researchers have experimentally shown that substantial improvements can be obtained in difficult pattern recognition problems by combining or integrating the outputs of multiple classifiers. This chapter provides an analytical framework to quantify the improvements in classification results due to combining. The results apply to both linear combiners and order statistics combiners. We first show that to a first order approximation, the error rate obtained over and above the Bayes error rate, is directly proportional to the variance of the actual decision boundaries around the Bayes optimum boundary. Combining classifiers in output space reduces this variance, and hence reduces the 'added' error. If N unbiased classifiers are combined by simple averaging. the added error rate can be reduced by a factor of N if the individual errors in approximating the decision boundaries are uncorrelated. Expressions are then derived for linear combiners which are biased or correlated, and the effect of output correlations on ensemble performance is quantified. For order statistics based non-linear combiners, we derive expressions that indicate how much the median, the maximum and in general the i-th order statistic can improve classifier performance. The analysis presented here facilitates the understanding of the relationships among error rates, classifier boundary distributions, and combining in output space. Experimental results on several public domain data sets are provided to illustrate the benefits of combining and to support the analytical results.

  2. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy and the international classification of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Catherine R

    2014-01-01

    This commentary provides some reactions to the rehabilitation treatment taxonomy project in relation to work already underway to develop an International Classification of Health Interventions. This commentary also includes some comments in response to questions posed by the authors.

  3. International energy indicators. [Statistical tables and graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.K.

    1980-05-01

    International statistical tables and graphs are given for the following: (1) Iran - Crude Oil Capacity, Production and Shut-in, June 1974-April 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia - Crude Oil Capacity, Production, and Shut-in, March 1974-Apr 1980; (3) OPEC (Ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia) - Capacity, Production and Shut-in, June 1974-March 1980; (4) Non-OPEC Free World and US Production of Crude Oil, January 1973-February 1980; (5) Oil Stocks - Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (Landed, 1973-1st Quarter, 1980); (6) Petroleum Consumption by Industrial Countries, January 1973-December 1979; (7) USSR Crude Oil Production and Exports, January 1974-April 1980; and (8) Free World and US Nuclear Generation Capacity, January 1973-March 1980. Similar statistical tables and graphs included for the United States include: (1) Imports of Crude Oil and Products, January 1973-April 1980; (2) Landed Cost of Saudi Oil in Current and 1974 Dollars, April 1974-January 1980; (3) US Trade in Coal, January 1973-March 1980; (4) Summary of US Merchandise Trade, 1976-March 1980; and (5) US Energy/GNP Ratio, 1947 to 1979.

  4. International petroleum statistics report, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  5. International petroleum statistics report, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-30

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  6. International petroleum statistics report, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  7. International petroleum statistics report, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-30

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data for March 1995 on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  8. International petroleum statistics report, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  9. International petroleum statistics report, November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-25

    Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The International production, and on oil and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  10. International petroleum statistics report, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-04

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance fore the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. International petroleum statistics report, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  12. International petroleum statistics report, September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  13. International petroleum statistics report, October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  14. International petroleum statistics report, August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  15. International petroleum statistics report, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  16. International petroleum statistics report, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. International petroleum statistics report, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  18. International petroleum statistics report, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The International petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970--1997; OECD stocks from 1973--1997; and OECD trade from 1987--1997.

  19. International petroleum statistics report, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. The balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  20. International petroleum statistics report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-25

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  1. International petroleum statistics report, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. International petroleum statistics report, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. International petroleum statistics report, September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  4. International petroleum statistics report, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on International oil production, demand, imports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. International petroleum statistics report, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarter data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  6. International petroleum statistics report, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  7. International petroleum statistics report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995. 4 figs., 47 tabs.

  8. International petroleum statistics report, February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995. 4 figs., 47 tabs.

  9. International petroleum statistics report, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  10. International petroleum statistics report, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  11. International petroleum statistics report, June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 46 tabs.

  12. Acute pancreatitis: international classification and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Bollen, T L

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing and it is associated with a major healthcare concern. New insights in the pathophysiology, better imaging techniques, and novel treatment options for complicated AP prompted the update of the 1992 Atlanta Classification. Updated nomenclature for pancreatic collections based on imaging criteria is proposed. Adoption of the newly Revised Classification of Acute Pancreatitis 2012 by radiologists should help standardise reports and facilitate accurate conveyance of relevant findings to referring physicians involved in the care of patients with AP. This review will clarify the nomenclature of pancreatic collections in the setting of AP. PMID:26602933

  13. Efforts to improve international migration statistics: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kraly, E P; Gnanasekaran, K S

    1987-01-01

    During the past decade, the international statistical community has made several efforts to develop standards for the definition, collection and publication of statistics on international migration. This article surveys the history of official initiatives to standardize international migration statistics by reviewing the recommendations of the International Statistical Institute, International Labor Organization, and the UN, and reports a recently proposed agenda for moving toward comparability among national statistical systems. Heightening awareness of the benefits of exchange and creating motivation to implement international standards requires a 3-pronged effort from the international statistical community. 1st, it is essential to continue discussion about the significance of improvement, specifically standardization, of international migration statistics. The move from theory to practice in this area requires ongoing focus by migration statisticians so that conformity to international standards itself becomes a criterion by which national statistical practices are examined and assessed. 2nd, the countries should be provided with technical documentation to support and facilitate the implementation of the recommended statistical systems. Documentation should be developed with an understanding that conformity to international standards for migration and travel statistics must be achieved within existing national statistical programs. 3rd, the call for statistical research in this area requires more efforts by the community of migration statisticians, beginning with the mobilization of bilateral and multilateral resources to undertake the preceding list of activities. PMID:12280924

  14. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  15. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  16. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  17. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  18. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  19. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  20. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  1. International nosology and classification of constitutional disorders of bone (2001).

    PubMed

    Hall, Christine M

    2002-11-15

    The last International Classification of Constitutional Disorders of Bone was published in 1998. Since then rapid advances have been made in identifying the molecular changes responsible for defined conditions and new disorders are constantly being delineated. For these reasons a further update on the classification is appropriate. It has been expended to not only the osteochondrodysplasias (33 groups) but also genetically determined dysostoses (3 groups).

  2. Towards an International Classification for Patient Safety: the conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Heather; Castro, Gerard; Fletcher, Martin; Hatlie, Martin; Hibbert, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Koss, Richard; Lewalle, Pierre; Loeb, Jerod; Perneger, Thomas; Runciman, William; Thomson, Richard; Van Der Schaaf, Tjerk; Virtanen, Martti

    2009-02-01

    Global advances in patient safety have been hampered by the lack of a uniform classification of patient safety concepts. This is a significant barrier to developing strategies to reduce risk, performing evidence-based research and evaluating existing healthcare policies relevant to patient safety. Since 2005, the World Health Organization's World Alliance for Patient Safety has undertaken the Project to Develop an International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS) to devise a classification which transforms patient safety information collected from disparate systems into a common format to facilitate aggregation, analysis and learning across disciplines, borders and time. A drafting group, comprised of experts from the fields of patient safety, classification theory, health informatics, consumer/patient advocacy, law and medicine, identified and defined key patient safety concepts and developed an internationally agreed conceptual framework for the ICPS based upon existing patient safety classifications. The conceptual framework was iteratively improved through technical expert meetings and a two-stage web-based modified Delphi survey of over 250 international experts. This work culminated in a conceptual framework consisting of ten high level classes: incident type, patient outcomes, patient characteristics, incident characteristics, contributing factors/hazards, organizational outcomes, detection, mitigating factors, ameliorating actions and actions taken to reduce risk. While the framework for the ICPS is in place, several challenges remain. Concepts need to be defined, guidance for using the classification needs to be provided, and further real-world testing needs to occur to progressively refine the ICPS to ensure it is fit for purpose. PMID:19147595

  3. Recording, notification, compilation, and classification of statistics of occupational accidents and diseases: the Thai experience.

    PubMed

    Choi, B C

    1996-11-01

    An International Labour Organization (ILO) project was conducted in July and August 1995 in Thailand to assist with the development of an information system on occupational accidents and diseases for the Workmen's Compensation Fund (WCF). The WCF provides cash benefits and medical care to insured workers who suffer employment injuries. The project included literature research based on the facilities of the ILO in Bangkok, and those of the Thai government, and a thorough review of the ILO Code of Practice (the Code) on recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases, and of other international recommendations on statistics of occupational accidents and diseases. A comparative study of various notification systems of occupational accidents and diseases in Australia, Canada, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States was conducted. The project also included fact-finding sessions among various information suppliers and users in Thailand. The Thai notification form for collecting data for the database was redesigned and pretested. Results of the project indicated that the Code is appropriate for the recording and notification of occupational accidents and diseases in Thailand. In addition, a number of information requirements, which were included in the notification systems in the countries studied but not listed in the Code, were found to be useful for the database. A list of the baseline variables to be included in the proposed database was developed, the notification form was redesigned, and coding schemes for the information collected on the redesigned form were constructed on the basis of international standard classification systems for economic activity, employment status, occupation, nature of injury, occupational disease, body part, type of accident, and agency. A number of mechanisms were suggested for cross-checking the accuracy of data in the database. Based on the review of the Code and other international recommendations on

  4. Robust model selection and the statistical classification of languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. E.; González-López, V. A.; Viola, M. L. L.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we address the problem of model selection for the set of finite memory stochastic processes with finite alphabet, when the data is contaminated. We consider m independent samples, with more than half of them being realizations of the same stochastic process with law Q, which is the one we want to retrieve. We devise a model selection procedure such that for a sample size large enough, the selected process is the one with law Q. Our model selection strategy is based on estimating relative entropies to select a subset of samples that are realizations of the same law. Although the procedure is valid for any family of finite order Markov models, we will focus on the family of variable length Markov chain models, which include the fixed order Markov chain model family. We define the asymptotic breakdown point (ABDP) for a model selection procedure, and we show the ABDP for our procedure. This means that if the proportion of contaminated samples is smaller than the ABDP, then, as the sample size grows our procedure selects a model for the process with law Q. We also use our procedure in a setting where we have one sample conformed by the concatenation of sub-samples of two or more stochastic processes, with most of the subsamples having law Q. We conducted a simulation study. In the application section we address the question of the statistical classification of languages according to their rhythmic features using speech samples. This is an important open problem in phonology. A persistent difficulty on this problem is that the speech samples correspond to several sentences produced by diverse speakers, corresponding to a mixture of distributions. The usual procedure to deal with this problem has been to choose a subset of the original sample which seems to best represent each language. The selection is made by listening to the samples. In our application we use the full dataset without any preselection of samples. We apply our robust methodology estimating

  5. Statistical methods and neural network approaches for classification of data from multiple sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Swain, Philip H.

    1990-01-01

    Statistical methods for classification of data from multiple data sources are investigated and compared to neural network models. A problem with using conventional multivariate statistical approaches for classification of data of multiple types is in general that a multivariate distribution cannot be assumed for the classes in the data sources. Another common problem with statistical classification methods is that the data sources are not equally reliable. This means that the data sources need to be weighted according to their reliability but most statistical classification methods do not have a mechanism for this. This research focuses on statistical methods which can overcome these problems: a method of statistical multisource analysis and consensus theory. Reliability measures for weighting the data sources in these methods are suggested and investigated. Secondly, this research focuses on neural network models. The neural networks are distribution free since no prior knowledge of the statistical distribution of the data is needed. This is an obvious advantage over most statistical classification methods. The neural networks also automatically take care of the problem involving how much weight each data source should have. On the other hand, their training process is iterative and can take a very long time. Methods to speed up the training procedure are introduced and investigated. Experimental results of classification using both neural network models and statistical methods are given, and the approaches are compared based on these results.

  6. Statistical classification methods for estimating ancestry using morphoscopic traits.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Joseph T; Ousley, Stephen D

    2014-07-01

    Ancestry assessments using cranial morphoscopic traits currently rely on subjective trait lists and observer experience rather than empirical support. The trait list approach, which is untested, unverified, and in many respects unrefined, is relied upon because of tradition and subjective experience. Our objective was to examine the utility of frequently cited morphoscopic traits and to explore eleven appropriate and novel methods for classifying an unknown cranium into one of several reference groups. Based on these results, artificial neural networks (aNNs), OSSA, support vector machines, and random forest models showed mean classification accuracies of at least 85%. The aNNs had the highest overall classification rate (87.8%), and random forests show the smallest difference between the highest (90.4%) and lowest (76.5%) classification accuracies. The results of this research demonstrate that morphoscopic traits can be successfully used to assess ancestry without relying only on the experience of the observer.

  7. [Classification of an acute pancreatitis: revision by international consensus in 2012 of classification, adopted in Atlanta].

    PubMed

    Kryvoruchko, I A; Kopchak, V M; Usenko, O Iu; Honcharova, N M; Balaka, S M; Teslenko, S M; Andreieshchev, S A

    2014-09-01

    In 1992 on symposium in Atlanta the general classification of an acute pancreatitis, adopted by world medical society for practical application, was proposed. Due to results of multiple investigations there were enhanced the data about an acute pancreatitis pathophysiology, the organs insufficiency, and improvement of the noninvasive and invasive methods of visualization and treatment, what caused necessity to revise the classification. Web-consultations were conducted in 2007 yr to guarantee a wide participation of pancreatologists. After first meeting the working group have directed the document project to 11 national and international associations of pancreatologists. In 2012 yr the definite conclusions, concerning consensus, were published.

  8. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  9. Statistical classification techniques for engineering and climatic data samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, E. C.; Shipman, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Fisher's sample linear discriminant function is modified through an appropriate alteration of the common sample variance-covariance matrix. The alteration consists of adding nonnegative values to the eigenvalues of the sample variance covariance matrix. The desired results of this modification is to increase the number of correct classifications by the new linear discriminant function over Fisher's function. This study is limited to the two-group discriminant problem.

  10. International petroleum statistics report, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  11. International petroleum statistics report: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  12. International petroleum statistics report, June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-27

    The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  13. International Crime Rates. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Carol B.

    This study compared crime rates of the United States with those of other countries for whom statistics were available: European countries, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Statistics were provided by the United Nations for homicide, rape, robbery, burglary, and theft; the International Police Organization (Interpol) for homicide, rape, robbery,…

  14. [International classification of functioning, disability and disability certification in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Reyes, Edgar; Riveros, Leidy T; Pineda-Ortiz, Gustavo A

    2013-01-01

    Certifying disability in Colombia has been demanded by disabled people; the country has assumed such challenge within the frame work of current legislation and international agreements signed by Colombia. A model of international classification of functioning (ICF), disability and healthwas thus adopted as it has been validated internationally in several studies; it incorporates international standards thereby allowing reliable evaluation of individuals' functional status. This essayinitially defines the concept of disabilityand locates it within a historical context leading to current ICF domain structure and categories. Such instrument provides a common, wide-ranging framework for providing suitable allocation of services and general and specific benefits, while assessing the differential between disabled people's current performance and their potential.

  15. 26 CFR 601.102 - Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service. 601.102 Section 601.102 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.102 Classification of taxes...

  16. Ice Surface Classification using Geo-Statistical Texture-Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, B. F.; Herzfeld, U. C.

    2009-12-01

    The morphological features of ice surfaces contain valuable information on the state of morphogenetic, environmental, and dynamic processes that the ice has experienced. To effectively use this information, however, the scale and rapid evolution of earth's cryospheric systems necessitate intermediate processing and abstraction as vital tools. We demonstrate methods for automated detection of ice surface classes using robust geostatistical texture parameters and several clustering/classification techniques. By measuring texture parameters as aggregates of regional spatial point distributions, a great variety of surface types can be characterized and detected, at the expense of computational complexity. Unsupervised clustering algorithms such as OPTICS identify numerically distinct sets of values which then seed segmentation algorithms. The results of the methods applied to several data-sets are presented, including RADARSAT, ATM, and ICESAT observations over both land and sea-ice. The surface roughness characteristics are analyzed at the various scales covered by the data-sets.

  17. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services.

  18. Generalized t-statistic for two-group classification.

    PubMed

    Komori, Osamu; Eguchi, Shinto; Copas, John B

    2015-06-01

    In the classic discriminant model of two multivariate normal distributions with equal variance matrices, the linear discriminant function is optimal both in terms of the log likelihood ratio and in terms of maximizing the standardized difference (the t-statistic) between the means of the two distributions. In a typical case-control study, normality may be sensible for the control sample but heterogeneity and uncertainty in diagnosis may suggest that a more flexible model is needed for the cases. We generalize the t-statistic approach by finding the linear function which maximizes a standardized difference but with data from one of the groups (the cases) filtered by a possibly nonlinear function U. We study conditions for consistency of the method and find the function U which is optimal in the sense of asymptotic efficiency. Optimality may also extend to other measures of discriminatory efficiency such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The optimal function U depends on a scalar probability density function which can be estimated non-parametrically using a standard numerical algorithm. A lasso-like version for variable selection is implemented by adding L1-regularization to the generalized t-statistic. Two microarray data sets in the study of asthma and various cancers are used as motivating examples.

  19. Statistical analysis of friction sleeve length effects on soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saussus, D. R.; Frost, J. D.; Dejong, J. T.

    2004-10-01

    The cone penetration test (CPT) provides profiles of the tip resistance, sleeve friction, and pore water pressure encountered while penetrating the subsurface. These parameters are used either directly or indirectly to classify the soil types present and to obtain geotechnical design parameters. However, fundamental discrepancies exist in the manner by which these parameters are measured. This paper describes the results of a study that shows the sleeve friction measurement introduces unnecessary redundancy due to the length of the standard friction sleeve compared to the measurement increment. Further, the high sleeve length to measurement increment ratio results in filtering and smoothing of the friction data, thereby causing the variability of the friction between the soil and the cone sleeve to be underestimated. The importance of understanding the role of the sleeve length on measurements is demonstrated using synthetically generated friction profiles and estimating the profiles that would be measured using sleeves of different lengths. Differences in how the soils are classified as a function of the sleeve length used to obtain each profile are illustrated. Solutions are presented to validate the synthetic sleeve friction profiles, to demonstrate the filtering and smoothing effects of the friction sleeve on the data, and to explain the implications of the sleeve length on soil classification. Copyright

  20. UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS: CLASSIFICATION OF ATLANTA 2012

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Gleim Dias; SOUZA, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz; CUENCA, Ronaldo Máfia; JERÔNIMO, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros; de SOUZA, Guilherme Medeiros; VILELA, Vinícius Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are widely used due to its image quality and ability to study pancreatic and peripancreatic morphology. The understanding of the various subtypes of the disease and identification of possible complications requires a familiarity with the terminology, which allows effective communication between the different members of the multidisciplinary team. Aim: Demonstrate the terminology and parameters to identify the different classifications and findings of the disease based on the international consensus for acute pancreatitis ( Atlanta Classification 2012). Methods: Search and analysis of articles in the "CAPES Portal de Periódicos with headings "acute pancreatitis" and "Atlanta Review". Results: Were selected 23 articles containing radiological descriptions, management or statistical data related to pathology. Additional statistical data were obtained from Datasus and Population Census 2010. The radiological diagnostic criterion adopted was the Radiology American College system. The "acute pancreatitis - 2012 Rating: Review Atlanta classification and definitions for international consensus" tries to eliminate inconsistency and divergence from the determination of uniformity to the radiological findings, especially the terminology related to fluid collections. More broadly as "pancreatic abscess" and "phlegmon" went into disuse and the evolution of the collection of patient fluids can be described as "acute peripancreatic collections", "acute necrotic collections", "pseudocyst" and "necrosis pancreatic walled or isolated". Conclusion: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance represent the best techniques with sequential images available for diagnosis. Standardization of the terminology is critical and should improve the management of patients with multiple professionals care, risk stratification and adequate treatment. PMID:27759788

  1. Statistical Analysis of Noisy Signals Using Classification Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Sandra E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Johnson, Timothy J.; Foster, Nancy S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Amonette, James E.

    2005-06-04

    The potential use of chemicals, biotoxins and biological pathogens are a threat to military and police forces as well as the general public. Rapid identification of these agents is made difficult due to the noisy nature of the signal that can be obtained from portable, in-field sensors. In previously published articles, we created a flowchart that illustrated a method for triaging bacterial identification by combining standard statistical techniques for discrimination and identification with mid-infrared spectroscopic data. The present work documents the process of characterizing and eliminating the sources of the noise and outlines how multidisciplinary teams are necessary to accomplish that goal.

  2. Spatial Statistics for Tumor Cell Counting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirjadi, Oliver; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Breuel, Thomas

    To count and classify cells in histological sections is a standard task in histology. One example is the grading of meningiomas, benign tumors of the meninges, which requires to assess the fraction of proliferating cells in an image. As this process is very time consuming when performed manually, automation is required. To address such problems, we propose a novel application of Markov point process methods in computer vision, leading to algorithms for computing the locations of circular objects in images. In contrast to previous algorithms using such spatial statistics methods in image analysis, the present one is fully trainable. This is achieved by combining point process methods with statistical classifiers. Using simulated data, the method proposed in this paper will be shown to be more accurate and more robust to noise than standard image processing methods. On the publicly available SIMCEP benchmark for cell image analysis algorithms, the cell count performance of the present paper is significantly more accurate than results published elsewhere, especially when cells form dense clusters. Furthermore, the proposed system performs as well as a state-of-the-art algorithm for the computer-aided histological grading of meningiomas when combined with a simple k-nearest neighbor classifier for identifying proliferating cells.

  3. Statistical, connectionist, and fuzzy inference techniques for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Steven A.; Kasabov, Nikola K.

    1997-07-01

    A spectral classification comparison was performed using four different classifiers, the parametric maximum likelihood classifier and three nonparametric classifiers: neural networks, fuzzy rules, and fuzzy neural networks. The input image data is a System Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite image of Otago Harbour near Dunedin, New Zealand. The SPOT image data contains three spectral bands in the green, red, and visible infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The specific area contains intertidal vegetation species above and below the waterline. Of specific interest is eelgrass (Zostera novazelandica), which is a biotic indicator of environmental health. The mixed covertypes observed in an in situ field survey are difficult to classify because of subjectivity and water's preferential absorption of the visible infrared spectrum. In this analysis, each of the classifiers were applied to the data in two different testing procedures. In the first test procedure, the reference data was divided into training and test by area. Although this is an efficient data handling technique, the classifier is not presented with all of the subtle microclimate variations. In the second test procedure, the same reference areas were amalgamated and randomly sorted into training and test data. The amalgamation and sorting were performed external to the analysis software. For the first testing procedure, the highest testing accuracy was obtained through the use of fuzzy inferences at 89%. In the second testing procedure, the maximum likelihood classifier and the fuzzy neural networks provided the best results. Although the testing accuracy for the maximum likelihood classifier and the fuzzy neural networks provided the best results. Although the testing accuracy for the maximum likelihood classifier and the fuzzy neural networks were simulator, the latter algorithm has additional features, such as rules extraction, explanation, and fine tuning of individual classes.

  4. The Environment in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapireau, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization has adopted two classifications relating to disability, one was published in 1980 and the more recent one in 2001. Although the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) was drafted as a revision of the international classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps…

  5. International pediatric liver cancer pathological classification: current trend.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukichi; Inoue, Takeshi; Horie, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    This review describes the pathological classification of pediatric liver cancer types and subtypes proposed at the recent international symposium (March 2011, Los Angeles, USA) and meetings involving pathologists serving as central reviewers for the Children's Oncology Group, Société Internationale d'Oncologie Pédiatrique, Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie, or Japanese Study Group for Pediatric Liver Tumors, and pediatric oncologists/surgeons specializing in liver cancers, as well as immunohistochemical panels, recommendations for submission, sampling and evaluation of diagnostic specimens. The pathological classification is intended to be standardized and clinically meaningful, thus improving future patient management and prognosis. The most common pediatric liver cancer is hepatoblastoma (HBL). HBL has two types, the wholly epithelial type and the mixed epithelial and mesenchymal (MEM) type. The wholly epithelial type was subdivided into well-differentiated fetal (pure fetal with low mitotic activity), crowded fetal (mitotically active), embryonal, epithelial mixed, small cell undifferentiated, and cholangioblastic. A macrotrabecular pattern and a pleomorphic epithelial pattern were recognized as supplemental features of epithelial components. The MEM type was subdivided into MEM without teratoid features and MEM with teratoid features. Other liver cancers in children were divided into hepatocellular carcinoma (classic hepatocellular carcinoma and fibrolamellar carcinoma) and hepatocellular malignant tumor not otherwise specified. This classification is basically applied to pretreatment specimens; the evaluation of post-chemotherapy specimens will be the subject of further studies.

  6. Use of statistical procedures in Brazilian and international dental journals.

    PubMed

    Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo; Pereira, Antônio Carlos

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive survey was performed in order to assess the statistical content and quality of Brazilian and international dental journals, and compare their evolution throughout the last decades. The authors identified the reporting and accuracy of statistical techniques in 1000 papers published from 1970 to 2000 in seven dental journals: three Brazilian (Brazilian Dental Journal, Revista de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo and Revista de Odontologia da UNESP) and four international journals (Journal of the American Dental Association, Journal of Dental Research, Caries Research and Journal of Periodontology). Papers were divided into two time periods: from 1970 to 1989, and from 1990 to 2000. A slight increase in the number of articles that presented some form of statistical technique was noticed for Brazilian journals (from 61.0 to 66.7%), whereas for international journals, a significant increase was observed (65.8 to 92.6%). In addition, a decrease in the number of statistical errors was verified. The most commonly used statistical tests as well as the most frequent errors found in dental journals were assessed. Hopefully, this investigation will encourage dental educators to better plan the teaching of biostatistics, and to improve the statistical quality of submitted manuscripts.

  7. Statistical classification of vegetation and water depths in montane wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Julia L.; Sodja, Richard S.; Greenwood, Mark; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between water depths and density of submergent vegetation were studied in montane wetlands using statistical techniques based on clustering and an extension of regression trees. Sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) was associated with lower average water depths than water milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum). We detected a nonlinear relationship when average water depths were used to predict percent cover in S. pectinata, with depths of 30–40 cm, producing the highest predicted average percent cover of S. pectinata; higher and lower depths resulted in lower percent cover predictions. For M. sibiricum, higher water depths were monotonically associated with higher average percent cover. To foster more S. pectinata and less M. sibiricum, managers might employ water control structures to reduce water depths below 1 m, using both temporary drawdowns and average depths of 30–40 cm. Other species responded less markedly to water depth variation. Should decreased water depths become more common, these results suggest an increase in S. pectinata and a decrease in M. sibiricum.

  8. Statistical classification techniques in high energy physics (SDDT algorithm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouř, Petr; Kůs, Václav; Franc, Jiří

    2016-08-01

    We present our proposal of the supervised binary divergence decision tree with nested separation method based on the generalized linear models. A key insight we provide is the clustering driven only by a few selected physical variables. The proper selection consists of the variables achieving the maximal divergence measure between two different classes. Further, we apply our method to Monte Carlo simulations of physics processes corresponding to a data sample of top quark-antiquark pair candidate events in the lepton+jets decay channel. The data sample is produced in pp̅ collisions at √S = 1.96 TeV. It corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb-1 recorded with the D0 detector during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The efficiency of our algorithm achieves 90% AUC in separating signal from background. We also briefly deal with the modification of statistical tests applicable to weighted data sets in order to test homogeneity of the Monte Carlo simulations and measured data. The justification of these modified tests is proposed through the divergence tests.

  9. Hybrid neural network and statistical classification algorithms in computer-assisted diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotzka, Rainer

    2000-06-01

    The development of computer assisted diagnosis systems for image-patterns is still in the early stages compared to the powerful image and object recognition capabilities of the human eye and visual cortex. Rules have to be defined and features have to be found manually in digital images to come to an automatic classification. The extraction of discriminating features is especially in medical applications a very time consuming process. The quality of the defined features influences directly the classification success. Artificial neural networks are in principle able to solve complex recognition and classification tasks, but their computational expenses restrict their use to small images. A new improved image object classification scheme consists of neural networks as feature extractors and common statistical discrimination algorithms. Applied to the recognition of different types of tumor nuclei images this system is able to find differences which are barely discernible by human eyes.

  10. International Classification of Diseases Codes and their Use in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Weatherspoon, Darien; Chattopadhyay, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The deadline for replacing International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition (ICD-9) code sets with the newer ICD-10 code sets, used for the reporting of medical diagnoses and inpatient hospital procedures, was recently updated to occur at a date no sooner than October 1, 2015; with October 1, 2015 being the likely implementation date. The transition to ICD-10 is mandatory for all entities covered by the Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (HIPAA). This review will provide a brief history of the development of ICD codes; provide an overview of ICD-9/ICD-9-Clinical Modification (CM) and ICD-10/ ICD-10-CM/Procedural Coding System (PCS) codes; provide information on the conversion of ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM/PCS codes; and provide information on the uses of ICD codes in dentistry in the United States. PMID:25879045

  11. Braiding statistics and classification of two-dimensional charge-2 m superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie

    2016-08-01

    We study braiding statistics between quasiparticles and vortices in two-dimensional charge-2 m (in units of e ) superconductors that are coupled to a Z2 m dynamical gauge field, where m is any positive integer. We show that there exist 16 m types of braiding statistics when m is odd, but only 4 m types when m is even. Based on the braiding statistics, we obtain a classification of topological phases of charge-2 m superconductors—or formally speaking, a classification of symmetry-protected topological phases, as well as invertible topological phases, of two-dimensional gapped fermions with Z2m f symmetry. Interestingly, we find that there is no nontrivial fermionic symmetry-protected topological phase with Z4f symmetry.

  12. Exploring strategies for classification of external stimuli using statistical features of the plant electrical response.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Das, Saptarshi; Maharatna, Koushik; Masi, Elisa; Santopolo, Luisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Vitaletti, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Plants sense their environment by producing electrical signals which in essence represent changes in underlying physiological processes. These electrical signals, when monitored, show both stochastic and deterministic dynamics. In this paper, we compute 11 statistical features from the raw non-stationary plant electrical signal time series to classify the stimulus applied (causing the electrical signal). By using different discriminant analysis-based classification techniques, we successfully establish that there is enough information in the raw electrical signal to classify the stimuli. In the process, we also propose two standard features which consistently give good classification results for three types of stimuli--sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) and ozone (O₃). This may facilitate reduction in the complexity involved in computing all the features for online classification of similar external stimuli in future.

  13. Exploring strategies for classification of external stimuli using statistical features of the plant electrical response

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Das, Saptarshi; Maharatna, Koushik; Masi, Elisa; Santopolo, Luisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Vitaletti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Plants sense their environment by producing electrical signals which in essence represent changes in underlying physiological processes. These electrical signals, when monitored, show both stochastic and deterministic dynamics. In this paper, we compute 11 statistical features from the raw non-stationary plant electrical signal time series to classify the stimulus applied (causing the electrical signal). By using different discriminant analysis-based classification techniques, we successfully establish that there is enough information in the raw electrical signal to classify the stimuli. In the process, we also propose two standard features which consistently give good classification results for three types of stimuli—sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and ozone (O3). This may facilitate reduction in the complexity involved in computing all the features for online classification of similar external stimuli in future. PMID:25631569

  14. Method for nondestructive testing using multiple-energy CT and statistical pattern classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homem, Murillo R. P.; Mascarenhas, Nelson D. A.; Cruvinel, Paulo E.

    1999-10-01

    This paper reports on how multiple energy techniques in X and gamma-ray CT scanning are able to provide good results with the use of Statistical Pattern Classification theory. We obtained a set of four images with different energies (40, 60, 85 and 662 keV) containing aluminum, phosphorus, calcium, water and plexiglass, with a minitomograph scanner for soil science. We analyzed those images through both a supervised classifier based on the maximum-likelihood criterion under the multivariate Gaussian model and a supervised contextual classifier based on the ICM (iterated conditional modes) algorithm using an a priori Potts-Strauss model. A comparison between them was performed through the statistical kappa coefficient. A feature selection procedure using the Jeffries- Matusita (J-M) Distance was also performed. Both the classification and the feature selection procedures were found to be in agreement with the predicted discrimination given by the separation of the linear attenuation coefficient curves for different materials.

  15. Statistical Classification of Soft Solder Alloys by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Review of Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdunek, R.; Nowak, M.; Pliński, E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews machine-learning methods that are nowadays the most frequently used for the supervised classification of spectral signals in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We analyze and compare various statistical classification methods, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes method, probabilistic neural networks (PNN), and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) method. The theoretical considerations are supported with experiments conducted for real soft-solder-alloy spectra obtained using LIBS. We consider two decision problems: binary and multiclass classification. The former is used to distinguish overheated soft solders from their normal versions. The latter aims to assign a testing sample to a given group of materials. The measurements are obtained for several laser-energy values, projection masks, and numbers of laser shots. Using cross-validation, we evaluate the above classification methods in terms of their usefulness in solving both classification problems.

  16. ICPCview: visualizing the International Classification of Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Lévy, Pierre P; Duché, Laetitia; Darago, Laszlo; Dorléans, Yves; Toubiana, Laurent; Vibert, Jean-François; Flahault, Antoine

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to visualize the semantic content of data bases where the medical information is coded with the International Classification of Primary Care. The main idea is the identification of a pixel with a code and the conversion of all the data associated with these into an image the ICPCview. The method proceeds in two step, defining the reference frame and using this reference frame to visualize data. The reference frame is built by using a sign/diagnosis binary criterion, a seventeen category nosological criterion and an age ordinal criterion. The results are visualization of the signs and diagnosis of the ICPC according to gender, age and time period of the year. A limitation of the method lies in the fact that the result depends on the chosen reference frame. Further work has to be done with various reference frames and data. However the main point is that, when both the reference set of the image and of the mind of the user are built, the method is powerful at extracting the hidden content of a very large amount of data.

  17. Health websites in Italy: use, classification and international policy.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Maceratini, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss international policy in relation to the use of health websites and we describe the results obtained from application of a search engine to the recognition and classification of health websites in Italy. We then compare the results with health websites in other countries. Effective use of technology has led to medical advances that have not only extended life expectancy, but also fuelled an increasingly well-informed public to expect more and more from today's healthcare providers. As a consequence of the Web's rapid, chaotic growth, the resulting network of information lacks organization and structure and the quest for a method of quickly finding relevant and reliable information is spawning the growth of Internet portal sites. The US and the European Union and now Italy, have established the importance of rules to check the quality of health sites both for the non-professional users (citizens), mainly for privacy and security (for example, of medical records); and for health operators (physicians and others), where the most important thing is to evaluate the quality of content. In June 2001, the search engine used here found 2627 Italian health sites, of which only 46 exhibited the HON Code, and they can be classified into: 1% personal medical sites, 17% health portals, 18%, metasites, 27% documental sites and 37% information sites for health operators and/or for citizens.

  18. 26 CFR 601.102 - Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service. 601.102 Section 601.102 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Rules § 601.102 Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service. (a) Principal....S. Tax Court. These include: (i) Income and profits taxes imposed by Chapters 1 and 2 of the...

  19. 26 CFR 601.102 - Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service. 601.102 Section 601.102 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Rules § 601.102 Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service. (a) Principal....S. Tax Court. These include: (i) Income and profits taxes imposed by Chapters 1 and 2 of the...

  20. 26 CFR 601.102 - Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service. 601.102 Section 601.102 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Rules § 601.102 Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service. (a) Principal....S. Tax Court. These include: (i) Income and profits taxes imposed by Chapters 1 and 2 of the...

  1. 26 CFR 601.102 - Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service. 601.102 Section 601.102 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Rules § 601.102 Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service. (a) Principal....S. Tax Court. These include: (i) Income and profits taxes imposed by Chapters 1 and 2 of the...

  2. Comparison of statistical, LBP, and multi-resolution analysis features for breast mass classification.

    PubMed

    Reyad, Yasser A; Berbar, Mohamed A; Hussain, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    Millions of women are suffering from breast cancer, which can be treated effectively if it is detected early. Mammography is broadly recognized as an effective imaging modality for the early detection of breast cancer. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are very helpful for radiologists in detecting and diagnosing abnormalities earlier and faster than traditional screening programs. An important step of a CAD system is feature extraction. This research gives a comprehensive study of the effects of different features to be used in a CAD system for the classification of masses. The features are extracted using local binary pattern (LBP), which is a texture descriptor, statistical measures, and multi-resolution frameworks. Statistical and LBP features are extracted from each region of interest (ROI), taken from mammogram images, after dividing it into N×N blocks. The multi-resolution features are based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and contourlet transform (CT). In multi-resolution analysis, ROIs are decomposed into low sub-band and high sub-bands at different resolution levels and the coefficients of the low sub-band at the last level are taken as features. Support vector machines (SVM) is used for classification. The evaluation is performed using Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) database. An accuracy of 98.43 is obtained using statistical or LBP features but when both these types of features are fused, the accuracy is increased to 98.63. The CT features achieved classification accuracy of 98.43 whereas the accuracy resulted from DWT features is 96.93. The statistical analysis and ROC curves show that methods based on LBP, statistical measures and CT performs equally well and they not only outperform DWT based method but also other existing methods. PMID:25037713

  3. International conference on Statistical Mechanics of Plasticity and Related Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    The papers compiled in this volume are based on talks and posters given at the International Conference on "Statistical Mechanics of Plasticity and Related Instabilities", (SMPRI 2005), held at the Materials Research Center of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, from August 29 to September 2, 2005. Our aim in organizing SMPRI 2005 was to promote and enhance interactions between researchers from the statistical physics, materials science and solid mechanics communities. While predicting the (macroscopic) deformation properties of materials is a classical topic of materials science and materials mechanics, statistical physicists have become increasingly interested in the collective processes which control the irreversible deformation of matter on microscopic and mesoscopic scales. The SMPRI 2005 meeting has been a forum for the exchange of concepts, research ideas, and results among these communities. We hope that the contributions contained in this proceedings volume will not only help to continue and deepen this exchange, but also to disseminate the results beyond the, necessarily limited, circle of the actual participants. We want to thank all contributors for the work in preparing their manuscripts. We are grateful to the institutions which have supported this conference, in particular the Asian Office for Aerospace Research and Developement (AOARD/AFOSR), the Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, the Indian Center for Scientific and Industrial Research, the Indian Defense Research and Developement Organization, The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy, the Indian Institute of Science, in particular the Center for Condensed Matter Theory and Materials Reseach Center, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Materials Research Society of India, and the Karnatake State Center for Science and Technology. We would also like to thank the staff and students of Materials Research Center, Indian

  4. Statistics and classification of the microwave zebra patterns associated with solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin; Mészárosová, H.; Karlický, M.

    2014-01-10

    The microwave zebra pattern (ZP) is the most interesting, intriguing, and complex spectral structure frequently observed in solar flares. A comprehensive statistical study will certainly help us to understand the formation mechanism, which is not exactly clear now. This work presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a big sample with 202 ZP events collected from observations at the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou and the Ondŕejov Radiospectrograph in the Czech Republic at frequencies of 1.00-7.60 GHz from 2000 to 2013. After investigating the parameter properties of ZPs, such as the occurrence in flare phase, frequency range, polarization degree, duration, etc., we find that the variation of zebra stripe frequency separation with respect to frequency is the best indicator for a physical classification of ZPs. Microwave ZPs can be classified into three types: equidistant ZPs, variable-distant ZPs, and growing-distant ZPs, possibly corresponding to mechanisms of the Bernstein wave model, whistler wave model, and double plasma resonance model, respectively. This statistical classification may help us to clarify the controversies between the existing various theoretical models and understand the physical processes in the source regions.

  5. Hydrometeor classification through statistical clustering of polarimetric radar measurements: a semi-supervised approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besic, Nikola; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Grazioli, Jacopo; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Berne, Alexis

    2016-09-01

    Polarimetric radar-based hydrometeor classification is the procedure of identifying different types of hydrometeors by exploiting polarimetric radar observations. The main drawback of the existing supervised classification methods, mostly based on fuzzy logic, is a significant dependency on a presumed electromagnetic behaviour of different hydrometeor types. Namely, the results of the classification largely rely upon the quality of scattering simulations. When it comes to the unsupervised approach, it lacks the constraints related to the hydrometeor microphysics. The idea of the proposed method is to compensate for these drawbacks by combining the two approaches in a way that microphysical hypotheses can, to a degree, adjust the content of the classes obtained statistically from the observations. This is done by means of an iterative approach, performed offline, which, in a statistical framework, examines clustered representative polarimetric observations by comparing them to the presumed polarimetric properties of each hydrometeor class. Aside from comparing, a routine alters the content of clusters by encouraging further statistical clustering in case of non-identification. By merging all identified clusters, the multi-dimensional polarimetric signatures of various hydrometeor types are obtained for each of the studied representative datasets, i.e. for each radar system of interest. These are depicted by sets of centroids which are then employed in operational labelling of different hydrometeors. The method has been applied on three C-band datasets, each acquired by different operational radar from the MeteoSwiss Rad4Alp network, as well as on two X-band datasets acquired by two research mobile radars. The results are discussed through a comparative analysis which includes a corresponding supervised and unsupervised approach, emphasising the operational potential of the proposed method.

  6. Stuttering and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaruss, J. Scott; Quesal, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently presented a multidimensional classification scheme for describing health status and the experience of disablement. This new framework, the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health" (ICF; WHO, 2001), is a revision of WHO's prior framework for describing the consequences of…

  7. The International Coal Statistics Data Base program maintenance guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data Base (ICSD) is a microcomputer-based system which contains information related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase III+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual, and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Program Maintenance Manual provides the information necessary to maintain and update the ICSD system. Two major types of program maintenance documentation are presented in this manual. The first is the source code for the dBase III+ routines and related non-dBase programs used in operating the ICSD. The second is listings of the major component database field structures. A third important consideration for dBase programming, the structure of index files, is presented in the listing of source code for the index maintenance program. 1 fig.

  8. International petroleum statistics report, January 1992. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, consumption, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil consumption and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/consumption balance for the market economies (i.e., non-communist countries). This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, consumption, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD consumption data are for the years 1970 through 1990; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1990; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1990.

  9. The International Coal Statistics Data Base operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data base (ICSD) is a micro- computer based system which contains informations related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven, and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Operations Manual explains how to install the programs, how to obtain reports on coal trade, what systems requirements apply, and how to update the major data files. It also explains file naming conventions, what each file does, and the programming procedures used to make the system work. The Operations Manual explains how to make the system respond to customized queries. It is organized around the ICSD menu structure and describes what each selection will do. Sample reports and graphs generated from individual menu selection are provided to acquaint the user with the various types of output. 17 figs.

  10. Statistical dynamics of internal gravity waves-turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, J. S.; Bell, R. C.

