Science.gov

Sample records for international statistical classification

  1. Concepts, definitions and classifications for internal migration statistics in Africa.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    This brief discussion of the various data collection systems used in Africa represents the data situation with regard to African migration statistics. Population censuses are increasingly becoming the most popular source for migration statistics in Africa. The derivation of internal migration information from surrogate measures such as age and sex distributions is predicated on the assumption that the movement is selective with respect to these variables. The part attributable to migration after taking into account natural increases is made difficult in Africa because the correct levels of birth and death rates are not usually known with certainty, nationally or locally. The population census data are useful for the investigation of the national volumes and rates of migration; this provides information on broad patterns of migration for countries. However, it is not suitable for migration studies that intend to investigate in-depth such topics as determinants and impact and delineate various types of migratory movements. African countries should, in addition to the birthplace question, include at least 1 of the following supplementary questions: 1) duration of residence, 2) place of previous residence, and 3) place of residence at a fixed prior date. It is increasingly noted that sample surveys are where most of the new data required for policy ought to come from. Longitudinal surveys on migration are also required to advance our present knowledge about the various types of mobility and their seasonal character and about the consequences of the movement. Data collection systems must also be improved in the concepts, definitions, and classifications. This applies to the definition of migration as well as the spatial classifications used as the reference units for the collection of data and the definitions of rural and urban.

  2. [Classifications, agreements and negotiations: bases for the first international statistics on mental diseases (Paris 1889)].

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the construction of the first international classification of mental diseases, specifically created to allow a unified statistics on the mentally ill. This classification was discussed and approved at the International Congress of Mental Medicine held in Paris in August 1889, in response to a request made by the Society of Mental Medicine of Belgium four years earlier. A careful reading of this report helps us to understand the role of the classification and statistics of pathologies in the field of psychiatric medicine. This offers an historical perspective on an issue that remains problematic and allows analysis of the time when psychiatric classifications were first articulated and subjected to comparative statistical study.

  3. Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S K

    2012-07-01

    Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny.

  4. Revisiting Classification of Eating Disorders-toward Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-11

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Shrigopal; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Khandelwal, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used nosological systems- International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV are under revision. This process has generated a lot of interesting debates with regards to future of the current diagnostic categories. In fact, the status of categorical approach in the upcoming versions of ICD and DSM is also being debated. The current article focuses on the debate with regards to the eating disorders. The existing classification of eating disorders has been criticized for its limitations. A host of new diagnostic categories have been recommended for inclusion in the upcoming revisions. Also the structure of the existing categories has also been put under scrutiny. PMID:23440448

  5. Manual for the Collection of Adult Education Statistics. Within the Framework of International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Statistics on Education.

    The first 15 pages of the manual provide: (1) background information on the importance of adult education, the need for adult education statistics, the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), and the scope of the term adult education; (2) the application of ISCED to adult education and the ISCED classifications (levels, fields,…

  6. How to Move Beyond the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders/International Classification of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Schildkrout, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking. Neuroscience literacy allows psychiatrists to formulate biologically informed psychological theories, to follow neuroscientific literature pertinent to psychiatry, and to embark on a path toward neurologically informed clinical thinking that can help move the field away from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases conceptualizations. Psychiatrists are urged to work toward attaining neuroscience literacy to prepare for and contribute to the development of a new nosology.

  7. Cross-cultural and comparative epidemiology of insomnia: the Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM), International classification of diseases (ICD) and International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Yung, Kam-Ping; Yu, Yee-Man; Kwok, Chi-Wa

    2015-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of insomnia according to symptoms, quantitative criteria, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th and 5th Edition (DSM-IV and DSM-5), International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10), and International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 2nd Edition (ICSD-2), and to compare the prevalence of insomnia disorder between Hong Kong and the United States by adopting a similar methodology used by the America Insomnia Survey (AIS). Population-based epidemiological survey respondents (n = 2011) completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire (BIQ), a validated scale generating DSM-IV, DSM-5, ICD-10, and ICSD-2 insomnia disorder. The weighted prevalence of difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, waking up too early, and non-restorative sleep that occurred ≥3 days per week was 14.0%, 28.3%, 32.1%, and 39.9%, respectively. When quantitative criteria were included, the prevalence dropped the most from 39.9% to 8.4% for non-restorative sleep, and the least from 14.0% to 12.9% for difficulty falling asleep. The weighted prevalence of DSM-IV, ICD-10, ICSD-2, and any of the three insomnia disorders was 22.1%, 4.7%, 15.1%, and 22.1%, respectively; for DSM-5 insomnia disorder, it was 10.8%. Compared with 22.1%, 3.9%, and 14.7% for DSM-IV, ICD-10, and ICSD-2 in the AIS, cross-cultural difference in the prevalence of insomnia disorder is less than what is expected. The prevalence is reduced by half from DSM-IV to DSM-5. ICD-10 insomnia disorder has the lowest prevalence, perhaps because excessive concern and preoccupation, one of its diagnostic criteria, is not always present in people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  15. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their…

  16. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their…

  17. Proposed declassification of disease categories related to sexual orientation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11)

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Jack; Kismödi, Eszter; Giami, Alain; García-Moreno, Claudia; Atalla, Elham; Marais, Adele; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization is developing the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), planned for publication in 2017. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health was charged with reviewing and making recommendations on disease categories related to sexuality in the chapter on mental and behavioural disorders in the 10th revision (ICD-10), published in 1990. This chapter includes categories for diagnoses based primarily on sexual orientation even though ICD-10 states that sexual orientation alone is not a disorder. This article reviews the scientific evidence and clinical rationale for continuing to include these categories in the ICD. A review of the evidence published since 1990 found little scientific interest in these categories. In addition, the Working Group found no evidence that they are clinically useful: they neither contribute to health service delivery or treatment selection nor provide essential information for public health surveillance. Moreover, use of these categories may create unnecessary harm by delaying accurate diagnosis and treatment. The Working Group recommends that these categories be deleted entirely from ICD-11. Health concerns related to sexual orientation can be better addressed using other ICD categories. PMID:25378758

  18. Proposed declassification of disease categories related to sexual orientation in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11).

    PubMed

    Cochran, Susan D; Drescher, Jack; Kismödi, Eszter; Giami, Alain; García-Moreno, Claudia; Atalla, Elham; Marais, Adele; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Reed, Geoffrey M

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization is developing the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), planned for publication in 2017. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health was charged with reviewing and making recommendations on disease categories related to sexuality in the chapter on mental and behavioural disorders in the 10th revision (ICD-10), published in 1990. This chapter includes categories for diagnoses based primarily on sexual orientation even though ICD-10 states that sexual orientation alone is not a disorder. This article reviews the scientific evidence and clinical rationale for continuing to include these categories in the ICD. A review of the evidence published since 1990 found little scientific interest in these categories. In addition, the Working Group found no evidence that they are clinically useful: they neither contribute to health service delivery or treatment selection nor provide essential information for public health surveillance. Moreover, use of these categories may create unnecessary harm by delaying accurate diagnosis and treatment. The Working Group recommends that these categories be deleted entirely from ICD-11. Health concerns related to sexual orientation can be better addressed using other ICD categories.

  19. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  20. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  1. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  2. 14 CFR Section 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  3. 14 CFR 19 - Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Statistics Section 19 Section Section 19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Section 19 Uniform Classification of Operating Statistics...

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  6. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This monthly publication provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  7. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This document is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand and trade in OECD countries.

  8. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production, oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  9. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  10. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This monthly publication provides international oil data for January 1998. The report presents data on oil production, demand, imports, and stocks in four sections. Section 1 containes time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 containes annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  12. Adaptive, template moderated, spatially varying statistical classification.

    PubMed

    Warfield, S K; Kaus, M; Jolesz, F A; Kikinis, R

    2000-03-01

    A novel image segmentation algorithm was developed to allow the automatic segmentation of both normal and abnormal anatomy from medical images. The new algorithm is a form of spatially varying statistical classification, in which an explicit anatomical template is used to moderate the segmentation obtained by statistical classification. The algorithm consists of an iterated sequence of spatially varying classification and nonlinear registration, which forms an adaptive, template moderated (ATM), spatially varying statistical classification (SVC). Classification methods and nonlinear registration methods are often complementary, both in the tasks where they succeed and in the tasks where they fail. By integrating these approaches the new algorithm avoids many of the disadvantages of each approach alone while exploiting the combination. The ATM SVC algorithm was applied to several segmentation problems, involving different image contrast mechanisms and different locations in the body. Segmentation and validation experiments were carried out for problems involving the quantification of normal anatomy (MRI of brains of neonates) and pathology of various types (MRI of patients with multiple sclerosis, MRI of patients with brain tumors, MRI of patients with damaged knee cartilage). In each case, the ATM SVC algorithm provided a better segmentation than statistical classification or elastic matching alone.

  13. Statistical physics for materials classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassalle, Hugues Jean

    Genetic algorithms (GA) and clustering techniques are used to study and classify materials. An analysis of the convergence speed of GA is carried out using advanced probability theory and random walk concepts. The determination of the ground-state of multicomponent alloys and Ising models with long-range interactions is accomplished using a genetic algorithm. A new GA operator, the domain-flip, is introduced and its efficiency is compared to that of traditional GA operators, crossover and mutation. The domain-flip operator destroys phase-boundaries by flipping all bits of a given domain at the same time. This operator turns out to be crucial in extracting the system from low local minima. Therefore its presence is rather essential to speed up the GA convergence. A study of GA convergence in its last stages, where all chromosomes present in the population are assumed to consist of two well-ordered domains, is performed using random walk theory and probability theory. Exact expressions for the average time needed for at least one chromosome to find the ground-state are derived. Also, the probability for two chromosomes to undergo a successful crossover, meaning the result is the ground-state, are given. Finally, clustering techniques, which belong to the field of Data Mining, are applied to the classification of materials. An improved version of the widely-used clustering algorithm, K-means, is developed. A comparison of the two clustering techniques on a two-dimensional data set shows that the guide-point approach is more powerful than the K-means algorithm. The guide-point algorithm is used successfully to partition a materials data set. This clustering results in extracting useful information from the data set for which no a priori knowledge was assumed.

  14. Statistical classification methods applied to seismic discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, F.M.; Anderson, D.N.; Anderson, K.K.; Hagedorn, D.N.; Higbee, K.T.; Miller, N.E.; Redgate, T.; Rohay, A.C.

    1996-06-11

    To verify compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), low energy seismic activity must be detected and discriminated. Monitoring small-scale activity will require regional (within {approx}2000 km) monitoring capabilities. This report provides background information on various statistical classification methods and discusses the relevance of each method in the CTBT seismic discrimination setting. Criteria for classification method selection are explained and examples are given to illustrate several key issues. This report describes in more detail the issues and analyses that were initially outlined in a poster presentation at a recent American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting. Section 2 of this report describes both the CTBT seismic discrimination setting and the general statistical classification approach to this setting. Seismic data examples illustrate the importance of synergistically using multivariate data as well as the difficulties due to missing observations. Classification method selection criteria are presented and discussed in Section 3. These criteria are grouped into the broad classes of simplicity, robustness, applicability, and performance. Section 4 follows with a description of several statistical classification methods: linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, variably regularized discriminant analysis, flexible discriminant analysis, logistic discriminant analysis, K-th Nearest Neighbor discrimination, kernel discrimination, and classification and regression tree discrimination. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are summarized in Section 5.

  15. International classification of traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Morris, William; Gomes, Stacy; Allen, Marilyn

    2012-09-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) provides alphanumeric codes that have a longstanding place in the annals of contemporary medicine for epidemiology, health management, and clinical diagnoses from patient encounters to death certificates. This system is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO). Traditional medicine (TM) has historical usage patterns established by treating people through the centuries but has never before been included in the ICD code set. The inclusion of traditional Asian medicine in the International Family of Classifications is a new venture and scheduled to be included in the ICD-11 revision of the codes. This may enable the comparison of diagnostic, clinical outcome, and epidemiological information across medical systems. WHO recently completed a survey among member nations and discovered that 82% of the world's population uses some form of TM.(2.)

  16. International Classification of Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Morris, William; Allen, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) provides alphanumeric codes that have a longstanding place in the annals of contemporary medicine for epidemiology, health management, and clinical diagnoses from patient encounters to death certificates. This system is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO). Traditional medicine (TM) has historical usage patterns established by treating people through the centuries but has never before been included in the ICD code set. The inclusion of traditional Asian medicine in the International Family of Classifications is a new venture and scheduled to be included in the ICD-11 revision of the codes. This may enable the comparison of diagnostic, clinical outcome, and epidemiological information across medical systems. WHO recently completed a survey among member nations and discovered that 82% of the world's population uses some form of TM.2 PMID:24278830

  17. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  18. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  19. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  20. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules... § 30.61 Statistical classification schedules. The following statistical classification schedules are....census.gov/trade. (a) Schedule B—Statistical Classification for Domestic and Foreign Commodities...

  1. A statistical approach to root system classification

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  2. Texture Classification by Texton: Statistical versus Binary

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhongcheng; Li, Xiu; Li, Qin; You, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using statistical textons for texture classification has shown great success recently. The maximal response 8 (Statistical_MR8), image patch (Statistical_Joint) and locally invariant fractal (Statistical_Fractal) are typical statistical texton algorithms and state-of-the-art texture classification methods. However, there are two limitations when using these methods. First, it needs a training stage to build a texton library, thus the recognition accuracy will be highly depended on the training samples; second, during feature extraction, local feature is assigned to a texton by searching for the nearest texton in the whole library, which is time consuming when the library size is big and the dimension of feature is high. To address the above two issues, in this paper, three binary texton counterpart methods were proposed, Binary_MR8, Binary_Joint, and Binary_Fractal. These methods do not require any training step but encode local feature into binary representation directly. The experimental results on the CUReT, UIUC and KTH-TIPS databases show that binary texton could get sound results with fast feature extraction, especially when the image size is not big and the quality of image is not poor. PMID:24520346

  3. Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Does the international student suffer from statistics anxiety? To investigate this, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered to sixty-six beginning statistics students, including twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students, nonparametric methods were used to…

  4. The Origins of the International Standard Classification of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John A.

    2008-01-01

    This article recalls the earliest attempts to compile international educational statistics going back into the 19th century and retraces the steps that led up to the formulation and adoption of the International Standard Classification of Education in both its original and revised versions. It is in large part the story of how international…

  5. Statistical Emulator for Expensive Classification Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Jerret; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2016-01-01

    Expensive simulators prevent any kind of meaningful analysis to be performed on the phenomena they model. To get around this problem the concept of using a statistical emulator as a surrogate representation of the simulator was introduced in the 1980's. Presently, simulators have become more and more complex and as a result running a single example on these simulators is very expensive and can take days to weeks or even months. Many new techniques have been introduced, termed criteria, which sequentially select the next best (most informative to the emulator) point that should be run on the simulator. These criteria methods allow for the creation of an emulator with only a small number of simulator runs. We follow and extend this framework to expensive classification simulators.

  6. Are classification accuracy statistics underused in neuropsychological research?

    PubMed

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weinborn, Michael; Lovejoy, David W

    2003-05-01

    The prevalence of classification accuracy statistics was calculated in five prominent neuropsychology journals and five leading neurology journals for the years 2000 and 2001. Only 29% of neuropsychological articles judged to be appropriate for classification accuracy statistics presented sufficient data to calculate a full range of such analyses. Moreover, classification accuracy statistics were significantly less prevalent in neuropsychology journal articles than in studies published in neurology journals during the same time period. Various indices of sensitivity and/or specificity were present in 31% of neuropsychology articles, whereas fewer than 3% reported predictive values or risk ratios. These findings indicate that classification accuracy statistics, most notably predictive values and risk ratios, are potentially underused in neuropsychology. Investigators and research consumers are encouraged to consider the applicability of classification accuracy statistics as a means of evaluating the clinical relevance of neuropsychological research findings.

  7. Resolution-limited statistical image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaum, Marek; Syrkin, Mark

    1993-09-01

    We have examined the performance of a one-layer Perceptron for the detection and classification of small (resolution-limited) targets from their images, which are stochastic realizations of random processes. The processes are governed by non-Gaussian, non-white distributions. Our results show the potential of the Perceptron classifier as an Ideal Observer and suggest image detection and classification problems for which neural networks may be more reliable than human observers.

  8. Statistically invalid classification of high throughput gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Barbash, Shahar; Soreq, Hermona

    2013-01-01

    Classification analysis based on high throughput data is a common feature in neuroscience and other fields of science, with a rapidly increasing impact on both basic biology and disease-related studies. The outcome of such classifications often serves to delineate novel biochemical mechanisms in health and disease states, identify new targets for therapeutic interference, and develop innovative diagnostic approaches. Given the importance of this type of studies, we screened 111 recently-published high-impact manuscripts involving classification analysis of gene expression, and found that 58 of them (53%) based their conclusions on a statistically invalid method which can lead to bias in a statistical sense (lower true classification accuracy then the reported classification accuracy). In this report we characterize the potential methodological error and its scope, investigate how it is influenced by different experimental parameters, and describe statistically valid methods for avoiding such classification mistakes.

  9. Indigenous vs. International soil classification system in Ohangwena Region, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Bloemertz, Lena

    2014-05-01

    This poster will present soil diversity in North-Central Namibia, with a focus on soil fertility. It aims to show the correspondence and differences between an international and an indigenous soil classification system. International classifications, like World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), are very helpful tools to share information in soil science and agriculture. However, these classification are meaningful for large scale soil processes understanding but local specificities cannot be understood and differentiated. On the other hand, knowledge that farmers have on cultivated soils is very accurate and adapted to local agricultural use. However, their knowledge should be properly defined and translated to be used by scientists. Once their knowledge can be read by scientists, it provides very powerful tools for soil mapping and characterization. Analysis so far has focused on the area of Ondobe (30 km West from Eenhana, Ohangwena region). This area is located between two major systems, the Cuvelai floodplain to the West and the Kalahari Woodlands to the East. While all the cultivated soils from this region would be classified as Arenosols (WRB), the local classification differentiates five major soil types (Omutunda, Ehenge, Omufitu, Elondo, Ehenene). In WRB classification, these soils correspond, roughly, to specific Arenosols, respectively Hypereutric, Albic, Haplic, Rubic and Salic Arenosols. Further work will evaluate, the local variation inside each indigenous soil types. Hierarchical classification using soil field descriptors will be used to create statistic soil groups. These new groups will then be compared to each classification system.

  10. Statistical pattern classification with binary variables.

    PubMed

    Young, T Y; Liu, P S; Rondon, R J

    1981-02-01

    Binary random variables are regarded as random vectors in a binary-field (modulo-2) linear vector space. A characteristic function is defined and related results derived using this formulation. Minimax estimation of probability distributions using an entropy criterion is investigated, which leads to an A-distribution and bilinear discriminant functions. Nonparametric classification approaches using Hamming distances and their asymptotic properties are discussed. Experimental results are presented.