    Numerical simulations of internal gravity waves-turbulence are carried out for the inviscid, viscous and forced-dissipative two-dimensional primitive equations using the spectral method. Some of the results are compared with the predictions of the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian (EDQNM) closure for internal waves of Carnevale and Frederiksen, generalized for periodic boundary conditions and possible random forcing and dissipation. The EDQNM reduces to the Boltzman equation of resonant interaction theory in the continuum space limit and as the forcing and dissipation vanish. However, the limit is singular in the sense that as well as conserving total energy, E, and total cross-correlation between the vorticity and buoyancy fields, C, an additional conservation law, viz. z-momentum, Pz, occurs in the limit. This means that the resonant interaction equilibrium (RIE) solution of the Boltzmann equation differs from the statistical mechanical equilibrium (SME) solution of the EDQNM closure. The statistical stability of the SME and RIE spectra for the primitive equations is tested by integrating the inviscid equations using initial realizations of these spectra with random phases. It is found that E and C are accurately conserved while Pz undergoes large amplitude variations. The approach to equilibrium of initial disequilibrium spectra is monitored by examining the evolution of the entropy. The increase and asymptotic approach to a constant value corresponding to complete chaos is consistent with the behaviour predicted by the EDQNM closure. For the viscous decay and forced-dissipative experiments, the behaviour of the entropy is also consistent with that predicted by the EDQNM closure. There is approximate equipartition of potential and total kinetic energies throughout the integrations from initial conditions having equal potential and total kinetic energies and as well equal vertical and horizontal energies, but as expected, the ratio of horizontal to vertical

  11. The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN): proposal to delete Rule 3.41

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed to delete Rule 3.41 of the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature, which requires the name of a virus taxon to precede the term for the taxonomic unit. PMID:22932924

  12. Detection and classification using higher-order statistics of optical matched filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Brian M.

    1990-09-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of detection and classification of signals in the presence of additive Gaussian noise of unknown covariance (AGN/TJC), using higher than second-order statistics (HOS) of the output of a matched filter. Specifically, we apply the HOS-based method developed in [1,2] to phase-only matched filters. The main result of this paper is that the HOSbased statistic is appropriate for use with phase-only matched filter (POMF) outputs. Simulation results are presented which indicate the ability of the matched filter and the POMF, which are augmented with 1105, to detect a 2-d signal at signal-to-noise ratios below which the matched filters alone are incapable of making a detection.

  13. Analysis of sexual assault evidence: statistical classification of condoms by ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Mario F; Ifa, Demian R; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) are employed here in the forensic analysis of chemical compounds found in condoms and relative traces, and their analytical performances are compared. Statistical analysis of data obtained from mass spectra only was applied in order to obtain classification rules for distinguishing ten types of condoms. In particular, two supervised chemometric techniques [linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)] were carried out on absolute and relative intensity values to test the performances of statistical models in terms of predictive capacity. The achieved classification of samples was excellent because of the high prediction percentages of the method used both for DESI and EASI mass spectrometry analyses, confirming these two as potential ambient ionization techniques for forensic analyses in case of sexual assault crimes. EASI-MS showed 99% prediction ability for LDA using relative data and 100% prediction ability for SIMCA using both absolute and relative ones, while DESI showed 94% prediction ability for both LDA and SIMCA. The absence of any sample preparation technique gives advantages in terms of sample preservation and reduced contamination, allowing successive analyses to be performed on the same sample by other techniques.

  14. Visual classification of very fine-grained sediments: Evaluation through univariate and multivariate statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohn, M. Ed; Nuhfer, E.B.; Vinopal, R.J.; Klanderman, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifying very fine-grained rocks through fabric elements provides information about depositional environments, but is subject to the biases of visual taxonomy. To evaluate the statistical significance of an empirical classification of very fine-grained rocks, samples from Devonian shales in four cored wells in West Virginia and Virginia were measured for 15 variables: quartz, illite, pyrite and expandable clays determined by X-ray diffraction; total sulfur, organic content, inorganic carbon, matrix density, bulk density, porosity, silt, as well as density, sonic travel time, resistivity, and ??-ray response measured from well logs. The four lithologic types comprised: (1) sharply banded shale, (2) thinly laminated shale, (3) lenticularly laminated shale, and (4) nonbanded shale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance showed that the lithologic classification reflects significant differences for the variables measured, difference that can be detected independently of stratigraphic effects. Little-known statistical methods found useful in this work included: the multivariate analysis of variance with more than one effect, simultaneous plotting of samples and variables on canonical variates, and the use of parametric ANOVA and MANOVA on ranked data. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  15. Visual classification of very fine-grained sediments: evaluation through univariate and multivariate statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.; Nuhfer, E.B.; Vinopal, R.J.; Klanderman, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifying very fine-grained rocks through fabric elements provides information about depositional environments, but is subject to the biases of visual taxonomy. To evaluate the statistical significance of an empirical classification of very fine-grained rocks, samples from Devonian shales in four cored wells in West Virginia and Virginia were measured for 15 variables: quartz, illite, pyrite and expandable clays determined by X-ray diffraction; total sulfur, organic content, inorganic carbon, matrix density, bulk density, porosity, silt, as well as density, sonic travel time, resistivity, and ..gamma..-ray response measured from well logs. The four lithologic types comprised: (1) sharply banded shale, (2) thinly laminated shale, (3) lenticularly laminated shale, and (4) nonbanded shale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance showed that the lithologic classification reflects significant differences for the variables measured, difference that can be detected independently of stratigraphic effects. Little-known statistical methods found useful in this work included: the multivariate analysis of variance with more than one effect, simultaneous plotting of samples and variables on canonical variates, and the use of parametric ANOVA and MANOVA on ranked data.

  16. Scaling up the evaluation of psychotherapy: evaluating motivational interviewing fidelity via statistical text classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy are leading, evidence-based practices for a variety of problems (e.g., substance abuse), but the evaluation of provider fidelity to behavioral interventions is limited by the need for human judgment. The current study evaluated the accuracy of statistical text classification in replicating human-based judgments of provider fidelity in one specific psychotherapy—motivational interviewing (MI). Method Participants (n = 148) came from five previously conducted randomized trials and were either primary care patients at a safety-net hospital or university students. To be eligible for the original studies, participants met criteria for either problematic drug or alcohol use. All participants received a type of brief motivational interview, an evidence-based intervention for alcohol and substance use disorders. The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code is a standard measure of MI provider fidelity based on human ratings that was used to evaluate all therapy sessions. A text classification approach called a labeled topic model was used to learn associations between human-based fidelity ratings and MI session transcripts. It was then used to generate codes for new sessions. The primary comparison was the accuracy of model-based codes with human-based codes. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of model-based codes showed reasonably strong sensitivity and specificity with those from human raters (range of area under ROC curve (AUC) scores: 0.62 – 0.81; average AUC: 0.72). Agreement with human raters was evaluated based on talk turns as well as code tallies for an entire session. Generated codes had higher reliability with human codes for session tallies and also varied strongly by individual code. Conclusion To scale up the evaluation of behavioral interventions, technological solutions will be required. The current study demonstrated preliminary, encouraging findings regarding the utility

  17. Multiple-Time-Series Clinical Data Processing for Classification With Merging Algorithm and Statistical Measures.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Liang, Ja-Der; Yang, Pei-Ming; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lai, Feipei

    2015-05-01

    A description of patient conditions should consist of the changes in and combination of clinical measures. Traditional data-processing method and classification algorithms might cause clinical information to disappear and reduce prediction performance. To improve the accuracy of clinical-outcome prediction by using multiple measurements, a new multiple-time-series data-processing algorithm with period merging is proposed. Clinical data from 83 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were used in this research. Their clinical reports from a defined period were merged using the proposed merging algorithm, and statistical measures were also calculated. After data processing, multiple measurements support vector machine (MMSVM) with radial basis function (RBF) kernels was used as a classification method to predict HCC recurrence. A multiple measurements random forest regression (MMRF) was also used as an additional evaluation/classification method. To evaluate the data-merging algorithm, the performance of prediction using processed multiple measurements was compared to prediction using single measurements. The results of recurrence prediction by MMSVM with RBF using multiple measurements and a period of 120 days (accuracy 0.771, balanced accuracy 0.603) were optimal, and their superiority to the results obtained using single measurements was statistically significant (accuracy 0.626, balanced accuracy 0.459, P < 0.01). In the cases of MMRF, the prediction results obtained after applying the proposed merging algorithm were also better than single-measurement results (P < 0.05). The results show that the performance of HCC-recurrence prediction was significantly improved when the proposed data-processing algorithm was used, and that multiple measurements could be of greater value than single.

  18. Statistical analysis of multilook polarimetric SAR data and terrain classification with adaptive distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoqing; Huang, ShunJi; Torre, Andrea; Rubertone, Franco S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper deals with analysis of statistical properties of multi-look processed polarimetric SAR data. Based on an assumption that the multi-look polarimetric measurement is a product between a Gamma-distributed texture variable and a Wishart-distributed polarimetric speckle variable, it is shown that the multi-look polarimetric measurement from a nonhomogeneous region obeys a generalized K-distribution. In order to validate this statistical model, two of its varied versions, multi-look intensity and amplitude K-distributions are particularly compared with histograms of the observed multi-look SAR data of three terrain types, ocean, forest-like and city regions, and with four empirical distribution models, Gaussian, log-normal, gamma and Weibull models. A qualitative relation between the degree of nonhomogeneity of a textured scene and the well-fitting statistical model is then empirically established. Finally, a classifier with adaptive distributions guided by the order parameter of the texture distribution estimated with local statistics is introduced to perform terrain classification, experimental results with both multi-look fully polarimetric data and multi-look single-channel intensity/amplitude data indicate its effectiveness.

  19. 2008 International Conference on Ectodermal Dysplasias Classification Conference Report

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos F.; Jorgenson, Ronald J.; Wright, J. Timothy; DiGiovanna, John J.; Fete, Mary D.

    2009-01-01

    There are many ways to classify ectodermal dysplasia syndromes. Clinicians in practice use a list of syndromes from which to choose a potential diagnosis, paging through a volume, such as Freire-Maia and Pinheiro's corpus, matching their patient's findings to listed syndromes. Medical researchers may want a list of syndromes that share one (monothetic system) or several (polythetic system) traits in order to focus research on a narrowly defined group. Special interest groups may want a list from which they can choose constituencies, and insurance companies and government agencies may want a list to determine for whom to provide (or deny) health care coverage. Furthermore, various molecular biologists are now promoting classification systems based on gene mutation (e.g. TP63 associated syndromes) or common molecular pathways. The challenge will be to balance comprehensiveness within the classification with usability and accessibility so that the benefits truly serve the needs of researchers, health care providers and ultimately the individuals and families directly affected by ectodermal dysplasias. It is also recognized that a new classification approach is an ongoing process and will require periodical reviews or updates. Whatever scheme is developed, however, will have far-reaching application for other groups of disorders for which classification is complicated by the number of interested parties and advances in diagnostic acumen. Consensus among interested parties is necessary for optimizing communication among the diverse groups whether it be for equitable distribution of funds, correctness of diagnosis and treatment, or focusing research efforts. PMID:19681152

  20. Deriving statistical significance maps for SVM based image classification and group comparisons.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Population based pattern analysis and classification for quantifying structural and functional differences between diverse groups has been shown to be a powerful tool for the study of a number of diseases, and is quite commonly used especially in neuroimaging. The alternative to these pattern analysis methods, namely mass univariate methods such as voxel based analysis and all related methods, cannot detect multivariate patterns associated with group differences, and are not particularly suitable for developing individual-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. A commonly used pattern analysis tool is the support vector machine (SVM). Unlike univariate statistical frameworks for morphometry, analytical tools for statistical inference are unavailable for the SVM. In this paper, we show that null distributions ordinarily obtained by permutation tests using SVMs can be analytically approximated from the data. The analytical computation takes a small fraction of the time it takes to do an actual permutation test, thereby rendering it possible to quickly create statistical significance maps derived from SVMs. Such maps are critical for understanding imaging patterns of group differences and interpreting which anatomical regions are important in determining the classifier's decision.

  1. The International Coal Statistics Data Base user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The ICSD is a microcomputer-based system which presents four types of data: (1) the quantity of coal traded between importers and exporters, (2) the price of particular ranks of coal and the cost of shipping it in world trade, (3) a detailed look at coal shipments entering and leaving the United States, and (4) the context for world coal trade in the form of data on how coal and other primary energy sources are used now and are projected to be used in the future, especially by major industrial economies. The ICSD consists of more than 140 files organized into a rapid query system for coal data. It can operate on any IBM-compatible microcomputer with 640 kilobytes memory and a hard disk drive with at least 8 megabytes of available space. The ICSD is: 1. A menu-driven, interactive data base using Dbase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3. 2. Inputs include official and commercial statistics on international coal trade volumes and consumption. 3. Outputs include dozens of reports and color graphic displays. Output report type include Lotus worksheets, dBase data bases, ASCII text files, screen displays, and printed reports. 4. Flexible design permits user to follow structured query system or design his own queries using either Lotus or dBase procedures. 5. Incudes maintenance programs to configure the system, correct indexing errors, back-up work, restore corrupted files, annotate user-created files and update system programs, use DOS shells, and much more. Forecasts and other information derived from the ICSD are published in EIA's Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363).

  2. The Abnormal vs. Normal ECG Classification Based on Key Features and Statistical Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; Tong, Jia-Fei; Liu, Xia

    As cardiovascular diseases appear frequently in modern society, the medicine and health system should be adjusted to meet the new requirements. Chinese government has planned to establish basic community medical insurance system (BCMIS) before 2020, where remote medical service is one of core issues. Therefore, we have developed the "remote network hospital system" which includes data server and diagnosis terminal by the aid of wireless detector to sample ECG. To improve the efficiency of ECG processing, in this paper, abnormal vs. normal ECG classification approach based on key features and statistical learning is presented, and the results are analyzed. Large amount of normal ECG could be filtered by computer automatically and abnormal ECG is left to be diagnosed specially by physicians.

  3. The International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification of the International Commission on Stratigraphy: The Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification (ISSC) was born in 1955 as an effort to promote awareness of stratigraphic principles and encourage worldwide standardization of stratigraphic approaches and terminology. The first major achievement of ISSC was the 1976 publication of the International Stratigraphic Guide. It was revised in 1994, with an abridged version appearing in 1999. These documents achieved their goals magnificently: cited innumerable times and forming the core of many national stratigraphic codes. As the discipline has evolved, particularly from technological advances and ocean drilling, new tools and methodologies have been developed and these have led to ever finer resolution of geological time and ever more exact correlation of stratigraphic units and events, thereby enhancing the understanding of the genesis of the geological record. Under the leadership of M. B. Cita, ISSC embarked in 2002 on a renewed initiative to disseminate to the global geological community these newer developments, and ultimately incorporate them into a third edition of the Guide. To this aim, traditional and new branches of stratigraphy are being treated: chemostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy. An open-access review paper is dedicated to each and published in Newsletters on Stratigraphy. The next edition of the Guide will be inclusive of all branches of stratigraphy and also embrace igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is envisaged that a textbook on stratigraphy based on these papers and the revised Guide could prove a timely contribution, especially to younger generations of practitioners, and aid global communication and understanding of stratigraphic principles and methods.

  4. Learning about the internal structure of categories through classification and feature inference.

    PubMed

    Jee, Benjamin D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on category learning has found that classification tasks produce representations that are skewed toward diagnostic feature dimensions, whereas feature inference tasks lead to richer representations of within-category structure. Yet, prior studies often measure category knowledge through tasks that involve identifying only the typical features of a category. This neglects an important aspect of a category's internal structure: how typical and atypical features are distributed within a category. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that inference learning results in richer knowledge of internal category structure than classification learning. We introduced several new measures to probe learners' representations of within-category structure. Experiment 1 found that participants in the inference condition learned and used a wider range of feature dimensions than classification learners. Classification learners, however, were more sensitive to the presence of atypical features within categories. Experiment 2 provided converging evidence that classification learners were more likely to incorporate atypical features into their representations. Inference learners were less likely to encode atypical category features, even in a "partial inference" condition that focused learners' attention on the feature dimensions relevant to classification. Overall, these results are contrary to the hypothesis that inference learning produces superior knowledge of within-category structure. Although inference learning promoted representations that included a broad range of category-typical features, classification learning promoted greater sensitivity to the distribution of typical and atypical features within categories.

  5. Toward International Comparability of Survey Statistics on Visual Impairment: The DISTAB Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Gerry E.; Crews, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from recent national disability surveys in Australia, Canada, France, the Netherlands, South Africa, and the United States, an international team of researchers coded indicators of several types of disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. This article discusses the Disability Tabulations…

  6. Introduction of the World Health Organization project of the International Classification of Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng-fei; Watanabe, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    The World Health Organization plans to incorporate "traditional medicine" into the next revision of its International Classification of Diseases-Version 11 (ICD-11). If traditional medicine is included in ICD-11, it is definitely an epoch-making issue. The expected result is the International Classification of Traditional Medicine, China, Japan and Korea Version (ICTM-CJK). The intention of the ICTM project is not only beneficial for traditional medical components, but also might be beneficial for Western biomedicine. For this shared purpose, China, Japan and Korea must understand the meaning of this project and collaborate to develop it.

  7. International Student Academic Performance: Some Statistical Evidence and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yunke; Banham, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Using time series data, this study shows that domestic students' academic performance is generally better than international students' performance, but the gap is significantly narrowing as international students' performance is improving over time. The study also shows that there is no strong correlation between the percentage of international…

  8. 78 FR 9055 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... Information: Donna Pickett, Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  9. A hospital-wide clinical findings dictionary based on an extension of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

    PubMed Central

    Bréant, C.; Borst, F.; Campi, D.; Griesser, V.; Momjian, S.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a controlled vocabulary set in a hospital-wide clinical information system is of crucial importance for many departmental database systems to communicate and exchange information. In the absence of an internationally recognized clinical controlled vocabulary set, a new extension of the International statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is proposed. It expands the scope of the standard ICD beyond diagnosis and procedures to clinical terminology. In addition, the common Clinical Findings Dictionary (CFD) further records the definition of clinical entities. The construction of the vocabulary set and the CFD is incremental and manual. Tools have been implemented to facilitate the tasks of defining/maintaining/publishing dictionary versions. The design of database applications in the integrated clinical information system is driven by the CFD which is part of the Medical Questionnaire Designer tool. Several integrated clinical database applications in the field of diabetes and neuro-surgery have been developed at the HUG. Images Figure 1 PMID:10566451

  10. Statistically Optimal Approximations of Astronomical Signals: Implications to Classification and Advanced Study of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Chinarova, L. L.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Marsakova, V. I.; Tkachenko, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have elaborated a set of new algorithms and programs for advanced time series analysis of (generally) multi-component multi-channel observations with irregularly spaced times of observations, which is a common case for large photometric surveys. Previous self-review on these methods for periodogram, scalegram, wavelet, autocorrelation analysis as well as on "running" or "sub-interval" local approximations were self-reviewed in (2003ASPC..292..391A). For an approximation of the phase light curves of nearly-periodic pulsating stars, we use a Trigonometric Polynomial (TP) fit of the statistically optimal degree and initial period improvement using differential corrections (1994OAP.....7...49A). For the determination of parameters of "characteristic points" (minima, maxima, crossings of some constant value etc.) we use a set of methods self-reviewed in 2005ASPC..335...37A, Results of the analysis of the catalogs compiled using these programs are presented in 2014AASP....4....3A. For more complicated signals, we use "phenomenological approximations" with "special shapes" based on functions defined on sub-intervals rather on the complete interval. E. g. for the Algol-type stars we developed the NAV ("New Algol Variable") algorithm (2012Ap.....55..536A, 2012arXiv1212.6707A, 2015JASS...32..127A), which was compared to common methods of Trigonometric Polynomial Fit (TP) or local Algebraic Polynomial (A) fit of a fixed or (alternately) statistically optimal degree. The method allows determine the minimal set of parameters required for the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars", as well as an extended set of phenomenological and astrophysical parameters which may be used for the classification. Totally more that 1900 variable stars were studied in our group using these methods in a frame of the "Inter-Longitude Astronomy" campaign (2010OAP....23....8A) and the "Ukrainian Virtual Observatory" project (2012KPCB...28...85V).

  11. Automated classification of Permanent Scatterers time-series based on statistical characterization tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Matteo; Corsini, Alessandro; Franceschini, Silvia; Iannacone, Jean Pascal

    2013-04-01

    The application of space borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry has progressed, over the last two decades, from the pioneer use of single interferograms for analyzing changes on the earth's surface to the development of advanced multi-interferogram techniques to analyze any sort of natural phenomena which involves movements of the ground. The success of multi-interferograms techniques in the analysis of natural hazards such as landslides and subsidence is widely documented in the scientific literature and demonstrated by the consensus among the end-users. Despite the great potential of this technique, radar interpretation of slope movements is generally based on the sole analysis of average displacement velocities, while the information embraced in multi interferogram time series is often overlooked if not completely neglected. The underuse of PS time series is probably due to the detrimental effect of residual atmospheric errors, which make the PS time series characterized by erratic, irregular fluctuations often difficult to interpret, and also to the difficulty of performing a visual, supervised analysis of the time series for a large dataset. In this work is we present a procedure for automatic classification of PS time series based on a series of statistical characterization tests. The procedure allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) and retrieve for each trend a series of descriptive parameters which can be efficiently used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. The classification algorithms were developed and tested using an ENVISAT datasets available in the frame of EPRS-E project (Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing) of the Italian Ministry of Environment (track "Modena", Northern Apennines). This dataset was generated using standard processing, then the

  12. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Internal Tissue Marker. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the internal tissue marker into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the internal tissue marker's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26245004

  13. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Internal Tissue Marker. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the internal tissue marker into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the internal tissue marker's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  14. Statistical classification of macroscopic folds as cylindrical, circular conical, or elliptical conical

    SciTech Connect

    Kelker, D.; Langenberg, C.W.

    1988-08-01

    A folded surface can be represented by the orientation of normals to the surface measured at several locations. When plotted on the unit sphere, the pattern of normals determines the type of fold. Poles from a cylindrical fold give a great circle on the unit sphere, whereas poles of a circular conical fold give a small circle, and poles from an elliptical conical fold give the projection of an ellipse onto the surface of the sphere. Several statistical tests that appear in the literature for classifying folds are discussed and compared. All but one of the tests use quantities obtained from an iterative least-squares procedure that fits the appropriate curve on the sphere. The classification procedure is illustrated with folds from the Canadian Rocky Mountains and uses for examples a cylindrical fold and a circular conical fold from the Smoky River coal field near Grande Cache, Alberta, and an elliptical conical fold near Jasper, Alberta. This methodology has resulted in new coal reserves in the Grande Cache area.

  15. An improved classification of foci for carcinogenicity testing by statistical descriptors.

    PubMed

    Callegaro, Giulia; Stefanini, Federico Mattia; Colacci, Annamaria; Vaccari, Monica; Urani, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process involving genetic alterations and non-genotoxic mechanisms. The in vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) is a promising tool for both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. CTA relies on the ability of cells (e.g. BALB/c 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts) to develop a transformed phenotype after the treatment with suspected carcinogens. The classification of the transformed phenotype is based on coded morphological features, which are scored under a light microscope by trained experts. This procedure is time-consuming and somewhat prone to subjectivity. Herewith we provide a promising approach based on image analysis to support the scoring of malignant foci in BALB/c 3T3 CTA. The image analysis system is a quantitative approach, based on measuring features of malignant foci: dimension, multilayered growth, and invasivity into the surrounding monolayer of non-transformed cells. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the probability for each focus to be transformed as a function of three statistical image descriptors. The estimated sensitivity of the derived classifier (untransformed against Type III) was 0.9, with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) value equal to 0.90 under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve. PMID:26183914

  16. Statistical comparison of classifiers applied to the interferential tear film lipid layer automatic classification.

    PubMed

    Remeseiro, B; Penas, M; Mosquera, A; Novo, J; Penedo, M G; Yebra-Pimentel, E

    2012-01-01

    The tear film lipid layer is heterogeneous among the population. Its classification depends on its thickness and can be done using the interference pattern categories proposed by Guillon. The interference phenomena can be characterised as a colour texture pattern, which can be automatically classified into one of these categories. From a photography of the eye, a region of interest is detected and its low-level features are extracted, generating a feature vector that describes it, to be finally classified in one of the target categories. This paper presents an exhaustive study about the problem at hand using different texture analysis methods in three colour spaces and different machine learning algorithms. All these methods and classifiers have been tested on a dataset composed of 105 images from healthy subjects and the results have been statistically analysed. As a result, the manual process done by experts can be automated with the benefits of being faster and unaffected by subjective factors, with maximum accuracy over 95%.

  17. Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

  18. Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

    2010-10-01

    Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models.

  19. Multiple Sclerosis and Employment: A Research Review Based on the International Classification of Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frain, Michael P.; Bishop, Malachy; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Chan, Fong; Tansey, Timothy N.; Strauser, David; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable, sometimes progressive chronic illness affecting people in the prime of their working lives. This article reviews the effects of MS on employment based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Correlations between employment and…

  20. Evaluating Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Portugal's Special Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a national two-year project, commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education, to investigate the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) under Decree-Law 3/2008. The Decree-Law also introduced the principle that the documentation of students' functioning…

  1. Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Test Development and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Janet F.; Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the development and use of tests in school settings are enumerated. We predict increased demand for behavioural assessments that consider a person's activities, participation and person-environment interactions, including measures that: (a) address…

  2. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a framework for describing behaviors by viewing them from three broad and different perspectives: (1) physiologic, physical, and psychological functions; (2) a person's engagement in functional life activities; and (3) their participation in social settings. The…

  3. Using the International Classification of Functioning to Conceptualize Quality of Life among Rehabilitation Services Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Allison R.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have proposed that quality of life (QOL) is an important and useful way to measure the impact of services, although practical application of QOL in rehabilitation has been limited. In this study, a comprehensive framework (the International Classification of Functioning [ICF]) is used to compare the relationship…

  4. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  5. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Pumarola, Martí Batlle; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification of epilepsy and epileptic seizures. We propose a classification system which reflects new thoughts from the human ILAE but also roots in former well accepted terminology. We think that this classification system can be used by all stakeholders.

  6. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Pumarola, Martí Batlle; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification of epilepsy and epileptic seizures. We propose a classification system which reflects new thoughts from the human ILAE but also roots in former well accepted terminology. We think that this classification system can be used by all stakeholders. PMID:26316133

  7. From Development Comparatism to Globalization Comparativism: Towards More Normative International Education Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusso, Roser; D'Amico, Sabrina

    2005-01-01

    The comparability and quality of UNESCO's international education statistics have been questioned since the end of the 1980s, when other international agencies started producing their own indicators on education. This evolution coincides with the new strategic role given to education in national and international economic programmes, and marks the…

  8. Comprehensive Application of the International Classification of Headache Disorders Third Edition, Beta Version

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Su; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Jeong Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Park, Kwang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and usefulness of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition, beta version (ICHD-3β), and compare the differences with the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-2). Consecutive first-visit patients were recruited from 11 headache clinics in Korea. Headache classification was performed in accordance with ICHD-3β. The characteristics of headaches were analyzed and the feasibility and usefulness of this version was assessed by the proportion of unclassified headache disorders compared with ICHD-2. A total of 1,627 patients were enrolled (mean age, 47.4±14.7 yr; 62.8% female). Classification by ICHD-3β was achieved in 97.8% of headache patients, whereas 90.0% could be classified by ICHD-2. Primary headaches (n=1,429, 87.8%) were classified as follows: 697 migraines, 445 tension-type headaches, 22 cluster headaches, and 265 other primary headache disorders. Secondary headache or painful cranial neuropathies/other facial pains were diagnosed in 163 patients (10.0%). Only 2.2% were not classified by ICHD-3β. The main reasons for missing classifications were insufficient information (1.6%) or absence of suitable classification (0.6%). The diagnoses differed from those using ICHD-2 in 243 patients (14.9%). Among them, 165 patients were newly classified from unclassified with ICHD-2 because of the relaxation of the previous strict criteria or the introduction of a new diagnostic category. ICHD-3β would yield a higher classification rate than its previous version, ICHD-2. ICHD-3β is applicable in clinical practice for first-visit headache patients of a referral hospital. PMID:26770045

  9. Comprehensive Application of the International Classification of Headache Disorders Third Edition, Beta Version.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Kun; Cho, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Su; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jae-Moon; Park, Jeong Wook; Chu, Min Kyung; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Moon, Heui-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and usefulness of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition, beta version (ICHD-3β), and compare the differences with the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-2). Consecutive first-visit patients were recruited from 11 headache clinics in Korea. Headache classification was performed in accordance with ICHD-3β. The characteristics of headaches were analyzed and the feasibility and usefulness of this version was assessed by the proportion of unclassified headache disorders compared with ICHD-2. A total of 1,627 patients were enrolled (mean age, 47.4±14.7 yr; 62.8% female). Classification by ICHD-3β was achieved in 97.8% of headache patients, whereas 90.0% could be classified by ICHD-2. Primary headaches (n=1,429, 87.8%) were classified as follows: 697 migraines, 445 tension-type headaches, 22 cluster headaches, and 265 other primary headache disorders. Secondary headache or painful cranial neuropathies/other facial pains were diagnosed in 163 patients (10.0%). Only 2.2% were not classified by ICHD-3β. The main reasons for missing classifications were insufficient information (1.6%) or absence of suitable classification (0.6%). The diagnoses differed from those using ICHD-2 in 243 patients (14.9%). Among them, 165 patients were newly classified from unclassified with ICHD-2 because of the relaxation of the previous strict criteria or the introduction of a new diagnostic category. ICHD-3β would yield a higher classification rate than its previous version, ICHD-2. ICHD-3β is applicable in clinical practice for first-visit headache patients of a referral hospital.

  10. 75 FR 39265 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... for Disease Control and Prevention, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards, 3311 Toledo Road... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  11. International standards related to the classification and deregulation of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Linsley, Gordon

    2006-11-01

    Although solid radioactive waste management is mainly a national concern, there are some aspects that have international implications. One important example is the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, which results in the release of materials that could be reused and recycled. It is possible that these materials could enter international trade, especially if the material is a metal. It is clearly desirable, therefore, to have appropriate international standards to help regulate trade. This paper describes recent international developments relating to the establishment of radiological criteria for the release of materials from regulatory control (clearance). There have already been some experiences of clearance and the transfer of recycled materials within Europe, and this paper reviews that experience. It also discusses recent developments in relation to the international classification of radioactive waste. PMID:17033457

  12. Classification of premenstrual disorders as proposed by the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kadian, Suman; O'Brien, Shaughn

    2012-06-01

    Premenstrual disorders have been recognized as affecting innumerable women for decades but unlike most other medical conditions universally accepted criteria for definition and diagnosis are not established. Although premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs throughout reproductive life, there are some women who become particularly troubled. Those approaching the menopause may also have a mixture of PMS and menopause symptoms, not to mention heavy periods. Furthermore, some of the symptoms are similar in nature and so it is a challenge to identify which set of symptoms belongs to which spectrum. This is an area that has not been explored well. Various classifications have been proposed over the last few decades. A further effort towards the classification was made by an international multidisciplinary group of experts established as the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders (ISPMD) in Montreal in September 2008. Their deliberations resulted in a unified diagnosis, classification of premenstrual disorders (PMD) along with their quantification and guidelines on clinical trial design. This classification of PMS is far more comprehensive and inclusive than previous attempts. PMD in the ISPMD Montreal consensus are divided into two categories: Core and Variant PMD. Core PMD are typical, pure or reference disorders associated with spontaneous ovulatory menstrual cycles while Variant PMD exist where more complex features are present. Further, the consensus group considered that PMD may be subdivided into three subgroups predominantly physical, predominantly psychological and mixed. Variant PMD encompass primarily four different types; premenstrual exacerbation, PMD with anovulatory ovarian activity, PMD with absent menstruation and progestogen-induced PMD. PMID:22611220

  13. Classification of red wines using suitable markers coupled with multivariate statistic analysis.

    PubMed

    Geana, Elisabeta Irina; Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Dinca, Oana Romina; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Stefanescu, Ioan; Artem, Victoria; Bala, Camelia

    2016-02-01

    Methodologies for chemometric classification of five authentic red wine varieties from Murfatlar wine center, Romania, young and aged are reported. The discriminant analysis based on several anthocyanins, organic acids, (13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O and D/H isotopic ratios, (1)H and (13)C NMR fingerprints revealed a very satisfactory categorization of the wines, both in terms of variety and vintage, thus illustrating the validity of selected variables for wine authentication purposes. LDA applied to the combined data shows 85.7% classification of wines according to grape variety and 71.1% classification of wines according to vintage year, including a control wine set for each categorization, thus allowing an accurate interpretation of the data. Thereby, anthocyanins, certain anthocyanin ratios, oxalic, shikimic, lactic, citric and succinic acids, sugars like glucose, amino acids like histidine, leucine, isoleucine and alanine, and also 2,3-butanediol, methanol, glycerol and isotopic variables were significant for classification of wines.

  14. Statistical and Scientometric Analysis of International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos; Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Certain statistic and scientometric features of articles published in the journal "International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education" (IRGEE) are examined in this paper for the period 1992-2009 by applying nonparametric statistics and Shannon's entropy (diversity) formula. The main findings of this analysis are: (a) after 2004,…

  15. Application of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), Functional Health and Disability.

    PubMed

    Švestková, Olga; Sládková, Petra; Kotková, Karla

    2016-03-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a common language for different professions in the health, social, educational and vocational systems for lawyers, decision makers and politicians. It deals with how to describe health conditions, functional health and disability. It gives detailed operational definitions of different functions that constitute health. From body function and body structure to activities of daily living and participation in society. ICF has brought international consensus on definitions and provided a framework to describe public health and disability. PMID:27070974

  16. Ethics, disability and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Bickenbach, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    This article offers preliminary reflections on the potential application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) to the developing literature on disability ethics. As an epidemiologic tool--an international standard language of functioning and disability--the ICF has instrumental ethical significance as its application is governed by standard bioethical concerns of informed consent, confidentiality, and respect for persons. However, the ICF also has an intrinsic ethical significance, so far untapped, arising from three conceptual features of its model of functioning and disability, namely universalism, the interactional model, and etiologic neutrality. The future of the ethical dimension of ICF is briefly explored.

  17. High speed classification of individual bacterial cells using a model-based light scatter system and multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Rajwa, Bartek; Ragheb, Kathy; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Lary, Todd; Robinson, J. Paul; Hirleman, E. Daniel

    2008-02-01

    We describe a model-based instrument design combined with a statistical classification approach for the development and realization of high speed cell classification systems based on light scatter. In our work, angular light scatter from cells of four bacterial species of interest, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Enterococcus faecalis, was modeled using the discrete dipole approximation. We then optimized a scattering detector array design subject to some hardware constraints, configured the instrument, and gathered experimental data from the relevant bacterial cells. Using these models and experiments, it is shown that optimization using a nominal bacteria model (i.e., using a representative size and refractive index) is insufficient for classification of most bacteria in realistic applications. Hence the computational predictions were constituted in the form of scattering-data-vector distributions that accounted for expected variability in the physical properties between individual bacteria within the four species. After the detectors were optimized using the numerical results, they were used to measure scatter from both the known control samples and unknown bacterial cells. A multivariate statistical method based on a support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify the bacteria species based on light scatter signatures. In our final instrument, we realized correct classification of B. subtilis in the presence of E. coli,L. innocua, and E. faecalis using SVM at 99.1%, 99.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, in the optimal detector array configuration. For comparison, the corresponding values for another set of angles were only 69.9%, 71.7%, and 70.2% using SVM, and more importantly, this improved performance is consistent with classification predictions.

  18. The complexity and challenges of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification to International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification transition in EDs.

    PubMed

    Krive, Jacob; Patel, Mahatkumar; Gehm, Lisa; Mackey, Mark; Kulstad, Erik; Li, Jianrong John; Lussier, Yves A; Boyd, Andrew D

    2015-05-01

    Beginning October 2015, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services will require medical providers to use the vastly expanded International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) system. Despite wide availability of information and mapping tools for the next generation of the ICD classification system, some of the challenges associated with transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM are not well understood. To quantify the challenges faced by emergency physicians, we analyzed a subset of a 2010 Illinois Medicaid database of emergency department ICD-9-CM codes, seeking to determine the accuracy of existing mapping tools in order to better prepare emergency physicians for the change to the expanded ICD-10-CM system. We found that 27% of 1830 codes represented convoluted multidirectional mappings. We then analyzed the convoluted transitions and found that 8% of total visit encounters (23% of the convoluted transitions) were clinically incorrect. The ambiguity and inaccuracy of these mappings may impact the workflow associated with the translation process and affect the potential mapping between ICD codes and Current Procedural Codes, which determine physician reimbursement. PMID:25863652

  19. The brain uses adaptive internal models of scene statistics for sensorimotor estimation and planning.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh-Sang; Knill, David C

    2013-03-12

    Because of uncertainty and noise, the brain should use accurate internal models of the statistics of objects in scenes to interpret sensory signals. Moreover, the brain should adapt its internal models to the statistics within local stimulus contexts. Consider the problem of hitting a baseball. The impoverished nature of the visual information available makes it imperative that batters use knowledge of the temporal statistics and history of previous pitches to accurately estimate pitch speed. Using a laboratory analog of hitting a baseball, we tested the hypothesis that the brain uses adaptive internal models of the statistics of object speeds to plan hand movements to intercept moving objects. We fit Bayesian observer models to subjects' performance to estimate the statistical environments in which subjects' performance would be ideal and compared the estimated statistics with the true statistics of stimuli in an experiment. A first experiment showed that subjects accurately estimated and used the variance of object speeds in a stimulus set to time hitting behavior but also showed serial biases that are suboptimal for stimuli that were uncorrelated over time. A second experiment showed that the strength of the serial biases depended on the temporal correlations within a stimulus set, even when the biases were estimated from uncorrelated stimulus pairs subsampled from the larger set. Taken together, the results show that subjects adapted their internal models of the variance and covariance of object speeds within a stimulus set to plan interceptive movements but retained a bias to positive correlations.

  20. The brain uses adaptive internal models of scene statistics for sensorimotor estimation and planning.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh-Sang; Knill, David C

    2013-03-12

    Because of uncertainty and noise, the brain should use accurate internal models of the statistics of objects in scenes to interpret sensory signals. Moreover, the brain should adapt its internal models to the statistics within local stimulus contexts. Consider the problem of hitting a baseball. The impoverished nature of the visual information available makes it imperative that batters use knowledge of the temporal statistics and history of previous pitches to accurately estimate pitch speed. Using a laboratory analog of hitting a baseball, we tested the hypothesis that the brain uses adaptive internal models of the statistics of object speeds to plan hand movements to intercept moving objects. We fit Bayesian observer models to subjects' performance to estimate the statistical environments in which subjects' performance would be ideal and compared the estimated statistics with the true statistics of stimuli in an experiment. A first experiment showed that subjects accurately estimated and used the variance of object speeds in a stimulus set to time hitting behavior but also showed serial biases that are suboptimal for stimuli that were uncorrelated over time. A second experiment showed that the strength of the serial biases depended on the temporal correlations within a stimulus set, even when the biases were estimated from uncorrelated stimulus pairs subsampled from the larger set. Taken together, the results show that subjects adapted their internal models of the variance and covariance of object speeds within a stimulus set to plan interceptive movements but retained a bias to positive correlations. PMID:23440185

  1. Coping with Changes in International Classifications of Sectors and Occupations: Application in Skills Forecasting. Research Paper No 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvetan, Vladimir, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and consistent time series are essential to any kind of economic forecasting. Skills forecasting needs to combine data from national accounts and labour force surveys, with the pan-European dimension of Cedefop's skills supply and demand forecasts, relying on different international classification standards. Sectoral classification (NACE)…

  2. Using support vector machines with tract-based spatial statistics for automated classification of Tourette syndrome children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hongwei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jishui; Peng, Yun; He, Huiguang

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder with the cardinal symptoms of motor and vocal tics which emerges in early childhood and fluctuates in severity in later years. To date, the neural basis of TS is not fully understood yet and TS has a long-term prognosis that is difficult to accurately estimate. Few studies have looked at the potential of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with machine learning algorithms in order to automate the classification of healthy children and TS children. Here we apply Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) method to 44 TS children and 48 age and gender matched healthy children in order to extract the diffusion values from each voxel in the white matter (WM) skeleton, and a feature selection algorithm (ReliefF) was used to select the most salient voxels for subsequent classification with support vector machine (SVM). We use a nested cross validation to yield an unbiased assessment of the classification method and prevent overestimation. The accuracy (88.04%), sensitivity (88.64%) and specificity (87.50%) were achieved in our method as peak performance of the SVM classifier was achieved using the axial diffusion (AD) metric, demonstrating the potential of a joint TBSS and SVM pipeline for fast, objective classification of healthy and TS children. These results support that our methods may be useful for the early identification of subjects with TS, and hold promise for predicting prognosis and treatment outcome for individuals with TS.

  3. An improved k-NN method based on multiple-point statistics for classification of high-spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Jing, L.; Li, H.; Liu, Q.; Ding, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the potential of multiple-point statistics (MPS) for object-based classification is explored using a modified k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) classification method (MPk-NN). The method first utilises a training image derived from a classified map to characterise the spatial correlation between multiple points of land cover classes, overcoming the limitations of two-point geostatistical methods, and then the spatial information in the form of multiple-point probability is incorporated into the k-NN classifier. The remotely sensed image of an IKONOS subscene of the Beijing urban area was selected to evaluate the method. The image was object-based classified using the MPk-NN method and several alternatives, including the traditional k-NN, the geostatistically weighted k-NN, the Bayesian method, the decision tree classifier (DTC), and the support vector machine classifier (SVM). It was demonstrated that the MPk-NN approach can achieve greater classification accuracy relative to the alternatives, which are 82.05% and 89.12% based on pixel and object testing data, respectively. Thus, the proposed method is appropriate for object-based classification.

  4. Second International Conference on a classification of ectodermal dysplasias: development of a multiaxis model.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos F; Irvine, Alan D; Itin, Peter H; Di Giovanna, John J; Schneider, Holm; Clarke, Angus J; McGovern, Laura Sternesky; Fete, Mary

    2014-10-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) comprise a large clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by abnormalities in tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Controversy exists over which syndromes should be classified as EDs and which should be excluded from the classification. The challenge will be to balance comprehensiveness within the classification with usability and accessibility so that the benefits truly serve the needs of researchers, health-care providers, and ultimately the individuals and families directly affected by EDs. The overarching goal of the Second International Conference was to develop a consensus on EDs classifications, with the ultimate goal of creating a system that integrates clinical and molecular knowledge, using an interactive Internet-based database that clinicians, researchers, and laymen can use. The Conference, brought together a group of experts from around the world, including a diverse health-care providers, researchers, patient advocate representatives, and administrators. The Conference was modeled after the 2008 conference, with plenary sessions, scientific updates, and small group discussions. Based on the present clinical knowledge, new molecular advances and both coupled with new bioinformatics developments, the participants agree to develop a multi-axis system approach for the classification of EDs. The multi-axis approach will include a clinical/phenotype axis, a gene-based axis, and a functional/pathways axis. The significance of the conference outcomes includes, a new classification approach that will foster a better understanding of EDs, open new fields of research and develop a nosologic approach that may have broad implications for classifying other hereditary conditions.

  5. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  6. Creating Statistically Literate Global Citizens: The Use of IPUMS-International Integrated Census Microdata in Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Ann; Lam, David

    2012-01-01

    Census microdata are ideal for developing statistical literacy of university students. Access, particularly to internationally comparable microdata, has been a significant obstacle. The IPUMS-International project offers a uniform solution to providing access for policy analysts, researchers, and students to integrated microdata and metadata, while protecting statistical confidentiality. Eighty-five official statistical agencies have endorsed IPUMS-I dissemination principles and entrusted microdata for 249 censuses to the project. From June 2010, 159 integrated samples, representing 55 countries and totaling over 325 million person records, are available at no cost to researchers and their students. The database is being expanded with the addition of samples for 5–10 countries per year as well as samples for the 2010 round of censuses. This paper illustrates two approaches to using IPUMS-I census microdata in the university curriculum to promote statistical literacy among undergraduates. PMID:25279022

  7. 75 FR 6403 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Insertion of Intracranial Neurostimulator Lead(s) Internal Fixation of Sternum Intralaminar Lumbar... (diagnoses) Contact Person for Additional Information: Amy Blum, Medical Systems Specialist,...

  8. [Different headache forms of chapter 4 of the International Headache Classification].

    PubMed

    Göbel, A; Heinze, A; Göbel, H

    2012-12-01

    Chapter 4 of the International Classification of Headaches contains a group of clinically very heterogeneous primary headache forms. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these headache types and therapy is usually based on isolated case reports and uncontrolled studies. The forms include primary stabbing headache, primary cough headache, primary exertional headache, primary headache associated with sexual activity, hypnic headache, primary thunderclap headache, hemicrania continua and the new daily persistent headache. Some of these headache forms may be of a symptomatic nature and require careful examination, imaging and further tests. Primary and secondary headache forms must be carefully distinguished.

  9. International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps: A Manual of Classification Relating to the Consequences of Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The manual contains three classifications (impairments, disabilities, and handicaps), each relating to a different plane of experience consequent upon disease. Section 1 attempts to clarify the nature of health related experiences by addressing reponse to acute and chronic illness; the unifying framework for classification (principle events in the…

  10. Theoretical, statistical, and practical perspectives on pattern-based classification approaches to the analysis of functional neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Alice J; Jiang, Fang; Abdi, Hervé; Pénard, Nils; Dunlop, Joseph P; Parent, Marc A

    2007-11-01

    The goal of pattern-based classification of functional neuroimaging data is to link individual brain activation patterns to the experimental conditions experienced during the scans. These "brain-reading" analyses advance functional neuroimaging on three fronts. From a technical standpoint, pattern-based classifiers overcome fatal f laws in the status quo inferential and exploratory multivariate approaches by combining pattern-based analyses with a direct link to experimental variables. In theoretical terms, the results that emerge from pattern-based classifiers can offer insight into the nature of neural representations. This shifts the emphasis in functional neuroimaging studies away from localizing brain activity toward understanding how patterns of brain activity encode information. From a practical point of view, pattern-based classifiers are already well established and understood in many areas of cognitive science. These tools are familiar to many researchers and provide a quantitatively sound and qualitatively satisfying answer to most questions addressed in functional neuroimaging studies. Here, we examine the theoretical, statistical, and practical underpinnings of pattern-based classification approaches to functional neuroimaging analyses. Pattern-based classification analyses are well positioned to become the standard approach to analyzing functional neuroimaging data.

  11. From hemicrania lunaris to hemicrania continua: an overview of the revised International Classification of Headache Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Jonathan P; Dodick, David W

    2004-01-01

    The International Headache Society's (IHS) Classification of Headache Disorders, published in 1988, is largely responsible for stimulating the rapid scientific and therapeutic advances that have revolutionized the field of headache. By establishing consistent operational diagnostic criteria for primary and secondary headache disorders, the IHS Classification has facilitated epidemiological and genetic studies as well as the multinational clinical trials that provide the basis for our present treatment guidelines. Fifteen years after its original release, a revised 2nd edition has been unveiled. Modifications are small but significant. We hope to introduce clinicians to the salient changes in the 2nd edition by highlighting the newly included headache types, acknowledging the renamed headache types, and reviewing the modifications in diagnostic criteria for existing headache types. Physicians involved in the care of headache patients need to be aware of these changes and should continue to consult the IHS criteria to ensure accurate diagnosis, to continue to refine the diagnostic criteria, and to contribute to the body of knowledge necessary to make further advances in the classification as well as in the field of headache.

  12. 75 FR 56549 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS... topics: Contrast Dye Removal Endovascular partial occlusion of abdominal aorta Endovascular Intracranial... Pulmonary Artery Pressure Monitoring Addenda (procedures) September 16, 2010 Corticobasal...

  13. Statistical Analysis of Categorical Time Series of Atmospheric Elementary Circulation Mechanisms - Dzerdzeevski Classification for the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    Northern hemisphere elementary circulation mechanisms, defined with the Dzerdzeevski classification and published on a daily basis from 1899–2012, are analysed with statistical methods as continuous categorical time series. Classification consists of 41 elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM), which are assigned to calendar days. Empirical marginal probabilities of each ECM were determined. Seasonality and the periodicity effect were investigated with moving dispersion filters and randomisation procedure on the ECM categories as well as with the time analyses of the ECM mode. The time series were determined as being non-stationary with strong time-dependent trends. During the investigated period, periodicity interchanges with periods when no seasonality is present. In the time series structure, the strongest division is visible at the milestone of 1986, showing that the atmospheric circulation pattern reflected in the ECM has significantly changed. This change is result of the change in the frequency of ECM categories; before 1986, the appearance of ECM was more diverse, and afterwards fewer ECMs appear. The statistical approach applied to the categorical climatic time series opens up new potential insight into climate variability and change studies that have to be performed in the future. PMID:27116375

  14. [Core sets of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health].

    PubMed

    Riberto, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers a model of human functioning that integrates biomedical, social and personal aspects, and standardize the terminology that describes disabling conditions related to health. However, because of its complexity and large number of aspects to be covered, the development of practical ICF-based tools was needed. ICF core sets are collections of ICF categories that describe functioning of people with determined health conditions. They have been developed in consensus processes with multiprofessional and international representation. They can be either brief or comprehensive, according to its use by one or more professionals. Their use allows clinicians to assess aspects that are not cared about by any other evaluation tool, like environmental factors. PMID:22460498

  15. Towards an International Classification for Patient Safety: key concepts and terms

    PubMed Central

    Runciman, William; Hibbert, Peter; Thomson, Richard; Van Der Schaaf, Tjerk; Sherman, Heather; Lewalle, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the patient safety literature has been compromised by the inconsistent use of language. Objectives To identify key concepts of relevance to the International Patient Safety Classification (ICPS) proposed by the World Alliance For Patient Safety of the World Health Organization (WHO), and agree on definitions and preferred terms. Methods Six principles were agreed upon—that the concepts and terms should: be applicable across the full spectrum of healthcare; be consistent with concepts from other WHO Classifications; have meanings as close as possible to those in colloquial use; convey the appropriate meanings with respect to patient safety; be brief and clear, without unnecessary or redundant qualifiers; be fit-for-purpose for the ICPS. Results Definitions and preferred terms were agreed for 48 concepts of relevance to the ICPS; these were described and the relationships between them and the ICPS were outlined. Conclusions The consistent use of key concepts, definitions and preferred terms should pave the way for better understanding, for comparisons between facilities and jurisdictions, and for trends to be tracked over time. Changes and improvements, translation into other languages and alignment with other sets of patient safety definitions will be necessary. This work represents the start of an ongoing process of progressively improving a common international understanding of terms and concepts relevant to patient safety. PMID:19147597

  16. Disability, human rights, and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aluas, Maria; Colombetti, Elena; Osimani, Barbara; Musio, Alessio; Pessina, Adriano

    2012-02-01

    This literature review focuses on the literature on disability from the ethical and human rights perspective in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in the period from January 1, 2008, to June 30, 2010. This article identifies and examines studies that deal with the subject of disability with reference to rights, ethical issues, and justice. A total of 42 articles and 33 books were selected. The subject most frequently dealt with in studies on disability is that of human rights (76% of the articles and 79% of the books examined), followed by topics relating to welfare (52% of articles and 64% of books), International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (38% of articles and 45% of books), justice (24% of articles and 48% of books), education (21% of articles and 61% of books), and work (19% of articles and 39% of books). The subject of disability is dealt with in various fields of study and various disciplines. Most of the studies are based on the legal approach. It is to be hoped that there will be an increase in the philosophical and ethical study of disability, which has only recently entered the European debate.

  17. Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  18. Asymmetric statistical features of the Chinese domestic and international gold price fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Zhao, Yingchao; Han, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Analyzing the statistical features of fluctuation is remarkably significant for financial risk identification and measurement. In this study, the asymmetric detrended fluctuation analysis (A-DFA) method was applied to evaluate asymmetric multifractal scaling behaviors in the Shanghai and New York gold markets. Our findings showed that the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold spot markets were asymmetric. The gold return series persisted longer in an increasing trend than in a decreasing trend. Moreover, the asymmetric degree of multifractals in the Chinese and international gold markets decreased with the increase in fluctuation range. In addition, the empirical analysis using sliding window technology indicated that multifractal asymmetry in the Chinese and international gold markets was characterized by its time-varying feature. However, the Shanghai and international gold markets basically shared a similar asymmetric degree evolution pattern. The American subprime mortgage crisis (2008) and the European debt crisis (2010) enhanced the asymmetric degree of the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold markets. Furthermore, we also make statistical tests for the results of multifractatity and asymmetry, and discuss the origin of them. Finally, results of the empirical analysis using the threshold autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (TARCH) and exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) models exhibited that good news had a more significant effect on the cyclical fluctuation of the gold market than bad news. Moreover, good news exerted a more significant effect on the Chinese gold market than on the international gold market.

  19. Statistical inference for classification of RRIM clone series using near IR reflectance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Faridatul Aima; Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Hashim, Hadzli; Abdullah, Noor Ezan; Khairuzzaman, Noor Aishah; Azmi, Azrie Faris Mohd; Sampian, Ahmad Faiz Mohd; Harun, Muhammad Hafiz

    2015-08-01

    RRIM clone is a rubber breeding series produced by RRIM (Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia) through "rubber breeding program" to improve latex yield and producing clones attractive to farmers. The objective of this work is to analyse measurement of optical sensing device on latex of selected clone series. The device using transmitting NIR properties and its reflectance is converted in terms of voltage. The obtained reflectance index value via voltage was analyzed using statistical technique in order to find out the discrimination among the clones. From the statistical results using error plots and one-way ANOVA test, there is an overwhelming evidence showing discrimination of RRIM 2002, RRIM 2007 and RRIM 3001 clone series with p value = 0.000. RRIM 2008 cannot be discriminated with RRIM 2014; however both of these groups are distinct from the other clones.

  20. Classification of the biological material with use of FTIR spectroscopy and statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombalska, Aneta; Mularczyk-Oliwa, Monika; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Włodarski, Maksymilian; Kaliszewski, Miron; Kopczyński, Krzysztof; Szpakowska, Małgorzata; Trafny, Elżbieta A.

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection and discrimination of dangerous biological materials such as bacteria and their spores has become a security aim of considerable importance. Various analytical methods, including FTIR spectroscopy combined with statistical analysis have been used to identify vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores and background interferants. The present work discusses the application of FTIR technique performed in reflectance mode using Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflectance accessory (HATR) to the discrimination of biological materials. In comparison with transmission technique the HATR is more rapid and do not require the sample destruction, simultaneously giving similar absorbance bands. HATR-FTIR results combined with statistical analysis PCA and HCA demonstrate that this combination provides novel and accurate microbial identification technique.

  1. On exact statistics and classification of ergodic systems of integer dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Guralnik, Zachary Guralnik, Gerald; Pehlevan, Cengiz

    2014-06-01

    We describe classes of ergodic dynamical systems for which some statistical properties are known exactly. These systems have integer dimension, are not globally dissipative, and are defined by a probability density and a two-form. This definition generalizes the construction of Hamiltonian systems by a Hamiltonian and a symplectic form. Some low dimensional examples are given, as well as a discretized field theory with a large number of degrees of freedom and a local nearest neighbor interaction. We also evaluate unequal-time correlations of these systems without direct numerical simulation, by Padé approximants of a short-time expansion. We briefly speculate on the possibility of constructing chaotic dynamical systems with non-integer dimension and exactly known statistics. In this case there is no probability density, suggesting an alternative construction in terms of a Hopf characteristic function and a two-form.

  2. Test performance and classification statistics for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in selected clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Dawson, Kyra A; Duff, Kevin; Patton, Doyle; Scott, James G; Adams, Russell L

    2006-10-01

    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT; Rey, A. (1941). L'examen psychologique dans les cas d'encéphalopathie traumatique. Archives de Psychologie, 28, 21] is a commonly used neuropsychological measure that assesses verbal learning and memory. Normative data have been compiled [Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services]. When assessing an individual suspected of neurological dysfunction, useful comparisons include the extent that the patient deviates from healthy peers and also how closely the subject's performance matches those with known brain injury. This study provides the means and S.D.'s of 392 individuals with documented neurological dysfunction [closed head TBI (n=68), neoplasms (n=57), stroke (n=47), Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (n=158), and presurgical epilepsy left seizure focus (n=28), presurgical epilepsy right seizure focus (n=34)] and 122 patients with no known neurological dysfunction and psychiatric complaints. Patients were stratified into three age groups, 16-35, 36-59, and 60-88. Data were provided for trials I-V, List B, immediate recall, 30-min delayed recall, and recognition. Classification characteristics of the RAVLT using [Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] meta-norms found the RAVLT to best distinguish patients suspected of Alzheimer's disease from the psychiatric comparison group. PMID:16987634

  3. Statistical Potentials for Hairpin and Internal Loops Improve the Accuracy of the Predicted RNA Structure

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, David P.; Ren, Pengyu; Ozer, Stuart; Gutell, Robin R.

    2011-01-01

    RNA is directly associated with a growing number of functions within the cell. The accurate prediction of different RNAs higher-order structure from their nucleic acid sequences will provide insight into their functions and molecular mechanics. We have been determining statistical potentials for a collection of structural elements that is larger than the number of structural elements determined with experimentally determined energy values. The experimentally derived free-energies and the statistical potentials for canonical base pair stacks are analogous, demonstrating that statistical potentials derived from comparative data can be used as an alternative energetic parameter. A new computational infrastructure - RNA Comparative Analysis Database (rCAD) - that utilizes a relational database was developed to manipulate and analyze very large sequence alignments and secondary structure datasets. Using rCAD, a richer set of energetic parameters for RNA fundamental structural elements including hairpin and internal loops was determined. A new version of RNAfold was developed to utilize these statistical potentials. Overall, these new statistical potentials for hairpin and internal loops integrated into the new version of RNAfold demonstrated significant improvements in the prediction accuracy of RNA secondary structure. PMID:21889515

  4. Statistical simulation of internal energy exchange in shock waves using explicit transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Erik; Magin, Thierry

    2012-11-01

    A statistical model originally developed for electronic-translational energy transfer in atoms having multiple electronic states (Anderson et al, RGD15, 1986) is applied to the study of internal energy exchange in a polyatomic gas. The model is well-suited for gas kinetic simulations, because it provides an explicit expression for the transition probabilities between internal energy levels. All molecules possessing a given internal energy level are treated as a separate chemical species and all collisions involving exchange of internal energy thus become pseudo-chemical reactions. Post-collision energy levels of the two partners are determined by conserving the total energy of the collision pair and taking into account detailed balance. In the present work, DSMC simulations of relaxation in a stationary gas are performed and compared to those obtained by Anderson et al. Additionally, we apply the model to the simulation of rotational relaxation behind a normal shock wave.

  5. Classification of bladder cancer cell lines using Raman spectroscopy: a comparison of excitation wavelength, sample substrate and statistical algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Adams, Aine; O'Dea, Shirley; Domijan, Katarina; Cullen, Ivor; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Raman microspectroscopy can be applied to the urinary bladder for highly accurate classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. This technique can be applied in vitro to bladder epithelial cells obtained from urine cytology or in vivo as an optical biopsy" to provide results in real-time with higher sensitivity and specificity than current clinical methods. However, there exists a high degree of variability across experimental parameters which need to be standardised before this technique can be utilized in an everyday clinical environment. In this study, we investigate different laser wavelengths (473 nm and 532 nm), sample substrates (glass, fused silica and calcium fluoride) and multivariate statistical methods in order to gain insight into how these various experimental parameters impact on the sensitivity and specificity of Raman cytology.

  6. Revisiting Desensitization and Allergen Immunotherapy Concepts for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Calderon, Moises A; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Rosenwasser, Lanny J; Bousquet, Jean; Pawankar, Ruby; Sisul, Juan Carlos; Cepeda, Alfonso Mario; Li, James; Muraro, Antonella; Fineman, Stanley; Sublett, James L; Katelaris, Constance H; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Hee-Bom; Casale, Thomas; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Allergy and hypersensitivity intervention management procedures, such as desensitization and/or tolerance induction and immunotherapy, have not been pondered up to now in the content of International Classification of Diseases (ICD) context because the focus has been on prioritizing the condition implementations. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to implementing allergic and hypersensitivity conditions in the forthcoming ICD-11. However, we consider that it is crucial now to have nomenclature and classification universally accepted for these procedures to be able to provide scientifically consistent proposals into the new ICD-11 platform for the best practice parameters of our specialty. With the aim of promoting a harmonized comprehension and aligning it with the ICD-11 revision, we have reviewed the definitions and concepts currently used for desensitization and/or tolerance induction and immunotherapy. We strongly believe that this review is a key instrument to support the allergy specialty identity into the ICD-11 framework and serves as a platform to perform positive quality improvement in clinical practice. PMID:26969269

  7. [International Classification of Mental Health Care (ICMHC)--description and application].

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Patryk; Ciałkowska, Magdalena; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decades the interest in evaluating mental health care has greatly increased, in particular with regard to the possibilities to evaluate the health care process. It is connected with three processes: decentralization of psychiatric services, increasing significance of the treatment within the community and evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of mental health care programmes. There is a lack of tools to describe the process of providing mental health care. One of these tools is The International Classification of Mental Health Care (ICMHC) which has been elaborated by A. de Jong. The ICMHC is designed to give a description and classification of procedures and interventions delivered within mental health facilities. The ICMHC introduces the term of a module of care. It is an organizational or functional unit, which provides mental health care or psychosocial rehabilitation. The package of available care needs within the module of care can be described with ten modalities of care. The modality of care is a category including all interventions covering together mental health care in that facility. The ICMHC is a questionnaire used to assess the therapeutic process within the EDEN project in Poland, which was founded by the EC in 2000-2003. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the tool in Poland is still inconsiderable.

  8. Calibration of back-analysed model parameters for landslides using classification statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Jose; Henderson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Back-analyses are useful for characterizing the geomorphological and mechanical processes and parameters involved in the initiation and propagation of landslides. These processes and parameters can in turn be used for improving forecasts of scenarios and hazard assessments in areas or sites which have similar settings to the back-analysed cases. The selection of the modeled landslide that produces the best agreement with the actual observations requires running a number of simulations by varying the type of model and the sets of input parameters. The comparison of the simulated and observed parameters is normally performed by visual comparison of geomorphological or dynamic variables (e.g., geometry of scarp and final deposit, maximum velocities and depths). Over the past six years, a method developed by NGI has been used by some researchers for a more objective selection of back-analysed input model parameters. That method includes an adaptation of the equations for calculation of classifiers, and a comparative evaluation of classifiers of the selected parameter sets in the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) space. This contribution presents an updating of the methodology. The proposed procedure allows comparisons between two or more "clouds" of classifiers. Each cloud represents the performance of a model over a range of input parameters (e.g., samples of probability distributions). Considering the fact that each cloud does not necessarily produce a full ROC curve, two new normalised ROC-space parameters are introduced for characterizing the performance of each cloud. The first parameter is representative of the cloud position relative to the point of perfect classification. The second parameter characterizes the position of the cloud relative to the theoretically perfect ROC curve and the no-discrimination line. The methodology is illustrated with back-analyses of slope stability and landslide runout of selected case studies. This research activity has been

  9. Statistical characterization of air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse Observatory: Classification of air ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hõrrak, U.; Salm, J.; Tammet, H.

    2000-04-01

    A database of 8615 hourly averaged air ion mobility spectra in the range of 0.00041-3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 was measured at Tahkuse Observatory, Estonia, during 14 months in 1993-1994. The average mobility spectrum over the whole period shows distinct peaks of small and large ions. Intermediate ions with mobilities of 0.034-0.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 are of low concentration of about 50 cm-3 in the average spectrum. They experience occasional bursts of up to about 900 cm-3 during 6-10 hours at daytime. The number of burst events recorded during 14 months was 101, with maximum frequency in spring and minimum frequency in winter. Physically, large and intermediate ions can be called aerosol ions, and small ions can be called cluster ions. The principal component analysis was applied to detect the structure of an air ion mobility spectrum. As a result, the mobility spectrum in the range of 0.00041-3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 (diameters of 0.36-79 nm) was divided into five classes: small cluster, big cluster, intermediate, light large, and heavy large ions. The boundaries between the classes are 1.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 (diameter of 0.85 nm), 0.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 (1.6 nm), 0.034 cm2 V-1 s-1 (7.4 nm), and 0.0042 cm2 V-1 s-1 (22 nm). The five principal components that are closely correlated with the respective ion classes explain 92% of total variance. The classification of aerosol ions is in accord with the three-modal structure of the size spectrum of submicron aerosol particles.

  10. International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps: A Manual of Classification Relating to the Consequences of Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This classification system is intended to offer a conceptual framework for information; the framework is relevant to the long-term consequences of disease, injuries or disorders, and applicable both to personal health care, including early identification and prevention, and to the mitigation of environmental and societal barriers. It begins with…

  11. Forensic classification of counterfeit banknote paper by X-ray fluorescence and multivariate statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongling; Yin, Baohua; Zhang, Jie; Quan, Yangke; Shi, Gaojun

    2016-09-01

    Counterfeiting of banknotes is a crime and seriously harmful to economy. Examination of the paper, ink and toners used to make counterfeit banknotes can provide useful information to classify and link different cases in which the suspects use the same raw materials. In this paper, 21 paper samples of counterfeit banknotes seized from 13 cases were analyzed by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. After measuring the elemental composition in paper semi-quantitatively, the normalized weight percentage data of 10 elements were processed by multivariate statistical methods of cluster analysis and principle component analysis. All these paper samples were mainly classified into 3 groups. Nine separate cases were successfully linked. It is demonstrated that elemental composition measured by XRF is a useful way to compare and classify papers used in different cases. PMID:27342345

  12. Water Polo Game-Related Statistics in Women’s International Championships: Differences and Discriminatory Power

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Yolanda; Saavedra, Jose M.; Tella, Victor; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dominguez, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare women’s water polo game-related statistics by match outcome (winning and losing teams) and phase (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal), and (ii) identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 124 women’s matches played in five International Championships (World and European Championships) were analyzed. Differences between winning and losing teams in each phase were determined using the chi-squared. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to context in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables were both offensive (centre goals, power-play goals, counterattack goal, assists, offensive fouls, steals, blocked shots, and won sprints) and defensive (goalkeeper-blocked shots, goalkeeper-blocked inferiority shots, and goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots). The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases: preliminary, classificatory, and final phases (92%, 90%, and 83%, respectively). Two variables were discriminatory by match outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three phases: goals and goalkeeper-blocked shots. Key pointsThe preliminary phase that more than one variable was involved in this differentiation, including both offensive and defensive aspects of the game.The game-related statistics were found to have a high discriminatory power in predicting the result of matches with shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots being discriminatory variables in all three phases.Knowledge of the characteristics of women’s water polo game-related statistics of the winning teams and their power to predict match outcomes will allow coaches to take these characteristics into account when planning training and match preparation. PMID

  13. Statistical separability and classification of land use classes using image-100. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Kumar, R.; Niero, M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The statistical separability of land use classes in the subsets of one to four spectral channels was investigated. Using ground observations and aerial photography, the MSS data of LANDSAT were analyzed with the Image-100. In the subsets of one to three spectral channels, channel 4, channel 4 & 7, and channels 4, 5, & 7 were found to be the best choices (ch.4 - 0.5 to 0.6 microns, ch. 5 - 0.6 to 0.7 microns, ch. 6 - 0.7 to 0.8 microns, and ch. 7 - 0.8 to 1.1 microns). For the single cell option of the Image-100, the errors of omission varied from 5% for the industrial class to 46% for the institutional class. The errors of commission varied from 11% for the commercial class to 39% for the industrial class. On the whole, the sample classifier gave considerably more accurate results compared to the single cell or multicell option.

  14. Biological meaning, statistical significance, and classification of local spatial similarities in nonhomologous proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, N. N.; Go, N.

    1994-01-01

    We have completed an exhaustive search for the common spatial arrangements of backbone fragments (SARFs) in nonhomologous proteins. This type of local structural similarity, incorporating short fragments of backbone atoms, arranged not necessarily in the same order along the polypeptide chain, appears to be important for protein function and stability. To estimate the statistical significance of the similarities, we have introduced a similarity score. We present several locally similar structures, with a large similarity score, which have not yet been reported. On the basis of the results of pairwise comparison, we have performed hierarchical cluster analysis of protein structures. Our analysis is not limited by comparison of single chains but also includes complex molecules consisting of several subunits. The SARFs with backbone fragments from different polypeptide chains provide a stable interaction between subunits in protein molecules. In many cases the active site of enzyme is located at the same position relative to the common SARFs, implying a function of the certain SARFs as a universal interface of the protein-substrate interaction. PMID:8069217

  15. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of cervical tissues: classification by different statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Vengadesan, Nammalver; Anbupalam, Thalaimuthu; Hemamalini, Srinivasan; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Karkuzhali, P.

    2002-05-01

    Optical Spectroscopy in the diagnosis of diseases has attracted the medical community due to their minimally invasive nature. Among various optical spectroscopic techniques, native fluorescence spectroscopy has emerged as a potential tool in diagnostic oncology. However, still the reasons for the altered spectral signatures between normal and cancer tissues not yet completely understood. Recently, data reported that emission due to the alteration of some proteins is responsible for the transformation of normal in to malignant one. In this regard, the present study is aimed to characterize the native fluorescence spectroscopy of abnormal and normal cervical tissues, at 280nm excitation. From the study, it is observed that the normal and pathologically diseased cervical tissues have their peak emission around 339 and 336nm respectively with a secondary peak around 440nm. The FWHM value of emission spectra of abnormal tissues is lower than that of normal tissues. The fluorescence spectra of normal and various pathological conditions of cancerous tissues were analyzed by various empirical and statistical methods. Among various type of discriminant analysis, combination of ratio values and linear discrimination method provides better discrimination of normal from pre-malignant and malignant tissues.

  16. Robust classification of motor imagery EEG signals using statistical time-domain features.

    PubMed

    Khorshidtalab, A; Salami, M J E; Hamedi, M

    2013-11-01

    The tradeoff between computational complexity and speed, in addition to growing demands for real-time BMI (brain-machine interface) systems, expose the necessity of applying methods with least possible complexity. Willison amplitude (WAMP) and slope sign change (SSC) are two promising time-domain features only if the right threshold value is defined for them. To overcome the drawback of going through trial and error for the determination of a suitable threshold value, modified WAMP and modified SSC are proposed in this paper. Besides, a comprehensive assessment of statistical time-domain features in which their effectiveness is evaluated with a support vector machine (SVM) is presented. To ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by the SVM, the performance of each feature is reassessed with supervised fuzzy C-means. The general assessment shows that every subject had at least one of his performances near or greater than 80%. The obtained results prove that for BMI applications, in which a few errors can be tolerated, these combinations of feature-classifier are suitable. Moreover, features that could perform satisfactorily were selected for feature combination. Combinations of the selected features are evaluated with the SVM, and they could significantly improve the results, in some cases, up to full accuracy. PMID:24152422

  17. Conformational Statistics of Semi-Flexible Macromolecular Chains with Internal Joints

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in the bending angles at internal irregularities of DNA and RNA (such as symmetric loops, bulges, and nicks/gaps) have been observed from various experiments. However, little effort has been made to computationally predict and explain the statistical behavior of semi-flexible chains with internal defects. In this paper, we describe the general structure of these macromolecular chains as inextensible elastic chains with one or more internal joints which have limited ranges of rotation, and propose a method to compute the probability density functions of the end-to-end pose of these macromolecular chains. Our method takes advantage of the operational properties of the non-commutative Fourier transform for the group of rigid-body motions in three-dimensional space, SE(3). Two representative types of joints, the hinge for planar rotation and the ball joint for spatial rotation, are discussed in detail. The proposed method applies to various stiffness models of semi-flexible chain-like macromolecules. Examples are calculated using the Kratky-Porod model with specified stiffness, angular fluctuation, and joint locations. Entropic effects associated with internal angular fluctuations of semi-flexible macromolecular chains with internal joints can be computed using this formulation. Our method also provides a potential tool to detect the existence of internal irregularities. PMID:21243113

  18. Monitoring the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: data and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper approaches the general issue of the complex challenges in the relationship between those who generate data -- researchers, scientists, and state statistical offices -- and those who use data -- researchers and policy-makers -- in light of the more specific policy challenges created by the monitoring requirement of the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD: Article 33). International Conventions and Treaties standardly suffer from being persistently ineffectual primarily because of the absence of implementation mechanisms. The CRPD, by contrast, explicitly requires State Parties who have ratified it to institute data generation and monitoring mechanisms for its implementation. This paper argues that WHO’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be brought into the service of the CRPD data generation and monitoring mandate, both in the shaping of relevant data streams and in the creation of relevant indicators, and concludes by reviewing the challenges that remain. PMID:21624194

  19. Development of consensus International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core sets for lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Viehoff, P B; Heerkens, Y F; Van Ravensberg, C D; Hidding, J; Damstra, R J; Ten Napel, H; Neumann, H A M

    2015-03-01

    To understand the challenges of patients with lymphedema it is important to describe functioning and to measure the effectiveness of treatment in changing functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers an international framework to classify functioning of persons in their personal environment. ICF Core Sets are lists of selected ICF categories concerning those important aspects of functioning that are most likely to be affected by a specific health problem or disease. These Core Sets make it easier and faster to describe and communicate the patient's problems and to define treatment goals. Furthermore, they are available to health care providers of all professions, researchers, health insurance companies and policy-makers. The objective of this document is to present the outcomes of a consensus conference held to determine the first versions of the ICF Core Sets for lymphedema. Frequency rankings were made of the ICF categories derived from four preparatory studies, being: a) a systematic review; b) a qualitative study; c) an expert survey; and d) a cross-sectional study. By means of working group discussions and plenary sessions, a final consensus on ICF categories was achieved and Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets for lymphedema for the upper limb, lower limb, and midline lymphedema were defined. These ICF Core Sets contain different items in each region. Future validation of these Core Sets for health professions and for countries is needed.

  20. Utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Educational Psychologists' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah

    2014-01-01

    Despite embracing a bio-psycho-social perspective, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assessment framework has had limited application to date with children who have special educational needs (SEN). This study examines its utility for educational psychologists' work…

  1. Assessment of Patients with Intellectual Disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Evaluate Dental Treatment Tolerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, S.; Kita, F.; Miyawaki, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Ishida, R.; Egusa, M.; Shimada, M.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with serious intellectual disability (ID) are occasionally unable to tolerate dental treatment when intravenous sedation or general anaesthesia (IVSGA) is involved. In order to make a decision regarding the application of IVSGA, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is useful. Therefore, in this…

  2. Classification of regimes of internal solitary waves transformation over a shelf-slope topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Talipova, Tatiana; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2015-04-01

    The internal waves shoal and dissipate as they cross abrupt changes of the topography in the coastal ocean, estuaries and in the enclosed water bodies. They can form near the coast internal bores propagating into the shallows and re-suspend seabed pollutants that may have serious ecological consequences. Internal solitary waves (ISW) with trapped core can transport masses of water and marine organisms for some distance. The transport of cold, low-oxygen waters results in nutrient pumping. These facts require development of classification of regimes of the ISWs transformation over a shelf-slope topography to recognize 'hot spots' of wave energy dissipation on the continental shelf. A new classification of regimes of internal solitary wave interaction with the shelf-slope topography in the framework of two-layer fluid is proposed. We introduce a new three-dimensional diagram based on parameters α ,β , γ. Here α is the nondimensional wave amplitude normalized on the thermocline thickness α = ain/h1 (α > 0), β is the blocking parameter introduced in (Talipova et al., 2013) that is the ratio of the height of the bottom layer on the the shelf step h2+ to the incident wave amplitude ain, β = h2+/ain (β > -3), and γ is the parameter inverse to the slope inclination (γ > 0.01). Two mechanisms are important during wave shoaling: (i) wave breaking resulting in mixing and (ii) changing of the polarity of the initial wave of depression on the slope. Range of the parameters at which wave breaking occurs can be defined using the criteria, obtained empirically (Vlasenko and Hutter, 2002). In the three-dimensional diagram this criteria is represented by the surface f1(β,γ) = 0 that separates the region of parameters where breaking takes place from the region without breaking. The polarity change surface f2(α,β) = 0 is obtained from the condition of equality of the depth of upper layer h1 to the depth of the lower layer h2. In the two-layer stratification waves of

  3. [Functioning and disability: the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)].

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Fidalgo, María; Geoffrey, Reed; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has provided a new foundation for our understanding of health, functioning, and disability. It covers most of the health and health-related domains that make up the human experience, and the most environmental factors that influence that experience of functioning and disability. With the exhaustive ICF, patients' functioning -including its components body functions and structures and activities and participation-, becomes a central perspective in medicine. To implement the ICF in medicine and other fields, practical tools (= ICF Core Sets) have been developed. They are selected sets of categories out of the whole classification which serve as minimal standards for the assessment and reporting of functioning and health for clinical studies and clinical encounters (Brief ICF Core Set) or as standards for multiprofessional comprehensive assessment (Comprehensive ICF Core Set). Different from generic and condition-specific health-status measures, the ICF Core Sets include important body functions and structures and contextual factors. The use of the ICF Core Sets provides an important step towards improved communications between healthcare providers and professionals, and will enable patients and their families to understand and communicate with health professionals about their functioning and treatment goals. Specific applications include multi- and interdisciplinary assessment in clinical settings and in legal expert evaluations and use in disease or functioning-management programs. The ICF has also a potential as a conceptual framework to clarify an interrelated universe of health-related concepts which can be elucidated based on the ICF and therefore will be an ideal tool for teaching students in all medical fields and may open doors to multi-professional learning. PMID:20111826

  4. Internal Representations of Temporal Statistics and Feedback Calibrate Motor-Sensory Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Luigi; Wolpert, Daniel M.; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been shown to adapt to the temporal statistics of timing tasks so as to optimize the accuracy of their responses, in agreement with the predictions of Bayesian integration. This suggests that they build an internal representation of both the experimentally imposed distribution of time intervals (the prior) and of the error (the loss function). The responses of a Bayesian ideal observer depend crucially on these internal representations, which have only been previously studied for simple distributions. To study the nature of these representations we asked subjects to reproduce time intervals drawn from underlying temporal distributions of varying complexity, from uniform to highly skewed or bimodal while also varying the error mapping that determined the performance feedback. Interval reproduction times were affected by both the distribution and feedback, in good agreement with a performance-optimizing Bayesian observer and actor model. Bayesian model comparison highlighted that subjects were integrating the provided feedback and represented the experimental distribution with a smoothed approximation. A nonparametric reconstruction of the subjective priors from the data shows that they are generally in agreement with the true distributions up to third-order moments, but with systematically heavier tails. In particular, higher-order statistical features (kurtosis, multimodality) seem much harder to acquire. Our findings suggest that humans have only minor constraints on learning lower-order statistical properties of unimodal (including peaked and skewed) distributions of time intervals under the guidance of corrective feedback, and that their behavior is well explained by Bayesian decision theory. PMID:23209386

  5. Towards an international pediatric liver tumor consensus classification: proceedings of the Los Angeles COG liver tumors symposium.

    PubMed

    López-Terrada, Dolores; Alaggio, Rita; de Dávila, Maria T; Czauderna, Piotr; Hiyama, Eiso; Katzenstein, Howard; Leuschner, Ivo; Malogolowkin, Marcio; Meyers, Rebecka; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Tanaka, Yukichi; Tomlinson, Gail; Fabrè, Monique; Zimmermann, Arthur; Finegold, Milton J

    2014-03-01

    Liver tumors are rare in children, and their diagnoses may be challenging particularly because of the lack of a current consensus classification system. Systematic central histopathological review of these tumors performed as part of the pediatric collaborative therapeutic protocols has allowed the identification of histologic subtypes with distinct clinical associations. As a result, histopathology has been incorporated within the Children's Oncology Group (COG) protocols, and only in the United States, as a risk-stratification parameter and for patient management. Therefore, the COG Liver Tumor Committee sponsored an International Pathology Symposium in March 2011 to discuss the histopathology and classification of pediatric liver tumors, and hepatoblastoma in particular, and work towards an International Pediatric Liver Tumors Consensus Classification that would be required for international collaborative projects. Twenty-two pathologists and experts in pediatric liver tumors, including those serving as central reviewers for the COG, European Société Internationale d'Oncologie Pédiatrique, Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie, and Japanese Study Group for Pediatric Liver Tumors protocols, as well as pediatric oncologists and surgeons specialized in this field, reviewed more than 50 pediatric liver tumor cases and discussed classic and newly reported entities, as well as criteria for their classification. This symposium represented the first collaborative step to develop a classification that may lead to a common treatment-stratification system incorporating tumor histopathology. A standardized, clinically meaningful classification will also be necessary to allow the integration of new biological parameters and to move towards clinical algorithms based on patient characteristics and tumor genetics, which should improve future patient management and outcome. PMID:24008558

  6. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  7. Understanding of Statistical Terms Routinely Used in Meta-Analyses: An International Survey among Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Mavros, Michael N.; Alexiou, Vangelis G.; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z.; Falagas, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Biomedical literature is increasingly enriched with literature reviews and meta-analyses. We sought to assess the understanding of statistical terms routinely used in such studies, among researchers. Methods An online survey posing 4 clinically-oriented multiple-choice questions was conducted in an international sample of randomly selected corresponding authors of articles indexed by PubMed. Results A total of 315 unique complete forms were analyzed (participation rate 39.4%), mostly from Europe (48%), North America (31%), and Asia/Pacific (17%). Only 10.5% of the participants answered correctly all 4 “interpretation” questions while 9.2% answered all questions incorrectly. Regarding each question, 51.1%, 71.4%, and 40.6% of the participants correctly interpreted statistical significance of a given odds ratio, risk ratio, and weighted mean difference with 95% confidence intervals respectively, while 43.5% correctly replied that no statistical model can adjust for clinical heterogeneity. Clinicians had more correct answers than non-clinicians (mean score ± standard deviation: 2.27±1.06 versus 1.83±1.14, p<0.001); among clinicians, there was a trend towards a higher score in medical specialists (2.37±1.07 versus 2.04±1.04, p = 0.06) and a lower score in clinical laboratory specialists (1.7±0.95 versus 2.3±1.06, p = 0.08). No association was observed between the respondents' region or questionnaire completion time and participants' score. Conclusion A considerable proportion of researchers, randomly selected from a diverse international sample of biomedical scientists, misinterpreted statistical terms commonly reported in meta-analyses. Authors could be prompted to explicitly interpret their findings to prevent misunderstandings and readers are encouraged to keep up with basic biostatistics. PMID:23326299

  8. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Catalyst for interprofessional education and collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Snyman, Stefanus; Von Pressentin, Klaus B; Clarke, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centred and community-based care is required for promotion of health equity. To enhance patient-centred interprofessional care, the World Health Organization recommends using the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Stellenbosch University's Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice (IPECP) strategy has promoted using ICF since 2010. Undergraduate medical students on rural clinical placements are expected to use ICF in approaching and managing patients. Students' ability to develop interprofessional care plans using ICF is assessed by a team of preceptors representing various health professions. This study explored the experiences of medical students and their preceptors using ICF in IPECP, and how patients perceived care received. Associative Group Analysis methodology was used to collect data for this study. In total, 68 study participants were enrolled of which 37 were medical students, 16 preceptors and 15 patients. Students found ICF enabled a patient-centred approach and reinforce the importance of context. Patients felt listened to and cared for. Preceptors, obliged to use ICF, came to appreciate the advantages of interprofessional care, promoting mutually beneficial teamwork and job satisfaction. The value of integrating IPECP as an authentic learning experience was demonstrated as was ICF as a catalyst in pushing boundaries for change.

  9. Adolescents with Hearing Loss and the International Classification of Functioning, Health, and Disability: Children & Youth Version.

    PubMed

    English, Kris; Pajevic, Emily

    2016-08-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization published a set of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) codes designed for children and youth (ICF-CY version). The ICF-CY considers typical developmental changes associated with childhood while describing health status and the effects of intervention. In this article we will describe how a specific intervention (transition planning for adolescents) can be documented with the ICF-CY. Transition planning in health care prepares adolescents and their families for the transfer from pediatric to adult health services and has been demonstrated to be an effective practice for adolescents with many types of chronic health conditions (e.g., cystic fibrosis, epilepsy, diabetes). Audiology has not yet addressed transition planning for adolescents with hearing loss; therefore, we propose using the ICF-CY to design a pathway of care. The ICF-CY can standardize transition planning to the benefit of both teen patients and audiologists: teens and their families would gradually acquire necessary knowledge and skills, and audiologists would develop a meaningful data set to help further inform our pediatric practices, as well as give more structure, depth, and accountability to our role in rehabilitation. PMID:27489402

  10. Mapping SAGE questionnaire to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Quintas, Rui; Russo, Emanuela; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Costardi, Daniela; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Ojala, Matti; Peña, Sebastián; Perales, Jaime; Chatterji, Somnath; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Frattura, Lucilla; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    The collaborative research on ageing in Europe protocol was based on that of the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) project that investigated the relationship between health and well-being and provided a set of instruments that can be used across countries to monitor health and health-related outcomes of older populations as well as the strategies for addressing issues concerning the ageing process. To evaluate the degree to which SAGE protocol covered the spectrum of disability given the scope of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a mapping exercise was performed with SAGE protocol. Results show that the SAGE protocol covers ICF domains in a non-uniform way, with environmental factors categories being underrepresented, whereas mental, cardiovascular, sensory functions and mobility were overrepresented. To overcome this partial coverage of ICF functioning categories, new assessment instruments have been developed. PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: Mapping exercises are valid procedures to understand the extent to which a survey protocol covers the spectrum of functioning. The mapping exercise with SAGE protocol shows that it provides only a partial representation of body functions and activities and participation domains, and the coverage of environmental factors is poor. New instruments are therefore needed for researchers to properly understand the health and disability of ageing populations.