  11. Estimation of context for statistical classification of multispectral image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, J. C.; Vardeman, S. B.; Swain, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated the effectiveness of a contextual classifier that combines spatial and spectral information employing a general statistical approach. This statistical classification algorithm exploits the tendency of certain ground cover classes to occur more frequently in some spatial contexts than in others. Indeed, a key input to this algorithm is a statistical characterization of the context: the context function. An unbiased estimator of the context function is discussed which, besides having the advantage of statistical unbiasedness, has the additional advantage over other estimation techniques of being amenable to an adaptive implementation in which the context-function estimate varies according to local contextual information. Results from applying the unbiased estimator to the contextual classification of three real Landsat data sets are presented and contrasted with results from noncontextual classifications and from contextual classifications utilizing other context-function estimation techniques.

  12. Internal Correlation: The Relational Statistic of Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozeboom, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Use of internal correlation for statistical analysis--proposed by G. W. Joe and J. L. Mendoza (1989)--is discussed. Focus is on the "content" question (what this application can do with the information that statistics contain) and the "eloquence" question (the advantages of this means of encoding information over other means). (TJH)

  13. Statistical fingerprinting for malware detection and classification

    DOEpatents

    Prowell, Stacy J.; Rathgeb, Christopher T.

    2015-09-15

    A system detects malware in a computing architecture with an unknown pedigree. The system includes a first computing device having a known pedigree and operating free of malware. The first computing device executes a series of instrumented functions that, when executed, provide a statistical baseline that is representative of the time it takes the software application to run on a computing device having a known pedigree. A second computing device executes a second series of instrumented functions that, when executed, provides an actual time that is representative of the time the known software application runs on the second computing device. The system detects malware when there is a difference in execution times between the first and the second computing devices.

  14. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  15. Educational Statistics Yearbook. Volume I: International Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This publication presents 41 statistical tables containing data on education in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This volume presents international comparative data and is intended for use in the comparative study of educational systems, rather than in the study of education in any one country.…

  16. 15 CFR 30.61 - Statistical classification schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statistical classification schedules. 30.61 Section 30.61 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Administrative...

  17. A statistical approach to set classification by feature selection with applications to classification of histopathology images.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungkyu; Qiao, Xingye

    2014-09-01

    Set classification problems arise when classification tasks are based on sets of observations as opposed to individual observations. In set classification, a classification rule is trained with N sets of observations, where each set is labeled with class information, and the prediction of a class label is performed also with a set of observations. Data sets for set classification appear, for example, in diagnostics of disease based on multiple cell nucleus images from a single tissue. Relevant statistical models for set classification are introduced, which motivate a set classification framework based on context-free feature extraction. By understanding a set of observations as an empirical distribution, we employ a data-driven method to choose those features which contain information on location and major variation. In particular, the method of principal component analysis is used to extract the features of major variation. Multidimensional scaling is used to represent features as vector-valued points on which conventional classifiers can be applied. The proposed set classification approaches achieve better classification results than competing methods in a number of simulated data examples. The benefits of our method are demonstrated in an analysis of histopathology images of cell nuclei related to liver cancer.

  18. Using statistical text classification to identify health information technology incidents.

    PubMed

    Chai, Kevin E K; Anthony, Stephen; Coiera, Enrico; Magrabi, Farah

    2013-01-01

    To examine the feasibility of using statistical text classification to automatically identify health information technology (HIT) incidents in the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. We used a subset of 570 272 incidents including 1534 HIT incidents reported to MAUDE between 1 January 2008 and 1 July 2010. Text classifiers using regularized logistic regression were evaluated with both 'balanced' (50% HIT) and 'stratified' (0.297% HIT) datasets for training, validation, and testing. Dataset preparation, feature extraction, feature selection, cross-validation, classification, performance evaluation, and error analysis were performed iteratively to further improve the classifiers. Feature-selection techniques such as removing short words and stop words, stemming, lemmatization, and principal component analysis were examined. κ statistic, F1 score, precision and recall. Classification performance was similar on both the stratified (0.954 F1 score) and balanced (0.995 F1 score) datasets. Stemming was the most effective technique, reducing the feature set size to 79% while maintaining comparable performance. Training with balanced datasets improved recall (0.989) but reduced precision (0.165). Statistical text classification appears to be a feasible method for identifying HIT reports within large databases of incidents. Automated identification should enable more HIT problems to be detected, analyzed, and addressed in a timely manner. Semi-supervised learning may be necessary when applying machine learning to big data analysis of patient safety incidents and requires further investigation.

  19. International petroleum statistics report, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992. Data for the United States are developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Office of Oil and Gas. Data for other countries are derived largely from published sources including International Energy Agency publications, the EIA International Energy Annual, and the trade press. (See sources after each section). All data are reviewed by the International Statistics Branch of EIA. All data have been converted to units of measurement familiar to the American public. Definitions of oil production and consumption are consistent with other EIA publications.

  20. Incorporating spatial context into statistical classification of multidimensional image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Tilton, J. C.; Swain, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Compound decision theory is employed to develop a general statistical model for classifying image data using spatial context. The classification algorithm developed from this model exploits the tendency of certain ground-cover classes to occur more frequently in some spatial contexts than in others. A key input to this contextural classifier is a quantitative characterization of this tendency: the context function. Several methods for estimating the context function are explored, and two complementary methods are recommended. The contextural classifier is shown to produce substantial improvements in classification accuracy compared to the accuracy produced by a non-contextural uniform-priors maximum likelihood classifier when these methods of estimating the context function are used. An approximate algorithm, which cuts computational requirements by over one-half, is presented. The search for an optimal implementation is furthered by an exploration of the relative merits of using spectral classes or information classes for classification and/or context function estimation.

  1. International petroleum statistics report, July 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 44 tabs.

  2. International petroleum statistics report, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  3. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification.

    PubMed

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B; Ko, Alex C-T; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage.

  4. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification

    PubMed Central

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage. PMID:23846580

  5. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Leila B.; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Bo; Hewko, Mark; Tian, Ganghong; Major, Arkady; Shiomi, Masashi; Sowa, Michael G.

    2013-07-01

    In this study we present an image analysis methodology capable of quantifying morphological changes in tissue collagen fibril organization caused by pathological conditions. Texture analysis based on first-order statistics (FOS) and second-order statistics such as gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) was explored to extract second-harmonic generation (SHG) image features that are associated with the structural and biochemical changes of tissue collagen networks. Based on these extracted quantitative parameters, multi-group classification of SHG images was performed. With combined FOS and GLCM texture values, we achieved reliable classification of SHG collagen images acquired from atherosclerosis arteries with >90% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The proposed methodology can be applied to a wide range of conditions involving collagen re-modeling, such as in skin disorders, different types of fibrosis and muscular-skeletal diseases affecting ligaments and cartilage.

  6. International Petroleum Statistics Report, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993. Data for the United States are developed by the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Office of Oil and Gas. Data for other countries are derived largely from published sources, including International Energy Agency publications, the EIA International Energy Annual, and the trade press. (See sources after each section.) All data are reviewed by the International Statistics Branch of EIA. All data have been converted to units of measurement familiar to the American public. Definitions of oil production and consumption are consistent with other EIA publications.

  7. Automatic Text Classification of English Newswire Articles Based on Statistical Classification Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Guowei; Ohyama, Wataru; Wakabayashi, Tetsushi; Kimura, Fumitaka

    The basic process of automatic text classification is learning a classification scheme from training examples then using it to classify unseen textual documents. It is essentially the same as graphic or character pattern recognition process. So the pattern recognition approaches can be used for automatic text categorization. In this research several statistical classification techniques each of which employs Euclidean distance, various similarity measures, linear discriminant function, projection distance, modified projection distance, SVM, nearest-neighbor, have been used for automatic text classification. The principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. Comparative experiments have been conducted on the Reuters-21578 test collection of English newswire articles. The results illustrate that the efficiency of modified projection distance is totally better than the other methods and the principal component analysis is suitable for reducing the dimensionality of the text features.

  8. Using statistical text classification to identify health information technology incidents

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Kevin E K; Anthony, Stephen; Coiera, Enrico; Magrabi, Farah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility of using statistical text classification to automatically identify health information technology (HIT) incidents in the USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. Design We used a subset of 570 272 incidents including 1534 HIT incidents reported to MAUDE between 1 January 2008 and 1 July 2010. Text classifiers using regularized logistic regression were evaluated with both ‘balanced’ (50% HIT) and ‘stratified’ (0.297% HIT) datasets for training, validation, and testing. Dataset preparation, feature extraction, feature selection, cross-validation, classification, performance evaluation, and error analysis were performed iteratively to further improve the classifiers. Feature-selection techniques such as removing short words and stop words, stemming, lemmatization, and principal component analysis were examined. Measurements κ statistic, F1 score, precision and recall. Results Classification performance was similar on both the stratified (0.954 F1 score) and balanced (0.995 F1 score) datasets. Stemming was the most effective technique, reducing the feature set size to 79% while maintaining comparable performance. Training with balanced datasets improved recall (0.989) but reduced precision (0.165). Conclusions Statistical text classification appears to be a feasible method for identifying HIT reports within large databases of incidents. Automated identification should enable more HIT problems to be detected, analyzed, and addressed in a timely manner. Semi-supervised learning may be necessary when applying machine learning to big data analysis of patient safety incidents and requires further investigation. PMID:23666777

  9. International Petroleum Statistics Report, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-31

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  10. International petroleum statistics report, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-26

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992: and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  11. International petroleum statistics report, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  12. International petroleum statistics report, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  13. A new area classification for understanding internal migration in Britain.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Adam; Stillwell, John

    2011-01-01

    This article details the development of a new area classification for Britain based on internal migration variables taken from the 2001 Census. An explanation of why general-purpose area classifications already in existence are not ideal for internal migration analysis is provided, before an account of the construction of the new classification is given. The latter involves justification of the choice of variables, explanation of the methodology adopted and presentation of the final typology.

  14. Case-based statistical learning applied to SPECT image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górriz, Juan M.; Ramírez, Javier; Illán, I. A.; Martínez-Murcia, Francisco J.; Segovia, Fermín.; Salas-Gonzalez, Diego; Ortiz, A.

    2017-03-01

    Statistical learning and decision theory play a key role in many areas of science and engineering. Some examples include time series regression and prediction, optical character recognition, signal detection in communications or biomedical applications for diagnosis and prognosis. This paper deals with the topic of learning from biomedical image data in the classification problem. In a typical scenario we have a training set that is employed to fit a prediction model or learner and a testing set on which the learner is applied to in order to predict the outcome for new unseen patterns. Both processes are usually completely separated to avoid over-fitting and due to the fact that, in practice, the unseen new objects (testing set) have unknown outcomes. However, the outcome yields one of a discrete set of values, i.e. the binary diagnosis problem. Thus, assumptions on these outcome values could be established to obtain the most likely prediction model at the training stage, that could improve the overall classification accuracy on the testing set, or keep its performance at least at the level of the selected statistical classifier. In this sense, a novel case-based learning (c-learning) procedure is proposed which combines hypothesis testing from a discrete set of expected outcomes and a cross-validated classification stage.

  15. Multispectral data acquisition and classification - Statistical models for system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we relate the statistical processes that are involved in multispectral data acquisition and classification to a simple radiometric model of the earth surface and atmosphere. If generalized, these formulations could provide an analytical link between the steadily improving models of our environment and the performance characteristics of rapidly advancing device technology. This link is needed to bring system analysis tools to the task of optimizing remote sensing and (real-time) signal processing systems as a function of target and atmospheric properties, remote sensor spectral bands and system topology (e.g., image-plane processing), radiometric sensitivity and calibration accuracy, compensation for imaging conditions (e.g., atmospheric effects), and classification rates and errors.

  16. International petroleum statistics report, May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. It presents data on international production, demand, imports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two year. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997, and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 fig., 48 tabs.

  17. Traffic congestion classification using motion vector statistical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Amina; Khan, Shoab A.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the rapid increase in population, one of the major problems faced by the urban areas is traffic congestion. In this paper we propose a method for classifying highway traffic congestion using motion vector statistical properties. Motion vectors are estimated using pyramidal Kanada-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) tracker algorithm. Then motion vector features are extracted and are used to classify the traffic patterns into three categories: light, medium and heavy. Classification using neural network, on publicly available dataset, shows an accuracy of 95.28%, with robustness to environmental conditions such as variable luminance. Our system provides a more accurate solution to the problem as compared to the systems previously proposed.

  18. [On reform of the international patent classification ].

    PubMed

    Nenakhov, G S; Bril', E M; Shpikalov, A M

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the data on reformed IPC are presented. In IPC the core and advanced levels of classification system are used. It is shown that the goal of the IPC reform is to make possible complete search using a single classification edition for all documents, regardless of their publication date.

  19. Comparison of Three Statistical Classification Techniques for Maser Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Ellen M.; Holland, Barbara R.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Breen, Shari L.; Chen, Xi; Humphries, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    We applied three statistical classification techniques-linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression, and random forests-to three astronomical datasets associated with searches for interstellar masers. We compared the performance of these methods in identifying whether specific mid-infrared or millimetre continuum sources are likely to have associated interstellar masers. We also discuss the interpretability of the results of each classification technique. Non-parametric methods have the potential to make accurate predictions when there are complex relationships between critical parameters. We found that for the small datasets the parametric methods logistic regression and LDA performed best, for the largest dataset the non-parametric method of random forests performed with comparable accuracy to parametric techniques, rather than any significant improvement. This suggests that at least for the specific examples investigated here accuracy of the predictions obtained is not being limited by the use of parametric models. We also found that for LDA, transformation of the data to match a normal distribution led to a significant improvement in accuracy. The different classification techniques had significant overlap in their predictions; further astronomical observations will enable the accuracy of these predictions to be tested.

  20. [Classification statistical techniques: an applied and comparative study].

    PubMed

    Richard's, María Marta; Solanas, Antonio; Ledesma, Rubén D; Introzzi, Isabel M; López Ramón, María Fernanda

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this article is to assess and compare three classification statistical techniques--logistic regression, discriminant analysis and classification trees--to identify the personality characteristics associated with the risk of suffering from ischemic cardiovascular acute episodes (ICAE). The sample comprised 313 participants, men and women, aged from 36 to 80. Participants were divided into two groups: a clinical group of patients (n = 143) who were diagnosed as suffering from ICAE, and a control group (n = 170). Both groups were equated in gender, age, socio-economic and educational level. In view of the comparative study of the analytical procedures, we recommend classification trees as the best choice, as it was the most accurate for the individuals in the clinical group, a simple data analysis and a meaningful clinical interpretation. The predictive validity analysis of the MCMI-II allowed the construction of a reduced version made up of 9 personality scales from the 22 scales in the original version. Thus, we could identify the patients with a higher probability of suffering from ICAE, and additionally, generate an empirical model comprising seven and five personality profiles associated, respectively, with the increase and the decrease of the probability of suffering from ICAE.

  1. Lung sound classification using cepstral-based statistical features.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Nandini; Sahidullah, Md; Saha, Goutam

    2016-08-01

    Lung sounds convey useful information related to pulmonary pathology. In this paper, short-term spectral characteristics of lung sounds are studied to characterize the lung sounds for the identification of associated diseases. Motivated by the success of cepstral features in speech signal classification, we evaluate five different cepstral features to recognize three types of lung sounds: normal, wheeze and crackle. Subsequently for fast and efficient classification, we propose a new feature set computed from the statistical properties of cepstral coefficients. Experiments are conducted on a dataset of 30 subjects using the artificial neural network (ANN) as a classifier. Results show that the statistical features extracted from mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) of lung sounds outperform commonly used wavelet-based features as well as standard cepstral coefficients including MFCCs. Further, we experimentally optimize different control parameters of the proposed feature extraction algorithm. Finally, we evaluate the features for noisy lung sound recognition. We have found that our newly investigated features are more robust than existing features and show better recognition accuracy even in low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs).

  2. International petroleum statistics report, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  3. International petroleum statistics report, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. International petroleum statistics report, December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992. 41 tabs.

  5. International petroleum statistics report, June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 46 tabs.

  6. International petroleum statistics report, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  7. International petroleum statistics report, February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995. 4 figs., 47 tabs.

  8. International petroleum statistics report, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-04

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance fore the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  9. International petroleum statistics report, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.

  10. International petroleum statistics report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-25

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  11. International petroleum statistics report, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-30

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data for March 1995 on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  12. International petroleum statistics report, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  13. International petroleum statistics report, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  14. International petroleum statistics report, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  15. International petroleum statistics report, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarter data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  16. International petroleum statistics report, August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. International petroleum statistics report, September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-27

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  18. International petroleum statistics report, October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  19. International petroleum statistics report, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  20. International petroleum statistics report, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  1. International petroleum statistics report, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. The balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. International petroleum statistics report, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1990, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years and annually for the three years prior to that. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1998; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1998; and OECD trade from 1988 through 1998. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. International petroleum statistics report, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. International petroleum statistics report, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-28

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  5. International petroleum statistics report, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The International petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970--1997; OECD stocks from 1973--1997; and OECD trade from 1987--1997.

  6. International petroleum statistics report, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  7. International petroleum statistics report, November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-25

    Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The International production, and on oil and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  8. International petroleum statistics report, September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1987 through 1997. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  9. International petroleum statistics report, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (ECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  10. International petroleum statistics report, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1993; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1993; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992. 41 tables.

  11. International petroleum statistics report, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on International oil production, demand, imports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1997; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1997; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. International petroleum statistics report, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-30

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1983 through 1993.

  13. International petroleum statistics report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995. 4 figs., 47 tabs.

  14. Linear and Order Statistics Combiners for Pattern Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Ghosh, Joydeep; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several researchers have experimentally shown that substantial improvements can be obtained in difficult pattern recognition problems by combining or integrating the outputs of multiple classifiers. This chapter provides an analytical framework to quantify the improvements in classification results due to combining. The results apply to both linear combiners and order statistics combiners. We first show that to a first order approximation, the error rate obtained over and above the Bayes error rate, is directly proportional to the variance of the actual decision boundaries around the Bayes optimum boundary. Combining classifiers in output space reduces this variance, and hence reduces the 'added' error. If N unbiased classifiers are combined by simple averaging. the added error rate can be reduced by a factor of N if the individual errors in approximating the decision boundaries are uncorrelated. Expressions are then derived for linear combiners which are biased or correlated, and the effect of output correlations on ensemble performance is quantified. For order statistics based non-linear combiners, we derive expressions that indicate how much the median, the maximum and in general the i-th order statistic can improve classifier performance. The analysis presented here facilitates the understanding of the relationships among error rates, classifier boundary distributions, and combining in output space. Experimental results on several public domain data sets are provided to illustrate the benefits of combining and to support the analytical results.