  11. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Catalyst for interprofessional education and collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Snyman, Stefanus; Von Pressentin, Klaus B; Clarke, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centred and community-based care is required for promotion of health equity. To enhance patient-centred interprofessional care, the World Health Organization recommends using the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Stellenbosch University's Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice (IPECP) strategy has promoted using ICF since 2010. Undergraduate medical students on rural clinical placements are expected to use ICF in approaching and managing patients. Students' ability to develop interprofessional care plans using ICF is assessed by a team of preceptors representing various health professions. This study explored the experiences of medical students and their preceptors using ICF in IPECP, and how patients perceived care received. Associative Group Analysis methodology was used to collect data for this study. In total, 68 study participants were enrolled of which 37 were medical students, 16 preceptors and 15 patients. Students found ICF enabled a patient-centred approach and reinforce the importance of context. Patients felt listened to and cared for. Preceptors, obliged to use ICF, came to appreciate the advantages of interprofessional care, promoting mutually beneficial teamwork and job satisfaction. The value of integrating IPECP as an authentic learning experience was demonstrated as was ICF as a catalyst in pushing boundaries for change. PMID:25614229

  12. Sexual health in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD): implications for measurement and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chou, Doris; Cottler, Sara; Khosla, Rajat; Reed, Geoffrey M; Say, Lale

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines different dimensions of sexual health as related to the measurement of sexual health indicators and the proposed changes in the International Classification of Diseases to address issues related to sexuality and sexual health with an aim of informing health policy-making and programming. The lack of mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating sexual health outcomes has impeded the development of policies and programmes that support sexual health. The potential impact of changes to the ICD-11 is major and far-reaching given that the ICD is used by countries to define eligibility and access to health services and to formulate relevant policies and laws, and is used by health professionals as a basis for conceptualizing health conditions, treatments and outcomes. Improving the measurement of sexual health-related indicators builds the evidence base on scientific knowledge of sex, sexuality, sexual health and rights. As we stand on the cusp of the post-2015 era and the development agenda transitions to the Sustainable Development Goals, a unique opportunity presents itself to further consider how sexual health is defined, conceptualized, and monitored.

  13. Why is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders so hard to revise? Path-dependence and "lock-in" in classification.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the D.S.M.-5, was published in May 2013. In the lead up to publication, radical changes to the classification were anticipated; there was widespread dissatisfaction with the previous edition and it was accepted that a "paradigm shift" might be required. In the end, however, and despite huge efforts at revision, the published D.S.M.-5 differs far less than originally envisaged from its predecessor. This paper considers why it is that revising the D.S.M. has become so difficult. The D.S.M. is such an important classification that this question is worth asking in its own right. The case of the D.S.M. can also serve as a study for considering stasis in classification more broadly; why and how can classifications become resistant to change? I suggest that classifications like the D.S.M. can be thought of as forming part of the infrastructure of science, and have much in common with material infrastructure. In particular, as with material technologies, it is possible for "path dependent" development to cause a sub-optimal classification to become "locked in" and hard to replace.

  14. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis.

  15. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis. PMID:25810444

  16. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis. PMID:25810444

  17. Statistical construction of a Japanese male liver phantom for internal radionuclide dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mofrad, Farshid Babapour; Zoroofi, Reza Aghaeizadeh; Tehrani-Fard, Ali Abbaspour; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram; Hori, Masatoshi; Chen, Yen-Wei; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2010-09-01

    A computational framework is presented, based on statistical shape modelling, for construction of race-specific organ models for internal radionuclide dosimetry and other nuclear-medicine applications. This approach was applied to the construction of a Japanese liver phantom, using the liver of the digital Zubal phantom as the template and 35 liver computed tomography (CT) scans of male Japanese individuals as a training set. The first step was the automated object-space registration (to align all the liver surfaces in one orientation), using a coherent-point-drift maximum-likelihood alignment algorithm, of each CT scan-derived manually contoured liver surface and the template Zubal liver phantom. Six landmark points, corresponding to the intersection of the contours of the maximum-area sagittal, transaxial and coronal liver sections were employed to perform the above task. To find correspondence points in livers (i.e. 2000 points for each liver), each liver surface was transformed into a mesh, was mapped for the parameter space of a sphere (parameterisation), yielding spherical harmonics (SPHARMs) shape descriptors. The resulting spherical transforms were then registered by minimising the root-mean-square distance among the SPHARMs coefficients. A mean shape (i.e. liver) and its dispersion (i.e. covariance matrix) were next calculated and analysed by principal components. Leave-one-out-tests using 5-35 principal components (or modes) demonstrated the fidelity of the foregoing statistical analysis. Finally, a voxelisation algorithm and a point-based registration is utilised to convert the SPHARM surfaces into its corresponding voxelised and adjusted the Zubal phantom data, respectively. The proposed technique used to create the race-specific statistical phantom maintains anatomic realism and provides the statistical parameters for application to radionuclide dosimetry.

  18. A tool for enhancing strategic health planning: a modeled use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Lisa Bundara; Fox, Michael H; Betts, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This article describes use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for strategic planning. The ICF is the international classification system for factors that influence health, including Body Structures, Body Functions, Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors. An overview of strategic planning and the ICF are provided. Selected ICF concepts and nomenclature are used to demonstrate its utility in helping develop a classic planning framework, objectives, measures and actions. Some issues and resolutions for applying the ICF are described. Applying the ICF for strategic health planning is an innovative approach that fosters the inclusion of social ecological health determinants and broad populations. If employed from the onset of planning, the ICF can help public health organizations systematically conceptualize, organize and communicate a strategic health plan.

  19. Aphasia and Auditory Processing after Stroke through an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Lens.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Suzanne C; Wanigasekara, Iruni; Cañete, Oscar M; Moore, Celia; McCann, Clare M

    2016-08-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment affecting speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Aphasia occurs in about a third of patients who have ischemic stroke and significantly affects functional recovery and return to work. Stroke is more common in older individuals but also occurs in young adults and children. Because people experiencing a stroke are typically aged between 65 and 84 years, hearing loss is common and can potentially interfere with rehabilitation. There is some evidence for increased risk and greater severity of sensorineural hearing loss in the stroke population and hence it has been recommended that all people surviving a stroke should have a hearing test. Auditory processing difficulties have also been reported poststroke. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used as a basis for describing the effect of aphasia, hearing loss, and auditory processing difficulties on activities and participation. Effects include reduced participation in activities outside the home such as work and recreation and difficulty engaging in social interaction and communicating needs. A case example of a young man (M) in his 30s who experienced a left-hemisphere ischemic stroke is presented. M has normal hearing sensitivity but has aphasia and auditory processing difficulties based on behavioral and cortical evoked potential measures. His principal goal is to return to work. Although auditory processing difficulties (and hearing loss) are acknowledged in the literature, clinical protocols typically do not specify routine assessment. The literature and the case example presented here suggest a need for further research in this area and a possible change in practice toward more routine assessment of auditory function post-stroke. PMID:27489401

  20. Statistical investigation of simulated intestinal fluid composition on the equilibrium solubility of biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs.

    PubMed

    Khadra, Ibrahim; Zhou, Zhou; Dunn, Claire; Wilson, Clive G; Halbert, Gavin

    2015-01-25

    A drug's solubility and dissolution behaviour within the gastrointestinal tract is a key property for successful administration by the oral route and one of the key factors in the biopharmaceutics classification system. This property can be determined by investigating drug solubility in human intestinal fluid (HIF) but this is difficult to obtain and highly variable, which has led to the development of multiple simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) recipes. Using a statistical design of experiment (DoE) technique this paper has investigated the effects and interactions on equilibrium drug solubility of seven typical SIF components (sodium taurocholate, lecithin, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, pH, pancreatin and sodium oleate) within concentration ranges relevant to human intestinal fluid values. A range of poorly soluble drugs with acidic (naproxen, indomethacin, phenytoin, and piroxicam), basic (aprepitant, carvedilol, zafirlukast, tadalafil) or neutral (fenofibrate, griseofulvin, felodipine and probucol) properties have been investigated. The equilibrium solubility results determined are comparable with literature studies of the drugs in either HIF or SIF indicating that the DoE is operating in the correct space. With the exception of pancreatin, all of the factors individually had a statistically significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds and drug specific interactions were evident. Interestingly for the neutral compounds pH was the factor with the second largest solubility effect. Around one third of all the possible factor combinations showed a significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in interaction significance and magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds. The least number of significant media component interactions were noted for the acidic compounds with three and the greatest for the neutral compounds at seven

  1. Silicosis and tuberculosis: a proposed radiographic classification of tuberculosis to accompany the ILO international classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses.

    PubMed

    Solomon, A; Rees, D; Felix, M; Venter, E

    2000-01-01

    A significant proportion of workers exposed to silica dust are at risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). The higher the International Labor Organization (ILO) category of silicosis, the greater the TB risk. Subtle radiographic presentations of TB may be the initial manifestation of TB, particularly in the absence of sputum identification of TB bacilli. A proposed TB x-ray-reading form in addition to the ILO categorization of silicosis is offered. The implementation of a standardized TB x-ray-reading approach should alert the clinician to indolent TB lesions.

  2. Surgical management of morbidity due to lymphatic filariasis: the usefulness of a standardized international clinical classification of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Capuano, G P; Capuano, C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries to guide their surgical management. 64 patients with hydroceles were operated in 2009-2010, in Level II hospitals (WHO classification), during two visits to Fiji, by the same mobile surgical team. The number of hydroceles treated was 83. We developed and evaluated a much needed clinical classification of hydroceles based on four criteria: Type (uni/bilateral); Side (left/right); Stage of enlargement of the scrotum rated from I to VI; Grade of burial of the penis rated from 0 to 4. It lead to the conclusion that 1) A Stage I or II hydrocele, associated with Grade 0 or 1 penis burial could be considered a "Simple Hydrocele". The surgical treatment is simple with no anticipated early complication. WHO Level II of health care structure seems adapted. 2) A Stage III or IV hydrocele associated with Grade 2, 3 or 4 penis burial could be considered a "Complicated Hydrocele". The operation is longer, more complicated and the possibility of occurrence of complications seems greater. A level III health care facility would be more adapted under the normal functioning of the health system. We conclude that a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles based on the Stage of enlargement of the scrotum and the Grade of burial of the penis appears to be a useful tool to guide the decision about the level of care and the surgical technique required. We use the same classification for penoscrotal lymphoedema. A decision tree is presented for the management of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries which could usefully complement the "Algorithm for management of scrotal swelling" proposed by WHO in 2002. An international classification system of hydroceles would also allow standardization and facilitate study design and comparisons of their results.

  3. Perspectives on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) and Occupational Therapy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Heidi; Aiken, Alice B.; Stewart, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Classifying disability for children and youth has typically meant describing a diagnosis or developmental lag. The publication of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child & Youth" version (ICF-CY) marks a global paradigm shift in the conceptualization and classification of childhood disability. Knowledge and…

  4. Building an intercultural nursing terminology bank for the phenomenon, Violence, of the International Classification of Nursing Practice: a methodological perspective.

    PubMed

    Coler, M S

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this article was to present the methodology and results of an investigation into the intercultural evolution of the nursing phenomenon--Violence--from the identification phase to the summative evaluation phase, in order to contribute to the evolution of the International Classification of Nursing Practice (ICNP). The organizing construct was concept analysis of a nursing phenomenon. The identification of a universal problem in psychiatric-mental health nursing by a team of 10 international leaders in the speciality led from the phase of concept analysis to development of a postgraduate educational module. The results of the original analysis of the concept and findings from clinical and evaluation data resulted in further analysis and consequent synthesis of the concept. Results will be disseminated to the International Council of Nursing (ICN) for the International Classification of Nursing Practice (ICNP) to further the evolution of the phenomenon from a focus on the individual to that of the aggregate (social violence). The methodology pointed to a lack of transfer in the phenomenon from a focus on the individual to that of aggregates in the ICNP. There was also a paucity of intercultural components. The phenomena of Abuse and Aggression appear to have been used synonymously with Violence, without an explanation. The data, and the methods used for its collection and submission, will enhance the ICNP. PMID:11407468

  5. Classification of bones from MR images in torso PET-MR imaging using a statistical shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Ay, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Afshin; Ahmadian, Alireza; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    There have been exclusive features for hybrid PET/MRI systems in comparison with its PET/CT counterpart in terms of reduction of radiation exposure, improved soft-tissue contrast and truly simultaneous and multi-parametric imaging capabilities. However, quantitative imaging on PET/MR is challenged by attenuation of annihilation photons through their pathway. The correction for photon attenuation requires the availability of patient-specific attenuation map, which accounts for the spatial distribution of attenuation coefficients of biological tissues. However, the lack of information on electron density in the MR signal poses an inherent difficulty to the derivation of the attenuation map from MR images. In other words, the MR signal correlates with proton densities and tissue relaxation properties, rather than with electron density and, as such, it is not directly related to attenuation coefficients. In order to derive the attenuation map from MR images at 511 keV, various strategies have been proposed and implemented on prototype and commercial PET/MR systems. Segmentation-based methods generate an attenuation map by classification of T1-weighted or high resolution Dixon MR sequences followed by assignment of predefined attenuation coefficients to various tissue types. Intensity-based segmentation approaches fail to include bones in the attenuation map since the segmentation of bones from conventional MR sequences is a difficult task. Most MR-guided attenuation correction techniques ignore bones owing to the inherent difficulties associated with bone segmentation unless specialized MR sequences such as ultra-short echo (UTE) sequence are utilized. In this work, we introduce a new technique based on statistical shape modeling to segment bones and generate a four-class attenuation map. Our segmentation approach requires a torso bone shape model based on principle component analysis (PCA). A CT-based training set including clearly segmented bones of the torso region

  6. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  7. Statistical analysis of the low-temperature internal friction dislocation peak (Bordoni peak) in nanostructured copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatazhuk, E. N.; Natsik, V. D.

    2011-07-01

    The frequency-temperature relations for internal friction in nanostructured samples of Cu and of fiber composite Cu-32 vol.% Nb with structural fragment sizes of ˜200 nm are analyzed. Data from earlier experiments are used in which a Bordoni peak characteristic of highly deformed copper was found to be localized near a temperature of 90 K in the temperature dependence of the damping decrement for the oscillations (frequencies 73-350 kHz). This peak is caused by a resonance interaction of sound with a system of thermally activated relaxation oscillators, but its width is substantially greater than the width of the standard internal friction peak with a single relaxation time. The peak is analyzed statistically under the assumption that the broadening is caused by the random spread in the activation energy of the relaxation oscillators owing to strong distortions of the crystalline structure of the copper. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental data and the theory of Seeger in which the relaxation oscillators for the Bordoni peak are assumed to be thermally activated kink pairs in rectilinear segments of dislocation lines located in valleys of the Peierls potential relief. It is shown that the experimentally observed height of the peak corresponds to the presence, on the average, of one dislocation segment within a copper crystallite of size 200 nm. Empirical estimates of σP ≈ 2.107 Pa for the Peierls critical stress and ρd ≈ 1013 m-2 for the integrated density of intragrain dislocations are obtained. Nb fibers in the Cu-Nb composite facilitate the formation of nanostructured copper, but have no significant effect on the Bordoni peak.

  8. The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN): proposal for text changes for improved differentiation of viral taxa and viruses.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B

    2013-07-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is responsible for the classification of viruses into taxa. Importantly, the ICTV is currently not responsible for the nomenclature of viruses or their subclassification into strains, lineages, or genotypes. ICTV rules for classification of viruses and nomenclature of taxa are laid out in a code, the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). The most recent version of the Code makes it difficult for the unfamiliar reader to distinguish between viruses and taxa, thereby often giving the impression that certain Rules apply to viruses. Here, Code text changes are proposed to address this problem.

  9. THE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF VIRUS CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE (ICVCN): PROPOSAL FOR TEXT CHANGES FOR IMPROVED DIFFERENTIATION OF VIRAL TAXA AND VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is responsible for the classification of viruses into taxa. Importantly, the ICTV is currently not responsible for the nomenclature of viruses or their subclassification into strains, lineages, or genotypes. ICTV virus classification into taxa and taxa nomenclature rules are laid out in a code, the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). The most recent version of the Code makes it difficult for the unfamiliar reader to distinguish between viruses and taxa, thereby often giving the impression that certain Rules apply to viruses. Here, Code text changes are proposed to address this problem. PMID:23417351

  10. Improved equilibrium reconstructions by advanced statistical weighting of the internal magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murari, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Mazon, D.; Hawkes, N.; Point, G.; Alper, B.; Eich, T.

    2014-12-01

    In a Tokamak the configuration of the magnetic fields remains the key element to improve performance and to maximise the scientific exploitation of the device. On the other hand, the quality of the reconstructed fields depends crucially on the measurements available. Traditionally in the least square minimisation phase of the algorithms, used to obtain the magnetic field topology, all the diagnostics are given the same weights, a part from a corrective factor taking into account the error bars. This assumption unduly penalises complex diagnostics, such as polarimetry, which have a limited number of highly significant measurements. A completely new method to choose the weights, to be given to the internal measurements of the magnetic fields for improved equilibrium reconstructions, is presented in this paper. The approach is based on various statistical indicators applied to the residuals, the difference between the actual measurements and their estimates from the reconstructed equilibrium. The potential of the method is exemplified using the measurements of the Faraday rotation derived from JET polarimeter. The results indicate quite clearly that the weights have to be determined carefully, since the inappropriate choice can have significant repercussions on the quality of the magnetic reconstruction both in the edge and in the core. These results confirm the limitations of the assumption that all the diagnostics have to be given the same weight, irrespective of the number of measurements they provide and the region of the plasma they probe.

  11. Statistical characterization of the internal structure of noiselike pulses using a nonlinear optical loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiez, O.; Paez-Aguirre, R.; Cruz, J. L.; Andrés, M. V.; Kuzin, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study statistically the internal structure of noiselike pulses generated by a passively mode-locked fiber laser. For this purpose, we use a technique that allows estimating the distribution of the amplitudes of the sub-pulses in the bunch. The technique takes advantage of the fast response of the optical Kerr effect in a fiber nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM). It requires the measurement of the energy transfer characteristic of the pulses through the NOLM, and the numerical resolution of a system of nonlinear algebraic equations. The results yield a strongly asymmetric distribution, with a high-amplitude tail that is compatible with the existence of extreme-intensity sub-pulses in the bunch. Following the recent discovery of pulse-energy rogue waves and spectral rogue waves in the noiselike pulse regime, we propose a new way to look for extreme events in this particular mode of operation of mode-locked fiber lasers, and confirm that rogue wave generation is a key ingredient in the complex dynamics of these unconventional pulses.

  12. Relevant areas of functioning in children with cerebral palsy based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health coding system: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Schiariti, Veronica; Mâsse, Louise C

    2015-02-01

    In the context of the development of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for children and youth with cerebral palsy, an evidence-based methodology was implemented to select the most relevant categories out of the entire classification. The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of the clinical perspective to select categories of functioning in children and youth with cerebral palsy. We conducted a chart review of clinical assessments of children and youth with cerebral palsy aged 0 to 18 years in a tertiary level center. In total, 129 International Classification of Functioning categories were covered in clinical encounters: representing 19% body structures, 33% body functions, 37% activity and participation, and 11% environmental factors. Our findings can guide clinical assessments and goal-setting of this population. This important perspective will inform the development of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for children and youth with cerebral palsy.

  13. [A contemporary conception of insomnia syndrome and its treatments in view of International classification of sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Poluektov, M G; Tsenteradze, S L

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is one of the most common and wide-spread sleep disorders. It includes difficulties of sleep initiation, sustaining and daytime impairment. A condition of cerebral hyperarousal plays the most important role in the genesis of insomnia. Cognitive, electrophysiological and metabolic parameters are correlated with hyperarousal state. According to the International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD-3), insomnia is divided into acute, chronic and unclassified. Treatment of insomnia includes specific and nonspecific approaches. Regardless of the origin of insomnia, sleep hygiene and behavioral therapy remain the methods of choice for the treatment.

  14. Dimensional versus categorical classification of mental disorders in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and beyond: comment on the special section.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy A; Barlow, David H

    2005-11-01

    The value of including dimensional elements in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has been recognized for decades. Nevertheless, no proposals have been made for introducing dimensional classification in the diagnostic system in a valid and feasible manner. As an initial step in this endeavor, the authors suggest introducing dimensional severity ratings to the extant diagnostic categories and criteria sets. Although not without difficulties, this would begin to determine the feasibility of dimensional classification and would address some limitations of the purely categorical approach (e.g., failure to capture individual differences in disorder severity, and clinically significant features subsumed by other disorders or falling below conventional DSM thresholds). The utility of incorporating broader dimensions of temperament and personality in diagnostic systems beyond the fifth edition of the DSM is also discussed.

  15. Between- and within-reader variability in the assessment of pleural abnormality using the ILO 1980 international classification of pneumoconioses.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, J; Ernst, P

    1988-01-01

    Although there are published data concerning reader variability in the assessment of parenchymal pneumoconiotic changes using the ILO Classification of Radiographs, nothing has been published on reader variability with regard to pleural abnormalities. Therefore, in the context of an epidemiologic study, we assessed between- and within-reader variability in the reading of chest radiographs for pleural abnormality using the ILO 1980 International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses. Chest radiographs of 182 insulation workers interspersed with 24 subjects without documented exposure to asbestos were assembled and read blindly by two readers, reading separately on two occasions, 1 week apart. The results of this study suggest that confident separation of pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening may be difficult to achieve using the present guidelines of the ILO 1980 classification. In the evaluation of the width of chest wall pleural abnormality, within-reader agreement improves as the width increases, while between-reader agreement was much less satisfactory. Excellent agreement is obtained in the evaluation of other sites, especially costophrenic angle obliteration and the presence of pleural calcification.

  16. 2014 Revised Classification of Vascular Lesions from the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies: Radiologic-Pathologic Update.

    PubMed

    Merrow, Arnold C; Gupta, Anita; Patel, Manish N; Adams, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the seminal work on the histology-based classification of vascular anomalies by Mulliken and Glowacki in 1982 and the subsequent adoption of an expanded and modified version in 1996 by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies, an increasing number of vascular lesions have been recognized as histologically distinct entities. Furthermore, there have been significant advances in detailing the behavior and underlying genetics of previously identified lesions. These developments have required restructuring and expansion of the classification scheme so that appropriate therapies may be studied and implemented in affected patients. The new classification retains the broad categories of neoplasms and malformations but now divides the tumor group into benign, locally aggressive or borderline, and malignant, with the malformation group being divided into simple, combined, those of major named vessels, and those associated with other anomalies. Additionally, a category has been created for lesions in which the histology and behavior do not yet allow clear separation into neoplasm or malformation (thus named "provisionally unclassified vascular anomalies"). The known clinical courses and imaging, histologic, and genetic findings of the most common and/or clinically relevant lesions in the newly adopted revised system are reviewed in this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27517361

  17. Characteristics of 40 primary extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the oral cavity in perspective of the new WHO classification and the International Prognostic Index.

    PubMed

    van der Waal, R I F; Huijgens, P C; van der Valk, P; van der Waal, I

    2005-06-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are often present outside the lymph nodes. Although primary extranodal NHLs (PE-NHL) form a substantial part of all NHLs, reports on oral PE-NHLs are rare. Forty patients with PE-NHL of the oral cavity have been studied for the distribution of gender, age, oral subsite and presenting complaint, histological subtype according to the WHO classification, clinical stage, treatment, and follow-up. The data are reviewed against the background of the literature. Furthermore, the International Prognostic Index has been taken into consideration. All patients had a lymphoma of B-cell lineage. Two-thirds of patients presented with locoregional disease. Mean survival time was 38 months, with a mean recurrence-free survival time of 31 months. There was no statistically significant difference in survival time between patients with bone versus soft tissue localisation of the PE-NHL. In view of the rarity of PE-NHL involving the oral region multicenter studies are needed for evaluation of the usefulness of the International Prognostic Index for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in this particular part of the body. PMID:16053848

  18. [Anthropometry: the modern statistical analysis and significance for clinics of internal diseases and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Petykhov, A B; Maev, I V; Deriabin, V E

    2012-01-01

    Anthropometry--a technique, allowing to obtain the necessary features for the characteristic of human body's changes in norm and at pathology. Statistical analysis of anthropometric parameters, such as--body mass, length, waist line, hip, shoulder and wrist circumferences, skin rolls of fat thickness: on triceps, under a bladebone, on a breast, on a venter and on a biceps, with calculation of indexes and an assessment of possible age influence was carried out for the first time in domestic medicine. Complexes of showing interrelations anthropometric characteristics were detected. Correlation coefficients (r) were counted and the factorial (on a method main a component with the subsequent rotation--a varimax method), covariance and discriminative analyses (with application of the Kaiser and Wilks criterions and F-test) is applied. Study of intergroup variability of body composition was carried out on separate characteristics in healthy individuals groups (135 surveyed aged 45,6 +/- 1,2 years, 56,3% men and 43,7% women) and at internal pathology: patients after a gastrectomy--121 (57,7 +/- 1,2 years, 52% men and 48% women); after Billroth operation--214 (56,1 +/- 1,0 years, 53% men and 47% women); after enterectomy--103 (44,5 +/- 1,8 years, 53% men and 47% women); after mixed genesis protein-energy wasting--206 (29,04 +/- 1,6 years, 79% men and 21% women). The group of interlocking characteristics which includes anthropometric parameters of hypodermic lipopexia (rolls of fat thickness on triceps, a biceps, under a bladebone, on a venter) and fatty body mass was defined by results of the analysis. These characteristics are interconnected with age and growth and have more expressed dependence at women, that reflects development of a fatty component of a body, at assessment of body mass index at women (unlike men). The waist-hip circumference index differs irrespective of body composition indicators that doesn't allow to characterize it with the terms of truncal or

  19. [Anthropometry: the modern statistical analysis and significance for clinics of internal diseases and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Petykhov, A B; Maev, I V; Deriabin, V E

    2012-01-01

    Anthropometry--a technique, allowing to obtain the necessary features for the characteristic of human body's changes in norm and at pathology. Statistical analysis of anthropometric parameters, such as--body mass, length, waist line, hip, shoulder and wrist circumferences, skin rolls of fat thickness: on triceps, under a bladebone, on a breast, on a venter and on a biceps, with calculation of indexes and an assessment of possible age influence was carried out for the first time in domestic medicine. Complexes of showing interrelations anthropometric characteristics were detected. Correlation coefficients (r) were counted and the factorial (on a method main a component with the subsequent rotation--a varimax method), covariance and discriminative analyses (with application of the Kaiser and Wilks criterions and F-test) is applied. Study of intergroup variability of body composition was carried out on separate characteristics in healthy individuals groups (135 surveyed aged 45,6 +/- 1,2 years, 56,3% men and 43,7% women) and at internal pathology: patients after a gastrectomy--121 (57,7 +/- 1,2 years, 52% men and 48% women); after Billroth operation--214 (56,1 +/- 1,0 years, 53% men and 47% women); after enterectomy--103 (44,5 +/- 1,8 years, 53% men and 47% women); after mixed genesis protein-energy wasting--206 (29,04 +/- 1,6 years, 79% men and 21% women). The group of interlocking characteristics which includes anthropometric parameters of hypodermic lipopexia (rolls of fat thickness on triceps, a biceps, under a bladebone, on a venter) and fatty body mass was defined by results of the analysis. These characteristics are interconnected with age and growth and have more expressed dependence at women, that reflects development of a fatty component of a body, at assessment of body mass index at women (unlike men). The waist-hip circumference index differs irrespective of body composition indicators that doesn't allow to characterize it with the terms of truncal or

  20. Automated Internal Classification of Beadless Chinese ZhuJi Fleshwater Pearls based on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Tiebing; Shi, Yang; Chen, Zhengwei; Mao, Jianwei; Zhou, Wujie

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied to inspect the internal defect of beadless Chinese ZhuJi fleshwater pearls. A novel fully automated algorithm is proposed to classify between normal and defective sub-layer in nacre layer. Our algorithm utilizes the graph segmentation approach to estimate the up and down boundaries of defect sub-layers from flattened and cropped image, and also proposes the strategy for edge and weight construction in segmentation process. The vertical gradients of boundary pixels are used to make grading decision. The algorithm is tested by typical pearl samples, and achieves 100% classification accuracy. The experiment result shows the feasibility and adaptability of the proposed approach, and proves that the OCT technique combined with proposed algorithm is a potential tool for fast and non-destructive diagnosis of internal structure of beadless pearl. PMID:27666087

  1. Functions and Statistics: International Space Station: Up to Us. NASA Connect: Program 5 in the 2000-2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of functions and statistics in the context of the International Space Station (ISS). The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each…

  2. A complete solution classification and unified algorithmic treatment for the one- and two-step asymmetric S-transverse mass event scale statistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Joel W.

    2014-08-01

    The M T2, or "s-transverse mass", statistic was developed to associate a parent mass scale to a missing transverse energy signature, given that escaping particles are generally expected in pairs, while collider experiments are sensitive to just a single transverse momentum vector sum. This document focuses on the generalized extension of that statistic to asymmetric one- and two-step decay chains, with arbitrary child particle masses and upstream missing transverse momentum. It provides a unified theoretical formulation, complete solution classification, taxonomy of critical points, and technical algorithmic prescription for treatment of the event scale. An implementation of the described algorithm is available for download, and is also a deployable component of the author's selection cut software package AEAC uS (Algorithmic Event Arbiter and C ut Selector). appendices address combinatoric event assembly, algorithm validation, and a complete pseudocode.

  3. International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) and neurologic disorders: the future.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Raad; Bergen, Donna

    2013-07-01

    When the WHO's Topic Advisory Group for Neurology (TAG) started work on revision of the ICD-10 diagnostic codes in June 2009, the issues were daunting. The existing classification was produced a generation ago and the need to move to the digital age was becoming imperative. Appreciating modern advances in genetics and immunology, and the consequent changes in understanding of the pathophysiology of disorders of the nervous system, WHO's charge to the TAG was to produce a comprehensive, up-to-date disease classification, while providing published or consensus evidence for each coding change. In addition, the task would be to focus on ways to reduce the treatment gap while considering the utility of ICD-11 when used in primary care and nonspecialist settings. The project mushroomed over the 3 years since our first meeting and continues to do so. The work was made even more difficult as the group needed to add "content models" for the major codes for the first time (i.e., providing a definition for each disorder, along with appropriate diagnostic tests and outcome). The ICD-11 is meant to be updated as new knowledge develops, rather than waiting some years for another whole-scale revision, but this process has yet to be defined.

  4. A systematic literature review of the situation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-Children and Youth version in education: a useful tool or a flight of fancy?

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marta; Alves, Ines; Maxwell, Gregor

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the outcome of a systematic literature review exploring the applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and its Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) at various levels and in processes within the education systems in different countries. A systematic database search using selected search terms has been used. The selection of studies was then refined further using four protocols: inclusion and exclusion protocols at abstract and full text and extraction levels along with a quality protocol. Studies exploring the direct relationship between education and the ICF/ICF-CY were sought.As expected, the results show a strong presence of studies from English-speaking countries, namely from Europe and North America. The articles were mainly published in noneducational journals. The most used ICF/ICF-CY components are activity and participation, participation, and environmental factors. From the analysis of the papers included, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY is currently used as a research tool, theoretical framework, and tool for implementing educational processes. The ICF/ICF-CY can provide a useful language to the education field where there is currently a lot of disparity in theoretical, praxis, and research issues. Although the systematic literature review does not report a high incidence of the use of the ICF/ICF-CY in education, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY model and classification have potential to be applied in education systems. PMID:22193317

  5. A systematic literature review of the situation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-Children and Youth version in education: a useful tool or a flight of fancy?

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marta; Alves, Ines; Maxwell, Gregor

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the outcome of a systematic literature review exploring the applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and its Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) at various levels and in processes within the education systems in different countries. A systematic database search using selected search terms has been used. The selection of studies was then refined further using four protocols: inclusion and exclusion protocols at abstract and full text and extraction levels along with a quality protocol. Studies exploring the direct relationship between education and the ICF/ICF-CY were sought.As expected, the results show a strong presence of studies from English-speaking countries, namely from Europe and North America. The articles were mainly published in noneducational journals. The most used ICF/ICF-CY components are activity and participation, participation, and environmental factors. From the analysis of the papers included, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY is currently used as a research tool, theoretical framework, and tool for implementing educational processes. The ICF/ICF-CY can provide a useful language to the education field where there is currently a lot of disparity in theoretical, praxis, and research issues. Although the systematic literature review does not report a high incidence of the use of the ICF/ICF-CY in education, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY model and classification have potential to be applied in education systems.

  6. The use of a combined portable X ray fluorescence and multivariate statistical methods to assess a validated macroscopic rock samples classification in an ore exploration survey.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Cisterna, J; Bagur-González, M G; Morales-Ruano, S; Carrillo-Rosúa, J; Martín-Peinado, F

    2011-10-15

    The combination of "ex situ" portable X ray fluorescence with unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis and linear discriminant analysis have been applied to rock samples, in order to validate a "in situ" macroscopic rock samples classification of samples collected in the Boris Angelo mining area (Central Chile), during a drill-hole survey carried out to evaluate the economic potential of this Cu deposit. The analysed elements were Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Ti and Zn. The statistical treatment of the geological data has been arisen from the application of the Box-Cox transformation used to transform the data set in normal form to minimize the non-normal distribution of the data. From the statistical results obtained it can be concluded that the macroscopic classification applied to the transformed data permits at least, to distinguish quite well in relation to two of the rock classes defined (70.5% correctly classified (p<0.05)) as well as for four of the five alteration types defined "in situ" (75% of the total samples).

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Sensory Component of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hales, M.; Biros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 1982, the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) has been used to classify sensation of spinal cord injury (SCI) through pinprick and light touch scores. The absence of proprioception, pain, and temperature within this scale creates questions about its validity and accuracy. Objectives: To assess whether the sensory component of the ISNCSCI represents a reliable and valid measure of classification of SCI. Methods: A systematic review of studies examining the reliability and validity of the sensory component of the ISNCSCI published between 1982 and February 2013 was conducted. The electronic databases MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, PEDro, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. A secondary search of reference lists was also completed. Chosen articles were assessed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine hierarchy of evidence and critically appraised using the McMasters Critical Review Form. A statistical analysis was conducted to investigate the variability of the results given by reliability studies. Results: Twelve studies were identified: 9 reviewed reliability and 3 reviewed validity. All studies demonstrated low levels of evidence and moderate critical appraisal scores. The majority of the articles (~67%; 6/9) assessing the reliability suggested that training was positively associated with better posttest results. The results of the 3 studies that assessed the validity of the ISNCSCI scale were confounding. Conclusions: Due to the low to moderate quality of the current literature, the sensory component of the ISNCSCI requires further revision and investigation if it is to be a useful tool in clinical trials. PMID:26363591

  8. Evaluation of post-stroke functionality based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: a proposal for use of assessment tools

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Soraia Micaela; Corrêa, Fernanda Ishida; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais; Buchalla, Cássia Maria; Silva, Paula Fernanda da Costa; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories addressed by the assessment tools commonly used in post-stroke rehabilitation and characterize patients based on its evaluation model. [Subjects and Methods] An exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 35 individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Handgrip strength was assessed to evaluate body functions and structures. The 10-meter gait speed test and Timed Up and Go test were administered to evaluate activity. The Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale was used to evaluate participation. Moreover, a systematic review of the literature was performed to identify studies that have associated these assessment tools with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories. [Results] The tools employed in this study for evaluating function addressed 63 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories: 24 related to body functions and structures; 36 related to activity and participation; and 3 related to environmental factors. [Conclusion] The assessment tools employed in this study addressed 63 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories and allowed a more complete evaluation of stroke survivors with hemiparesis. Use of this classification can therefore be more easily incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:26180294

  9. Spatio-temporal dependencies between hospital beds, physicians and health expenditure using visual variables and data classification in statistical table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medyńska-Gulij, Beata; Cybulski, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyses the use of table visual variables of statistical data of hospital beds as an important tool for revealing spatio-temporal dependencies. It is argued that some of conclusions from the data about public health and public expenditure on health have a spatio-temporal reference. Different from previous studies, this article adopts combination of cartographic pragmatics and spatial visualization with previous conclusions made in public health literature. While the significant conclusions about health care and economic factors has been highlighted in research papers, this article is the first to apply visual analysis to statistical table together with maps which is called previsualisation.

  10. [Use of the ILO/UC International classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses in 302 subjects exposed to asbestos (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, A; Di Menza, L

    1979-12-01

    The object of the ILO/UC International Classification of Pneumoconioses and the general instructions for its use in asbestos respiratory diseases have been set forth. The ILO 1979 classification has been used in four groups of asbestos exposed subjects : two groups were hospitalized and two groups were at work. All the subjects have been investigated by a hospitalized and two groups were at work. All the subjects have been investigated by a standardized questionnaire on occupational history, PA and lateral chest X-rays and, for most them, by ferruginous bodies counting either in sputum or in bronchoalveolar lavage. The most frequent radiological signs were parenchymal fibrosis, pleural thickening, pleural calcification and diaphragmatic straightness. The fibrosis and the diaphragmatic straightness were related to the length of the exposure. Up to 20-29 years since the onset of exposure, the frequency of radiological signs was : diaphragmatic straightness more frequent than fibrosis which was more frequent than pleural thickening, which was more frequent than calcification. But the frequency of only two signs, pleural straightness and fibrosis, appeared significant after 10 years of exposure. The value of these four radiological signs as biological indicators of asbestos exposure is discussed.

  11. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXI. Nomenclature and Classification of Adenosine Receptors—An Update

    PubMed Central

    IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Linden, Joel; Müller, Christa E.

    2011-01-01

    In the 10 years since our previous International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology report on the nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors, no developments have led to major changes in the recommendations. However, there have been so many other developments that an update is needed. The fact that the structure of one of the adenosine receptors has recently been solved has already led to new ways of in silico screening of ligands. The evidence that adenosine receptors can form homo- and heteromultimers has accumulated, but the functional significance of such complexes remains unclear. The availability of mice with genetic modification of all the adenosine receptors has led to a clarification of the functional roles of adenosine, and to excellent means to study the specificity of drugs. There are also interesting associations between disease and structural variants in one or more of the adenosine receptors. Several new selective agonists and antagonists have become available. They provide improved possibilities for receptor classification. There are also developments hinting at the usefulness of allosteric modulators. Many drugs targeting adenosine receptors are in clinical trials, but the established therapeutic use is still very limited. PMID:21303899

  12. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a unifying model for the conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Gerold; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    There is a need to develop a contemporary and internationally accepted conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). The process of evolving such a definition can now rely on the unifying conceptual model and taxonomy of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and an ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy. The PRM section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) has endorsed the application of the ICF as a unifying conceptual model for PRM and supports the process of moving towards an "ICF-based conceptual description and according definitions of PRM". With this goal in mind, the authors have developed a first tentative conceptual description in co-operation with the professional practice committee of the UEMS-PRM-section. A respective brief definition describes PRM as the medical specialty that, based on the assessment of functioning and including the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, performs, applies and co-ordinates biomedical and engineering and a wide range of other interventions with the goal of optimizing functioning of people experiencing or likely to experience disability. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute to the process of achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of PRM by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  13. Hunting statistics: what data for what use? An account of an international workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Lebreton, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Hunting interacts with the underlying dynamics of game species in several different ways and is, at the same time, a source of valuable information not easily obtained from populations that are not subjected to hunting. Specific questions, including the sustainability of hunting activities, can be addressed using hunting statistics. Such investigations will frequently require that hunting statistics be combined with data from other sources of population-level information. Such reflections served as a basis for the meeting, ?Hunting Statistics: What Data for What Use,? held on January 15-18, 2001 in Saint-Benoist, France. We review here the 20 talks held during the workshop and the contribution of hunting statistics to our knowledge of the population dynamics of game species. Three specific topics (adaptive management, catch-effort models, and dynamics of exploited populations) were highlighted as important themes and are more extensively presented as boxes.

  14. [The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, third edition. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Includes bibliographies and index].

    PubMed

    Ito, Eiki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine Board of Directors published the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition (ICSD -3) in 2014. In the 3rd edition, the most drastic change in the content was the unity of secondary insomnia categories into single "chronic insomnia" category. In the central disorders of hypersomnolence section, the nomenclature for narcolepsy was changed to narcolepsy type 1 and type 2. In the sleep related breathing disorder section, several new diagnostic categories were added, and diagnosis of a sleep related hypoventilation disorder was set to require the confirmation of elevated PaCO2. This manuscript overviews the differences and the similarities in the content between the ICSD-3 and the former edition.

  15. Using International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to understand challenges in community reintegration of injured veterans.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda J; Allen, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study used the framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to understand the challenges faced by Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans as they reintegrate into the community. We conducted semistructured interviews with 14 injured veterans, 12 caregivers, and 14 clinicians. We used ICF taxonomy to code data and identify issues. We identified challenges in the following ICF domains: learning and applying knowledge; general tasks and demands; communication; mobility; self-care; domestic life; interpersonal interactions, major life areas; and community, social, and civic life. We found many similarities between the challenges faced by veterans with and without polytraumatic injuries, although veterans with polytraumatic injuries faced challenges of greater magnitude. Identifying community reintegration challenges early and promoting reintegration are important mandates for the Department of Veterans Affairs. The findings of this study are useful in understanding the needs of OEF/OIF veterans.

  16. What Is the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Why Is It Relevant to Audiology?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Carly; Grenness, Caitlin; Scarinci, Nerina; Hickson, Louise

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is widely used in disability and health sectors as a framework to describe the far-reaching effects of a range of health conditions on individuals. This biopsychosocial framework can be used to describe the experience of an individual in the components of body functions, body structures, and activities and participation, and it considers the influence of contextual factors (environmental and personal) on these components. Application of the ICF in audiology allows the use of a common language between health care professionals in both clinical and research settings. Furthermore, the ICF is promoted as a means of facilitating patient-centered care. In this article, the relevance and application of the ICF to audiology is described, along with clinical examples of its application in the assessment and management of children and adults with hearing loss. Importantly, the skills necessary for clinicians to apply the ICF effectively are discussed. PMID:27489397

  17. Automated feature extraction for the classification of human in vivo 13C NMR spectra using statistical pattern recognition and wavelets.

    PubMed

    Tate, A R; Watson, D; Eglen, S; Arvanitis, T N; Thomas, E L; Bell, J D

    1996-06-01

    If magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is to become a useful tool in clinical medicine, it will be necessary to find reliable methods for analyzing and classifying MRS data. Automated methods are desirable because they can remove user bias and can deal with large amounts of data, allowing the use of all the available information. In this study, techniques for automatically extracting features for the classification of MRS in vivo data are investigated. Among the techniques used were wavelets, principal component analysis, and linear discriminant function analysis. These techniques were tested on a set of 75 in vivo 13C spectra of human adipose tissue from subjects from three different dietary groups (vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore). It was found that it was possible to assign automatically 94% of the vegans and omnivores to their correct dietary groups, without the need for explicit identification or measurement of peaks.

  18. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  19. Descriptors for Competence: Towards an International Standard Classification for Skills and Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Plaimauer, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of already existing skills and competence ontologies to benefit European transparency tools and especially the implementation of the European Qualification Framework. Furthermore, it asks whether any of them could serve as a starting point to develop an International Standard…

  20. [Comparison of descriptive expressions between ILO U/C international classification of radiographs of pneumoconiosis 1971 and Japanese classification of pneumoconiosis law in Japan 1960 in pulmonary asbestosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Horai, Z

    1977-07-01

    In the explanatory text of the ILO U/C International classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis (1971) sent to Japan in 1973, items of its expression on pulmonary asbestosis were analyzed by the author. On the other hand, items of Japanese Asbestosis Classification of Pneumoconiosis Law were also analyzed. The ILO U/C International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis (1971) have some confused words. As to pulmonary asbestosis, an expression of irregular opacities is used, but the fundamental X-ray opacities such as linear opacities are forgot in the description. The X-ray findings of the pulmonary asbestosis are divided into 3 types as s, t and u. It is, however, difficult in practice to divide X-ray findings of the pulmonary asbestosis into such types. The classification of X-ray findings of the pulmonary asbestosis in the Japanese Pneumoconiosis Law is based on the classification worked out by many investigators i; the past, providing for simplicity and ease of handling.

  1. High-frequency normal-mode statistics in shallow water: the combined effect of random surface and internal waves.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A

    2015-05-01

    In an earlier article, the statistical properties of mode propagation were studied at a frequency of 1 kHz in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves, using a hybrid transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulations. Here, the analysis is extended to include the effects of random linear surface waves, in isolation and in combination with internal waves. Mode coupling rates for both surface and internal waves are found to be significant, but strongly dependent on mode number. Mode phase randomization by surface waves is found to be dominated by coupling effects, and therefore a full transport theory treatment of the range evolution of the cross mode coherence matrix is needed. The second-moment of mode amplitudes is calculated using transport theory, thereby providing the mean intensity while the fourth-moment is calculated using Monte Carlo simulations, which provides the scintillation index. The transport theory results for second-moment statistics are shown to closely reproduce Monte Carlo simulations. Both surface waves and internal waves strongly influence the acoustic field fluctuations.

  2. Non-destructive characterisation and classification of ceramic artefacts using pEDXRF and statistical pattern recognition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (pEDXRF) spectrometry analysis was applied for the characterisation of archaeological ceramic findings from three Neolithic sites in Serbia. Two dimension reduction techniques, principal component analysis (PCA) and scattering matrices-based dimension reduction were used to examine the possible classification of those findings, and to extract the most discriminant features. Results A decision-making procedure is proposed, whose goal is to classify unknown ceramic findings based on their elemental compositions derived by pEDXRF spectrometry. As a major part of decision-making procedure, the possibilities of two dimension reduction methods were tested. Scattering matrices-based dimension reduction was found to be the more efficient method for the purpose. Linear classifiers designed based on the desired output allowed for 7 of 8 unknown samples from the test set to be correctly classified. Conclusions Based on the results, the conclusion is that despite the constraints typical of the applied analytical technique, the elemental composition can be considered as viable information in provenience studies. With a fully-developed procedure, ceramic artefacts can be classified based on their elemental composition and well-known provenance. PMID:22978788

  3. International Myeloma Working Group molecular classification of multiple myeloma: spotlight review

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, R; Bergsagel, PL; Drach, J; Shaughnessy, J.; Gutierrez, N; Stewart, AK; Morgan, G; Van Ness, B; Chesi, M; Minvielle, S; Neri, A; Barlogie, B; Kuehl, WM; Liebisch, P; Davies, F; Chen-Kiang, S; Durie, BGM; Carrasco, R; Sezer, Orhan; Reiman, Tony; Pilarski, Linda; Avet-Loiseau, H

    2010-01-01

    Myeloma is a malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. Although morphologically similar, several subtypes of the disease have been identified at the genetic and molecular level. These genetic subtypes are associated with unique clinico-pathological features and dissimilar outcome. At the top hierarchical level, myeloma can be divided into hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid subtypes. The latter is mainly composed of cases harboring IgH translocations, generally associated with more aggressive clinical features and shorter survival. The three main IgH translocations in myeloma are the t(11;14)(q13;q32), t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23). Trisomies and a more indolent form of the disease characterize hyperdiploid myeloma. A number of genetic progression factors have been identified including deletions of chromosomes 13 and 17 and abnormalities of chromosome 1 (1p deletion and 1q amplification). Other key drivers of cell survival and proliferation have also been identified such as nuclear factor- B-activating mutations and other deregulation factors for the cyclin-dependent pathways regulators. Further understanding of the biological subtypes of the disease has come from the application of novel techniques such as gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The combination of data arising from these studies and that previously elucidated through other mechanisms allows for most myeloma cases to be classified under one of several genetic subtypes. This paper proposes a framework for the classification of myeloma subtypes and provides recommendations for genetic testing. This group proposes that genetic testing needs to be incorporated into daily clinical practice and also as an essential component of all ongoing and future clinical trials. PMID:19798094

  4. Editorial: International Conference on “Unconventional Applications of Statistical Physics”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In his presidential address before the British Association in 1871, William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) said, “the greatest achievement yet made in molecular theory of the properties of matter is the kinetic theory of gases, shadowed forth by Lucretius, definitely stated by Daniel Bernoulli, largely developed by Herapath, made a reality by Joule, and worked out to its present advanced state by Clausius and Maxwell”. Then, in 1889, in an obituary tribute to Rudolf Clausius, Josiah Willard Gibbs wrote that the kinetic theory of gases “is mainly the work of three men, Clausius, Maxwell and Boltzmann”. However, it was Gibbs himself who put statistical mechanics on a solid foundation in 1902 by developing the general formalisms in his classic book “Elementary Principles of Statistical Mechanics”. These formalisms were not restricted merely to gases but were applicable to all forms of matter. But, despite relentless efforts of statistical physicists over the last one century, an equally strong foundation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics remains elusive.

  5. The Coming of Age of Statistics Education in New Zealand, and Its Influence Internationally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Sharleen

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand has been leading the world in terms of the data handling, and in more recent years, data visualisation approach in its school statistics curriculum. In 2013, bootstrapping and randomisation were added to the senior secondary school (Ministry of Education 2012). This paper gives an historical perspective of the people and groups that…

  6. Comparison of game-related statistics in men's international championships between winning and losing teams according to margin of victory.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jose M; Escalantel, Yolanda; Madera, Joaquin; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare water polo game-related statistics by game outcome (winning and losing teams) and margins of victory (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games), and (ii) to identify characteristics that mark the differences in performances for each group of margin of victory. The game-related statistics of the 308 men's matches played in seven International Championships (Olympic Games, World and European Championships) were analysed. A cluster analysis established three groups (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games) according to the margin of victory. Differences between game outcomes (winning or losing teams) and margins of victory (close, unbalanced, and very unbalanced games) were determined using the chi-squared statistic, also calculating the effect sizes of the differences. A discriminant analysis was then performed applying the sample-splitting method according to game outcome (winning and losing teams) by margin of victory. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each final score group, with 7 (offensive and defensive) variables differentiating winners from losers in close games, 16 in unbalanced games, and 11 in very unbalanced games. In all three types of game, the game-related statistics were shown to discriminate performance (85% or more), with two variables being discriminatory by game outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three cases: shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots. PMID:25420372

  7. Comparison of game-related statistics in men's international championships between winning and losing teams according to margin of victory.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jose M; Escalantel, Yolanda; Madera, Joaquin; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare water polo game-related statistics by game outcome (winning and losing teams) and margins of victory (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games), and (ii) to identify characteristics that mark the differences in performances for each group of margin of victory. The game-related statistics of the 308 men's matches played in seven International Championships (Olympic Games, World and European Championships) were analysed. A cluster analysis established three groups (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games) according to the margin of victory. Differences between game outcomes (winning or losing teams) and margins of victory (close, unbalanced, and very unbalanced games) were determined using the chi-squared statistic, also calculating the effect sizes of the differences. A discriminant analysis was then performed applying the sample-splitting method according to game outcome (winning and losing teams) by margin of victory. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each final score group, with 7 (offensive and defensive) variables differentiating winners from losers in close games, 16 in unbalanced games, and 11 in very unbalanced games. In all three types of game, the game-related statistics were shown to discriminate performance (85% or more), with two variables being discriminatory by game outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three cases: shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots.

  8. Relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability: Children & Youth Version in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs.

    PubMed

    Bagatto, Marlene P; Moodie, Sheila T

    2016-08-01

    Early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs have been guided by principles from the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing and an international consensus of best practice principles for family-centered early intervention. Both resources provide a solid foundation from which to design, implement, and sustain a high-quality, family-centered EHDI program. As a result, infants born with permanent hearing loss and their families will have the support they need to develop communication skills. These families also will benefit from programs that align with the framework offered by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children & Youth Version (ICF-CY). Within this framework, health and functioning is defined and measured by describing the consequences of the health condition (i.e., hearing loss) in terms of body function, structures, activity, and participation as well as social aspects of the child. This article describes the relevance of the ICF-CY for EHDI programs and offers a modified approach by including aspects of quality of life and human development across time.

  9. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): a unifying model for the conceptual description of the rehabilitation strategy.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    An important basis for the successful development of rehabilitation practice and research is a conceptually sound description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy based on a universally accepted conceptual model and taxonomy of human functioning. With the approval of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by the World Health Assembly in 2001 and the reference to the ICF in the World Health Assembly's resolution on "Disability, including prevention, management and rehabilitation" in 2005, we can now rely on a universally accepted conceptual model. It is thus time to initiate the process of evolving an ICF-based conceptual description that can serve as a basis for similar conceptual descriptions and according definitions of the professions applying the rehabilitation strategy and of distinct scientific fields of human functioning and rehabilitation research. In co-operation with the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) and its professional practice committee, we present a first tentative version of an ICF-based conceptual description in this paper. A brief definition describes rehabilitation as the health strategy applied by PRM and professionals in the health sector and across other sectors that aims to enable people with health conditions experiencing or likely to experience disability to achieve and maintain optimal functioning in interaction with the environment. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute towards achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  10. Relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability: Children & Youth Version in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Programs.

    PubMed

    Bagatto, Marlene P; Moodie, Sheila T

    2016-08-01

    Early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs have been guided by principles from the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing and an international consensus of best practice principles for family-centered early intervention. Both resources provide a solid foundation from which to design, implement, and sustain a high-quality, family-centered EHDI program. As a result, infants born with permanent hearing loss and their families will have the support they need to develop communication skills. These families also will benefit from programs that align with the framework offered by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children & Youth Version (ICF-CY). Within this framework, health and functioning is defined and measured by describing the consequences of the health condition (i.e., hearing loss) in terms of body function, structures, activity, and participation as well as social aspects of the child. This article describes the relevance of the ICF-CY for EHDI programs and offers a modified approach by including aspects of quality of life and human development across time. PMID:27489403

  11. Application of Different Statistical Techniques in Integrated Logistics Support of the International Space Station Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepehry-Fard, F.; Coulthard, Maurice H.

    1995-01-01

    The process to predict the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as mean time between failures (MTBF) over time must be one that will not in turn introduce uncontrolled deviation in the results of the ILS analysis such as life cycle cost spares calculation, etc. A minor deviation in the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as MTBF over time will have a significant impact on the logistics resources demands, International Space Station availability, and maintenance support costs. It is the objective of this report to identify the magnitude of the expected enhancement in the accuracy of the results for the International Space Station reliability and maintainability data packages by providing examples. These examples partially portray the necessary information hy evaluating the impact of the said enhancements on the life cycle cost and the availability of the International Space Station.

  12. Weight Bias Internalization Scale: Psychometric properties using alternative weight status classification approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Morgan S; Dedrick, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    The Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) was developed to facilitate systematic investigation of internalized weight bias, but the English version has not undergone confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Additionally, it is unclear whether the measure can be used when participants are grouped based on self-perceived versus body mass index (BMI)-based weight status. The present study evaluated the WBIS in a sample of 243 male and female undergraduate students who were overweight/obese as classified by self-perception or BMI. After exclusion of Item 1 due to poor item-to-total correlation, Cronbach's alphas were .92 and .94 for the perception-based and BMI-based groupings, respectively. CFAs using the reduced 10-item scale with addition of modifications for correlated errors resulted in acceptable model fit for the one-factor model in both groupings. Findings suggest psychometric properties of the modified WBIS are acceptable and are similar for overweight/obese participants grouped by either perceived weight status or BMI. PMID:26907913

  13. Relationships between World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" Constructs and Participation in Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A.; Chan, Fong; Brooks, Jessica; Bezyak, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the World Health Organization "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health" (ICF) constructs as correlates of community participation of people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). Methods: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlational techniques was used to…

  14. [Vancouver classification of renal tumors: Recommendations of the 2012 consensus conference of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Delahunt, B; Srigley, J R; Lüders, C; Lunkenheimer, J-M; Gevensleben, H; Thiesler, T; Montironi, R; Egevad, L

    2015-05-01

    The 2012 consensus conference of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) has formulated recommendations on classification, prognostic factors and staging as well as immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology of renal tumors. Agreement was reached on the recognition of five new tumor entities: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic kidney disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor family RCC, in particular t(6;11) RCC and hereditary leiomyomatosis-associated RCC. In addition three rare forms of carcinoma were considered as emerging or provisional entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC, succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation RCC. In the new ISUP Vancouver classification, modifications to the existing 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) specifications are also suggested. Tumor morphology, a differentiation between sarcomatoid and rhabdoid and tumor necrosis were emphasized as being significant prognostic parameters for RCC. The consensus ISUP grading system assigns clear cell and papillary RCCs to grades 1-3 due to nucleolar prominence and grade 4 is reserved for cases with extreme nuclear pleomorphism, sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation. Furthermore, consensus guidelines were established for the preparation of samples. For example, agreement was also reached that renal sinus invasion is diagnosed when the tumor is in direct contact with the fatty tissue or loose connective tissue of the sinus (intrarenal peripelvic fat) or when endothelialized cavities within the renal sinus are invaded by the tumor, independent of the size. The importance of biomarkers for the diagnostics or prognosis of renal tumors was also emphasized and marker profiles were formulated for use in specific differential diagnostics.

  15. Health professionals identify components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in questionnaires for the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Philbois, Stella V.; Martins, Jaqueline; Souza, Cesário S.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Oliveira, Anamaria S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several Brazilian studies have addressed the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), but few have analyzed the knowledge of the health professionals with regards to the ICF. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the classification of the items in the Brazilian-Portuguese versions of The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and The Disabilities Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires, obtained from health professionals who worked with patients having upper limb injuries, could be related to ICF components as defined by others studies. METHOD: There were 4 participants for the group "professionals with high familiarity of the ICF (PHF)" and 19 for the group of "professionals with some or no familiarity of the ICF (PSNF)". The participants judged whether the items on the two questionnaires belonged to the ICF body function, body structure or activity-participation component, and marked a confidence level for each trial using a numerical scale ranging from zero to 10. The items were classified by the discriminant content validity method using the Student'st-test and the Hochberg correction. The ratings were compared to the literature by the percentage of agreement and Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: The percentage of agreement of the rating from the PSNF and the PHF groups with the literature was equal to or greater than 77%. For the DASH, the agreement of the PSNF and PHF groups with the literature were, respectively, moderate (Kappa=0.46 to 0.48) and substantial (Kappa=0.62 to 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals were able to correlate the three components of the ICF for most items on the 2 questionnaires, demonstrating some ease of understanding the ICF components. However, the relation of concept of pain with body function component is not clear for professional and deserves a more attentive approach. PMID:26786076

  16. A comprehensive classification of complex statistical systems and an axiomatic derivation of their entropy and distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, R.; Thurner, S.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the hope that the thermodynamical framework might be extended to strongly interacting statistical systems —complex systems in particular— a number of generalized entropies has been proposed in the past. So far the understanding of their fundamental origin has remained unclear. Here we address this question from first principles. We start by observing that many statistical systems fulfill a set of three general conditions (Shannon-Khinchin axioms, K1-K3). A fourth condition (separability) holds for non-interacting, uncorrelated or Markovian systems only (Shannon-Khinchin axiom, K4). If all four axioms hold the Shannon theorem provides a unique entropy, S=\\sum_i^W p_i \\ln p_i , i.e. Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. Here we ask about the consequences of violating the 4th axiom while assuming the first three to hold. By a simple scaling argument we prove that under these conditions each statistical system is characterized by a unique pair of scaling exponents (c, d) in the large size limit. These exponents define equivalence classes for all interacting and non-interacting systems and parametrize a unique entropy, S_{c,d}\\propto \\sum_i ^W \\Gamma(d+1, 1- c \\ln p_i) , where Γ(a,b) is the incomplete Gamma function. It covers all systems respecting K1-K3. A series of known entropies can be classified in terms of these equivalence classes. Corresponding distribution functions are special forms of Lambert-{\\cal W} exponentials containing —as special cases— Boltzmann, stretched exponential and Tsallis distributions (power laws) —all widely abundant in Nature. In the derivation we assume S=\\sum_i g(p_i) , with g some function, however more general entropic forms can be classified along the same lines. This is to our knowledge the first ab initio justification for generalized entropies. We discuss a physical example displaying two sets of scaling exponents depending on the external parameters.

  17. Seasonal precipitation forecasts for selected regions in West Africa using circulation type classifications in combination with further statistical approaches - Conceptual framework and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliefernicht, Jan; Laux, Patrik; Waongo, Moussa; Kunstmann, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Providing valuable forecasts of the seasonal precipitation amount for the upcoming rainy season is one of the big challenges for the national weather services in West Africa. Every year a harmonized forecast of the seasonal precipitation amount for the West African region is issued by the national weather services within the PRESAO framework. The PREASO forecast is based on various statistical approaches ranging from a simple subjective analog method based on the experiences of a meteorological expert to objective regression-based approaches by using various sources of input information such as predicted monsoon winds or observed sea surface temperature anomalies close to the West African coastline. The objective of this study is to perform an evaluation of these techniques for selected West African regions and to introduce classification techniques in the current operational practices and to combine these approaches with further techniques for an additional refinement of the forecasting procedure. We use a fuzzy-rule based technique for a classification of (sub-) monthly large-scale atmospheric and oceanic patterns which are combined to further statistical approaches such as an analog method and a data depth approach for the prediction of the (sub-) seasonal precipitation amounts and additional precipitation indices. The study regions are located from the Edges of the Sahel region in the North of Burkina Faso to the coastline of Ghana. A novel precipitation archive based on daily observations provided by the meteorological services of Burkina Faso and Ghana is the basis for the predictands and is used as reference for model evaluation. The performance of the approach is evaluated over a long period (e.g. 50 years) using cross-validation techniques and sophisticated verification measures for an evaluation of a probability forecast. The precipitation forecast of the classification techniques are also compared to the techniques of the PREASAO community, the

  18. A statistical analysis of the internal organ weights of normal Japanese people

    SciTech Connect

    Ogiu, Nobuko; Nakamura, Yuji; Ogiu, Toshiaki

    1997-03-01

    Correlation of weights of various organs with age, body weight, and/or body height was statistically analyzed using data on the Japanese physique collected by the Medico-Legal Society from Universities and Research Institutes in almost all areas of Japan. After exclusion of unsuitable individual data for statistical analysis, findings for 4,667 Japanese, aged 0-95 y, including 3,023 males and 1,644 females were used in the present study. Analyses of age-dependent changes in weights of the brain, heart, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, thyroid gland and adrenal gland and also of correlations between organ weights and body height, weight, or surface area were carried out. It was concluded that organ weights in the growing generation (under 19 y) generally increased with a coefficient expressed as (body height X body weight{sup 0.5}). Because clear age-dependent changes were not observed in adults over 20 y, they were classified into 4 physical types, thin, standard, plump and obese, and the relations of organ weights with these physical types were assessed. Some organs were relatively heavier in fat groups and light in thin individuals, or vice versa. 36 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Functionality in Women with Breast Cancer: The Use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento de Carvalho, Flávia; Bergmann, Anke; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the functionality of women diagnosed with breast cancer according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). [Subjects and Methods] This was a cross-sectional study. We applied instruments consistent with the summary of ICF codes for breast cancer: quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL), upper limb symptoms and function (DASH), social support, physical examination and functional medical record data. [Results] The study included 105 women who were 55 years old and subjected to surgical treatment within an average of 1.63 year previously. The ‘function’ component considered in the WHOQOL, the DASH and physical examination. There were high prevalences of positive responses for most codes, and only b130, d430, d445, d640, d650, d920 and codes of environmental factors considered by the Social Support Questionnaire showed high prevalences of negative responses (47.6%, 61%, 43.8%, 63.8%, 56.2%, 52.4%, and 35.2%, respectively). [Conclusion] There was a lower prevalence of disability, with the exception of issues related to strenuous activity and load. Some findings showed conflicting results between different instruments that measure the same code, and studies that propose more accurate tools and are able to consider the ICF codes specific to this pathology are necessary. PMID:24926139

  20. Crossmapping of Nursing Problem and Action Statements in Telephone Nursing Consultation Documentations with International Classification for Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study is to cross-map telephone nursing consultation documentations with International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP; ver. 1.0 concepts). Methods The narrative telephone nursing consultation documentations of 170 ophthalmology nursing unit patients were analyzed. The nursing statements were examined and cross-mapped with the Korean version of the ICNP ver. 1.0. If all the concepts of a statement were mapped to ICNP concepts, it was classified as 'completely mapped'. If any concept of a statement wasnot mapped, it was classified as 'partially mapped'. If none of the concepts were mapped, it was classified as 'not mapped'. Results A total of 738 statements wereused for documenting telephone nursing consultations. These statements were divided into 3 groups according to their content: 1) 294 nursing phenomena-related statements (72 unique statements), 2) 440 nursing actions-related statements (76 unique statements), and 3) 4 other statements (2 unique statements). In total, 189 unique nursing concepts extracted from 150 unique statements and 108 concepts (62.44%) were mapped onto ICNP concepts. Conclusions This study demonstrated the feasibility of computerizing narrative nursing documentations for electronic telephone triagein the ophthalmology nursing unit. PMID:21818446

  1. Problems in functioning from the patient perspective using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference.

    PubMed

    Gradinger, Felix; Köhler, Barbara; Khatami, Ramin; Mathis, Johannes; Cieza, Alarcos; Bassetti, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a qualitative, multicenter study using a focus group design to explore the lived experiences of persons with any kind of primary sleep disorder with regard to functioning and contextual factors using six open-ended questions related to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) components. We classified the results using the ICF as a frame of reference. We identified the meaningful concepts within the transcribed data and then linked them to ICF categories according to established linking rules. The six focus groups with 27 participants yielded a total of 6986 relevant concepts, which were linked to a total of 168 different second-level ICF categories. From the patient perspective, the ICF components: (1) Body Functions; (2) Activities & Participation; and (3) Environmental Factors were equally represented; while (4) Body Structures appeared poignantly less frequently. Out of the total number of concepts, 1843 concepts (26%) were assigned to the ICF component Personal Factors, which is not yet classified but could indicate important aspects of resource management and strategy development of those who have a sleep disorder. Therefore, treatment of patients with sleep disorders must not be limited to anatomical and (patho-)physiological changes, but should also consider a more comprehensive view that includes patient's demands, strategies and resources in daily life and the contextual circumstances surrounding the individual.

  2. The Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Functional Auditory Consequences of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Werff, Kathy R Vander

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews the auditory consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) within the context of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Because of growing awareness of mTBI as a public health concern and the diverse and heterogeneous nature of the individual consequences, it is important to provide audiologists and other health care providers with a better understanding of potential implications in the assessment of levels of function and disability for individual interdisciplinary remediation planning. In consideration of body structures and function, the mechanisms of injury that may result in peripheral or central auditory dysfunction in mTBI are reviewed, along with a broader scope of effects of injury to the brain. The activity limitations and participation restrictions that may affect assessment and management in the context of an individual's personal factors and their environment are considered. Finally, a review of management strategies for mTBI from an audiological perspective as part of a multidisciplinary team is included. PMID:27489400

  3. Hearing and Cognitive Impairment and the Role of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a Rehabilitation Framework.

    PubMed

    Lind, Christopher; Meyer, Carly; Young, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has been applied widely in the literature to describe and differentiate the broad implications of hearing impairment (HI) and cognitive impairment (CI) on communication. As CI and HI are largely age-related conditions, the likelihood of comorbidity of these conditions is high. In the context of an aging population, the prevalence of comorbidity is likely to rise, yet much of the clinical assessment and intervention in HI and CI occur separately. The benefit of addressing the dual impact of these conditions is of increasing clinical importance for all clinicians working with older adults and for audiologists and speech pathologists in particular. In this article, the ICF model will be applied to explore the everyday implications of HI and CI. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the ICF model are explored with particular respect to communication assessment and intervention options. The potential benefit of combining activity- and participation-focused interventions currently offered for HI and CI independently is examined. PMID:27489399

  4. Assessing the accuracy of the International Classification of Diseases codes to identify abusive head trauma: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rachel P; Parks, Sharyn; Fromkin, Janet; Rubin, Pamela; Pecora, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy of an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code-based operational case definition for abusive head trauma (AHT). Methods Subjects were children <5 years of age evaluated for AHT by a hospital-based Child Protection Team (CPT) at a tertiary care paediatric hospital with a completely electronic medical record (EMR) system. Subjects were designated as non-AHT traumatic brain injury (TBI) or AHT based on whether the CPT determined that the injuries were due to AHT. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICD-based definition were calculated. Results There were 223 children evaluated for AHT: 117 AHT and 106 non-AHT TBI. The sensitivity and specificity of the ICD-based operational case definition were 92% (95% CI 85.8 to 96.2) and 96% (95% CI 92.3 to 99.7), respectively. All errors in sensitivity and three of the four specificity errors were due to coder error; one specificity error was a physician error. Conclusions In a paediatric tertiary care hospital with an EMR system, the accuracy of an ICD-based case definition for AHT was high. Additional studies are needed to assess the accuracy of this definition in all types of hospitals in which children with AHT are cared for. PMID:24167034

  5. Statistical tools and control of internal lubricant content of inhalation grade HPMC capsules during manufacture.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Guillermo; Díez, Fernando; Gassó, María T; Jones, Brian E; Martín-Portugués, Rafael; Ramiro-Aparicio, Juan

    2016-04-30

    The internal lubricant content (ILC) of inhalation grade HPMC capsules is a key factor to ensure good powder release when the patient inhales a medicine from a dry powder inhaler (DPI). Powder release from capsules has been shown to be influenced by the ILC. The characteristics used to measure this are the emitted dose, fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter. In addition the ILC level is critical for capsule shell manufacture because it is an essential part of the process that cannot work without it. An experiment has been applied to the manufacture of inhalation capsules with the required ILC. A full factorial model was used to identify the controlling factors and from this a linear model has been proposed to improve control of the process. PMID:26899981

  6. Report of International NanoSPD Steering Committee and statistics on recent NanoSPD activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    Abstract. The Université de Lorraine in Metz, France, is the selected site for the 6th International Conference on Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation (NanoSPD6) following a series of five earlier conferences. This introductory paper reports on several major developments in NanoSPD activities as well as on very recent NanoSPD citation data which confirm the continued growth and expansion of this important research area. Close attention is given to the topics of workshops, conferences and seminars organized during these last three years as well as on books and reviews published prior to the NanoSPD6 conference. A special concern of the committee is in introducing and discussing the appropriate terminology to be applied in this new field of materials science and engineering.

  7. International migration beyond gravity: A statistical model for use in population projections

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Joel E.; Roig, Marta; Reuman, Daniel C.; GoGwilt, Cai

    2008-01-01

    International migration will play an increasing role in the demographic future of most nations if fertility continues to decline globally. We developed an algorithm to project future numbers of international migrants from any country or region to any other. The proposed generalized linear model (GLM) used geographic and demographic independent variables only (the population and area of origins and destinations of migrants, the distance between origin and destination, the calendar year, and indicator variables to quantify nonrandom characteristics of individual countries). The dependent variable, yearly numbers of migrants, was quantified by 43653 reports from 11 countries of migration from 228 origins and to 195 destinations during 1960–2004. The final GLM based on all data was selected by the Bayesian information criterion. The number of migrants per year from origin to destination was proportional to (population of origin)0.86(area of origin)−0.21(population of destination)0.36(distance)−0.97, multiplied by functions of year and country-specific indicator variables. The number of emigrants from an origin depended on both its population and its population density. For a variable initial year and a fixed terminal year 2004, the parameter estimates appeared stable. Multiple R2, the fraction of variation in log numbers of migrants accounted for by the starting model, improved gradually with recentness of the data: R2 = 0.57 for data from 1960 to 2004, R2 = 0.59 for 1985–2004, R2 = 0.61 for 1995–2004, and R2 = 0.64 for 2000–2004. The migration estimates generated by the model may be embedded in deterministic or stochastic population projections. PMID:18824693

  8. High frequency normal mode statistics in a shallow water waveguide: the effect of random linear internal waves.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A

    2014-07-01

    Using transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulation, the statistical properties of mode propagation at a frequency of 1 kHz are studied in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves. The environment is typical of summer conditions in the mid-Atlantic bight during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. Observables of interest include the second and fourth moments of the mode amplitudes, which are relevant to full-field mean intensity and scintillation index. It is found that mode phase randomization has a strong adiabatic component while at the same time mode coupling rates are significant. As a consequence, a computationally efficient transport theory is presented, which models cross-mode correlation adiabatically, but accounts for mode coupling using the mode energy equations of Creamer [(1996). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2825-2838]. The theory also has closed-form expressions for the internal wave scattering matrix and a correction for an edge effect. The hybrid transport theory is shown to accurately reproduce many statistical quantities from the Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  10. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  11. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required.

  12. Statistical approaches for identifying air pollutant mixtures associated with aircraft departures at Los Angeles International Airport.

    PubMed

    Diez, David M; Dominici, Francesca; Zarubiak, Darcy; Levy, Jonathan I

    2012-08-01

    Aircraft departures emit multiple pollutants common to other near-airport sources, making it challenging to determine relative source contributions. While there may not be unique tracers of aircraft emissions, examination of multipollutant concentration patterns in combination with flight activity can facilitate source attribution. In this study, we examine concentrations of continuously monitored air pollutants measured in 2008 near a departure runway at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), considering single-pollutant associations with landing and takeoff (LTO) of the aircraft (LTO activity, weighted by LTO cycle fuel burn), as well as multipollutant predictors of binary LTO activity. In the single-pollutant analyses, one-minute average concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide are positively associated with fuel burn-weighted departures on the runway proximate to the monitor, whereas ozone is negatively associated with fuel burn-weighted departures. In analyses in which the flight departure is predicted by pollutant concentrations, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the best individual predictors, but including all five pollutants greatly increases the power of prediction compared to single-pollutant models. Our results demonstrate that air pollution impacts from aircraft departures can be isolated using time-resolved monitoring data, and that combinations of simultaneously measured pollutants can best identify contributions from flight activity.

  13. [Vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane: classification and assessment of carcinogenicity, guidelines, threshold values, and standards developed by national and international entities, organizations, and agencies].

    PubMed

    Binetti, R; Costamagna, F M; Marcello, I

    2001-01-01

    International, national and regulatory classification, evaluation, guidelines and occupational exposure values regarding vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, carried out by European Union (EU). Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), World Health Organization (WHO), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and other institutions, have been considered with particular reference to the carcinogenic effects. Moreover information is reported in support of classification and evaluation and a short historical review since early 1970s, when first evidence that occupational exposure to VC could lead to angiosarcoma was published.

  14. The application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in psychiatry: possible reasons for the lack of implementation.

    PubMed

    Álvarezz, Ana Sabela

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) in the field of psychiatry in the last 10 yrs since the ICF was launched. The hypothesis is that the application of the ICF in the field of psychiatry has not been yet much explored. Therefore, the objective of this article was to provide reasons to explain the difficult implementation of the ICF in this field, which in turn, might account for the lack of studies. A literature search was conducted using the terms ICF AND mental illness OR mental disorders OR psychiatry in titles, abstracts, and key words of articles collected in the databases ISI Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect and Medline from 2001 to 2010. A total of 64 full-length articles were retrieved and reviewed, and among them, 13 were eventually included in this review because they were related to the ICF in psychiatry. Of the 13 studies identified concerning the ICF and mental disorders, 7 focus on the implementation of the ICF in the clinical practice, and 6 are theoretical papers discussing the potential benefits of the ICF for the field of psychiatry. A number of reasons can be suggested to explain the paucity of studies on the use of the ICF in psychiatry in the last 10 yrs: (1) the novelty of the ICF and the dominance of the medical model, (2) the belief that disability is just about physical conditions, (3) the influence of medication on capacity and performance, (4) the complex structure of the ICF, (5) the intrinsic limitations of the ICF, and (6) limitations in the accessibility of the ICF to some medical professionals.

  15. The inter-rater reliability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health set for spinal cord injury nursing.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Xie, Sumei; Li, Yun; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yingmin; Gao, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has potential to be used as a clinical assessment instrument directly. However, difficulty in operationalizing the ICF qualifiers has led to unsatisfactory inter-rater reliability of ICF instruments in previous studies. The ICF set for spinal cord injury (SCI) nursing contains a group of categories that can reflect the functioning of SCI patients from the perspective of nurses. The aim of this study was to explore the inter-rater reliability of the ICF set for SCI nursing. Detailed measuring guidelines were prepared for each category of the ICF set. Two trained nurses then used the ICF set to independently rate 40 SCI patients within the first 3 days after their admission. The results showed that the percentage of the observed agreement between the nurses ranged from 42.5 to 100% (median 75%, interquartile range 62.5-87.5%). The weighted κ ranged from -0.03 to 1.00 (median 0.68, interquartile range 0.45-0.84). A total of 50 categories (79.4%) showed weighted κ greater than 0.4 and 39 categories (61.9%) had weighted κ greater than 0.6. The medians of the weighted κ for the body functions, body structures, activity and participation and environmental factors components were 0.6, 0.64, 0.84, and 0.11, respectively. This study indicated that the inter-rater reliability of the ICF set for SCI nursing was acceptable. Establishment of detailed measuring guidelines could help reduce the differences between raters. Simpler and clearer measuring guidelines are recommended and the definitions of some categories need to be clarified in future studies. PMID:27171607

  16. Comparing contents of outcome measures in cerebral palsy using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF-CY): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schiariti, Veronica; Klassen, Anne F; Cieza, Alarcos; Sauve, Karen; O'Donnell, Maureen; Armstrong, Robert; Mâsse, Louise C

    2014-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning children and youth version (ICF-CY) provides a universal framework for defining and classifying functioning and disability in children worldwide. To facilitate the application of the ICF in practice, ICF based-tools like the "ICF Core Sets" are being developed. In the context of the development of the ICF-CY Core Sets for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), the aims of this study were as follows: to identify and compare the content of outcome measures used in studies of children with CP using the ICF-CY coding system; and to describe the most frequently addressed areas of functioning in those studies. We searched multiple databases likely to capture studies involving children with CP from January 1998 to March 2012. We included all English language articles that studied children aged 2-18 years and described an interventional or observational study. Constructs of the outcome measures identified in studies were linked to the ICF-CY by two trained professionals. We found 231 articles that described 238 outcome measures. The outcome measures contained 2193 concepts that were linked to the ICF-CY and covered 161 independent ICF-CY categories. Out of the 161 categories, 53 (33.5%) were related to body functions, 75 (46%) were related to activities/participation, 26 (16.1%) were related to environmental factors, and 7 (4.3%) were related to body structures. This systematic review provides information about content of measures that may guide researchers and clinicians in their selection of an outcome measure for use in a study and/or clinical practice with children with CP.

  17. Indian Psychiatric Society-World Psychiatric Association - World Health Organization survey on usefulness of International Classification of Diseases-10

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Maj, Mario; Reed, Geoffrey; Thirunavukarasu, M.; Garg, Uttam Chand

    2014-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of revising the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10). For increasing the acceptability of the ICD-11, WHO along with World Psychiatric Association (WPA), conducted a survey of psychiatrists around the world, in which 386 psychiatrists from India participated. Aim: To present the findings of “WPA-WHO Global Survey of Psychiatrists’ Attitudes toward Mental Disorders Classification” for Indian psychiatrists who participated in the survey as members of Indian Psychiatric Society. Methodology: The online survey was sent to qualified psychiatrists who are members of Indian Psychiatric Society and are residing in India. Results: Of the 1702 members who were urged to participate in the survey, 386 (22.7%) participated. Most(79%) of the psychiatrists opined that they use formal classificatory systems in their day-to-day clinical practice. ICD-10 was the most commonly (71%) followed classificatory system. Nearly half (48%) felt the need for only 10–30 categories for use in clinical settings and another 44% opined that 31-100 categories are required for use. Most of the participants (85%) suggested that a modified/simpler classificatory system should be designed for primary care practitioners. Similarly, the same number of participants (89%) argued that for maximum utility of a nosological system diagnostic criteria should provide flexible guidance that allows cultural variation and clinical judgement. About 75% opined that the diagnostic system they were using was difficult to apply across cultures. Conclusion: Findings of the survey suggest that classificatory systems are routinely used in day-to-day practice by most of the participating psychiatrists in India and most expect that future classificatory system should provide flexible guidance that allows cultural variation and clinical judgement. PMID:25568475

  18. Statistical parameters for gloss evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Juuti, Mikko

    2006-02-13

    The measurement of minute changes in local gloss has not been presented in international standards due to a lack of suitable glossmeters. The development of a diffractive-element-based glossmeter (DOG) made it possible to detect local variation of gloss from planar and complex-shaped surfaces. Hence, a demand for proper statistical gloss parameters for classifying surface quality by gloss, similar to the standardized surface roughness classification, has become necessary. In this letter, we define statistical gloss parameters and utilize them as an example in the characterization of gloss from metal surface roughness standards by the DOG.

  19. Power of mental health nursing research: a statistical analysis of studies in the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Happell, Brenda

    2013-02-01

    Having sufficient power to detect effect sizes of an expected magnitude is a core consideration when designing studies in which inferential statistics will be used. The main aim of this study was to investigate the statistical power in studies published in the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. From volumes 19 (2010) and 20 (2011) of the journal, studies were analysed for their power to detect small, medium, and large effect sizes, according to Cohen's guidelines. The power of the 23 studies included in this review to detect small, medium, and large effects was 0.34, 0.79, and 0.94, respectively. In 90% of papers, no adjustments for experiment-wise error were reported. With a median of nine inferential tests per paper, the mean experiment-wise error rate was 0.51. A priori power analyses were only reported in 17% of studies. Although effect sizes for correlations and regressions were routinely reported, effect sizes for other tests (χ(2)-tests, t-tests, ANOVA/MANOVA) were largely absent from the papers. All types of effect sizes were infrequently interpreted. Researchers are strongly encouraged to conduct power analyses when designing studies, and to avoid scattergun approaches to data analysis (i.e. undertaking large numbers of tests in the hope of finding 'significant' results). Because reviewing effect sizes is essential for determining the clinical significance of study findings, researchers would better serve the field of mental health nursing if they reported and interpreted effect sizes.

  20. From genus to phylum: large-subunit and internal transcribed spacer rRNA operon regions show similar classification accuracies influenced by database composition.

    PubMed

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Kuske, Cheryl R; Xie, Gary

    2014-02-01

    We compared the classification accuracy of two sections of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, individually and combined, and the 5' section (about 600 bp) of the large-subunit rRNA (LSU), using a naive Bayesian classifier and BLASTN. A hand-curated ITS-LSU training set of 1,091 sequences and a larger training set of 8,967 ITS region sequences were used. Of the factors evaluated, database composition and quality had the largest effect on classification accuracy, followed by fragment size and use of a bootstrap cutoff to improve classification confidence. The naive Bayesian classifier and BLASTN gave similar results at higher taxonomic levels, but the classifier was faster and more accurate at the genus level when a bootstrap cutoff was used. All of the ITS and LSU sections performed well (>97.7% accuracy) at higher taxonomic ranks from kingdom to family, and differences between them were small at the genus level (within 0.66 to 1.23%). When full-length sequence sections were used, the LSU outperformed the ITS1 and ITS2 fragments at the genus level, but the ITS1 and ITS2 showed higher accuracy when smaller fragment sizes of the same length and a 50% bootstrap cutoff were used. In a comparison using the larger ITS training set, ITS1 and ITS2 had very similar accuracy classification for fragments between 100 and 200 bp. Collectively, the results show that any of the ITS or LSU sections we tested provided comparable classification accuracy to the genus level and underscore the need for larger and more diverse classification training sets.

  1. A Consensus for Classification and Pathologic Reporting of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Associated Appendiceal Neoplasia: The Results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) Modified Delphi Process.

    PubMed

    Carr, Norman J; Cecil, Thomas D; Mohamed, Faheez; Sobin, Leslie H; Sugarbaker, Paul H; González-Moreno, Santiago; Taflampas, Panos; Chapman, Sara; Moran, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a complex disease with unique biological behavior that usually arises from appendiceal mucinous neoplasia. The classification of PMP and its primary appendiceal neoplasia is contentious, and an international modified Delphi consensus process was instigated to address terminology and definitions. A classification of mucinous appendiceal neoplasia was developed, and it was agreed that "mucinous adenocarcinoma" should be reserved for lesions with infiltrative invasion. The term "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was supported and it was agreed that "cystadenoma" should no longer be recommended. A new term of "high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was proposed for lesions without infiltrative invasion but with high-grade cytologic atypia. Serrated polyp with or without dysplasia was preferred for tumors with serrated features confined to the mucosa with an intact muscularis mucosae. Consensus was achieved on the pathologic classification of PMP, defined as the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia characterized by the redistribution phenomenon. Three categories of PMP were agreed-low grade, high grade, and high grade with signet ring cells. Acellular mucin should be classified separately. It was agreed that low-grade and high-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei should be considered synonymous with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, respectively. A checklist for the pathologic reporting of PMP and appendiceal mucinous neoplasms was also developed. By adopting the classifications and definitions that were agreed, different centers will be able to use uniform terminology that will allow meaningful comparison of their results.

  2. Assessing the Effectiveness of Statistical Classification Techniques in Predicting Future Employment of Participants in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Isaac D.