  15. Descriptive Statistics of the Genome: Phylogenetic Classification of Viruses.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Troy; Yang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The typical process for classifying and submitting a newly sequenced virus to the NCBI database involves two steps. First, a BLAST search is performed to determine likely family candidates. That is followed by checking the candidate families with the pairwise sequence alignment tool for similar species. The submitter's judgment is then used to determine the most likely species classification. The aim of this article is to show that this process can be automated into a fast, accurate, one-step process using the proposed alignment-free method and properly implemented machine learning techniques. We present a new family of alignment-free vectorizations of the genome, the generalized vector, that maintains the speed of existing alignment-free methods while outperforming all available methods. This new alignment-free vectorization uses the frequency of genomic words (k-mers), as is done in the composition vector, and incorporates descriptive statistics of those k-mers' positional information, as inspired by the natural vector. We analyze five different characterizations of genome similarity using k-nearest neighbor classification and evaluate these on two collections of viruses totaling over 10,000 viruses. We show that our proposed method performs better than, or as well as, other methods at every level of the phylogenetic hierarchy. The data and R code is available upon request.

  16. Gap Shape Classification using Landscape Indices and Multivariate Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Cheng, Chi-Chuan; Chang, Che-Chang; Lin, Chinsu; Chang, Kun-Cheng; Chuang, Yung-Chung

    2016-11-01

    This study proposed a novel methodology to classify the shape of gaps using landscape indices and multivariate statistics. Patch-level indices were used to collect the qualified shape and spatial configuration characteristics for canopy gaps in the Lienhuachih Experimental Forest in Taiwan in 1998 and 2002. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of gap clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy gap classification. The gaps for the two periods were optimally classified into three categories. In general, gap type 1 had a more complex shape, gap type 2 was more elongated and gap type 3 had the largest gaps that were more regular in shape. The results were evaluated using Wilks’ lambda as satisfactory (p < 0.001). The agreement rate of confusion matrices exceeded 96%. Differences in gap characteristics between the classified gap types that were determined using a one-way ANOVA showed a statistical significance in all patch indices (p = 0.00), except for the Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (ENN) in 2002. Taken together, these results demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed methodology to classify the shape of a gap.

  17. Gap Shape Classification using Landscape Indices and Multivariate Statistics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Da; Cheng, Chi-Chuan; Chang, Che-Chang; Lin, Chinsu; Chang, Kun-Cheng; Chuang, Yung-Chung

    2016-11-30

    This study proposed a novel methodology to classify the shape of gaps using landscape indices and multivariate statistics. Patch-level indices were used to collect the qualified shape and spatial configuration characteristics for canopy gaps in the Lienhuachih Experimental Forest in Taiwan in 1998 and 2002. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of gap clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy gap classification. The gaps for the two periods were optimally classified into three categories. In general, gap type 1 had a more complex shape, gap type 2 was more elongated and gap type 3 had the largest gaps that were more regular in shape. The results were evaluated using Wilks' lambda as satisfactory (p < 0.001). The agreement rate of confusion matrices exceeded 96%. Differences in gap characteristics between the classified gap types that were determined using a one-way ANOVA showed a statistical significance in all patch indices (p = 0.00), except for the Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (ENN) in 2002. Taken together, these results demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed methodology to classify the shape of a gap.

  18. Gap Shape Classification using Landscape Indices and Multivariate Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Da; Cheng, Chi-Chuan; Chang, Che-Chang; Lin, Chinsu; Chang, Kun-Cheng; Chuang, Yung-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study proposed a novel methodology to classify the shape of gaps using landscape indices and multivariate statistics. Patch-level indices were used to collect the qualified shape and spatial configuration characteristics for canopy gaps in the Lienhuachih Experimental Forest in Taiwan in 1998 and 2002. Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the optimal number of gap clusters and canonical discriminant analysis was used to generate the discriminant functions for canopy gap classification. The gaps for the two periods were optimally classified into three categories. In general, gap type 1 had a more complex shape, gap type 2 was more elongated and gap type 3 had the largest gaps that were more regular in shape. The results were evaluated using Wilks’ lambda as satisfactory (p < 0.001). The agreement rate of confusion matrices exceeded 96%. Differences in gap characteristics between the classified gap types that were determined using a one-way ANOVA showed a statistical significance in all patch indices (p = 0.00), except for the Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (ENN) in 2002. Taken together, these results demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the proposed methodology to classify the shape of a gap. PMID:27901127

  19. International Standard Classification of Occupations. Revised Edition 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The International Standard Classification of Occupations was developed to provide a systematic basis for presentation of occupational data relating to different countries in order to facilitate international comparisons. A second objective was to provide a system which developing countries could use in formulating their national occupational…

  20. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  1. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  2. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  3. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  4. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  5. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Classification society authorization to issue... Classification society authorization to issue international certificates. (a) The Commandant may authorize a recognized classification society to issue certain international convention certificates. Authorization...

  6. Mapping patent classifications: portfolio and statistical analysis, and the comparison of strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Kogler, Dieter Franz; Yan, Bowen

    2017-01-01

    The Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) recently developed cooperatively by the European and US Patent Offices provide a new basis for mapping patents and portfolio analysis. CPC replaces International Patent Classifications (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization. In this study, we update our routines previously based on IPC for CPC and use the occasion for rethinking various parameter choices. The new maps are significantly different from the previous ones, although this may not always be obvious on visual inspection. We provide nested maps online and a routine for generating portfolio overlays on the maps; a new tool is provided for "difference maps" between patent portfolios of organizations or firms. This is illustrated by comparing the portfolios of patents granted to two competing firms-Novartis and MSD-in 2016. Furthermore, the data is organized for the purpose of statistical analysis.

  7. International nosology and classification of constitutional disorders of bone (2001).

    PubMed

    Hall, Christine M

    2002-11-15

    The last International Classification of Constitutional Disorders of Bone was published in 1998. Since then rapid advances have been made in identifying the molecular changes responsible for defined conditions and new disorders are constantly being delineated. For these reasons a further update on the classification is appropriate. It has been expended to not only the osteochondrodysplasias (33 groups) but also genetically determined dysostoses (3 groups). Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Overview of the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bisdorff, Alexandre R; Staab, Jeffrey P; Newman-Toker, David E

    2015-08-01

    Classifications and definitions are essential to facilitate communication; promote accurate diagnostic criteria; develop, test, and use effective therapies; and specify knowledge gaps. This article describes the development of the International Classification of Vestibular Disorders (ICVD) initiative. It describes its history, scope, and goals. The Bárány Society has played a central role in organizing the ICVD by establishing internal development processes and outreach to other scientific societies. The ICVD is organized in four layers. The current focus is on disorders with a high epidemiologic importance, such as Menière disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular migraine, and behavioral aspects of vestibular disorders.

  9. Rehabilitation treatment taxonomy and the international classification of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Catherine R

    2014-01-01

    This commentary provides some reactions to the rehabilitation treatment taxonomy project in relation to work already underway to develop an International Classification of Health Interventions. This commentary also includes some comments in response to questions posed by the authors. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robust model selection and the statistical classification of languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. E.; González-López, V. A.; Viola, M. L. L.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we address the problem of model selection for the set of finite memory stochastic processes with finite alphabet, when the data is contaminated. We consider m independent samples, with more than half of them being realizations of the same stochastic process with law Q, which is the one we want to retrieve. We devise a model selection procedure such that for a sample size large enough, the selected process is the one with law Q. Our model selection strategy is based on estimating relative entropies to select a subset of samples that are realizations of the same law. Although the procedure is valid for any family of finite order Markov models, we will focus on the family of variable length Markov chain models, which include the fixed order Markov chain model family. We define the asymptotic breakdown point (ABDP) for a model selection procedure, and we show the ABDP for our procedure. This means that if the proportion of contaminated samples is smaller than the ABDP, then, as the sample size grows our procedure selects a model for the process with law Q. We also use our procedure in a setting where we have one sample conformed by the concatenation of sub-samples of two or more stochastic processes, with most of the subsamples having law Q. We conducted a simulation study. In the application section we address the question of the statistical classification of languages according to their rhythmic features using speech samples. This is an important open problem in phonology. A persistent difficulty on this problem is that the speech samples correspond to several sentences produced by diverse speakers, corresponding to a mixture of distributions. The usual procedure to deal with this problem has been to choose a subset of the original sample which seems to best represent each language. The selection is made by listening to the samples. In our application we use the full dataset without any preselection of samples. We apply our robust methodology estimating

  11. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  12. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  13. Neural network approaches versus statistical methods in classification of multisource remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benediktsson, Jon A.; Swain, Philip H.; Ersoy, Okan K.

    1990-01-01

    Neural network learning procedures and statistical classificaiton methods are applied and compared empirically in classification of multisource remote sensing and geographic data. Statistical multisource classification by means of a method based on Bayesian classification theory is also investigated and modified. The modifications permit control of the influence of the data sources involved in the classification process. Reliability measures are introduced to rank the quality of the data sources. The data sources are then weighted according to these rankings in the statistical multisource classification. Four data sources are used in experiments: Landsat MSS data and three forms of topographic data (elevation, slope, and aspect). Experimental results show that two different approaches have unique advantages and disadvantages in this classification application.