    2008-01-01

    Three classification techniques (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection [CHAID], Classification and Regression Tree [CART], and discriminant analysis) were tested to determine their accuracy in predicting Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program recipients' future employment. Technique evaluation was based on proportion of correctly…

  3. Validity of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision code for hospitalisation with hyponatraemia in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sonja; Shariff, Salimah Z; Fleet, Jamie L; Weir, Matthew A; Jain, Arsh K; Garg, Amit X

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis code for hyponatraemia (E87.1) in two settings: at presentation to the emergency department and at hospital admission. Design Population-based retrospective validation study. Setting Twelve hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2010. Participants Patients aged 66 years and older with serum sodium laboratory measurements at presentation to the emergency department (n=64 581) and at hospital admission (n=64 499). Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value comparing various ICD-10 diagnostic coding algorithms for hyponatraemia to serum sodium laboratory measurements (reference standard). Median serum sodium values comparing patients who were code positive and code negative for hyponatraemia. Results The sensitivity of hyponatraemia (defined by a serum sodium ≤132 mmol/l) for the best-performing ICD-10 coding algorithm was 7.5% at presentation to the emergency department (95% CI 7.0% to 8.2%) and 10.6% at hospital admission (95% CI 9.9% to 11.2%). Both specificities were greater than 99%. In the two settings, the positive predictive values were 96.4% (95% CI 94.6% to 97.6%) and 82.3% (95% CI 80.0% to 84.4%), while the negative predictive values were 89.2% (95% CI 89.0% to 89.5%) and 87.1% (95% CI 86.8% to 87.4%). In patients who were code positive for hyponatraemia, the median (IQR) serum sodium measurements were 123 (119–126) mmol/l and 125 (120–130) mmol/l in the two settings. In code negative patients, the measurements were 138 (136–140) mmol/l and 137 (135–139) mmol/l. Conclusions The ICD-10 diagnostic code for hyponatraemia differentiates between two groups of patients with distinct serum sodium measurements at both presentation to the emergency department and at hospital admission. However, these codes underestimate the true incidence of hyponatraemia

  4. Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Ketelaars, Cees; Kraijer, Dirk; Mulder, Erik; Volkmar, Fred; Minderaa, Ruud

    2004-04-01

    The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a substantial difference between younger and older children (5-8 vs. 8+ years). Compared with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR) classification of Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), both instruments measure AD or PDD validly and reliably. Even in low-functioning children the interrelationship between the instruments and the clinical classification was satisfactory. The combination of ADI-R and ADOS-G identifies AD or PDD, as described in the DSM-IV-TR, most appropriately. Both instruments seem to be of great value in the diagnostic process of PDD in children and adolescents with MR.

  5. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: an Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency 2015.

    PubMed

    Picard, Capucine; Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chatila, Talal; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Holland, Steven M; Klein, Christoph; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D; Oksenhendler, Eric; Puck, Jennifer M; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Tang, Mimi L K; Franco, Jose Luis; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2015-11-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies compiled by the Primary Immunodeficiency Expert Committee (PID EC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). In the two years since the previous version, 34 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. In this new version we continue to see the increasing overlap between immunodeficiency, as manifested by infection and/or malignancy, and immune dysregulation, as manifested by auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, and/or allergy. There is also an increased number of genetic defects that lead to susceptibility to specific organisms which reflects the finely tuned nature of immune defense systems. This classification is the most up to date catalogue of all known and published primary immunodeficiencies and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the genetic and molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases.

  6. Classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in South-eastern Europe: review of 632 cases from the international non-Hodgkin lymphoma classification project.

    PubMed

    Dotlic, Snjezana; Perry, Anamarija M; Petrusevska, Gordana; Fetica, Bogdan; Diebold, Jacques; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Nathwani, Bharat N; Boilesen, Eugene; Bast, Martin; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes varies around the world, but a systematic study of South-eastern Europe (SEEU) has never been done. Therefore, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in three SEEU countries--Croatia, Romania and Macedonia. Five expert haematopathologists reviewed 632 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed NHL from the three SEEU countries using the World Health Organization classification. The results were compared to 399 cases from North America (NA) and 580 cases from Western Europe (WEU). The proportions of B- and T-cell NHL and the sex distribution in SEEU were similar to WEU and NA. However, the median ages of patients with low- and high-grade B-NHL in SEEU (60 and 59 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively; P < 0·05). SEEU had a significantly lower proportion of low-grade B-NHL (46·6%) and higher proportion of high-grade B-NHL (44·5%) compared to both WEU (54·5% and 36·4%, respectively) and NA (56·1% and 34·3%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the relative frequencies of T-NHL subtypes. This study provides new insights into differences in the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in different geographic regions. Epidemiological studies are needed to better characterize and explain these differences.

  7. ICPC Multilingual Collaboratory: a Web- and Unicode-based system for distributed editing/translating/viewing of the multilingual International Classification of Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R P Channing; Sherwin, Ziying; Lamberts, Henk; Okkes, Inge M

    2004-01-01

    The International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) is a clinical classification containing 726 clinical concepts, available in over 20 languages, augmented by links to ICD-10 concepts. It is employed in clinical information systems in several European countries, Israel, Japan, and Australia. In translating ICPC, it has been challenging to manage the flow of multilingual information, maintain its quality, and optimize its portability, particularly in light of the numerous character encodings used to represent its content. The ICPC Multilingual Collaboratory (IMC) is a World Wide Web-based environment, created to allow the viewing, maintenance, and translation of ICPC content by a dispersed international editorial staff. Based upon open-source software, it represents ICPC content using the Unicode standard for character encoding. The system implements three interfaces to ICPC data: 1) a password-protected editorial interface which instantiates a hierarchical authority model and communication channels for review and control of content, including a means of up-loading new candidate translations; 2) an openly accessible read-only interface, with e-mail access to the editors (providing another level of content review); and, 3) a management interface for the system administrator. The completed system powerfully demonstrates the ability of the World Wide Web, open-source software, and Unicode to expedite and simplify international multilingual collaboration, even in a world in which Unicode support is incomplete on existing computing platforms. PMID:15360848

  8. 5th International ACC Symposium: Classification of Adrenocortical Cancers from Pathology to Integrated Genomics: Real Advances or Lost in Translation?

    PubMed

    de Krijger, Ronald E; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2016-02-01

    For the clinician, despite its rarity, adrenocortical cancer is a heterogeneous tumor both in term of steroid excess and tumor evolution. For patient management, it is crucial to have an accurate vision of this heterogeneity, in order to use a correct tumor classification. Pathology is the best way to classify operated adrenocortical tumors: to recognize their adrenocortical nature and to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. Among malignant tumors pathology also aims at prognosis assessment. Although progress has being made for prognosis assessment, there is still a need for improvement. Recent studies have established the value of Ki67 for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) prognostication, aiming also at standardization to reduce variability. The use of genomics to study adrenocortical tumors gives a very new insight in their pathogenesis and molecular classification. Genomics studies of ACC give now a clear description of the mRNA (transcriptome) and miRNA expression profile, as well as chromosomal and methylation alterations. Exome sequencing also established firmly the list of the main ACC driver genes. Interestingly, genomics study of ACC also revealed subtypes of malignant tumors with different pattern of molecular alterations, associated with different outcome. This leads to a new vision of adrenocortical tumors classification based on molecular analysis. Interestingly, these molecular classifications meet also the results of pathological analysis. This opens new perspectives on the development and use of various molecular tools to classify, along with pathological analysis, ACC, and guides patient management at the area of precision medicine. PMID:26676358

  9. Robert Spitzer and psychiatric classification: technical challenges and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Jacob, K S

    2016-01-01

    Dr Robert Leopold Spitzer (May 22, 1932-December 25, 2015), the architect of modern psychiatric diagnostic criteria and classification, died recently at the age of 83 in Seattle. Under his leadership, the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals (DSM) became the international standard. PMID:27260820

  10. Classification of Itch.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus has diverse forms of presentation and can appear not only on normal skin [International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) classification group II], but also in the company of dermatoses (IFSI classification group I). Scratching, a natural reflex, begins in response to itch. Enough damage can be done to the skin by scratching to cause changes in the primary clinical picture, often leading to a clinical picture predominated by the development of chronic scratch lesions (IFSI classification group III). An internationally recognized, standardized classification system was created by the IFSI to not only aid in clarifying terms and definitions, but also to harmonize the global nomenclature for itch. PMID:27578063

  11. Representing second opinion requests from primary care within the Brazilian tele-health program: international classification of primary care, second edition.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Melissa P; Santana, Filipe; de Araujo Novaes, Magdala; Shamenek, Frank S; Frieden, Lex; Iyengar, M Sriram

    2013-01-01

    Standardization of second opinion question-answer pairs with a classification system can be used to facilitate data sharing and reuse. The Brazilian telehealth program faces the problem of representing biomedical knowledge from the primary care second opinion demands generated by rural health care teams. The objective is to determine if one of the medical classification systems has a superior ability to standardize Portuguese-language second opinion question-answer pairs. Data from 2,638 second opinions from 2010 were randomly reduced to a 264 question-answer pair data set. The semantic meaning of the question-answer pairs was manually assigned to an International Classification of Primary Care, Second edition (ICPC2) code. Eight question-answer pairs did not contain sufficient medical semantic meaning to allow for mapping to an ICPC2 code; 53 question-answer pairs did contain sufficient medical semantic meaning for mapping, however an appropriate ICPC2 code did not exist; and 203 question-answer pairs did contain sufficient medical semantic meaning for mapping to an ICPC2 code. A review of the literature indicates that there is no baseline to compare the 77% success rate against.

  12. Classification, diagnosis, and approach to treatment for angioedema: consensus report from the Hereditary Angioedema International Working Group.

    PubMed

    Cicardi, M; Aberer, W; Banerji, A; Bas, M; Bernstein, J A; Bork, K; Caballero, T; Farkas, H; Grumach, A; Kaplan, A P; Riedl, M A; Triggiani, M; Zanichelli, A; Zuraw, B

    2014-05-01

    Angioedema is defined as localized and self-limiting edema of the subcutaneous and submucosal tissue, due to a temporary increase in vascular permeability caused by the release of vasoactive mediator(s). When angioedema recurs without significant wheals, the patient should be diagnosed to have angioedema as a distinct disease. In the absence of accepted classification, different types of angioedema are not uniquely identified. For this reason, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology gave its patronage to a consensus conference aimed at classifying angioedema. Four types of acquired and three types of hereditary angioedema were identified as separate forms from the analysis of the literature and were presented in detail at the meeting. Here, we summarize the analysis of the data and the resulting classification of angioedema.

  13. Mapping the Content of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Using the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Carole A; Escorpizo, Reuben; Cieza, Alarcos; Lai, Jin Shei; Stucki, Gerold; Ustun, T. Bedirhan; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Cella, David; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) is a U.S. National Institutes of Health initiative that has produced self-reported item banks for physical, mental, and social health. Objective To describe the content of PROMIS at the item level using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods All PROMIS adult items (publicly available as of 2012) were assigned to relevant ICF concepts. The content of the PROMIS adult item banks were then described using the mapped ICF code descriptors. Results The 1006 items in the PROMIS instruments could all be mapped to ICF concepts at the second level of classification, with the exception of 3 items of global or general health that mapped across the first-level classification of ICF activity and participation component (d categories). Individual PROMIS item banks mapped from 1 to 5 separate ICF codes indicating one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-one mappings between PROMIS item banks and ICF second level classification codes. PROMIS supports measurement of the majority of major concepts in the ICF Body Functions (b) and Activity & Participation (d) components using PROMIS item banks or subsets of PROMIS items that could, with care, be used to develop customized instruments. Given the focus of PROMIS is on measurement of person health outcomes, concepts in body structures (s) and some body functions (b), as well as many ICF environmental factor have minimal coverage in PROMIS. Discussion The PROMIS-ICF mapped items provide a basis for users to evaluate the ICF related content of specific PROMIS instruments, and to select PROMIS instruments in ICF based measurement applications. PMID:24760532

  14. The Effect of Unequal Samples, Heterogeneity of Covariance Matrices, and Number of Variables on Discriminant Analysis Classification Tables and Related Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Debra; Woehlke, Paula

    To assess the effect on discriminant analysis in terms of correct classification into two groups, the following parameters were systematically altered using Monte Carlo techniques: sample sizes; proportions of one group to the other; number of independent variables; and covariance matrices. The pairing of the off diagonals (or covariances) with…

  15. Validation of WHO classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) for myelodysplastic syndromes and comparison with the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). A study of the International Working Group for Prognosis in Myelodysplasia (IWG-PM).

    PubMed

    Della Porta, M G; Tuechler, H; Malcovati, L; Schanz, J; Sanz, G; Garcia-Manero, G; Solé, F; Bennett, J M; Bowen, D; Fenaux, P; Dreyfus, F; Kantarjian, H; Kuendgen, A; Levis, A; Cermak, J; Fonatsch, C; Le Beau, M M; Slovak, M L; Krieger, O; Luebbert, M; Maciejewski, J; Magalhaes, S M M; Miyazaki, Y; Pfeilstöcker, M; Sekeres, M A; Sperr, W R; Stauder, R; Tauro, S; Valent, P; Vallespi, T; van de Loosdrecht, A A; Germing, U; Haase, D; Greenberg, P L; Cazzola, M

    2015-07-01

    A risk-adapted treatment strategy is mandatory for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We refined the World Health Organization (WHO)-classification-based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) by determining the impact of the newer clinical and cytogenetic features, and we compared its prognostic power to that of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). A population of 5326 untreated MDS was considered. We analyzed single WPSS parameters and confirmed that the WHO classification and severe anemia provide important prognostic information in MDS. A strong correlation was found between the WPSS including the new cytogenetic risk stratification and WPSS adopting original criteria. We then compared WPSS with the IPSS-R prognostic system. A highly significant correlation was found between the WPSS and IPSS-R risk classifications. Discrepancies did occur among lower-risk patients in whom the number of dysplastic hematopoietic lineages as assessed by morphology did not reflect the severity of peripheral blood cytopenias and/or increased marrow blast count. Moreover, severe anemia has higher prognostic weight in the WPSS versus IPSS-R model. Overall, both systems well represent the prognostic risk of MDS patients defined by WHO morphologic criteria. This study provides relevant in formation for the implementation of risk-adapted strategies in MDS. PMID:25721895

  16. Quality classification of Spanish olive oils by untargeted gas chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and metabolomics-based statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Sales, C; Cervera, M I; Gil, R; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Beltran, J

    2017-02-01

    The novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source has been used in combination with gas chromatography (GC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for determination of volatile components of olive oil, enhancing its potential for classification of olive oil samples according to their quality using a metabolomics-based approach. The full-spectrum acquisition has allowed the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil samples, including Extra Virgin, Virgin and Lampante qualities. A dynamic headspace extraction with cartridge solvent elution was applied. The metabolomics strategy consisted of three different steps: a full mass spectral alignment of GC-MS data using MzMine 2.0, a multivariate analysis using Ez-Info and the creation of the statistical model with combinations of responses for molecular fragments. The model was finally validated using blind samples, obtaining an accuracy in oil classification of 70%, taking the official established method, "PANEL TEST", as reference.

  17. Comparison of Nine Statistical Model Based Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Dosing Algorithms Using the Racially Diverse International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium Cohort Database

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Li, Xi; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Objective Multiple linear regression (MLR) and machine learning techniques in pharmacogenetic algorithm-based warfarin dosing have been reported. However, performances of these algorithms in racially diverse group have never been objectively evaluated and compared. In this literature-based study, we compared the performances of eight machine learning techniques with those of MLR in a large, racially-diverse cohort. Methods MLR, artificial neural network (ANN), regression tree (RT), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), boosted regression tree (BRT), support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR), lasso regression (LAR) and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART) were applied in warfarin dose algorithms in a cohort from the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium database. Covariates obtained by stepwise regression from 80% of randomly selected patients were used to develop algorithms. To compare the performances of these algorithms, the mean percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of the actual dose (mean percentage within 20%) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated in the remaining 20% of patients. The performances of these techniques in different races, as well as the dose ranges of therapeutic warfarin were compared. Robust results were obtained after 100 rounds of resampling. Results BART, MARS and SVR were statistically indistinguishable and significantly out performed all the other approaches in the whole cohort (MAE: 8.84–8.96 mg/week, mean percentage within 20%: 45.88%–46.35%). In the White population, MARS and BART showed higher mean percentage within 20% and lower mean MAE than those of MLR (all p values < 0.05). In the Asian population, SVR, BART, MARS and LAR performed the same as MLR. MLR and LAR optimally performed among the Black population. When patients were grouped in terms of warfarin dose range, all machine learning techniques except ANN and LAR showed significantly

  18. International consensus classification of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy: a Task Force report from the ILAE Commission on Diagnostic Methods.

    PubMed

    Blümcke, Ingmar; Thom, Maria; Aronica, Eleonora; Armstrong, Dawna D; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda; Bien, Christian G; Cendes, Fernando; Coras, Roland; Cross, J Helen; Jacques, Thomas S; Kahane, Philippe; Mathern, Gary W; Miyata, Haijme; Moshé, Solomon L; Oz, Buge; Özkara, Çiğdem; Perucca, Emilio; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Wiebe, Samuel; Spreafico, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most frequent histopathology encountered in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Over the past decades, various attempts have been made to classify specific patterns of hippocampal neuronal cell loss and correlate subtypes with postsurgical outcome. However, no international consensus about definitions and terminology has been achieved. A task force reviewed previous classification schemes and proposes a system based on semiquantitative hippocampal cell loss patterns that can be applied in any histopathology laboratory. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement studies reached consensus to classify three types in anatomically well-preserved hippocampal specimens: HS International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) type 1 refers always to severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis predominantly in CA1 and CA4 regions, compared to CA1 predominant neuronal cell loss and gliosis (HS ILAE type 2), or CA4 predominant neuronal cell loss and gliosis (HS ILAE type 3). Surgical hippocampus specimens obtained from patients with TLE may also show normal content of neurons with reactive gliosis only (no-HS). HS ILAE type 1 is more often associated with a history of initial precipitating injuries before age 5 years, with early seizure onset, and favorable postsurgical seizure control. CA1 predominant HS ILAE type 2 and CA4 predominant HS ILAE type 3 have been studied less systematically so far, but some reports point to less favorable outcome, and to differences regarding epilepsy history, including age of seizure onset. The proposed international consensus classification will aid in the characterization of specific clinicopathologic syndromes, and explore variability in imaging and electrophysiology findings, and in postsurgical seizure control.

  19. An ontology-based exploration of the concepts and relationships in the activities and participation component of the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a classification of health and health-related issues, aimed at describing and measuring health and disability at both individual and population levels. Here we discuss a preliminary qualitative and quantitative analysis of the relationships used in the Activities and Participation component of ICF, and a preliminary mapping to SUMO (Suggested Upper Merged Ontology) concepts. The aim of the analysis is to identify potential logical problems within this component of ICF, and to understand whether activities and participation might be defined more formally than in the current version of ICF. Results In the relationship analysis, we used four predicates among those available in SUMO for processes (Patient, Instrument, Agent, and subProcess). While at the top level subsumption was used in most cases (90%), at the lower levels the percentage of other relationships rose to 41%. Chapters were heterogeneous in the relationships used and some of the leaves of the tree seemed to represent properties or parts of the parent concept rather than subclasses. Mapping of ICF to SUMO proved partially feasible, with the activity concepts being mapped mostly (but not totally) under the IntentionalProcess concept in SUMO. On the other hand, the participation concept has not been mapped to any upper level concept. Conclusions Our analysis of the relationships within ICF revealed issues related to confusion between classes and their properties, incorrect classifications, and overemphasis on subsumption, confirming what already observed by other researchers. However, it also suggested some properties for Activities that could be included in a more formal model: number of agents involved, the instrument used to carry out the activity, the object of the activity, complexity of the task, and an enumeration of relevant subtasks. PMID:22373520

  20. Using core sets of the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) to measure disability in vestibular disorders: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Grill, Eva; Furman, Joseph M; Alghwiri, Alia A; Müller, Martin; Whitney, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    Symptom frequency and severity in vestibular disorders often do not correlate well with patients' restrictions of activities of daily living and limitations of participation. Due to the lack of appropriate patient reported outcome measures (PRO), the extent of limitations and restrictions is mostly unknown. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a conceptual framework and classification to evaluate all aspects of health and disability. An ICF-based measure, the Vestibular and Participation Measure (VAP), was recently proposed. Also, an ICF Core Set for vertigo, dizziness and balance disorders was developed to describe what aspects of functioning should be measured. This study protocol describes the development and cross-cultural validation of a new measure, the VAP-extended (VAP-e), based on VAP and ICF Core Set on three continents. To determine objectivity and cross-cultural validity of the VAP and to find potentially redundant items, Rasch models will be used. The VAP-e will be created by modifying or adding items from the Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors component of the ICF Core Set. Reliability, objectivity and responsiveness of the VAP-e will be tested.

  1. Expression of a domain ontology model in unified modeling language for the World Health Organization International classification of impairment, disability, and handicap, version 2.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggieri, A. P.; Elkin, P. L.; Solbrig, H.; Chute, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    The International Classification of Impairment, Disability, and Handicap Version 2(ICIDH-2), an anticipated addition to the World Health Organization suite of terminologies, has been put forth as a means for standardized representation of generic health and/or functional status data. In an attempt to make explicit the ontology upon which ICIDH-2 is based the authors derived a concept model expressed as a Unified Modeling Language static class diagram through abstraction of concept-terms in the documentation provided with the Full Version Pre-Final Draft of ICIDH-2 (December 2000). ICIDH-2's semantic structure is analyzed and evaluated for its semantic consistency. Discussion is presented on the utility of domain ontology models in terminology development and potential roles ICIDH-2 might play, as it undergoes refinement towards a representational standard. It is intended that the proposed UML rendering will stimulate domain discourse and consensus that will lead to enhancement of conceptual clarity in the ICIDH-2 ontological hierarchy and further enable its study and development as a healthcare classification. PMID:11825252

  2. Enhanced capture of healthcare-related harms and injuries in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).

    PubMed

    Southern, Danielle A; Pincus, Harold A; Romano, Patrick S; Burnand, Bernard; Harrison, James; Forster, Alan J; Moskal, Lori; Quan, Hude; Droesler, Saskia E; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Colin, Cyrille; Gurevich, Yana; Brien, Susan E; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Üstün, Bedirhan; Ghali, William A

    2016-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) plans to submit the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) to the World Health Assembly in 2018. The WHO is working toward a revised classification system that has an enhanced ability to capture health concepts in a manner that reflects current scientific evidence and that is compatible with contemporary information systems. In this paper, we present recommendations made to the WHO by the ICD revision's Quality and Safety Topic Advisory Group (Q&S TAG) for a new conceptual approach to capturing healthcare-related harms and injuries in ICD-coded data. The Q&S TAG has grouped causes of healthcare-related harm and injuries into four categories that relate to the source of the event: (a) medications and substances, (b) procedures, (c) devices and (d) other aspects of care. Under the proposed multiple coding approach, one of these sources of harm must be coded as part of a cluster of three codes to depict, respectively, a healthcare activity as a 'source' of harm, a 'mode or mechanism' of harm and a consequence of the event summarized by these codes (i.e. injury or harm). Use of this framework depends on the implementation of a new and potentially powerful code-clustering mechanism in ICD-11. This new framework for coding healthcare-related harm has great potential to improve the clinical detail of adverse event descriptions, and the overall quality of coded health data.

  3. An investigation of the factors affecting handwriting articulation of school aged children with cerebral palsy based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to identify factors influencing handwriting articulation based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and to recommend effective evaluation and intervention strategies to improve the handwriting of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] The subjects were 96 elementary school children with cerebral palsy and the study was conducted from 04/07/2011 to 29/08/2011. [Methods] Factors related to handwriting articulation were investigated based on the ICF model. [Results] Wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed of body function and education of personal factor were significantly associated with handwriting articulation. [Conclusion] Efforts to manage and improve the handwriting articulation of children with cerebral palsy should focus on wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed, and education.

  4. Enhancing interprofessional education and practice: Development and implementation of a new graduate-level course using the international classification of functioning, disability, and health.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tram; Fayed, Nora; Gorter, Jan Willem; MacDermid, Joy

    2016-05-01

    Since the introduction of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), there is increasing awareness among health professionals to consider a biopsychosocial approach to patients' health and functioning. Although diffusion of the ICF as a concept is widely recognized, application of the ICF within health education and practice requires attention, training, and support. This article describes the development and implementation of a new graduate-level course using the ICF to assist health professionals and graduate trainees in rehabilitation. The innovation behind this course is its focus on application of the ICF in research and practice through a combination of peer support and instructor mentorship. The value of the ICF for interprofessional education, research, and practice includes promotion of a broad perspective to health, application of theory in practice, and enhanced communication and collaboration in healthcare. PMID:27028165

  5. [Assessment of functioning in patients with head and neck cancer based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF)].

    PubMed

    Tschiesner, U

    2011-09-01

    The article approaches with the question how preservation of function after treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) can be defined and measured across treatment approaches. On the basis of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)" a series of efforts are summarized how all relevant aspects of the interdisciplinary team can be integrated into a common concept.Different efforts on the development, validation and implementation of ICF Core Sets for head and neck cancer (ICF-HNC) are discussed. The ICF-HNC covers organ-based problems with food ingestion, breathing, and speech, as well as psychosocial difficulties.Relationships between the ICF-HNC and well-established outcome measures are illustrated. This enables the user to integrate different aspects of functional outcome into a consolidated approach towards preservation/rehabilitation of functioning after HNC - applicable for a variety of treatment-approaches and health-professions.

  6. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a Framework for Providing Patient- and Family-Centered Audiological Care for Older Adults and Their Significant Others.

    PubMed

    Grenness, Caitlin; Meyer, Carly; Scarinci, Nerina; Ekberg, Katie; Hickson, Louise

    2016-08-01

    Hearing impairment is highly prevalent in the older population, and it impacts communication and quality of life for both the people with the hearing difficulties and their significant others. In this article, typical audiological assessment and management of an older adult is contrasted with a best practice approach wherein the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework is applied. The aim of the comparison is to demonstrate how the ICF expands our focus: rather than merely focusing on impairment, we also consider the activities, participation, and contextual factors for both the person with the hearing impairment and his or her family. A case example of an older patient and her spouse is provided, and their shared experience of the patient's hearing impairment is mapped onto the ICF framework. Family-centered hearing care is recommended for individualizing care and improving outcomes for older patients and their families. PMID:27489398

  7. Multidisciplinary research network on health and disability training on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Ethics, and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Ajovalasit, Daniela; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Aluas, Maria; Alves, Ines; Bosisio Fazzi, Luisella; Griffo, Giampiero; Leonardi, Matilde; Pessina, Adriano

    2012-02-01

    This article provides a brief description of a training course in International Classification of Functioning (ICF), Disability and Health, Ethics and Human Rights done in the field of the European MURINET project. This course, in its three annual editions, was the product of a joint collaborative work among the Neurological Institute Carlo Besta, the Catholic University, and the National Council of Disability. The training program was formulated to provide knowledge and skills in the field of disability and in the use of ICF. The main result is that a new generation of European researchers was trained. Thanks to this specialized training program, they are now able to conduct and manage research on health and disability, applying the new concept of health and disability based on the ICF biopsychosocial model.

  8. An investigation of the factors affecting handwriting articulation of school aged children with cerebral palsy based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to identify factors influencing handwriting articulation based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and to recommend effective evaluation and intervention strategies to improve the handwriting of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] The subjects were 96 elementary school children with cerebral palsy and the study was conducted from 04/07/2011 to 29/08/2011. [Methods] Factors related to handwriting articulation were investigated based on the ICF model. [Results] Wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed of body function and education of personal factor were significantly associated with handwriting articulation. [Conclusion] Efforts to manage and improve the handwriting articulation of children with cerebral palsy should focus on wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed, and education. PMID:27065517

  9. An investigation of the factors affecting handwriting articulation of school aged children with cerebral palsy based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to identify factors influencing handwriting articulation based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and to recommend effective evaluation and intervention strategies to improve the handwriting of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects] The subjects were 96 elementary school children with cerebral palsy and the study was conducted from 04/07/2011 to 29/08/2011. [Methods] Factors related to handwriting articulation were investigated based on the ICF model. [Results] Wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed of body function and education of personal factor were significantly associated with handwriting articulation. [Conclusion] Efforts to manage and improve the handwriting articulation of children with cerebral palsy should focus on wrist lateral deviation, upper-extremity speed, and education. PMID:27065517

  10. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe children referred to special care or paediatric dental services.

    PubMed

    Faulks, Denise; Norderyd, Johanna; Molina, Gustavo; Macgiolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Scagnet, Gabriela; Eschevins, Caroline; Hennequin, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child's capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY) (WHO), provides a wider picture of a child's real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ± 3.6 yrs). International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%), Down syndrome (22.0%), mental retardation (17.0%), autistic disorders (16.1%), and dental anxiety alone (11.0%). The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were 'Intellectual functions', 'High-level cognitive functions', and 'Attention functions'. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including 'Handling stress', 'Caring for body parts', 'Looking after one's health' and 'Speaking'. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included 'Support of friends', 'Attitude of friends' and 'Support of immediate family'. One item was reported as an environmental barrier - 'Societal attitudes'. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical contexts. The results of this empirical study might

  11. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXIII: classification of prostanoid receptors, updating 15 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Woodward, D F; Jones, R L; Narumiya, S

    2011-09-01

    It is now more than 15 years since the molecular structures of the major prostanoid receptors were elucidated. Since then, substantial progress has been achieved with respect to distribution and function, signal transduction mechanisms, and the design of agonists and antagonists (http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/FamilyIntroductionForward?familyId=58). This review systematically details these advances. More recent developments in prostanoid receptor research are included. The DP(2) receptor, also termed CRTH2, has little structural resemblance to DP(1) and other receptors described in the original prostanoid receptor classification. DP(2) receptors are more closely related to chemoattractant receptors. Prostanoid receptors have also been found to heterodimerize with other prostanoid receptor subtypes and nonprostanoids. This may extend signal transduction pathways and create new ligand recognition sites: prostacyclin/thromboxane A(2) heterodimeric receptors for 8-epi-prostaglandin E(2), wild-type/alternative (alt4) heterodimers for the prostaglandin FP receptor for bimatoprost and the prostamides. It is anticipated that the 15 years of research progress described herein will lead to novel therapeutic entities. PMID:21752876

  12. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Southern Africa: review of 487 cases from The International Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Classification Project.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Perner, Yvonne; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-03-01

    Comparative data on the distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes in Southern Africa (SAF) is scarce. In this study, five expert haematopathologists classified 487 consecutive cases of NHL from SAF using the World Health Organization classification, and compared the results to North America (NA) and Western Europe (WEU). Southern Africa had a significantly lower proportion of low-grade (LG) B-NHL (34·3%) and a higher proportion of high-grade (HG) B-NHL (51·5%) compared to WEU (54·5% and 36·4%) and NA (56·1% and 34·3%). High-grade Burkitt-like lymphoma was significantly more common in SAF (8·2%) than in WEU (2·4%) and NA (2·5%), most likely due to human immunodeficiency virus infection. When SAF patients were divided by race, whites had a significantly higher frequency of LG B-NHL (60·4%) and a lower frequency of HG B-NHL (32·7%) compared to blacks (22·5% and 62·6%), whereas the other races were intermediate. Whites and other races had a significantly higher frequency of follicular lymphoma and a lower frequency of Burkitt-like lymphoma compared to blacks. The median ages of whites with LG B-NHL, HG B-NHL and T-NHL (64, 56 and 67 years) were significantly higher than those of blacks (55, 41 and 34 years). Epidemiological studies are needed to better understand these differences. PMID:26898194

  13. Hospital Use by Children in the United States and Canada. Comparative International Vital and Health Statistics Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Lola Jean; McCarthy, Eileen

    1984-01-01

    This document presents a statistical study of hospital use by children in the United States and Canada designed to determine why the hospital discharge rate of children in the United States is lower than many other Western industrialized nations, although the discharge rate for the general U.S. population is higher. Several reasons for the lower…

  14. Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to people with dysphagia following non-surgical head and neck cancer management.

    PubMed

    Nund, Rebecca L; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Ward, Elizabeth C; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2014-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is an internationally recognized framework which allows its user to describe the consequences of a health condition on an individual in the context of their environment. With growing recognition that dysphagia can have broad ranging physical and psychosocial impacts, the aim of this paper was to identify the ICF domains and categories that describe the full functional impact of dysphagia following non-surgical head and neck cancer (HNC) management, from the perspective of the person with dysphagia. A secondary analysis was conducted on previously published qualitative study data which explored the lived experiences of dysphagia of 24 individuals with self-reported swallowing difficulties following HNC management. Categories and sub-categories identified by the qualitative analysis were subsequently mapped to the ICF using the established linking rules to develop a set of ICF codes relevant to the impact of dysphagia following HNC management. The 69 categories and sub-categories that had emerged from the qualitative analysis were successfully linked to 52 ICF codes. The distribution of these codes across the ICF framework revealed that the components of Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental Factors were almost equally represented. The findings confirm that the ICF is a valuable framework for representing the complexity and multifaceted impact of dysphagia following HNC. This list of ICF codes, which reflect the diverse impact of dysphagia associated with HNC on the individual, can be used to guide more holistic assessment and management for this population.

  15. Content comparison of 115 health status measures in sleep medicine using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference.

    PubMed

    Gradinger, Felix; Glässel, Andrea; Bentley, Alison; Stucki, Armin

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review and content analysis was to identify and quantify the concepts contained in patient-administered health status measures in sleep medicine practice and research using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference. Both generic and condition-specific patient-administered measures/questionnaires used in sleep medicine practice and research were identified and selected. A comprehensive search strategy for reviews, National/International Guidelines and Standard References to ensure that all areas of functioning, disability and health were captured was used. The contents of the selected measures were examined and linked to the ICF using established linking rules. The frequencies of ICF categories covering the concepts contained in the 115 patient-administered measures were used for the descriptive analysis and content comparison. Of these, 35 were of a generic nature, 17 were symptom-related, and 63 condition-specific. The concepts identified in the questionnaires' items were predominantly linked to categories of the ICF component related to body functions (61.4%), followed by activities and participation (15.3%), and then environmental factors (9.8%). The measures vary greatly with regard to the number and specificity of the ICF categories covered, as indicated by the proportional indices of content density and content diversity. The ICF provides a useful reference to identify, quantify and compare the concepts contained in health status measures used in sleep medicine practice and research.

  16. Beyond diagnosis: understanding the healthcare challenges of injured veterans through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Mark A; Bush, Shane S; Martin, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders brought about by exposure to combat can create serious obstacles to community reintegration. Effective therapeutic and rehabilitative methods designed to address disorders that arise from combat are available. Yet there continues to be a need to develop both a deeper understanding of veterans' needs and best-practice methods to alleviate distress and facilitate community participation. Awareness of these needs served as the catalyst for the International Conference on Behavioral Health and Traumatic Brain Injury and is the basis for developing numerous new programs and service refinements across government and non-government organizations. Despite advances, community reintegration remains a complicated endeavor for many veterans returning home who are experiencing traumatic brain- and stress-related disorders. Accurately conceptualizing and codifying symptoms and barriers to community participation, beyond impairment analysis and diagnostic inclusion, is necessary to guide treatment planning and inform programmatic refinements. The International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) offers a useful taxonomic tool that can assist in refining an understanding of the challenges confronting our returning veterans. In turn, resources can be appropriately allocated, and neuropsychological therapies and other rehabilitation interventions, which assist veterans to resume productive and satisfying lives, will more likely be developed and implemented.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity: mining the fourth international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4) for classification, population genetics and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Brudey, Karine; Driscoll, Jeffrey R; Rigouts, Leen; Prodinger, Wolfgang M; Gori, Andrea; Al-Hajoj, Sahal A; Allix, Caroline; Aristimuño, Liselotte; Arora, Jyoti; Baumanis, Viesturs; Binder, Lothar; Cafrune, Patricia; Cataldi, Angel; Cheong, Soonfatt; Diel, Roland; Ellermeier, Christopher; Evans, Jason T; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Ferdinand, Séverine; de Viedma, Dario Garcia; Garzelli, Carlo; Gazzola, Lidia; Gomes, Harrison M; Guttierez, M Cristina; Hawkey, Peter M; van Helden, Paul D; Kadival, Gurujaj V; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kremer, Kristin; Kubin, Milan; Kulkarni, Savita P; Liens, Benjamin; Lillebaek, Troels; Ly, Ho Minh; Martin, Carlos; Martin, Christian; Mokrousov, Igor; Narvskaïa, Olga; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Naumann, Ludmilla; Niemann, Stefan; Parwati, Ida; Rahim, Zeaur; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Rasolonavalona, Tiana; Rossetti, M Lucia; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Sajduda, Anna; Samper, Sofia; Shemyakin, Igor G; Singh, Urvashi B; Somoskovi, Akos; Skuce, Robin A; van Soolingen, Dick; Streicher, Elisabeth M; Suffys, Philip N; Tortoli, Enrico; Tracevska, Tatjana; Vincent, Véronique; Victor, Tommie C; Warren, Robin M; Yap, Sook Fan; Zaman, Khadiza; Portaels, Françoise; Rastogi, Nalin; Sola, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Background The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical laboratory, molecular epidemiology, evolutionary and population genetics. It is easy, robust, cheap, and produces highly diverse portable numerical results, as the result of the combination of (1) Unique Events Polymorphism (UEP) (2) Insertion-Sequence-mediated genetic recombination. Genetic convergence, although rare, was also previously demonstrated. Three previous international spoligotype databases had partly revealed the global and local geographical structures of MTC bacilli populations, however, there was a need for the release of a new, more representative and extended, international spoligotyping database. Results The fourth international spoligotyping database, SpolDB4, describes 1939 shared-types (STs) representative of a total of 39,295 strains from 122 countries, which are tentatively classified into 62 clades/lineages using a mixed expert-based and bioinformatical approach. The SpolDB4 update adds 26 new potentially phylogeographically-specific MTC genotype families. It provides a clearer picture of the current MTC genomes diversity as well as on the relationships between the genetic attributes investigated (spoligotypes) and the infra-species classification and evolutionary history of the species. Indeed, an independent Naïve-Bayes mixture-model analysis has validated main of the previous supervised SpolDB3 classification results, confirming the usefulness of both supervised and unsupervised models as an approach to understand MTC population structure. Updated results on the epidemiological status of spoligotypes, as well as genetic prevalence maps on six main lineages are also shown. Our results suggests

  18. The Statistical and Methodological Acuity of Scholarship Appearing in the "International Journal of Listening" (1987-2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the quality of social scientific listening research that reports numerical data to substantiate claims appearing in the "International Journal of Listening" between 1987 and 2011. Of the 225 published articles, 100 included one or more studies reporting numerical data. We frame our results in terms of eight…

  19. The Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY), in Portuguese Special Education Assessment and Eligibility Procedures: The Professionals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first country decreeing the mandatory use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child and Youth (ICF-CY) framework for guiding special education assessment process and to base eligibility decision-making on students' functioning profiles--in contrast with traditional approaches centred on…

  20. Supporting the validation of the new allergic and hypersensitivity conditions section of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases-11

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Moises; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The new International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" section has been constructed as a result of a detailed and careful action plan based on scientific evidences for the necessity of changes and collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) ICD-11 revision governance. All the efforts are being acknowledged by the Joint Allergy Academies. Objective Considering the new classification model addressed to the allergic and hypersensitivity conditions and following the ICD WHO agenda, we believe it is the appropriate time to start supporting the validation process in collaboration with the WHO ICD governance. Methods We conducted a mapping of ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions in the ICD-11 beta phase structure and categorized the conditions as fitting by "precoordination," "postcoordination," "indexed to the ICD-11 Foundation," "no code fit properly" or "no correspondence" in the ICD-11. Results From overall 125 ICD-10 entities spread in 6 chapters, 57.6% were able to be precoordinated, 4% postcoordinated, 12% indexed to the Foundation, 9.6% had no code fitting properly and 18.6% had no correspondence in the ICD-11 framework. Conclusion We have been able to demonstrate that 83.2% of the ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions could be captured by the current ICD-11 beta draft framework. We strongly believe that our findings constitute a key step forward for a softer transition of the ICD-10 allergic and hypersensitivity conditions to the ICD-11, supporting the WHO in this process as well as strengthening the visibility of the Allergy specialty and ensuring quality management of allergic patients. PMID:27489786

  1. Statistical and dynamical analysis of internal waves on the continental shelf of the Middle Atlantic Bight from Space Shuttle photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Klemas, Vic

    1993-01-01

    The internal waves on the continental shelf on the Middle Atlantic Bight seen on Space Shuttle photographs taken during the STS-40 mission in June 1991 are measured and analyzed. The internal wave field in the sample area has a three-level structure which consists of packet groups, packets, and solitons. An average packet group wavelength of 17.5 km and an average soliton wavelength of 0.6 km are measured. Finite-depth theory is used to derive the dynamic parameters of the internal solitons: the maximum amplitude of 5.6 m, the characteristic phase speed of 0.42 m/s, the characteristic period of 23.8 min, the velocity amplitude of the water particles in the upper and lower layers of 0.13 m/s and 0.030 m/s respectively, and the theoretical energy per unit crest line of 6.8 x 10 exp 4 J/m. The frequency distribution of solitons is triple-peaked rather than continuous. The major generation source is at 160 m water depth, and a second is at 1800 m depth, corresponding to the upper and lower edges of the shelf break.

  2. [Further development of the International Pneumoconiosis Classification--from ILO 1980 to ILO 2000 and to ILO 2000/German Federal Republic version].

    PubMed

    Hering, K G; Jacobsen, M; Bosch-Galetke, E; Elliehausen, H-J; Hieckel, H-G; Hofmann-Preiss, K; Jacques, W; Jeremie, U; Kotschy-Lang, N; Kraus, Th; Menze, B; Raab, W; Raithel, H-J; Schneider, W D; Strassburger, K; Tuengerthal, S; Woitowitz, H-J

    2003-10-01

    The ILO (1980) Classification has been revised during recent years. The new version is now available as the International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses (Revised edition 2000). The Guidelines booklet is currently available only in English. Those involved felt it was important to maintain continuity with the ILO (1980) edition, in particular to retain the standard radiographs, despite their restricted quality, so as to ensure comparability with earlier national and international data sets. The standard films illustrating pleural abnormalities, and 'u'-shadows, have been modified and reconstituted. The most important changes relate to assessment of film quality, pleural abnormalities, and additional symbols. In Germany, film quality is characterised as "+", "+-", "+--" and "u" according to whether the ability to assess pneumoconiosis is judged to be unimpeachable ("+") to unusable ("u"). If a film is not classified as "+", then written comments regarding defects are required. For "diffuse" pleural thickening, the ILO (2000) edition now requires the presence also of obliteration of the costophrenic angle. This was not required in the earlier (1980) edition and, as previously, is also not stipulated in the German version. A minimum width of 3 mm (previously 0-5 mm), coded "a", is required both for plaques as well as for the margin to the lateral chest wall. Congruence is thus achieved for criteria, which, in German practice, lead to an indication of suspect occupational disease. Plaques on the diaphragm are not considered for measurement of extent; they are only coded as present or absent. If calcification is identified, then this must also be classified and measured as a localised plaque. Extent of calcification on its own, previously coded "0" to "3", is no longer specified. The following new symbols, illustrated by new diagrams, have been introduced: aa = atherosclerotic aorta; at = apical thickening; cg = calcified granuloma (or other non

  3. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  4. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  5. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  6. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  7. 37 CFR 2.85 - Classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification schedules. 2..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Classification § 2.85 Classification schedules. (a) International classification system. Section 6.1 of this chapter sets forth the...

  8. Chest x ray films from construction workers: International Labour Office (ILO 1980) classification compared with routine readings.

    PubMed

    Albin, M; Engholm, G; Fröström, K; Kheddache, S; Larsson, S; Swantesson, L

    1992-12-01

    The extent of agreement between International Labour Office (ILO) and clinical readings of chest x ray films from construction workers was studied. From a survey of 5898 workers 258 subjects with a profusion of small opacities of > or = 1/1 and a stratified sample of subjects with profusion < 1/1 were selected. Only 41% of the films classified as ILO profusion category > or = 1/1 were clinically recorded as non-normal for the parenchyma. The proportion of films recorded as pneumoconiotic (or possibly so) was especially low for irregular opacities (22%), but increased with the profusion category (both rounded and irregular) as well as with the size of rounded opacities (p 3/11, q 12/25, r 3/4). Only with the profusion category > or = 2/1 were most of the films recorded as pneumoconiotic. The specificity and sensitivity were highest in the geographical areas where a few clinical readers had assessed many films each. The proportion of false negative clinical reports was low for circumscribed pleural thickening of the chest wall (9%) and diaphragmatic pleural thickening (6%). For calcified pleural changes and for the combination of diffuse pleural thickening and obliteration of the costophrenic angle, false negative reports were absent. The present study shows an unsatisfactory sensitivity for clinical compared with ILO readings as a means for screening the parenchyma of workers with a risk of pneumoconiosis.

  9. Use of the K ppen-Trewartha Climate Classification to Evaluate Climatic Refugia in Statistically Derived Ecoregions for the People's Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Barry; Diaz, Henry; HargroveJr., William Walter; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2010-01-01

    Changes in climate as projected by state-of-the-art climate models are likely to result in novel combinations of climate and topo-edaphic factors that will have substantial impacts on the distribution and persistence of natural vegetation and animal species. We have used multivariate techniques to quantify some of these changes; the method employed was the Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Clustering (MSTC) algorithm. We used the MSTC to quantitatively define ecoregions for the People s Republic of China for historical and projected future climates. Using the K ppen Trewartha classification system we were able to quantify some of the temperature and precipitation relationships of the ecoregions. We then tested the hypothesis that impacts to environments will be lower for ecoregions that retain their approximate geographic locations. Our results showed that climate in 2050, as projected from anthropogenic forcings using the Hadley Centre HadCM3 general circulation model, were sufficient to create novel environmental conditions even where ecoregions remained spatially stable; cluster number was found to be of paramount importance in detecting novelty. Continental-scale analyses are generally able to locate potentially static ecoregions but they may be insufficient to define the position of those reserves at a grid cell-by-grid cell basis.

  10. Statistical classification of hydrogeologic regions in the fractured rock area of Maryland and parts of the District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Brandon J.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogeologic regions in the fractured rock area of Maryland were classified using geographic information system tools with principal components and cluster analyses. A study area consisting of the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) watersheds with rivers that flow through the fractured rock area of Maryland and bounded by the Fall Line was further subdivided into 21,431 catchments from the National Hydrography Dataset Plus. The catchments were then used as a common hydrologic unit to compile relevant climatic, topographic, and geologic variables. A principal components analysis was performed on 10 input variables, and 4 principal components that accounted for 83 percent of the variability in the original data were identified. A subsequent cluster analysis grouped the catchments based on four principal component scores into six hydrogeologic regions. Two crystalline rock hydrogeologic regions, including large parts of the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan regions that represent over 50 percent of the fractured rock area of Maryland, are distinguished by differences in recharge, Precipitation minus Potential Evapotranspiration, sand content in soils, and groundwater contributions to streams. This classification system will provide a georeferenced digital hydrogeologic framework for future investigations of groundwater availability in the fractured rock area of Maryland.

  11. Quality classification of Spanish olive oils by untargeted gas chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and metabolomics-based statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Sales, C; Cervera, M I; Gil, R; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Beltran, J

    2017-02-01

    The novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source has been used in combination with gas chromatography (GC) coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for determination of volatile components of olive oil, enhancing its potential for classification of olive oil samples according to their quality using a metabolomics-based approach. The full-spectrum acquisition has allowed the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in olive oil samples, including Extra Virgin, Virgin and Lampante qualities. A dynamic headspace extraction with cartridge solvent elution was applied. The metabolomics strategy consisted of three different steps: a full mass spectral alignment of GC-MS data using MzMine 2.0, a multivariate analysis using Ez-Info and the creation of the statistical model with combinations of responses for molecular fragments. The model was finally validated using blind samples, obtaining an accuracy in oil classification of 70%, taking the official established method, "PANEL TEST", as reference. PMID:27596432

  12. PIXE multivariate statistics and OSL investigation for the classification and dating of archaeological pottery excavated at Tell Al-Rawda site, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Rihawy, M. S.; Castel, C.; Abboud, R.

    2015-03-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been utilised to study 48 Syrian ancient pottery fragments taken from excavations at Tell Al-Rawda site. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, and Pb) were determined. The elements concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, to classify the pottery where one main group and other two small groups were defined. In addition, four samples from different places on the site were subjected to optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The average age obtained using a single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol was found to be 4350 ± 240 year.

  13. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research.

    PubMed

    Maglo, Koffi N; Mersha, Tesfaye B; Martin, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to "frictional" effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the "cluster" and "cline" constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin's argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces, and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors, and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response. PMID:26925096

  14. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research

    PubMed Central

    Maglo, Koffi N.; Mersha, Tesfaye B.; Martin, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to “frictional” effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the “cluster” and “cline” constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin's argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces, and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors, and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response. PMID:26925096

  15. Identification of aspects of functioning, disability and health relevant to patients experiencing vertigo: a qualitative study using the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Aims of this study were to identify aspects of functioning and health relevant to patients with vertigo expressed by ICF categories and to explore the potential of the ICF to describe the patient perspective in vertigo. Methods We conducted a series of qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews using a descriptive approach. Data was analyzed using the meaning condensation procedure and then linked to categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Results From May to July 2010 12 interviews were carried out until saturation was reached. Four hundred and seventy-one single concepts were extracted which were linked to 142 different ICF categories. 40 of those belonged to the component body functions, 62 to the component activity and participation, and 40 to the component environmental factors. Besides the most prominent aspect “dizziness” most participants reported problems within “Emotional functions (b152), problems related to mobility and carrying out the daily routine. Almost all participants reported “Immediate family (e310)” as a relevant modifying environmental factor. Conclusions From the patients’ perspective, vertigo has impact on multifaceted aspects of functioning and disability, mainly body functions and activities and participation. Modifying contextual factors have to be taken into account to cover the complex interaction between the health condition of vertigo on the individuals’ daily life. The results of this study will contribute to developing standards for the measurement of functioning, disability and health relevant for patients suffering from vertigo. PMID:22738067

  16. The assessment of the spondyloarthritis international society concept and criteria for the classification of axial spondyloarthritis and peripheral spondyloarthritis: A critical appraisal for the pediatric rheumatologist

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review refers to the origin and current state of the assessment of the SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria for the classification of axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the possible implications in the pediatric population. The ASAS criteria evolved from the idea that the earlier the recognition of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, the better the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor blockers. Strategies included the development of new concepts, definitions, and techniques for the study of clinical signs and symptoms. Of relevance, the new definition of inflammatory back pain (IBP) and the introduction of sacroiliitis by magnetic resonance imaging represented the most important advance in the early identification of AS in the “pre-radiographic stage” of the disease. AS is considered in this paper as a disease continuum with symptoms depending on age at onset. The application of those specific strategies in children and adolescents with SpA seems limited because the most important manifestation in the early stage of disease is not IBP, but peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. In this instance, the logical approach to juvenile onset SpA according to ASAS criteria should not be through the axial criteria but rather the peripheral set of criteria. PMID:22650358

  17. Investigating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework to Capture User Needs in the Concept Stage of Rehabilitation Technology Development.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Holt, Ray; Weightman, Andy; Levesley, Martin; Bhakta, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework provides a useful basis to ensure that key user needs are identified in the development of a home-based arm rehabilitation system for stroke patients. Using a qualitative approach, nine people with residual arm weakness after stroke and six healthcare professionals with expertise in stroke rehabilitation were enrolled in the user-centered design process. They were asked, through semi-structured interviews, to define the needs and specification for a potential home-based rehabilitation device to facilitate self-managed arm exercise. The topic list for the interviews was derived by brainstorming ideas within the clinical and engineering multidisciplinary research team based on previous experience and existing literature in user-centered design. Meaningful concepts were extracted from questions and responses of these interviews. These concepts obtained were matched to the categories within the ICF comprehensive core set for stroke using ICF linking rules. Most of the concepts extracted from the interviews matched to the existing ICF Core Set categories. Person factors like gender, age, interest, compliance, motivation, choice, and convenience that might determine device usability are yet to be categorized within the ICF comprehensive core set. The results suggest that the categories of the comprehensive ICF Core Set for stroke provide a useful basis for structuring interviews to identify most users needs. However some personal factors (related to end users and healthcare professionals) need to be considered in addition to the ICF categories.

  18. Investigating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework to Capture User Needs in the Concept Stage of Rehabilitation Technology Development.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Holt, Ray; Weightman, Andy; Levesley, Martin; Bhakta, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework provides a useful basis to ensure that key user needs are identified in the development of a home-based arm rehabilitation system for stroke patients. Using a qualitative approach, nine people with residual arm weakness after stroke and six healthcare professionals with expertise in stroke rehabilitation were enrolled in the user-centered design process. They were asked, through semi-structured interviews, to define the needs and specification for a potential home-based rehabilitation device to facilitate self-managed arm exercise. The topic list for the interviews was derived by brainstorming ideas within the clinical and engineering multidisciplinary research team based on previous experience and existing literature in user-centered design. Meaningful concepts were extracted from questions and responses of these interviews. These concepts obtained were matched to the categories within the ICF comprehensive core set for stroke using ICF linking rules. Most of the concepts extracted from the interviews matched to the existing ICF Core Set categories. Person factors like gender, age, interest, compliance, motivation, choice, and convenience that might determine device usability are yet to be categorized within the ICF comprehensive core set. The results suggest that the categories of the comprehensive ICF Core Set for stroke provide a useful basis for structuring interviews to identify most users needs. However some personal factors (related to end users and healthcare professionals) need to be considered in addition to the ICF categories. PMID:26131797

  19. Process evaluation of software using the international classification of external causes of injuries for collecting burn injury data at burn centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Villaveces, Andrés; Peck, Michael; Faraklas, Iris; Hsu-Chang, Naiwei; Joe, Victor; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Detailed information on the cause of burns is necessary to construct effective prevention programs. The International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI) is a data collection tool that allows comprehensive categorization of multiple facets of injury events. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of software designed to improve the ease of use of the ICECI so as to identify key additional variables useful for understanding the occurrence of burn injuries, and compare this software with existing data-collection practices conducted for burn injuries. The authors completed a process evaluation of the implementation and ease of use of the software in six U.S. burn centers. They also collected preliminary burn injury data and compared them with existing variables reported to the American Burn Association's National Burn Repository (NBR). The authors accomplished their goals of 1) creating a data-collection tool for the ICECI, which can be linked to existing operational programs of the NBR, 2) training registrars in the use of this tool, 3) establishing quality-control mechanisms for ensuring accuracy and reliability, 4) incorporating ICECI data entry into the weekly routine of the burn registrar, and 5) demonstrating the quality differences between data collected using this tool and the NBR. Using this or similar tools with the ICECI structure or key selected variables can improve the quantity and quality of data on burn injuries in the United States and elsewhere and thus can be more useful in informing prevention strategies.

  20. Using the international classification of functioning, disability and health to expand understanding of paralysis in the United States through improved surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Michael H.; Krahn, Gloria L.; Sinclair, Lisa B.; Cahill, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance on paralysis prevalence has been conceptually and methodologically challenging. Numerous methods have been used to approximate population-level paralysis prevalence estimates leading to widely divergent prevalence estimates. Objective/hypotheses To describe three phases in use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework and planning tool for defining paralysis and developing public health surveillance of this condition. Methods Description of the surveillance methodology covers four steps: an assessment of prior data collection efforts that included a review of existing surveys, registries and other data collection efforts designed to capture both case definitions in use and prevalence of paralysis; use of a consensus conference of experts to develop a case definition of paralysis based on the ICF rather than medical diagnostic criteria; explanation of use of the ICF framework for domains of interest to develop, cognitively test, validate and administer a brief self-report questionnaire for telephone administration on a population; and development and administration of a Paralysis Prevalence and Health Disparities Survey that used content mapping to back code items from existing national surveys to operationalize key domains. Results ICF coding led to a national population-based survey of paralysis that produced accurate estimates of prevalence and identification of factors related to the health of people in the U.S. living with paralysis. Conclusions The ICF can be a useful tool for developing valid and reliable surveillance strategies targeting subgroups of individuals with functional disabilities such as people with paralysis and others. PMID:25887622

  1. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets: application to a postmenopausal woman with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis of the spine.

    PubMed

    Lorbergs, Amanda L; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2013-10-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework facilitates systematic assessment of functioning across four components. ICF Core Sets are proposed to be beneficial for clinicians in multidisciplinary care settings because they provide a common language for communication. A clinical vignette of a postmenopausal woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a non-traumatic vertebral fracture is presented to discuss how the ICF Core Sets for RA and osteoporosis (OP) can be helpful in structuring clinical decisions. To demonstrate how condition-specific ICF Core Sets can be used to evaluate and treat women with two comorbidities, each component of the ICF Core Sets is compared across conditions and integrated into clinical decision-making. Topics covered include: exercise tolerance, urinary continence, bone mass, fear of falling, and environmental factors. The benefits of thorough communication with the client and a common language across healthcare disciplines are highlighted as the potential benefits of the ICF framework; however, limitations to uptake of the ICF in clinical practice are also addressed.

  2. Agreement of a work-capacity assessment with the World Health Organisation International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health pain sets and back-to-work predictors.

    PubMed

    Schult, Marie-Louise; Ekholm, Jan

    2006-09-01

    The degree of agreement between a clinical multi-professional work-capacity assessment and the Comprehensive World Health Organisation International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for chronic pain and risk factors for no return to work was investigated. A review of data records and interviews with team members included measures of body function/structure, activities/participation and environmental factors. Predictors for return to work were reviewed. The team used eight different methods for data collection. Of the 29 categories concerning environmental factors, two were excluded; the methods used were more unstructured, e.g. interviews. The agreement with the 41 predictors of work resumption was high. The clinical work-capacity assessment agreed largely with the Comprehensive ICF Core Sets for the components body function, body structure, activities and participation. Nine categories out of 69 were not included. The clinical work-capacity assessment agreed largely with the Comprehensive ICF Core Sets for chronic pain conditions and with 40 predictors of work resumption. Clinically speaking, however, the current work-capacity assessment lacks on-the-job site evaluations and this most certainly affects reliability. The same is true for ICF, although the structure lacks proper coding for relevant factors found at work.

  3. Examining the Disability Model From the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health Using a Large Data Set of Community-Dwelling Malaysian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Seng Cheong; Lim, Wee Shiong; Someya, Yoshiko; Hamid, Tengku A.; Nudin, Siti S. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model (ICF) using a data set of 2,563 community-dwelling elderly with disease-independent measures of mobility, physical activity, and social networking, to represent ICF constructs. Method: The relationship between chronic disease and disability (independent and dependent variables) was examined using logistic regression. To demonstrate variability in activity performance with functional impairment, graphing was used. The relationship between functional impairment, activity performance, and social participation was examined graphically and using ANOVA. The impact of cognitive deficits was quantified through stratifying by dementia. Results: Disability is strongly related to chronic disease (Wald 25.5, p < .001), functional impairment with activity performance (F = 34.2, p < .001), and social participation (F= 43.6, p < .001). With good function, there is considerable variability in activity performance (inter-quartile range [IQR] = 2.00), but diminishes with high impairment (IQR = 0.00) especially with cognitive deficits. Discussion: Environment modification benefits those with moderate functional impairment, but not with higher grades of functional loss. PMID:26472747

  4. Process evaluation of software using the international classification of external causes of injuries for collecting burn injury data at burn centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Villaveces, Andrés; Peck, Michael; Faraklas, Iris; Hsu-Chang, Naiwei; Joe, Victor; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Detailed information on the cause of burns is necessary to construct effective prevention programs. The International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI) is a data collection tool that allows comprehensive categorization of multiple facets of injury events. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of software designed to improve the ease of use of the ICECI so as to identify key additional variables useful for understanding the occurrence of burn injuries, and compare this software with existing data-collection practices conducted for burn injuries. The authors completed a process evaluation of the implementation and ease of use of the software in six U.S. burn centers. They also collected preliminary burn injury data and compared them with existing variables reported to the American Burn Association's National Burn Repository (NBR). The authors accomplished their goals of 1) creating a data-collection tool for the ICECI, which can be linked to existing operational programs of the NBR, 2) training registrars in the use of this tool, 3) establishing quality-control mechanisms for ensuring accuracy and reliability, 4) incorporating ICECI data entry into the weekly routine of the burn registrar, and 5) demonstrating the quality differences between data collected using this tool and the NBR. Using this or similar tools with the ICECI structure or key selected variables can improve the quantity and quality of data on burn injuries in the United States and elsewhere and thus can be more useful in informing prevention strategies. PMID:24126473

  5. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Taro; SUGANUMA, Narufumi; HERING, Kurt G.; VEHMAS, Tapio; ITOH, Harumi; AKIRA, Masanori; TAKASHIMA, Yoshihiro; HIRANO, Harukazu; KUSAKA, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects’ occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades. PMID:25810443

  6. Triacylglycerol Analysis in Human Milk and Other Mammalian Species: Small-Scale Sample Preparation, Characterization, and Statistical Classification Using HPLC-ELSD Profiles.

    PubMed

    Ten-Doménech, Isabel; Beltrán-Iturat, Eduardo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Sancho-Llopis, Juan Vicente; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a method for the separation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in human milk and from other mammalian species by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a core-shell particle packed column with UV and evaporative light-scattering detectors is described. Under optimal conditions, a mobile phase containing acetonitrile/n-pentanol at 10 °C gave an excellent resolution among more than 50 TAG peaks. A small-scale method for fat extraction in these milks (particularly of interest for human milk samples) using minimal amounts of sample and reagents was also developed. The proposed extraction protocol and the traditional method were compared, giving similar results, with respect to the total fat and relative TAG contents. Finally, a statistical study based on linear discriminant analysis on the TAG composition of different types of milks (human, cow, sheep, and goat) was carried out to differentiate the samples according to their mammalian origin.

  7. A brief statistical analysis of stomatology papers published in international journals by researchers from the mainland of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-hua; Pan, Yun-tao; Hong, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    This paper has briefly analyzed the publication status of Chinese stomatology papers in 2009 with statistics from Journal Citation Reports® provided by Thomson Scientific. Only those papers with the first author coming from the mainland of China were included for calculations. We have found a significant increase in the number of SCIE-indexed papers, most of which were published by six dental institutions in China. Among all Chinese medical institutions, West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University is the first dental institution to enter the top-20 list with the most publications, and it also ranks the 9th in the number of outstanding articles. West China School of Stomatology Sichuan University and the Forth Military Medical University are the only two dental institutions in China which have published SCIE-indexed papers over a hundred. The former has published the most SCIE-indexed stomatology papers, while the latter has the highest average impact factor. As the laboratories and funds in China have close connections with various dental hospitals, the pratice of translational medicine in dentistry is fast and fluent. PMID:21449209

  8. Statistical coherence of primary schooling in IPUMS-International integrated population samples for China, India, Vietnam, and ten other Asia-Pacific countries1

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Cleveland, Lara; Kelly-Hall, Patricia; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international disseminates harmonized census microdata for more than 80 countries at no cost, although access is restricted to bona-fide researchers and students who agree to the stringent conditions of use license. Currently over 270 samples are available, totalling more than 600 million person records. Each year 15–20 additional samples are released, as more countries cooperate with the IPUMS initiative and the integration of 2010 round census samples is completed. With so much microdata so readily available, questions of data quality naturally arise. This paper focusses on the concept of statistical coherence over time for a single concept, primary schooling completed. From an analysis of the percentage completing primary schooling by birth year for pairs of samples for thirteen Asia-Pacific countries, we find outstanding coherence for four—China, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Indonesia—with mean differences of less than 0.5 percentage points, regression coefficient (b) ranging from 0.93 to 1.07 and R2 =.99. For the thirteen countries as a group there is considerable variation overall with mean absolute difference as high as 16 percentage points, b ranging from 0.62–1.44 and R2=.65–.99. As a whole, statistical coherence of primary schooling is outstanding. Nonetheless, to make expert use of the harmonized microdata, researchers are cautioned to carefully study the IPUMS integrated metadata as well as the original source documentation. National Statistical Offices not currently cooperating or that have not yet entrusted 2010 round census microdata are invited to do so. PMID:26478685

  9. 2016 Classification Criteria for Macrophage Activation Syndrome Complicating Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation Collaborative Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Angelo; Minoia, Francesca; Davì, Sergio; Horne, AnnaCarin; Bovis, Francesca; Pistorio, Angela; Aricò, Maurizio; Avcin, Tadej; Behrens, Edward M; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Filipovic, Lisa; Grom, Alexei A; Henter, Jan-Inge; Ilowite, Norman T; Jordan, Michael B; Khubchandani, Raju; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Lehmberg, Kai; Lovell, Daniel J; Miettunen, Paivi; Nichols, Kim E; Ozen, Seza; Pachlopnik Schmid, Jana; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Russo, Ricardo; Schneider, Rayfel; Sterba, Gary; Uziel, Yosef; Wallace, Carol; Wouters, Carine; Wulffraat, Nico; Demirkaya, Erkan; Brunner, Hermine I; Martini, Alberto; Ruperto, Nicolino; Cron, Randy Q

    2016-03-01

    To develop criteria for the classification of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). A multistep process, based on a combination of expert consensus and analysis of real patient data, was conducted. A panel of 28 experts was first asked to classify 428 patient profiles as having or not having MAS, based on clinical and laboratory features at the time of disease onset. The 428 profiles comprised 161 patients with systemic JIA-associated MAS and 267 patients with a condition that could potentially be confused with MAS (active systemic JIA without evidence of MAS, or systemic infection). Next, the ability of candidate criteria to classify individual patients as having MAS or not having MAS was assessed by evaluating the agreement between the classification yielded using the criteria and the consensus classification of the experts. The final criteria were selected in a consensus conference. Experts achieved consensus on the classification of 391 of the 428 patient profiles (91.4%). A total of 982 candidate criteria were tested statistically. The 37 best-performing criteria and 8 criteria obtained from the literature were evaluated at the consensus conference. During the conference, 82% consensus among experts was reached on the final MAS classification criteria. In validation analyses, these criteria had a sensitivity of 0.73 and a specificity of 0.99. Agreement between the classification (MAS or not MAS) obtained using the criteria and the original diagnosis made by the treating physician was high (κ=0.76). We have developed a set of classification criteria for MAS complicating systemic JIA and provided preliminary evidence of its validity. Use of these criteria will potentially improve understanding of MAS in systemic JIA and enhance efforts to discover effective therapies, by ensuring appropriate patient enrollment in studies.

  10. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    PubMed Central

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  11. Classification Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Children, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The interview presents opinions of Nicholas Hobbs on the classification of exceptional children, including topics such as ecologically oriented classification systems, the role of parents, and need for revision of teacher preparation programs. (IM)

  12. Classification of amok in DSM-IV.

    PubMed

    Gaw, A C; Bernstein, R L

    1992-08-01

    Culture-bound syndromes have been described worldwide in many individuals and, for certain syndromes, in epidemic proportion, yet these disorders have been classified as rare and exotic conditions warranting minimal attention. Development of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases offers an opportunity for providing a more sophisticated classification of these phenomena. The authors examine amok, a syndrome first described in Malaysia that consists of homicidal frenzy preceded by a state of brooding and ending with somnolence and amnesia. They discuss the concept of and criteria for a culture-specific disorder and propose that amok be classified as a culture-specific explosive behavioral disorder in DSM-IV.

  13. Predicting the Risk for Central Pain Using the Sensory Components of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Yuval; Zeilig, Gabi; Bondi, Moshe; Ringler, Erez; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is excruciating and difficult to manage. Pre-emptive treatment could be initiated in patients at risk for CP providing that it can be predicted. A combination of psychophysical tests could predict CP, but the process necessitates sophisticated equipment and constant monitoring. A simple predictive tool for CP is required. The aim of this study was to test the predictability for CP of the sensory component of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (SC-ISNCSCI), routinely performed on all SCI patients. In an historical-prospective study, the SC-ISNCSCI and background variables were extracted from medical records of 115 SCI patients. In a prospective study, 20 SCI patients underwent the SC-ISNCSCI at admission and were followed-up for 12 months. In both studies, pinprick (PP) and light touch (LT) scores from the SC-ISNCSCI and the difference between them (LT-PP) were compared between those who eventually developed CP and those who did not. Heat-pain and touch thresholds were measured and correlated with the SC-ISNCSCI to test its validity. In both studies, patients who developed CP had, prior to CP, lower PP than LT scores, and lower PP scores than those who did not develop CP. At-level delta LT-PP score>1 best predicted CP; the odds of developing CP with LT-PP>1 was 24.4 times that of the reverse category (LT-PP<1). Heat-pain and touch thresholds significantly correlated with PP and LT. We conclude that the SC-ISNCSCI can be used as a clinical biomarker of CP with high probability. PMID:26244708

  14. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used to describe multidisciplinary clinical assessments of people with chronic musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed

    Bagraith, Karl S; Strong, Jenny

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and an associated core set are adequate to describe multidisciplinary clinical assessments of patients with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. The multidisciplinary assessment (medical, psychiatry, nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and psychology) of a patient with chronic low back pain (LBP) was audio-recorded, transcribed and qualitatively examined. Concepts were extracted by two raters using a meaning condensation procedure and linked to the ICF. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the adequacy of the ICF and selection of categories contained in the comprehensive LBP core set. Overall, 1,228 concepts were extracted from the 5 h of assessment data. This included 1,056 (86.0 %) concepts that could be linked to the ICF, 366 (34.7 %) of which were designated as personal factors. Eighty different second-level ICF categories were represented in the multidisciplinary assessment. This included 48 of the 78 (61.5 %) comprehensive LBP core set categories and 32 non-core set categories. In addition, 32 of the 80 assessed categories were considered by three or more disciplines during their assessment. The ICF was found to adequately cover the concepts extracted from this patient's assessment. This study demonstrates that clinical assessments of chronic musculoskeletal conditions can be mapped to the overall ICF framework by applying the ICF linking rules. However, it also questions the content validity and clinical utility of the current comprehensive LBP core set and highlights the need for further research prior to widespread application of the tool in clinical practice.

  15. A comprehensive scoping review of ability and disability in ADHD using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY).

    PubMed

    de Schipper, Elles; Lundequist, Aiko; Wilteus, Anna Löfgren; Coghill, David; de Vries, Petrus J; Granlund, Mats; Holtmann, Martin; Jonsson, Ulf; Karande, Sunil; Levy, Florence; Al-Modayfer, Omar; Rohde, Luis; Tannock, Rosemary; Tonge, Bruce; Bölte, Sven

    2015-08-01

    This is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The objective here was to use a comprehensive scoping review approach to identify the concepts of functional ability and disability used in the scientific ADHD literature and link these to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY. Systematic searches were conducted using Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, to extract the relevant concepts of functional ability and disability from the identified outcome studies of ADHD. These concepts were then linked to ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. Data from identified studies were analysed until saturation of ICF-CY categories was reached. Eighty studies were included in the final analysis. Concepts contained in these studies were linked to 128 ICF-CY categories. Of these categories, 68 were considered to be particularly relevant to ADHD (i.e., identified in at least 5 % of the studies). Of these, 32 were related to Activities and participation, 31 were related to Body functions, and five were related to environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were school education (53 %), energy and drive functions (50 %), psychomotor functions (50 %), attention functions (49 %), and emotional functions (45 %). The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study underlines the necessity to consider ability and disability in ADHD across all dimensions of life, for which the ICF-CY provides a valuable and universally applicable framework. These results, in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, clinical study), will provide a scientific basis to define the ICF Core Sets for ADHD for multi-purpose use in basic and applied research, and every day clinical practice.

  16. Moderators, mediators, and bidirectional relationships in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework: An empirical investigation using a longitudinal design and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).

    PubMed

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Badley, Elizabeth M; Falissard, Bruno; Dub, Timothée; Leplege, Alain; Coste, Joël

    2015-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) published in 2001 describes the consequences of health conditions with three components of impairments in body structures or functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Two of the new features of the conceptual model were the possibility of feedback effects between each ICF component and the introduction of contextual factors conceptualized as moderators of the relationship between the components. The aim of this longitudinal study is to provide empirical evidence of these two kinds of effect. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a French population-based cohort of 548 patients with knee osteoarthritis recruited between April 2007 and March 2009 and followed for three years. Indicators of the body structure and function, activity and participation components of the ICF were derived from self-administered standardized instruments. The measurement model revealed four separate factors for body structures impairments, body functions impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The classic sequence from body impairments to participation restrictions through activity limitations was found at each assessment time. Longitudinal study of the ICF component relationships showed a feedback pathway indicating that the level of participation restrictions at baseline was predictive of activity limitations three years later. Finally, the moderating role of personal (age, sex, mental health, etc.) and environmental factors (family relationships, mobility device use, etc.) was investigated. Three contextual factors (sex, family relationships and walking stick use) were found to be moderators for the relationship between the body impairments and the activity limitations components. Mental health was found to be a mediating factor of the effect of activity limitations on participation restrictions.

  17. Social participation restriction among U.S. adults with arthritis: A population-based study using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)

    PubMed Central

    Theis, K.A.; Murphy, L.; Hootman, J.M.; Wilkie, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine arthritis impact among U.S. adults with self-reported, doctor-diagnosed arthritis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework (domains=Impairments, Activity Limitations, Environmental, and Personal factors; outcome=social participation restriction (SPR)) 1) overall and among those with SPR, and 2) to identify correlates of SPR. Methods Cross-sectional 2009 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed to examine the distribution of ICF domain components. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to identify correlates of SPR. Analyses in SAS v9.2 survey procedures accounted for the complex sample design. Results SPR prevalence was 11% (5.7 million) of adults with arthritis. After initial multivariable adjustment by ICF domain, Serious Psychological Distress (Impairments) (PR=2.5, 95% CI=2.0-3.2, ≥5 medical office visits (Environmental) (PR=3.4, 95% CI=2.5-4.4) , and physical inactivity (Personal) (PR=4.8, 95% CI=3.6=6.4) were most strongly associated with SPR. A combined measure, Key Limitations (walking, standing, or carrying) (PR=31.2 (22.3-43.5) represented the Activity Limitations domain. After final multivariable adjustment incorporating all ICF domains simultaneously, the strongest associations with SPR were Key Limitations (PR= 24.3 (16.8-35.1), ≥9 hours sleep (PR=1.6, 95% CI=1.3-2.0), and income-to-poverty ratio <2.00 and severe joint pain (PR=1.4, 95% CI=1.2-1.6 for both). Conclusion SPR affects 1-in-9 adults with arthritis. This work is the first to use the ICF framework in a population-based sample to identify specific functional activities, pain, sleep, and other areas for priority intervention to reduce negative arthritis impacts, including SPR. Increased use of existing clinical and public health interventions is warranted. PMID:23401463

  18. Characteristics of Elderly-Onset (≥65 years) Headache Diagnosed Using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Yong-Jae; Kim, Byung-Kun; Kim, Byung-Su; Kim, Jae-Moon; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Moon, Heui-Soo; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Sohn, Jong-Hee; Chu, Min Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose New-onset headache in elderly patients is generally suggestive of a high probability of secondary headache, and the subtypes of primary headache diagnoses are still unclear in the elderly. This study investigated the characteristics of headache with an older age at onset (≥65 years) and compared the characteristics between younger and older age groups. Methods We prospectively collected demographic and clinical data of 1,627 patients who first visited 11 tertiary hospitals in Korea due to headache between August 2014 and February 2015. Headache subtype was categorized according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition Beta Version. Results In total, 152 patients (9.3%, 106 women and 46 men) experienced headache that began from 65 years of age [elderly-onset group (EOG)], while the remaining 1,475 patients who first experienced headache before the age of 65 years were classified as the younger-age-at-onset group (YOG). Among the primary headache types, tension-type headache (55.6% vs. 28.8%) and other primary headache disorders (OPH, 31.0% vs. 17.3%) were more common in the EOG than in the YOG, while migraine was less frequent (13.5% vs. 52.2%) (p=0.001) in the EOG. Among OPH, primary stabbing headache (87.2%) was more frequent in the EOG than in the YOG (p=0.032). The pain was significantly less severe (p=0.026) and the frequency of medication overuse headache was higher in EOG than in YOG (23.5% vs. 7.6%, p=0.040). Conclusions Tension-type headache and OPH headaches, primarily stabbing headache, were more common in EOG patients than in YOG patients. The pain intensity, distribution of headache diagnoses, and frequency of medication overuse differed according to the age at headache onset.

  19. Incorporating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) into an Electronic Health Record to Create Indicators of Function: Proof of Concept Using the SF-12

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Nancy E.; Poissant, Lise; Ahmed, Sara; Finch, Lois; Higgins, Johanne; Salbach, Nancy M.; Soicher, Judith; Jaglal, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to assess the feasibility of using a generic health measure to create coded functional status indicators and compare the characterization of a stroke population using coded functional indicators and using health-related quality-of-life summary measures alone. Design: Multiple raters assigned International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) codes to the items of the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Data for comparing the information from the SF-12 and from ICF codes were derived from the Montreal Stroke Cohort Study that was set up to examine the long-term impact of stroke. Available for analysis were data from 604 persons with stroke, average age 69 years, and 488 controls, average age 62 years. Measurement: The SF-12 provides two summary scores, one for physical health and one for mental health. Domains of the ICF are coded to three digits, before the decimal; specific categorizations of impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions are coded to four digits before the decimal. Results: Persons with stroke scored, on average, approximately 10 points lower than controls on physical and mental health. The ICF coding indicated that this was attributed, not surprisingly, to greater difficulty in doing moderate activities including housework, climbing stairs, and working and was not attributed to differences in pain. Differences in mental health were attributed most strongly to greater fatigue (impairment in energy), but all areas of mental health were affected to some degree. Conclusion: The ICF coding provided enhanced functional status information in a format compatible with the structure of administrative health databases. PMID:15298994

  20. Positive predictive value and completeness of prenatally assigned International Classification of Disease-10 kidney anomaly diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Maria; Olsen, Morten Smærup; Sunde, Lone; Pedersen, Lars; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Restricting studies of severe congenital malformations to live-born children may introduce substantial bias. In this study, we estimated the attendance to the second-trimester fetal malformation screening program. We also estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of prenatally assigned International Classification of Disease-10 diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) and the completeness of case registration. We used kidney anomalies as an example. Methods We identified the proportion of all Danish live-born children from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012, who were scanned during the second trimester using the DNPR and the Civil Registration System. Details of all fetuses with specific kidney anomaly diagnoses according to the DNPR were retrieved. The PPV was estimated using the nationwide Astraia database of pregnancy medical charts or traditional medical charts, as gold standard. The completeness was assessed using the total number of cases estimated by the capture–recapture method. Results Of 372,263 live born infants, 97.3% were scanned during the second trimester. We identified 172 fetuses in the DNPR. Of these, 149 had kidney anomalies according to Astraia or medical chart review, corresponding to a PPV of 87% (95% CI: 81%–91%). The estimated completeness was 43% (95% CI: 38%–49%) for the DNPR and 75% (95% CI: 70%–79%) for Astraia. Conclusion Almost all live-born children were scanned during the second trimester in Denmark. However, low completeness may hamper the use of the DNPR for studies of prenatally detected severe malformations, and use of the Astraia database may preferably be considered. PMID:26855599

  1. The Role of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability in Models of Infant Cochlear Implant Management.

    PubMed

    Psarros, Colleen; Love, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Newborn hearing screening has led to the early diagnosis of hearing loss in neonates and early device fitting is common, based primarily on electrophysiologic and radiologic information, with some supplementary behavioral measures. Such early fitting of hearing devices, in particular cochlear implants (CIs), has been beneficial to the majority of children implanted under the age of 12 months who meet the cochlear implant candidacy criteria. Comorbidities are common in children with hearing loss, although they may not be evident in neonates and may not emerge until later in infants. Evidence suggests that the child's outcomes are strongly influenced by a range of environmental factors including emotional and social support from the immediate and extended family. Consequently, such factors are important in service planning and service delivery for babies and children receiving CIs. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability (ICF) can provide a framework to facilitate the holistic management of pediatric cochlear implant recipients. The ICF also can be used to map the progress of recipients over time to highlight emerging issues that require intervention. This article will discuss our preliminary use of the ICF to establish clinical practice; develop advocacy skills among clients and their families; identify eligibility for services such as support in educational settings; enable access to modes of service delivery such as telepractice; provide a conceptual framework for policy and program development for pediatric cochlear implant recipients (i.e., in both disability and health services); and, most importantly, establish a clear pathway for the longitudinal management of the cochlear implant in a child's future. It is anticipated that this model will be applied to other populations receiving cochlear implants through our program. PMID:27489404

  2. The Role of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability in Models of Infant Cochlear Implant Management.

    PubMed

    Psarros, Colleen; Love, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Newborn hearing screening has led to the early diagnosis of hearing loss in neonates and early device fitting is common, based primarily on electrophysiologic and radiologic information, with some supplementary behavioral measures. Such early fitting of hearing devices, in particular cochlear implants (CIs), has been beneficial to the majority of children implanted under the age of 12 months who meet the cochlear implant candidacy criteria. Comorbidities are common in children with hearing loss, although they may not be evident in neonates and may not emerge until later in infants. Evidence suggests that the child's outcomes are strongly influenced by a range of environmental factors including emotional and social support from the immediate and extended family. Consequently, such factors are important in service planning and service delivery for babies and children receiving CIs. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability (ICF) can provide a framework to facilitate the holistic management of pediatric cochlear implant recipients. The ICF also can be used to map the progress of recipients over time to highlight emerging issues that require intervention. This article will discuss our preliminary use of the ICF to establish clinical practice; develop advocacy skills among clients and their families; identify eligibility for services such as support in educational settings; enable access to modes of service delivery such as telepractice; provide a conceptual framework for policy and program development for pediatric cochlear implant recipients (i.e., in both disability and health services); and, most importantly, establish a clear pathway for the longitudinal management of the cochlear implant in a child's future. It is anticipated that this model will be applied to other populations receiving cochlear implants through our program.

  3. Program for standard statistical distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falls, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    Development of procedure to describe frequency distributions involved in statistical theory is discussed. Representation of frequency distributions by first order differential equation is presented. Classification of various types of distributions based on Pearson parameters is analyzed.

  4. Validity of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision code for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients at presentation to an emergency department and at hospital admission

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Jamie L; Shariff, Salimah Z; Gandhi, Sonja; Weir, Matthew A; Jain, Arsh K; Garg, Amit X

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the validity of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) code for hyperkalaemia (E87.5) in two settings: at presentation to an emergency department and at hospital admission. Design Population-based validation study. Setting 12 hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2010. Participants Elderly patients with serum potassium values at presentation to an emergency department (n=64 579) and at hospital admission (n=64 497). Primary outcome Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value. Serum potassium values in patients with and without a hyperkalaemia code (code positive and code negative, respectively). Results The sensitivity of the best-performing ICD-10 coding algorithm for hyperkalaemia (defined by serum potassium >5.5 mmol/l) was 14.1% (95% CI 12.5% to 15.9%) at presentation to an emergency department and 14.6% (95% CI 13.3% to 16.1%) at hospital admission. Both specificities were greater than 99%. In the two settings, the positive-predictive values were 83.2% (95% CI 78.4% to 87.1%) and 62.0% (95% CI 57.9% to 66.0%), while the negative-predictive values were 97.8% (95% CI 97.6% to 97.9%) and 96.9% (95% CI 96.8% to 97.1%). In patients who were code positive for hyperkalaemia, median (IQR) serum potassium values were 6.1 (5.7 to 6.8) mmol/l at presentation to an emergency department and 6.0 (5.1 to 6.7) mmol/l at hospital admission. For code-negative patients median (IQR) serum potassium values were 4.0 (3.7 to 4.4) mmol/l and 4.1 (3.8 to 4.5) mmol/l in each of the two settings, respectively. Conclusions Patients with hospital encounters who were ICD-10 E87.5 hyperkalaemia code positive and negative had distinct higher and lower serum potassium values, respectively. However, due to very low sensitivity, the incidence of hyperkalaemia is underestimated. PMID:23274674

  5. Circulation pattern classification for climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, J.; Bardossy, A.

    2003-04-01

    Several circulation pattern classifications developed for different European regions were compared regarding their mutual dependence. Circulation pattern (CP) classifications, both subjective and objective, for the British Isles, Germany and Greece were taken into account. Statistical tests were applied in order to investigate the relationships between each pair of CP classifications. It was found that each pair of classifications can not be considered to be independent. Time dependence of the relationship between CP classifications shows anomaleous behavior only when one of the classifications is subjective. This can be due to a gradual change in the methodology. Thus, one should use these classifications for climate evolution studies with care. Results showing the inter-dependence of different CP classifications were motivation for developing one classification which would be valid in every European region. For this purpose an objective and automated classification was applied. By means of daily 700 hPa data, 13 CPs were defined which explain the variability of local precipitation in 27 stations spread over the whole of Europe. The validation of this classification proved that there is almost no information lost when comparing this classification with local classifications. Based on this classification method the air pressure outputs from Global Circulation Models will be classified. Subsequently the classified circulation patterns will be used for climate change studies. For this purpose statistical downscaling of precipitation will be applied.

  6. Bug Distribution and Statistical Pattern Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    1987-01-01

    The rule space model permits measurement of cognitive skill acquisition and error diagnosis. Further discussion introduces Bayesian hypothesis testing and bug distribution. An illustration involves an artificial intelligence approach to testing fractions and arithmetic. (Author/GDC)

  7. 32 CFR 2400.34 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification. 2400.34 Section 2400.34 National... Government Information § 2400.34 Classification. (a) Foreign government information classified by a foreign government or international organization of governments shall retain its original classification...

  8. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  9. 32 CFR 2400.34 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification. 2400.34 Section 2400.34 National... Government Information § 2400.34 Classification. (a) Foreign government information classified by a foreign government or international organization of governments shall retain its original classification...

  10. 32 CFR 2400.34 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification. 2400.34 Section 2400.34 National... Government Information § 2400.34 Classification. (a) Foreign government information classified by a foreign government or international organization of governments shall retain its original classification...

  11. 32 CFR 2400.34 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification. 2400.34 Section 2400.34 National... Government Information § 2400.34 Classification. (a) Foreign government information classified by a foreign government or international organization of governments shall retain its original classification...

  12. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  13. 32 CFR 2400.34 - Classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 2400.34 Section 2400.34 National... Government Information § 2400.34 Classification. (a) Foreign government information classified by a foreign government or international organization of governments shall retain its original classification...

  14. 6 CFR 7.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amended, 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal DHS guidance provided by the Chief Security Officer. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 7.26 Section 7.26... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.26 Derivative classification. (a) Derivative classification is...

  15. Hubble Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A classification scheme for galaxies, devised in its original form in 1925 by Edwin P Hubble (1889-1953), and still widely used today. The Hubble classification recognizes four principal types of galaxy—elliptical, spiral, barred spiral and irregular—and arranges these in a sequence that is called the tuning-fork diagram....