  14. International petroleum statistics report, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  15. International petroleum statistics report, June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-27

    The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  16. International petroleum statistics report: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994. 4 figs., 45 tabs.

  17. Statistical methods and neural network approaches for classification of data from multiple sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Swain, Philip H.

    1990-01-01

    Statistical methods for classification of data from multiple data sources are investigated and compared to neural network models. A problem with using conventional multivariate statistical approaches for classification of data of multiple types is in general that a multivariate distribution cannot be assumed for the classes in the data sources. Another common problem with statistical classification methods is that the data sources are not equally reliable. This means that the data sources need to be weighted according to their reliability but most statistical classification methods do not have a mechanism for this. This research focuses on statistical methods which can overcome these problems: a method of statistical multisource analysis and consensus theory. Reliability measures for weighting the data sources in these methods are suggested and investigated. Secondly, this research focuses on neural network models. The neural networks are distribution free since no prior knowledge of the statistical distribution of the data is needed. This is an obvious advantage over most statistical classification methods. The neural networks also automatically take care of the problem involving how much weight each data source should have. On the other hand, their training process is iterative and can take a very long time. Methods to speed up the training procedure are introduced and investigated. Experimental results of classification using both neural network models and statistical methods are given, and the approaches are compared based on these results.

  18. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Classification System: An INRG Task Force Report

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Susan L.; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; London, Wendy B.; Monclair, Tom; Ambros, Peter F.; Brodeur, Garrett M.; Faldum, Andreas; Hero, Barbara; Iehara, Tomoko; Machin, David; Mosseri, Veronique; Simon, Thorsten; Garaventa, Alberto; Castel, Victoria; Matthay, Katherine K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Because current approaches to risk classification and treatment stratification for children with neuroblastoma (NB) vary greatly throughout the world, it is difficult to directly compare risk-based clinical trials. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system was developed to establish a consensus approach for pretreatment risk stratification. Patients and Methods The statistical and clinical significance of 13 potential prognostic factors were analyzed in a cohort of 8,800 children diagnosed with NB between 1990 and 2002 from North America and Australia (Children's Oncology Group), Europe (International Society of Pediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma Group and German Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Group), and Japan. Survival tree regression analyses using event-free survival (EFS) as the primary end point were performed to test the prognostic significance of the 13 factors. Results Stage, age, histologic category, grade of tumor differentiation, the status of the MYCN oncogene, chromosome 11q status, and DNA ploidy were the most highly statistically significant and clinically relevant factors. A new staging system (INRG Staging System) based on clinical criteria and tumor imaging was developed for the INRG Classification System. The optimal age cutoff was determined to be between 15 and 19 months, and 18 months was selected for the classification system. Sixteen pretreatment groups were defined on the basis of clinical criteria and statistically significantly different EFS of the cohort stratified by the INRG criteria. Patients with 5-year EFS more than 85%, more than 75% to ≤ 85%, ≥ 50% to ≤ 75%, or less than 50% were classified as very low risk, low risk, intermediate risk, or high risk, respectively. Conclusion By defining homogenous pretreatment patient cohorts, the INRG classification system will greatly facilitate the comparison of risk-based clinical trials conducted in different regions of the world and the

  19. International Crime Rates. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Carol B.

    This study compared crime rates of the United States with those of other countries for whom statistics were available: European countries, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Statistics were provided by the United Nations for homicide, rape, robbery, burglary, and theft; the International Police Organization (Interpol) for homicide, rape, robbery,…

  20. Statistical Analysis of Q-matrix Based Diagnostic Classification Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yunxiao; Liu, Jingchen; Xu, Gongjun; Ying, Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic classification models have recently gained prominence in educational assessment, psychiatric evaluation, and many other disciplines. Central to the model specification is the so-called Q-matrix that provides a qualitative specification of the item-attribute relationship. In this paper, we develop theories on the identifiability for the Q-matrix under the DINA and the DINO models. We further propose an estimation procedure for the Q-matrix through the regularized maximum likelihood. The applicability of this procedure is not limited to the DINA or the DINO model and it can be applied to essentially all Q-matrix based diagnostic classification models. Simulation studies are conducted to illustrate its performance. Furthermore, two case studies are presented. The first case is a data set on fraction subtraction (educational application) and the second case is a subsample of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions concerning the social anxiety disorder (psychiatric application). PMID:26294801

  1. Statistical models for the classification of vehicles in MMW imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, William; Jackson, Ralph; Lawlor, Catherine; Britton, Adrian; Webb, Andrew R.

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we exploit high resolution millimeter wave radar ISAR imagery to develop a vehicle classification algorithm, which is robust to orientation and position of the vehicle in the scene. A template based approach is presented and the effect of a number of methods of creating templates investigated. To incorporate the effect of uncertainty in vehicle position and orientation, an approach based on mixture models is developed. The specification of the model is discussed and various approaches for determining the parameters of the model have been assessed. Preliminary results using mixture models to model vehicle signatures and uncertainties in position and orientation are presented. The models and techniques reported here provide a robust approach for general radar classification problems that incorporates uncertainty in a principled manner and improves generalization.

  2. Statistical classification techniques for engineering and climatic data samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, E. C.; Shipman, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Fisher's sample linear discriminant function is modified through an appropriate alteration of the common sample variance-covariance matrix. The alteration consists of adding nonnegative values to the eigenvalues of the sample variance covariance matrix. The desired results of this modification is to increase the number of correct classifications by the new linear discriminant function over Fisher's function. This study is limited to the two-group discriminant problem.

  3. Statistical Analysis and Classification of Acoustic Color Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    metric on shape space with explicit geodesics,” Matematica E Applicazioni 19( 1 ), pp. 25–27, 2008. 12. A. Srivastava, E. Klassen, S. H. Joshi, and I. H...imagery 1 . INTRODUCTION The problem of underwater object detection and classification capture using sonar has attracted a substantial amount of...attention. 1 –5 This problem is complicated due to various factors such as variations in operating and environmental conditions, presence of spatially varying

  4. International photographic classification and grading system for myopic maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Kawasaki, Ryo; Jonas, Jost B; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Saw, Seang-Mei; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Klaver, Caroline C W; Moriyama, Muka; Shinohara, Kosei; Kawasaki, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Mai; Meuer, Stacy; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Yasuda, Miho; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Sugano, Akira; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin

    2015-05-01

    To develop a classification and grading system for myopic maculopathy. Development and evaluation of a classification system for myopic maculopathy based on observational case series. A comprehensive set of myopic macular lesions was defined via literature review and through consensus meetings among retinal specialists and clinician scientists. A classification of myopic maculopathy was formulated based on fundus photographs and a modified Delphi process and consensus. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibility, assessed as agreement (%) and weighted kappa values, were evaluated. One hundred retinal photographs with myopia and myopic macular lesions were selected from case series at the High Myopia Clinic of the Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. We defined 5 categories of myopic maculopathy including "no myopic retinal degenerative lesion" (Category 0), "tessellated fundus" (Category 1), "diffuse chorioretinal atrophy" (Category 2), "patchy chorioretinal atrophy" (Category 3), and "macular atrophy" (Category 4). Three additional features to supplement these categories were defined as "plus" lesions, namely, lacquer cracks, myopic choroidal neovascularization, and Fuchs spot. Posterior staphyloma was considered as a further, important sign of myopic retinopathy. The intraobserver agreement was ≥85% and the corresponding weighted kappa statistic was ≥0.6 between observations. After a brief training session, interobserver kappa statistics reached the predefined satisfactory level (≥0.4), considered as above moderate agreement. We propose a classification system for myopic maculopathy that was found to be reproducible. Applying a uniform classification in different studies will facilitate communication and comparison of findings from clinical trials and epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Classifications of mental disorders: from Bertillon to ICD-10, the century of international collaboration].

    PubMed

    Bertolote, J M; Sartorius, N

    1993-01-01

    The first International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was approved during the Congress of the Statistical International Institute, in Chicago, in Paris, in 1893. It was based on a list of diseases prepared by Jacques Bertillon. Minor changes were introduced in this classification during decennial revisions made at international meetings and it remained in use until 1948, when the World Health Organization's Provisional Committee was charged with the task producing ICD-6. ICD-6 represented a major shift from the previous internal conceptualization, particularity in what concerns the Chapter V., dealing with mental disorders. From 1955 on Who produced with approximately a 10-year interval ICD-7, 8 and 9. Few modifications in relation to ICD-6 were introduced by these revisions, except for the introduction of a glossary of terms in the chapter on mental disorders. This glossary had a major impact towards the development of a common language in psychiatry. Based on epidemiological findings, and based also on an intensive and extensive international network of clinicians and investigators, ICD-10 was published in 1992. It represented a substantial improvement regarding the conceptualization of the classification of mental disorders, in relation to previous revisions of the ICD. Future tasks relating to ICD-10 include training of health personnel for its proper utilization, in addition to finalizing further ICD-10 versions, e.g. for research purposes and for primary health care use.

  6. [Classification of mental diseases. From Bertillon to CID-10: a century of international collaboration].

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, J M; Sartorius, N

    1994-01-01

    The first International Classification of Diseases (ICD) was approved during the Congress of the Statistical International Institute, in Chicago, in Paris, in 1893. It was based on a list of diseases prepared by Jacques Bertillon. Minor changes were introduced in this classification during decennial revisions made at international meetings and it remained in use until 1948, when the World Health Organization's Provisional Committee was charged with the task of producing ICD-6. ICD-6 represented a major shift from the previous internal conceptualization, particularly in what concerns the Chapter V., dealing with mental disorders. From 1955 on WHO produced with approximately a 10-year interval ICV-7, 8, and 9. Few modifications in relation to ICD-6 were introduced by these revisions, except for the introduction of a glossary of terms in the chapter on mental disorders. This glossary had a major impact towards the development of a common language in psychiatry. Based on epidemiological findings, and based also on an intensive and extensive international network of clinicians and investigators, ICD-10 was published in 1992. It represented a substantial improvement regarding the conceptualization of the classification of mental disorders, in relation to previous revisions of the ICD. Future tasks relating to ICD-10 include training of health personnel for its proper utilization, in addition to finalizing further ICD-10 versions, e.g. for research purposes and for primary health care use.

  7. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases with classification challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kirshblum, S. C.; Biering-Sorensen, F.; Betz, R.; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D. E.; Johansen, M.; Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M. J.; Rodriguez, G. M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J. D.; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification. PMID:24559416

  8. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Cases With Classification Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Biering-Sørensen, F.; Betz, R.; Burns, S.; Donovan, W.; Graves, D.E.; Johansen, M.; Jones, L.; Mulcahey, M.J.; Rodriguez, G.M.; Schmidt-Read, M.; Steeves, J.D.; Tansey, K.; Waring, W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification. PMID:25477729

  9. International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: cases with classification challenges.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, S C; Biering-Sorensen, F; Betz, R; Burns, S; Donovan, W; Graves, D E; Johansen, M; Jones, L; Mulcahey, M J; Rodriguez, G M; Schmidt-Read, M; Steeves, J D; Tansey, K; Waring, W

    2014-03-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is routinely used to determine the levels of injury and to classify the severity of the injury. Questions are often posed to the International Standards Committee of the American Spinal Injury Association regarding the classification. The committee felt that disseminating some of the challenging questions posed, as well as the responses, would be of benefit for professionals utilizing the ISNCSCI. Case scenarios that were submitted to the committee are presented with the responses as well as the thought processes considered by the committee members. The importance of this documentation is to clarify some points as well as update the SCI community regarding possible revisions that will be needed in the future based upon some rules that require clarification.

  10. A statistical approach to material classification using image patch exemplars.

    PubMed

    Varma, Manik; Zisserman, Andrew

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate material classification from single images obtained under unknown viewpoint and illumination. It is demonstrated that materials can be classified using the joint distribution of intensity values over extremely compact neighborhoods (starting from as small as 3 \\times 3 pixels square) and that this can outperform classification using filter banks with large support. It is also shown that the performance of filter banks is inferior to that of image patches with equivalent neighborhoods. We develop novel texton-based representations which are suited to modeling this joint neighborhood distribution for Markov random fields. The representations are learned from training images and then used to classify novel images (with unknown viewpoint and lighting) into texture classes. Three such representations are proposed and their performance is assessed and compared to that of filter banks. The power of the method is demonstrated by classifying 2,806 images of all 61 materials present in the Columbia-Utrecht database. The classification performance surpasses that of recent state-of-the-art filter bank-based classifiers such as Leung and Malik (IJCV 01), Cula and Dana (IJCV 04), and Varma and Zisserman (IJCV 05). We also benchmark performance by classifying all of the textures present in the UIUC, Microsoft Textile, and San Francisco outdoor data sets. We conclude with discussions on why features based on compact neighborhoods can correctly discriminate between textures with large global structure and why the performance of filter banks is not superior to that of the source image patches from which they were derived.

  11. Classification of generalized quantum statistics associated with the exceptional Lie (super)algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Stoilova, N. I.; Jeugt, J. van der

    2007-04-15

    Generalized quantum statistics (GQS) associated with a Lie algebra or Lie superalgebra extends the notion of para-Bose or para-Fermi statistics. Such GQS have been classified for all classical simple Lie algebras and basic classical Lie superalgebras. In the current paper we finalize this classification for all exceptional Lie algebras and superalgebras. Since the definition of GQS is closely related to a certain Z grading of the Lie (super)algebra G, our classification reproduces some known Z gradings of exceptional Lie algebras. For exceptional Lie superalgebras such a classification of Z gradings has not been given before.

  12. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services.

  13. Ice Surface Classification using Geo-Statistical Texture-Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, B. F.; Herzfeld, U. C.

    2009-12-01

    The morphological features of ice surfaces contain valuable information on the state of morphogenetic, environmental, and dynamic processes that the ice has experienced. To effectively use this information, however, the scale and rapid evolution of earth's cryospheric systems necessitate intermediate processing and abstraction as vital tools. We demonstrate methods for automated detection of ice surface classes using robust geostatistical texture parameters and several clustering/classification techniques. By measuring texture parameters as aggregates of regional spatial point distributions, a great variety of surface types can be characterized and detected, at the expense of computational complexity. Unsupervised clustering algorithms such as OPTICS identify numerically distinct sets of values which then seed segmentation algorithms. The results of the methods applied to several data-sets are presented, including RADARSAT, ATM, and ICESAT observations over both land and sea-ice. The surface roughness characteristics are analyzed at the various scales covered by the data-sets.

  14. Statistical Characterization and classification of Fish School Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    scatterers (D. Chu and T.K. Stanton). This work connects the results of Ehrenberg , who expressed the echo distribution (as seen through the sonar...extension to the Ehrenberg formula, summarizes the Barakat formulation, connects the two in the context of echo statistics of random scatterers in a

  15. Use of statistical procedures in Brazilian and international dental journals.

    PubMed

    Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo; Pereira, Antônio Carlos

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive survey was performed in order to assess the statistical content and quality of Brazilian and international dental journals, and compare their evolution throughout the last decades. The authors identified the reporting and accuracy of statistical techniques in 1000 papers published from 1970 to 2000 in seven dental journals: three Brazilian (Brazilian Dental Journal, Revista de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo and Revista de Odontologia da UNESP) and four international journals (Journal of the American Dental Association, Journal of Dental Research, Caries Research and Journal of Periodontology). Papers were divided into two time periods: from 1970 to 1989, and from 1990 to 2000. A slight increase in the number of articles that presented some form of statistical technique was noticed for Brazilian journals (from 61.0 to 66.7%), whereas for international journals, a significant increase was observed (65.8 to 92.6%). In addition, a decrease in the number of statistical errors was verified. The most commonly used statistical tests as well as the most frequent errors found in dental journals were assessed. Hopefully, this investigation will encourage dental educators to better plan the teaching of biostatistics, and to improve the statistical quality of submitted manuscripts.

  16. Generalized t-statistic for two-group classification.

    PubMed

    Komori, Osamu; Eguchi, Shinto; Copas, John B

    2015-06-01

    In the classic discriminant model of two multivariate normal distributions with equal variance matrices, the linear discriminant function is optimal both in terms of the log likelihood ratio and in terms of maximizing the standardized difference (the t-statistic) between the means of the two distributions. In a typical case-control study, normality may be sensible for the control sample but heterogeneity and uncertainty in diagnosis may suggest that a more flexible model is needed for the cases. We generalize the t-statistic approach by finding the linear function which maximizes a standardized difference but with data from one of the groups (the cases) filtered by a possibly nonlinear function U. We study conditions for consistency of the method and find the function U which is optimal in the sense of asymptotic efficiency. Optimality may also extend to other measures of discriminatory efficiency such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The optimal function U depends on a scalar probability density function which can be estimated non-parametrically using a standard numerical algorithm. A lasso-like version for variable selection is implemented by adding L1-regularization to the generalized t-statistic. Two microarray data sets in the study of asthma and various cancers are used as motivating examples.

  17. A pilot study on the application of statistical classification procedures to molecular epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Holger; Zucknick, Manuela; Ickstadt, Katja; Bolt, Hermann M

    2004-06-15

    The development of new statistical methods for use in molecular epidemiology comprises the building and application of appropriate classification rules. The aim of this study was to assess various classification methods that can potentially handle genetic interactions. A data set comprising genotypes at 25 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) loci from 518 breast cancer cases and 586 age-matched population-based controls from the GENICA study was used to built a classification rule with the discrimination methods SVM (support vector machine), CART (classification and regression tree), Bagging, Random Forest, LogitBoost and k nearest neighbours (kNN). A blind pilot analysis of the genotypic data set was a first approach to obtain an impression of the statistical structure of the data. Furthermore, this analysis was performed to explore classification methods that may be applied to molecular-epidemiological evaluation. The results showed that all blindly applied classification methods had a slightly smaller misclassification rate than a random classification. The findings, nevertheless, suggest that SNP data might be useful for the classification of individuals into categories of high or low risk of diseases.

  18. "Statistical evidence" for the investigation of international crimes.

    PubMed

    Mijatovic, Boris

    2006-01-01

    Statistics are widely applied throughout scientific research disciplines but 'statistical evidence' sounds surely an unhappy term rather avoided. In International Criminal Law the term seems to stress the value that statistical methods have for the analysis of large-scale victimisation and describes rather the tools used to support the evidence. However, statistics is required for valid, reliable and objective results that would otherwise be left in the dusty political sphere of the warring parties and their actors. But what are the concepts to do so? Today's presentation shows two widely known cases from the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) where statisticians analysed the Crime Scenes in Srebrenica and Kosovo. The cases introduce two different analytical approaches. Firstly, in Srebrenica the analysts focussed on civilians that were killed during the take over of the enclave. Thus the findings are descriptive, summarizing observations and presenting results based on simple statistical tools. Secondly, in Kosovo the researchers asked what caused the killings and refugee migration during the NATO air campaign in springtime 1999. Here, in a complex environment statistical methods are exercised to determine causal relations. Hypotheses are tested to be consistent with huge data sets collected from a broad field of sources, to finally end up with Statistical Evidence.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Noisy Signals Using Classification Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Sandra E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Johnson, Timothy J.; Foster, Nancy S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Amonette, James E.