  16. Comparative study of some robust statistical methods: weighted, parametric, and nonparametric linear regression of HPLC convoluted peak responses using internal standard method in drug bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Korany, Mohamed A; Maher, Hadir M; Galal, Shereen M; Ragab, Marwa A A

    2013-05-01

    This manuscript discusses the application and the comparison between three statistical regression methods for handling data: parametric, nonparametric, and weighted regression (WR). These data were obtained from different chemometric methods applied to the high-performance liquid chromatography response data using the internal standard method. This was performed on a model drug Acyclovir which was analyzed in human plasma with the use of ganciclovir as internal standard. In vivo study was also performed. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response ratio data was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x i polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). This work studies and also compares the application of WR method and Theil's method, a nonparametric regression (NPR) method with the least squares parametric regression (LSPR) method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. When the assumption of homoscedasticity is not met for analytical data, a simple and effective way to counteract the great influence of the high concentrations on the fitted regression line is to use WR method. WR was found to be superior to the method of LSPR as the former assumes that the y-direction error in the calibration curve will increase as x increases. Theil's NPR method was also found to be superior to the method of LSPR as the former assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and that might not be normally distributed. Most of the results showed a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy on applying WR and NPR methods relative to LSPR.

  17. Developing the diagnostic and statistical manual V: what will "statistical" mean in DSM-V?

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Shrout, Patrick E; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza

    2007-04-01

    In February of 2004, the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE) hosted a Launch and Methodology Conference to discuss the role statistics might play in the eventual revision of the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Ninth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD9). The conference consisted of talks on specific topics by statisticians and epidemiologists from North America and Great Britain, followed by group discussion by experts in nosology and psychopathology. We report here on the development of specific themes related to the future interaction between statisticians and nosologists in DSM-V development that arose as a result of that meeting. The themes are related to (1) the nature of the statistician/nosologist interaction; (2) specific areas of concern in that interaction, and (3) the use of novel and complex statistical methods to challenge and inspire new avenues of thinking among nosologists.

  18. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  19. Global classification and coding of hypersensitivity diseases - An EAACI - WAO survey, strategic paper and review.

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Tanno, L K; Akdis, C A; Lau, S; Calderon, M A; Santos, A F; Sanchez-Borges, M; Rosenwasser, L J; Pawankar, R; Papadopoulos, N G

    2014-05-01

    Hypersensitivity diseases are not adequately coded in the International Coding of Diseases (ICD)-10 resulting in misclassification, leading to low visibility of these conditions and general accuracy of official statistics. To call attention to the inadequacy of the ICD-10 in relation to allergic and hypersensitivity diseases and to contribute to improvements to be made in the forthcoming revision of ICD, a web-based global survey of healthcare professionals' attitudes toward allergic disorders classification was proposed to the members of European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) (individuals) and World Allergy Organization (WAO) (representative responding on behalf of the national society), launched via internet and circulated for 6 week. As a result, we had 612 members of 144 countries from all six World Health Organization (WHO) global regions who answered the survey. ICD-10 is the most used classification worldwide, but it was not considered appropriate in clinical practice by the majority of participants. The majority indicated the EAACI-WAO classification as being easier and more accurate in the daily practice. They saw the need for a diagnostic system useful for nonallergists and endorsed the possibility of a global, cross-culturally applicable classification system of allergic disorders. This first and most broadly international survey ever conducted of health professionals' attitudes toward allergic disorders classification supports the need to update the current classifications of allergic diseases and can be useful to the WHO in improving the clinical utility of the classification and its global acceptability for the revised ICD-11.

  20. SWOT analysis of Banff: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the international Banff consensus process and classification system for renal allograft pathology.

    PubMed

    Mengel, M; Sis, B; Halloran, P F

    2007-10-01

    The Banff process defined the diagnostic histologic lesions for renal allograft rejection and created a standardized classification system where none had existed. By correcting this deficit the process had universal impact on clinical practice and clinical and basic research. All trials of new drugs since the early 1990s benefited, because the Banff classification of lesions permitted the end point of biopsy-proven rejection. The Banff process has strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). The strength is its self-organizing group structure to create consensus. Consensus does not mean correctness: defining consensus is essential if a widely held view is to be proved wrong. The weaknesses of the Banff process are the absence of an independent external standard to test the classification; and its almost exclusive reliance on histopathology, which has inherent limitations in intra- and interobserver reproducibility, particularly at the interface between borderline and rejection, is exactly where clinicians demand precision. The opportunity lies in the new technology such as transcriptomics, which can form an external standard and can be incorporated into a new classification combining the elegance of histopathology and the objectivity of transcriptomics. The threat is the degree to which the renal transplant community will participate in and support this process. PMID:17848174

  1. SWOT analysis of Banff: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the international Banff consensus process and classification system for renal allograft pathology.

    PubMed

    Mengel, M; Sis, B; Halloran, P F

    2007-10-01

    The Banff process defined the diagnostic histologic lesions for renal allograft rejection and created a standardized classification system where none had existed. By correcting this deficit the process had universal impact on clinical practice and clinical and basic research. All trials of new drugs since the early 1990s benefited, because the Banff classification of lesions permitted the end point of biopsy-proven rejection. The Banff process has strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). The strength is its self-organizing group structure to create consensus. Consensus does not mean correctness: defining consensus is essential if a widely held view is to be proved wrong. The weaknesses of the Banff process are the absence of an independent external standard to test the classification; and its almost exclusive reliance on histopathology, which has inherent limitations in intra- and interobserver reproducibility, particularly at the interface between borderline and rejection, is exactly where clinicians demand precision. The opportunity lies in the new technology such as transcriptomics, which can form an external standard and can be incorporated into a new classification combining the elegance of histopathology and the objectivity of transcriptomics. The threat is the degree to which the renal transplant community will participate in and support this process.

  2. [Classification of Histopathological Findings in the Liver Cited in the Pesticides Risk Assessment Reports Published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan and Thesaurus Construction Based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Umemura, Takashi; Yoshida, Midori

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological findings are important to the understanding of toxicity profiles of pesticides. The liver is often a target organ of chemicals. In the present study, histopathological findings in the liver cited in the pesticides risk assessment reports published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan were classified. The histopathological findings were obtained in repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity studies of mice, rats and dogs and carcinogenicity studies of rodents. After the classification, a thesaurus was constructed based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria. We recommend the use of INHAND criteria in risk assessment reports to improve mutual understanding between applicants and risk assessors.

  3. A Comparison of Two-Group Classification Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Jocelyn E.; Finch, W. Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The statistical classification of "N" individuals into "G" mutually exclusive groups when the actual group membership is unknown is common in the social and behavioral sciences. The results of such classification methods often have important consequences. Among the most common methods of statistical classification are linear discriminant analysis,…

  4. Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Well as Clinical Disease Activity in the Clinical Classification of Multiple Sclerosis and Assessment of Its Course: A Report from an International CMSC Consensus Conference, March 5-7, 2010.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stuart D; Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl; Dowling, Peter; Durelli, Luca; Ford, Corey; Giovannoni, Gavin; Halper, June; Harris, Colleen; Herbert, Joseph; Li, David; Lincoln, John A; Lisak, Robert; Lublin, Fred D; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Moore, Wayne; Naismith, Robert T; Oehninger, Carlos; Simon, Jack; Sormani, Maria Pia

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the Lublin-Reingold clinical classification of multiple sclerosis (MS) be modified to include the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An international consensus conference sponsored by the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC) was held from March 5 to 7, 2010, to review the available evidence on the need for such modification of the Lublin-Reingold criteria and whether the addition of MRI or other biomarkers might lead to a better understanding of MS pathophysiology and disease course over time. The conference participants concluded that evidence of new MRI gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) T1-weighted lesions and unequivocally new or enlarging T2-weighted lesions (subclinical activity, subclinical relapses) should be added to the clinical classification of MS in distinguishing relapsing inflammatory from progressive forms of the disease. The consensus was that these changes to the classification system would provide more rigorous definitions and categorization of MS course, leading to better insights as to the evolution and treatment of MS.

  5. Diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndrome: International Working Group on Morphology of myelodysplastic syndrome (IWGM-MDS) consensus proposals for the definition and enumeration of myeloblasts and ring sideroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mufti, Ghulam J; Bennett, John M; Goasguen, Jean; Bain, Barbara J; Baumann, Irith; Brunning, Richard; Cazzola, Mario; Fenaux, Pierre; Germing, Ulrich; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Jinnai, Itsuro; Manabe, Atsushi; Matsuda, Akira; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Sanz, Guillermo; Tomonaga, Masao; Vallespi, Teresa; Yoshimi, Ayami

    2008-11-01

    The classification of myelodysplastic syndromes is based on the morphological criteria proposed by the French-American-British (FAB) and World Health Organization (WHO) groups. Accurate enumeration of blast cells, although essential for diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome and for assignment to prognostic groups, is often difficult, due to imprecise criteria for the morphological definition of blasts and promyelocytes. An International Working Group on Morphology of Myelodysplastic Syndrome (IWGM-MDS) of hematopathologists and hematologists expert in the field of myelodysplastic syndrome reviewed the morphological features of bone marrows from all subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome and agreed on a set of recommendations, including recommendations for the definition and enumeration of blast cells and ring sideroblasts. It is recommended that (1) agranular or granular blast cells be defined (replacing the previous type I, II and III blasts), (2) dysplastic promyelocytes be distinguished from cytologically normal promyelocytes and from granular blast cells, (3) sufficient cells be counted to give a precise blast percentage, particularly at thresholds that are important for diagnosis or prognosis and (4) ring sideroblasts be defined as erythroblasts in which there are a minimum of 5 siderotic granules covering at least a third of the nuclear circumference. Clear definitions and a differential count of a sufficient number of cells is likely to improve precision in the diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndrome. Recommendations should be applied in the context of the WHO classification. PMID:18838480

  6. Initial Special Reports Submitted by Member States on the Action Taken by Them Upon the Recommendation Concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, Adopted by the General Conference During its Sixteenth Session. Item 21 of the Provisional Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Reports, some only partial, from the member states regarding their action on the topic of international standards for library statistics are presented. The 22 countries represented in this report are: Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Cuba, Dahomey, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Libya, Nepal,…

  7. Classification of anxiety and depressive disorders: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Andrews, G; Anderson, T M; Slade, T; Sunderland, M

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization have begun to revise their classifications of mental disorders. Four issues related to these revisions are discussed in this study: the structure of the classifications, the relationship between categories and dimensions, the sensitivity of categorical thresholds to definitions, and maximizing the utility and validity of the diagnostic process. There is now sufficient evidence to consider replacing the present groupings of disorders with an empirically based structure that reflects the actual similarities among disorders. For example, perhaps the present depression and anxiety disorders would be best grouped as internalizing disorders. Most mental disorders exist on a severity dimension. The reliability and validity of the classification might be improved if we accepted the dimensional nature of disorders while retaining the use of categorical diagnoses to enhance clinical utility. Definitions of the thresholds that define categories are very susceptible to detail. In International Classification of Diseases-11(ICD-11) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V (DSM-V), disorders about which there is agreement should be identically defined, and disorders in which there is disagreement should be defined differently, so that research can identify which definition is more valid. The present diagnostic criteria are too complex to have acceptable clinical utility. We propose a reduced criterion set that can be remembered by clinicians and an enhanced criterion set for use with decision support tools.

  8. Remote Sensing Classification Uncertainty: Validating Probabilistic Pixel Level Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrettas, Michail; Cornford, Dan; Bastin, Lucy; Pons, Xavier; Sevillano, Eva; Moré, Gerard; Serra, Pere; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2013-04-01

    plotting reliability diagrams and computing Brier Skill Scores. We show that a combination of the various classifiers provides the most reliable probabilistic predictions (and also the best deterministic predictions). We show that the classification uncertainty is very spatially variable and reliably estimated statistically, and discuss possible summary measures for representing the overall uncertainty to users. We show how probabilistic classification results can be encoded using the recently developed GeoViQua Quality Model and UncertML. We discuss the importance of the results in terms of classification in general and consider the relation between probabilistic classification and the issue of mixed pixels, consisting of more than one class. We also describe how the probabilistic classification results can be propagated through a complex workflow that considers the payment of farmers in the region based on the degree to which their fields are flooded from a given time period.

  9. Contextual classification of multispectral image data: Approximate algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    An approximation to a classification algorithm incorporating spatial context information in a general, statistical manner is presented which is computationally less intensive. Classifications that are nearly as accurate are produced.

  10. Cosmic statistics of statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szapudi, István; Colombi, Stéphane; Bernardeau, Francis

    1999-12-01

    The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogues are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly non-linear to weakly non-linear scales. For non-linear functions of unbiased estimators, such as the cumulants, the phenomenon of cosmic bias is identified and computed. Since it is subdued by the cosmic errors in the range of applicability of the theory, correction for it is inconsequential. In addition, the method of Colombi, Szapudi & Szalay concerning sampling effects is generalized, adapting the theory for inhomogeneous galaxy catalogues. While previous work focused on the variance only, the present article calculates the cross-correlations between moments and connected moments as well for a statistically complete description. The final analytic formulae representing the full theory are explicit but somewhat complicated. Therefore we have made available a fortran program capable of calculating the described quantities numerically (for further details e-mail SC at colombi@iap.fr). An important special case is the evaluation of the errors on the two-point correlation function, for which this should be more accurate than any method put forward previously. This tool will be immensely useful in the future for assessing the precision of measurements from existing catalogues, as well as aiding the design of new galaxy surveys. To illustrate the applicability of the results and to explore the numerical aspects of the theory qualitatively and quantitatively, the errors and cross-correlations are predicted under a wide range of assumptions for the future Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The principal results concerning the cumulants ξ, Q3 and Q4 is that

  11. The DSM-5: Classification and criteria changes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Darrel A; Kuhl, Emily A; Kupfer, David J

    2013-06-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) marks the first significant revision of the publication since the DSM-IV in 1994. Changes to the DSM were largely informed by advancements in neuroscience, clinical and public health need, and identified problems with the classification system and criteria put forth in the DSM-IV. Much of the decision-making was also driven by a desire to ensure better alignment with the International Classification of Diseases and its upcoming 11th edition (ICD-11). In this paper, we describe select revisions in the DSM-5, with an emphasis on changes projected to have the greatest clinical impact and those that demonstrate efforts to enhance international compatibility, including integration of cultural context with diagnostic criteria and changes that facilitate DSM-ICD harmonization. It is anticipated that this collaborative spirit between the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) will continue as the DSM-5 is updated further, bringing the field of psychiatry even closer to a singular, cohesive nosology. PMID:23737408

  12. Elements of Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.

    2016-05-01

    This chapter is devoted to two objectives. The first one is to answer the request expressed by attendees of the first Astrostatistics School (Annecy, October 2013) to be provided with an elementary vademecum of statistics that would facilitate understanding of the given courses. In this spirit we recall very basic notions, that is definitions and properties that we think sufficient to benefit from courses given in the Astrostatistical School. Thus we give briefly definitions and elementary properties on random variables and vectors, distributions, estimation and tests, maximum likelihood methodology. We intend to present basic ideas in a hopefully comprehensible way. We do not try to give a rigorous presentation, and due to the place devoted to this chapter, can cover only a rather limited field of statistics. The second aim is to focus on some statistical tools that are useful in classification: basic introduction to Bayesian statistics, maximum likelihood methodology, Gaussian vectors and Gaussian mixture models.

  13. SCOR: a Structural Classification of RNA database.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, Peter S; Tamura, Makio; Holbrook, Stephen R; Brenner, Steven E

    2002-01-01

    The Structural Classification of RNA (SCOR) database provides a survey of the three-dimensional motifs contained in 259 NMR and X-ray RNA structures. In one classification, the structures are grouped according to function. The RNA motifs, including internal and external loops, are also organized in a hierarchical classification. The 259 database entries contain 223 internal and 203 external loops; 52 entries consist of fully complementary duplexes. A classification of the well-characterized tertiary interactions found in the larger RNA structures is also included along with examples. The SCOR database is accessible at http://scor.lbl.gov.

  14. Using Context Variety and Students' Discussions in Recognizing Statistical Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, José Luis Ángel Rodríguez; Aguilar, Mario Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    We present a proposal for helping students to cope with statistical word problems related to the classification of different cases of confidence intervals. The proposal promotes an environment where students can explicitly discuss the reasons underlying their classification of cases.

  15. Subject Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gayle; And Others

    Three newspaper librarians described how they manage the files of newspaper clippings which are a necessary part of their collections. The development of a new subject classification system for the clippings files was outlined. The new subject headings were based on standard subject heading lists and on local need. It was decided to use a computer…

  16. Classifying Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novakowski, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the experience of a group of first-grade teachers as they tackled the science process of classification, a targeted learning objective for the first grade. While the two-year process was not easy and required teachers to teach in a new, more investigation-oriented way, the benefits were great. The project helped teachers and…

  17. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafermore » surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.« less

  18. Automated Defect Classification (ADC)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The ADC Software System is designed to provide semiconductor defect feature analysis and defect classification capabilities. Defect classification is an important software method used by semiconductor wafer manufacturers to automate the analysis of defect data collected by a wide range of microscopy techniques in semiconductor wafer manufacturing today. These microscopies (e.g., optical bright and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, etc.) generate images of anomalies that are induced or otherwise appear on wafer surfaces as a result of errant manufacturing processes or simple atmospheric contamination (e.g., airborne particles). This software provides methods for analyzing these images, extracting statistical features from the anomalous regions, and applying supervised classifiers to label the anomalies into user-defined categories.

  19. Computerized Classification Testing with the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    If classification in a limited number of categories is the purpose of testing, computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with algorithms based on sequential statistical testing perform better than estimation-based CATs (e.g., Eggen & Straetmans, 2000). In these computerized classification tests (CCTs), the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) (Wald,…

  20. Formal apparatus of soil classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkov, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mathematical tools that may be applied for soil classification purposes are discussed. They include the evaluation of information contained in particular soil attributes, the grouping of soil objects into a given (automatically determined) number of classes, the optimization of the classification decisions, and the development of the models and rules (algorithms) used to classify soil objects. The algorithms of multivariate statistical methods and cluster analysis used for solving these problems are described. The major attention is paid to the development of the systems of informative attributes of soil objects and their classes and to the assessment of the quality of the classification decisions. Particular examples of the solution of the problems of soil classification with the use of formal mathematical methods are given. It is argued that the theoretical and practical problems of classification in science cannot find objective solutions without the application of the modern methods of information analysis. The major problems of the numerical taxonomy of the soil objects described in this paper and the appropriate software tools for their solution should serve as the basis for the creation of not only formal soil classification systems but also the theory of soil classification.

  1. Agreement between international classification of disease (ICD) and cause of death and associated conditions (CODAC) for the ascertainment of cause of stillbirth (SB) in the rural areas of north India.

    PubMed

    Kaistha, Madhvi; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhardwaj, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    International Classification of Diseases-10 th version (ICD-10) has been used to ascertain the cause of death but its use for stillbirths (SBs) is limited. Cause of Death and Associated Conditions (CODAC) as a detailed system expected to provide the exact cause of SB, so a community-based study was planned to study the level of agreement between ICD-10 and CODAC for ascertaining the cause of SB. A verbal autopsy (VA) tool was used to collect the information and then the cause of each SB was assigned using ICD-10 and CODAC separately. Each tool was used for 87 SBs and found that prolonged singleton labor, maternal pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), and central nervous system (CNS) related congenital malformations were considered the top three causes. There was a significant agreement between ICD-10 and CODAC but the latter offers a scope to delineate the causes more precisely due to its hierarchal nature. PMID:26911221

  2. The holistic claims of the biopsychosocial conception of WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): a conceptual analysis on the basis of a pluralistic-holistic ontology and multidimensional view of the human being.

    PubMed

    Solli, Hans Magnus; da Silva, António Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), designed by the WHO, attempts to provide a holistic model of functioning and disability by integrating a medical model with a social one. The aim of this article is to analyze the ICF's claim to holism. The following components of the ICF's complexity are analyzed: (1) health condition, (2) body functions and structures, (3) activity, (4) participation, (5) environmental factors, (6) personal factors, and (7) health. Although the ICF claims to be holistic, it presupposes a monistic materialistic ontology. We indicate some limitations of this ontology, proposing instead: (a) a pluralistic-holistic ontology (PHO) and (b) a multidimensional view of the human being, with individual and environmental aspects, in relation to three levels of reality implied by the PHO. For the ICF to attain its holistic claim, the interactions between its components should be based on (a) and (b).

  3. HIV / AIDS: not just a matter of statistics. The International Conference on AIDS - Law and Humanity culminates into "New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on AIDS".

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Indian Law Institute with the cooperation of UNDP, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other national and international groups organized the International Conference on AIDS--Law and Humanity, held during December 6-10, 1995, in New Delhi, India. The leading speakers focused on the need for a united approach to the HIV/AIDS-related legal issues, which would protect society against the spread of HIV infection and respect the dignity and fundamental human rights of HIV infected persons or those suspected of being HIV infected and their families and friends. All conference participants adopted the New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on AIDS. The Plan has six principles designed to guide policy makers in developing laws and strategies to help fight against HIV/AIDS. The first principle is that sound and scientific data (not presupposition, prejudice, and stereotypes) should form the basis for all laws and policies on HIV/AIDS. It lays out eight objectives that vary from protection of rights and empowerment of individuals, so that by their cooperation the spread of HIV infection is contained, to allocation of adequate resources for prevention, care, and anti-discrimination efforts. The participants recognized actions that have been or need to be implemented to control HIV/AIDS at the international, national/legislative, executive, and judicial levels. For example, an international action at the international level is expansion of strategies by the High Commissioner for Human Rights for promoting the co-existence of human rights of persons with HIV/AIDS and for containment of the epidemic. The participants resolved to establish both national and international committees to address the national and international implications of HIV/AIDS from the point of view of law and humanity. The international committee should work with UNAIDS, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, WHO, and UNDP.

  4. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  5. Predictive value of the Diverticular Inflammation and Complication Assessment (DICA) endoscopic classification on the outcome of diverticular disease of the colon: An international study

    PubMed Central

    Brandimarte, Giovanni; Di Mario, Francesco; Annunziata, Maria L; Bafutto, Mauro; Bianco, Maria A; Colucci, Raffaele; Conigliaro, Rita; Danese, Silvio; De Bastiani, Rudi; Elisei, Walter; Escalante, Ricardo; Faggiani, Roberto; Ferrini, Luciano; Forti, Giacomo; Latella, Giovanni; Graziani, Maria G; Oliveira, Enio C; Papa, Alfredo; Penna, Antonio; Portincasa, Piero; Søreide, Kjetil; Spadaccini, Antonio; Usai, Paolo; Bonovas, Stefanos; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Picchio, Marcello; Lecca, Piera G; Zampaletta, Costantino; Cassieri, Claudio; Damiani, Alberto; Desserud, Kari F; Fiorella, Serafina; Landi, Rosario; Goni, Elisabetta; Lai, Maria A; Pigò, Flavia; Rotondano, Gianluca; Schiaccianoce, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Diverticular Inflammation and Complication Assessment (DICA) endoscopic classification has been recently developed for patients suffering from diverticulosis and diverticular disease. Aims We assessed retrospectively the predictive value of DICA in patients for whom endoscopic data and clinical follow-up were available. Methods For each patient, we recorded: age, severity of DICA, presence of abdominal pain, C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin test (if available) at the time of diagnosis; months of follow-up; therapy taken during the follow-up to maintain remission (if any); occurrence/recurrence of diverticulitis; need of surgery. Results We enrolled 1651 patients (793 M, 858 F, mean age 66.6 ± 11.1 years): 939 (56.9%) patients were classified as DICA 1, 501 (30.3%) patients as DICA 2 and 211 (12.8%) patients as DICA 3. The median follow-up was 24 (9–38) months. Acute diverticulitis (AD) occurred/recurred in 263 (15.9%) patients; surgery was necessary in 57 (21.7%) cases. DICA was the only factor significantly associated to the occurrence/recurrence of diverticulitis and surgery either at univariate (χ2 = 405.029; p < 0.0001) or multivariate analysis (hazard ratio = 4.319, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.639–5.126; p < 0.0001). Only in DICA 2 patients was therapy effective for prevention of AD occurrence/recurrence with a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.598 (0.391–0.914) (p = 0.006, log rank test). Mesalazine-based therapies reduced the risk of AD occurrence/recurrence and needs of surgery with a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.2103 (0.122–0.364) and 0.459 (0.258–0.818), respectively. Conclusions DICA classification is a valid parameter to predict the risk of diverticulitis occurrence/recurrence in patients suffering from diverticular disease of the colon. PMID:27536372

  6. United States Environmental Protection Agency perchlorate method 332.0 via microbore and capillary chromatographic formats: statistical evaluation of the use of (18)O-perchlorate internal standard with deionized-water matrices.

    PubMed

    Vanatta, L E; Slingsby, R W

    2009-08-01

    A statistically sound evaluation is made of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's perchlorate Method 332.0 by tandem ion chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Two microbore formats and one capillary format are used with a deionized-water matrix. The evaluation is made for raw peak-area data and for analyte responses scaled by the internal standard, over an analyte concentration range of 0.25 to 200 microg/L. Results indicate that: (i) the internal-standard signal is suppressed by the analyte in both microbore formats; (ii) the analyte signal is not affected by the internal standard; (iii) models for the calibration curves usually contain bias; (iv) the measurement uncertainty is similar in magnitude for both the peak-area- and ratio-based curves.

  7. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  8. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  9. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  10. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  11. Year's Work in Cataloguing and Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, J. McRee

    1973-01-01

    A review of the literature on cataloging and classification for 1972 is presented. The material is presented under the following headings: time and cost studies; catalog use studies; automation; classification and subject headings; nonbook cataloging; and, international standardization. (120 references) (Author/SM)

  12. 28 CFR 17.26 - Derivative classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the ISOO implementing directives in 32 CFR 2001.22, and internal Department directions provided by the... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 17.26 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.26 Derivative classification. (a)...

  13. Automated classification of mouse pup isolation syllables: from cluster analysis to an Excel-based "mouse pup syllable classification calculator".

    PubMed

    Grimsley, Jasmine M S; Gadziola, Marie A; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Mouse pups vocalize at high rates when they are cold or isolated from the nest. The proportions of each syllable type produced carry information about disease state and are being used as behavioral markers for the internal state of animals. Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified 10 syllable types based on their spectro-temporal features. However, manual classification of mouse syllables is time consuming and vulnerable to experimenter bias. This study uses an automated cluster analysis to identify acoustically distinct syllable types produced by CBA/CaJ mouse pups, and then compares the results to prior manual classification methods. The cluster analysis identified two syllable types, based on their frequency bands, that have continuous frequency-time structure, and two syllable types featuring abrupt frequency transitions. Although cluster analysis computed fewer syllable types than manual classification, the clusters represented well the probability distributions of the acoustic features within syllables. These probability distributions indicate that some of the manually classified syllable types are not statistically distinct. The characteristics of the four classified clusters were used to generate a Microsoft Excel-based mouse syllable classifier that rapidly categorizes syllables, with over a 90% match, into the syllable types determined by cluster analysis.

  14. Estimating Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark J.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces procedures for the computation and asymptotic statistical inference for classification consistency and accuracy indices specifically designed for cognitive diagnostic assessments. The new classification indices can be used as important indicators of the reliability and validity of classification results produced by…

  15. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the developing world: review of 4539 cases from the International Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Classification Project

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Anamarija M.; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N.; MacLennan, Kenneth A.; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K.; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes varies around the world, but a large systematic comparative study has never been done. In this study, we evaluated the clinical features and relative frequencies of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in five developing regions of the world and compared the findings to the developed world. Five expert hematopathologists classified 4848 consecutive cases of lymphoma from 26 centers in 24 countries using the World Health Organization classification, and 4539 (93.6%) were confirmed to be non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with a significantly greater number of males than females in the developing regions compared to the developed world (P<0.05). The median age at diagnosis was significantly lower for both low- and high-grade B-cell lymphoma in the developing regions. The developing regions had a significantly lower frequency of B-cell lymphoma (86.6%) and a higher frequency of T- and natural killer-cell lymphoma (13.4%) compared to the developed world (90.7% and 9.3%, respectively). Also, the developing regions had significantly more cases of high-grade B-cell lymphoma (59.6%) and fewer cases of low-grade B-cell lymphoma (22.7%) compared to the developed world (39.2% and 32.7%, respectively). Among the B-cell lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was the most common subtype (42.5%) in the developing regions. Burkitt lymphoma (2.2%), precursor B- and T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (1.1% and 2.9%, respectively) and extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (2.2%) were also significantly increased in the developing regions. These findings suggest that differences in etiologic and host risk factors are likely responsible, and more detailed epidemiological studies are needed to better understand these differences. PMID:27354024

  16. Computer-aided differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules based on a hybrid classification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Omatsu, Hironobu; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Mori, Kiyoshi; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2001-07-01

    We are developing computerized feature extraction and classification methods to analyze malignant and benign pulmonary nodules in 3D thoracic CT images. Internal structure features were derived form CT density and 3D curvatures to characterize the inhomogeneous of CT density distribution inside the nodule. In the classification step, we combined an unsupervised k-means clustering (KMC) procedure and a supervised linear discriminate (LD) classifier. The KMC procedure classified the sample nodules into two classes by using the mean CT density values for two different regions such as a core region and a complement of the core region in 3D nodule image. The LD classifier was designed for each class by using internal structure features. The forward stepwise procedure was used to select the best feature subset from multi-dimensional feature spaces. The discriminant scores output form the classifier were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method and the classification accuracy was quantified by the area, Ax, under the ROC curve. We analyzed a data set of 248 pulmonary nodules in this study. The hybrid classifier was more effective than the LD classifier alone in distinguishing malignant and benign nodules. The improvement was statistically significant in comparison to classification in the LD classifier alone. The results of this study indicate the potential of combining the KMC procedure and the LD classifier for computer-aided classification of pulmonary nodules.

  17. Internal Staff Allocation and the Changing Workload of Japanese Professoriate: A Multilevel Statistical Analysis with Simulations. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.1.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Murasawa, Masataka; Abe, Yasumi

    2013-01-01

    The increasingly competitive and globalizing environment of today's higher education market has compelled many colleges and universities around the world to revamp their academic programs and organizational structures by responsively addressing various contemporary issues raised by internal as well as external stakeholders. It is no exception…

  18. Holistic facial expression classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  19. Classification of mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, E.

    1959-01-01

    One of the fundamental difficulties in devising a classification of mental disorders is the lack of agreement among psychiatrists regarding the concepts upon which it should be based: diagnoses can rarely be verified objectively and the same or similar conditions are described under a confusing variety of names. This situation militates against the ready exchange of ideas and experiences and hampers progress. As a first step towards remedying this state of affairs, the author of the article below has undertaken a critical survey of existing classifications. He shows how some of the difficulties created by lack of knowledge regarding pathology and etiology may be overcome by the use of “operational definitions” and outlines the basic principles on which he believes a generally acceptable international classification might be constructed. If this can be done it should lead to a greater measure of agreement regarding the value of specific treatments for mental disorders and greatly facilitate a broad epidemiological approach to psychiatric research. PMID:13834299

  20. Biomechanical influence of crown-to-implant ratio on stress distribution over internal hexagon short implant: 3-D finite element analysis with statistical test.

    PubMed

    Ramos Verri, Fellippo; Santiago Junior, Joel Ferreira; de Faria Almeida, Daniel Augusto; de Oliveira, Guilherme Bérgamo Brandão; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Marques Honório, Heitor; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2015-01-01

    The study of short implants is relevant to the biomechanics of dental implants, and research on crown increase has implications for the daily clinic. The aim of this study was to analyze the biomechanical interactions of a singular implant-supported prosthesis of different crown heights under vertical and oblique force, using the 3-D finite element method. Six 3-D models were designed with Invesalius 3.0, Rhinoceros 3D 4.0, and Solidworks 2010 software. Each model was constructed with a mandibular segment of bone block, including an implant supporting a screwed metal-ceramic crown. The crown height was set at 10, 12.5, and 15 mm. The applied force was 200 N (axial) and 100 N (oblique). We performed an ANOVA statistical test and Tukey tests; p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The increase of crown height did not influence the stress distribution on screw prosthetic (p>0.05) under axial load. However, crown heights of 12.5 and 15 mm caused statistically significant damage to the stress distribution of screws and to the cortical bone (p<0.001) under oblique load. High crown to implant (C/I) ratio harmed microstrain distribution on bone tissue under axial and oblique loads (p<0.001). Crown increase was a possible deleterious factor to the screws and to the different regions of bone tissue.

  1. Morbidity statistics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alwyn

    1969-01-01

    This paper is based on an analysis of questionnaires sent to the health ministries of Member States of WHO asking for information about the extent, nature, and scope of morbidity statistical information. It is clear that most countries collect some statistics of morbidity and many countries collect extensive data. However, few countries relate their collection to the needs of health administrators for information, and many countries collect statistics principally for publication in annual volumes which may appear anything up to 3 years after the year to which they refer. The desiderata of morbidity statistics may be summarized as reliability, representativeness, and relevance to current health problems. PMID:5306722

  2. Classification of events with an off-site radiological impact at the Sellafield site between 1950 and 2000, using the International Nuclear Event Scale.

    PubMed

    Webb, G A M; Anderson, R W; Gaffney, M J S

    2006-03-01

    The paper assesses unplanned operational events at the Sellafield nuclear installation, formerly Windscale and Calder Works, in Cumbria, England, over the period 1950-2000 that had, or could have had, radiological implications for members of the general public. A unified system of off-site impact rating has been developed using a site-specific application of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) that is applied retrospectively to events since the start of operations at the site in 1950. Published and unpublished sources of information have been used to assemble what the authors believe to be a complete list of events over the period that would now be assessed as INES level 3 or above on the basis of off-site impact. The last such event occurred in 1984. The exercise also demonstrates that it is possible to apply the current INES rating scheme to a wide variety of radiological events.

  3. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The term "data snooping" refers to the practice of choosing which statistical analyses to apply to a set of data after having first looked at those data. Data snooping contradicts a fundamental precept of applied statistics, that the scheme of analysis is to be planned in advance. In this column, the authors shall elucidate the statistical…

  4. Classification Based on Hierarchical Linear Models: The Need for Incorporation of Social Contexts in Classification Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qui

    2009-01-01

    Many areas in educational and psychological research involve the use of classification statistical analysis. For example, school districts might be interested in attaining variables that provide optimal prediction of school dropouts. In psychology, a researcher might be interested in the classification of a subject into a particular psychological…

  5. Statistical insight: a review.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira

    2012-01-01

    Statistical Insight is a database that offers the ability to search across multiple sources of data, including the federal government, private organizations, research centers, and international intergovernmental organizations in one search. Two sample searches on the same topic, a basic and an advanced, were conducted to evaluate the database.

  6. Content comparison of haemophilia specific patient-rated outcome measures with the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF, ICF-CY)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) are considered important outcomes because they reflect the patient's experience in clinical trials. PROs have been included in the field of haemophilia only recently. Purpose Comparing the contents of PROs measures used in haemophilia, based on the ICF/ICF-CY as frame of reference. Methods Haemophilia-specific PROs for adults and children were selected on the grounds of international accessibility. The content of the selected instruments were examined by linking the concepts within the items of these instruments to the ICF/ICF-CY. Results Within the 5 selected instruments 365 concepts were identified, of which 283 concepts were linked to the ICF/ICF CY and mapped into 70 different categories. The most frequently used categories were "b152: Emotional functions" and "e1101: Drugs". Conclusions The present paper provides an overview on current PROs in haemophilia and facilitates the selection of appropriate instruments for specific purposes in clinical and research settings. This work was made possible by the grant of the European Murinet Project (Multidisciplinary Research Network on Health and Disability in Europe). PMID:21108796

  7. Remote Sensing Information Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the classification of Remote Sensing data in relation to epidemiology. Classification is a way to reduce the dimensionality and precision to something a human can understand. Classification changes SCALAR data into NOMINAL data.

  8. Classification and knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures to classify objects are discussed. The classification problem is reviewed, and the relation of epistemology and classification is considered. The classification of stellar spectra and of resolved images of galaxies is addressed.

  9. Statistics Clinic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  10. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  11. The revised classification of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Adl, Sina M; Simpson, Alastair G B; Lane, Christopher E; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S; Brown, Matthew W; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; Le Gall, Line; Lynn, Denis H; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A D; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E; Parfrey, Laura W; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Laura; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad L; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W

    2012-09-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. [J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52 (2005) 399], retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information.

  12. Overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to three BMI classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; St-Jean, Audray; Meziou, Salma; Roy, Cynthia; Muckle, Gina; Lucas, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the suitability of three commonly-used body mass index (BMI) classification system for Indigenous children. This study aims to estimate overweight and obesity prevalence among school-aged Nunavik Inuit children according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification systems, to measure agreement between those classification systems, and to investigate whether BMI status as defined by these classification systems is associated with levels of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Methods Data were collected on 290 school-aged children (8–14 years; 50.7% girls) from the Nunavik Child Development Study (NCDS) with data collected in 2005–2010. Anthropometric parameters were measured and blood sampled. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight and obese according to BMI classification systems. Weighted Kappa (kw) statistics assessed agreement between different BMI classification systems and multivariate analysis of variance ascertained their relationship with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Results The combined prevalence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.9% (with 6.6% obesity) with IOTF, 24.1% (11.0%) with CDC, and 40.4% (12.8%) with WHO classification systems. Agreement was the highest between IOTF and CDC (kw=0.87) classifications, and substantial for IOTF and WHO (kw=0.69), and CDC and WHO (kw=0.73). Insulin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein plasma levels were significantly higher from normal weight to obesity, regardless of classification system. Among obese subjects, higher insulin level was observed with IOTF. Conclusion Compared with other systems, IOTF classification appears to be more specific to identify overweight and obesity in Inuit children. PMID:26095406

  13. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B).

    PubMed

    Offermanns, Stefan; Colletti, Steven L; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Semple, Graeme; Wise, Alan; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2011-06-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptors GPR81, GPR109A, and GPR109B share significant sequence homology and form a small group of receptors, each of which is encoded by clustered genes. In recent years, endogenous ligands for all three receptors have been described. These endogenous ligands have in common that they are hydroxy-carboxylic acid metabolites, and we therefore have proposed that this receptor family be named hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA) receptors. The HCA(1) receptor (GPR81) is activated by 2-hydroxy-propanoic acid (lactate), the HCA(2) receptor (GPR109A) is a receptor for the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, and the HCA(3) receptor (GPR109B) is activated by the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. HCA(1) and HCA(2) receptors are found in most mammalian species, whereas the HCA(3) receptor is present only in higher primates. The three receptors have in common that they are expressed in adipocytes and are coupled to G(i)-type G-proteins mediating antilipolytic effects in fat cells. HCA(2) and HCA(3) receptors are also expressed in a variety of immune cells. HCA(2) is a receptor for the antidyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin) and related compounds, and there is an increasing number of synthetic ligands mainly targeted at HCA(2) and HCA(3) receptors. The aim of this article is to give an overview on the discovery and pharmacological characterization of HCAs, and to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature. We will also discuss open questions regarding this receptor family as well as their physiological role and therapeutic potential.

  14. SEER Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.

  15. Cancer Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer statistics across the world. U.S. Cancer Mortality Trends The best indicator of progress against cancer is ... the number of cancer survivors has increased. These trends show that progress is being made against the ...

  16. Statistical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Claudine

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies - such as semiconductors or lasers - are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  17. 75 FR 69334 - International Product and Price Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... 20 International Product and Price Changes AGENCY: Postal Service \\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Mail Manual (IMM ), to reflect the prices, product features, and classification changes to Competitive... rule describes the international price and classification changes and the corresponding...

  18. Employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to capture user feedback in the design and testing stage of development of home-based arm rehabilitation technology.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Holt, Ray; Weightman, Andrew; O'Connor, Rory; Levesley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework to ensure that key aspects of user feedback are identified in the design and testing stages of development of a home-based upper limb rehabilitation system. Seventeen stroke survivors with residual upper limb weakness, and seven healthcare professionals with expertise in stroke rehabilitation, were enrolled in the user-centered design process. Through semi-structured interviews, they provided feedback on the hardware, software and impact of a home-based rehabilitation device to facilitate self-managed arm exercise. Members of the multidisciplinary clinical and engineering research team, based on previous experience and existing literature in user-centred design, developed the topic list for the interviews. Meaningful concepts were extracted from participants' interviews based on existing ICF linking rules and matched to categories within the ICF Comprehensive Core Set for stroke. Most of the interview concepts (except personal factors) matched the existing ICF Comprehensive Core Set categories. Personal factors that emerged from interviews e.g. gender, age, interest, compliance, motivation, choice and convenience that might determine device usability are yet to be categorised within the ICF framework and hence could not be matched to a specific Core Set category.

  19. Developing Item Banks for Measuring Pediatric Generic Health-Related Quality of Life: An Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth and Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Pranav K.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Tuli, Sanjeev Y.; Revicki, Dennis A.; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Huang, I-Chan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop item banks by linking items from three pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments using a mixed methodology. Secondary data were collected from 469 parents of children aged 8-16 years. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth (ICF-CY) served as a framework to compare the concepts of items from three HRQoL instruments. The structural validity of the individual domains was examined using confirmatory factor analyses. Samejima's Graded Response Model was used to calibrate items from different instruments. The known-groups validity of each domain was examined using the status of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Concepts represented by the items in the three instruments were linked to 24 different second-level categories of the ICF-CY. Eight item banks representing eight unidimensional domains were created based on the linkage of the concepts measured by the items of the three instruments to the ICF-CY. The HRQoL results of CSHCN in seven out of eight domains (except personality) were significantly lower compared with children without special health care needs (p<0.05). This study demonstrates a useful approach to compare the item concepts from the three instruments and to generate item banks for a pediatric population. PMID:25268926

  20. Employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to capture user feedback in the design and testing stage of development of home-based arm rehabilitation technology.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Holt, Ray; Weightman, Andrew; O'Connor, Rory; Levesley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework to ensure that key aspects of user feedback are identified in the design and testing stages of development of a home-based upper limb rehabilitation system. Seventeen stroke survivors with residual upper limb weakness, and seven healthcare professionals with expertise in stroke rehabilitation, were enrolled in the user-centered design process. Through semi-structured interviews, they provided feedback on the hardware, software and impact of a home-based rehabilitation device to facilitate self-managed arm exercise. Members of the multidisciplinary clinical and engineering research team, based on previous experience and existing literature in user-centred design, developed the topic list for the interviews. Meaningful concepts were extracted from participants' interviews based on existing ICF linking rules and matched to categories within the ICF Comprehensive Core Set for stroke. Most of the interview concepts (except personal factors) matched the existing ICF Comprehensive Core Set categories. Personal factors that emerged from interviews e.g. gender, age, interest, compliance, motivation, choice and convenience that might determine device usability are yet to be categorised within the ICF framework and hence could not be matched to a specific Core Set category. PMID:26852630