    2005-06-04

    The potential use of chemicals, biotoxins and biological pathogens are a threat to military and police forces as well as the general public. Rapid identification of these agents is made difficult due to the noisy nature of the signal that can be obtained from portable, in-field sensors. In previously published articles, we created a flowchart that illustrated a method for triaging bacterial identification by combining standard statistical techniques for discrimination and identification with mid-infrared spectroscopic data. The present work documents the process of characterizing and eliminating the sources of the noise and outlines how multidisciplinary teams are necessary to accomplish that goal.

  20. UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS: CLASSIFICATION OF ATLANTA 2012

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Gleim Dias; SOUZA, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz; CUENCA, Ronaldo Máfia; JERÔNIMO, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros; de SOUZA, Guilherme Medeiros; VILELA, Vinícius Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are widely used due to its image quality and ability to study pancreatic and peripancreatic morphology. The understanding of the various subtypes of the disease and identification of possible complications requires a familiarity with the terminology, which allows effective communication between the different members of the multidisciplinary team. Aim: Demonstrate the terminology and parameters to identify the different classifications and findings of the disease based on the international consensus for acute pancreatitis ( Atlanta Classification 2012). Methods: Search and analysis of articles in the "CAPES Portal de Periódicos with headings "acute pancreatitis" and "Atlanta Review". Results: Were selected 23 articles containing radiological descriptions, management or statistical data related to pathology. Additional statistical data were obtained from Datasus and Population Census 2010. The radiological diagnostic criterion adopted was the Radiology American College system. The "acute pancreatitis - 2012 Rating: Review Atlanta classification and definitions for international consensus" tries to eliminate inconsistency and divergence from the determination of uniformity to the radiological findings, especially the terminology related to fluid collections. More broadly as "pancreatic abscess" and "phlegmon" went into disuse and the evolution of the collection of patient fluids can be described as "acute peripancreatic collections", "acute necrotic collections", "pseudocyst" and "necrosis pancreatic walled or isolated". Conclusion: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance represent the best techniques with sequential images available for diagnosis. Standardization of the terminology is critical and should improve the management of patients with multiple professionals care, risk stratification and adequate treatment. PMID:27759788

  1. International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury: classification skills of clinicians versus computational algorithms.

    PubMed

    Schuld, C; Franz, S; van Hedel, H J A; Moosburger, J; Maier, D; Abel, R; van de Meent, H; Curt, A; Weidner, N; Rupp, R

    2015-04-01

    This is a retrospective analysis. The objective of this study was to describe and quantify the discrepancy in the classification of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) by clinicians versus a validated computational algorithm. European Multicenter Study on Human Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI). Fully documented ISNCSCI data sets from EMSCI's first years (2003-2005) classified by clinicians (mostly spinal cord medicine residents, who received in-house ISNCSCI training by senior SCI physicians) were computationally reclassified. Any differences in the scoring of sensory and motor levels, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) or the zone of partial preservation (ZPP) were quantified. Four hundred and twenty ISNCSCI data sets were evaluated. The lowest agreement was found in motor levels (right: 62.1%, P=0.002; left: 61.8%, P=0.003), followed by motor ZPP (right: 81.6%, P=0.74; left 80.0%, P=0.27) and then AIS (83.4%, P=0.001). Sensory levels and sensory ZPP showed the best concordance (right sensory level: 90.8%, P=0.66; left sensory level: 90.0%, P=0.30; right sensory ZPP: 91.0%, P=0.18; left sensory ZPP: 92.2%, P=0.03). AIS B was most often misinterpreted as AIS C and vice versa (AIS B as C: 29.4% and AIS C as B: 38.6%). Most difficult classification tasks were the correct determination of motor levels and the differentiation between AIS B and AIS C/D. These issues should be addressed in upcoming ISNCSCI revisions. Training is strongly recommended to improve classification skills for clinical practice, as well as for clinical investigators conducting spinal cord studies. This study is partially funded by the International Foundation for Research in Paraplegia, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Spatial Statistics for Tumor Cell Counting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirjadi, Oliver; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Breuel, Thomas

    To count and classify cells in histological sections is a standard task in histology. One example is the grading of meningiomas, benign tumors of the meninges, which requires to assess the fraction of proliferating cells in an image. As this process is very time consuming when performed manually, automation is required. To address such problems, we propose a novel application of Markov point process methods in computer vision, leading to algorithms for computing the locations of circular objects in images. In contrast to previous algorithms using such spatial statistics methods in image analysis, the present one is fully trainable. This is achieved by combining point process methods with statistical classifiers. Using simulated data, the method proposed in this paper will be shown to be more accurate and more robust to noise than standard image processing methods. On the publicly available SIMCEP benchmark for cell image analysis algorithms, the cell count performance of the present paper is significantly more accurate than results published elsewhere, especially when cells form dense clusters. Furthermore, the proposed system performs as well as a state-of-the-art algorithm for the computer-aided histological grading of meningiomas when combined with a simple k-nearest neighbor classifier for identifying proliferating cells.

  3. The Environment in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapireau, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization has adopted two classifications relating to disability, one was published in 1980 and the more recent one in 2001. Although the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) was drafted as a revision of the international classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps…

  4. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  5. Classification image analysis: estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Eckstein, Miguel P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider estimation and statistical hypothesis testing on classification images obtained from the two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm. We begin with a probabilistic model of task performance for simple forced-choice detection and discrimination tasks. Particular attention is paid to general linear filter models because these models lead to a direct interpretation of the classification image as an estimate of the filter weights. We then describe an estimation procedure for obtaining classification images from observer data. A number of statistical tests are presented for testing various hypotheses from classification images based on some more compact set of features derived from them. As an example of how the methods we describe can be used, we present a case study investigating detection of a Gaussian bump profile.

  6. Assistive technology device classification based upon the World Health Organization's, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Stephen M; Elsaesser, Linda-Jeanne; Arthanat, Sajay

    2011-01-01

    To develop an assistive technology device classification (ATDC) consistent with the Assistive Technology Act (ATA2004), Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA2008), International Classification System of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and American Medical Association's Current Procedural Terminology (CPT). Current assistive technology device (ATD) classifications include: the National Classification System for Assistive Technology Devices and ATSs (RTI/NCS) published in 2000; ISO 9999: technical aids for persons with disabilities - classification and terminology (ISO 9999) published in 1992, 1998, 2002 and 2007 and ICF-based AT classification (ICF/AT2007) published in 2009. To derive 'requirements' for ATD classification from the ATA2004, ADA2008, ICF, ICD-9-CM and CPT. Review the ATD classifications and online databases against requirements. Construct the ATDC to be consistent with all requirements and demonstrate with examples. Existing ATD classifications and online databases are inconsistent with requirements. The ATDC is consistent and has inclusion and exclusion criteria, classification rules, employs ICF coding, extendable hierarchy and language and uses standard device naming conventions. Conclusion. The ATDC has broad application to: provision of AT ATSs (ATSs), characterisation and analysis of AT industries, Federally sponsored research pertaining to AT development and commercialisation, and Federal health insurance scope of benefits.

  7. Statistical classification of vegetation and water depths in montane wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Julia L.; Sodja, Richard S.; Greenwood, Mark; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between water depths and density of submergent vegetation were studied in montane wetlands using statistical techniques based on clustering and an extension of regression trees. Sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) was associated with lower average water depths than water milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum). We detected a nonlinear relationship when average water depths were used to predict percent cover in S. pectinata, with depths of 30–40 cm, producing the highest predicted average percent cover of S. pectinata; higher and lower depths resulted in lower percent cover predictions. For M. sibiricum, higher water depths were monotonically associated with higher average percent cover. To foster more S. pectinata and less M. sibiricum, managers might employ water control structures to reduce water depths below 1 m, using both temporary drawdowns and average depths of 30–40 cm. Other species responded less markedly to water depth variation. Should decreased water depths become more common, these results suggest an increase in S. pectinata and a decrease in M. sibiricum.

  8. Statistical classification techniques in high energy physics (SDDT algorithm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouř, Petr; Kůs, Václav; Franc, Jiří

    2016-08-01

    We present our proposal of the supervised binary divergence decision tree with nested separation method based on the generalized linear models. A key insight we provide is the clustering driven only by a few selected physical variables. The proper selection consists of the variables achieving the maximal divergence measure between two different classes. Further, we apply our method to Monte Carlo simulations of physics processes corresponding to a data sample of top quark-antiquark pair candidate events in the lepton+jets decay channel. The data sample is produced in pp̅ collisions at √S = 1.96 TeV. It corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 9.7 fb-1 recorded with the D0 detector during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The efficiency of our algorithm achieves 90% AUC in separating signal from background. We also briefly deal with the modification of statistical tests applicable to weighted data sets in order to test homogeneity of the Monte Carlo simulations and measured data. The justification of these modified tests is proposed through the divergence tests.

  9. Retrospective observational study comparing the international hip dysplasia institute classification with the Tonnis classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Miao, Mingyuan; Cai, Haiqing; Hu, Liwei; Wang, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    The Tonnis radiographic classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has been widely used. The International Hip Dysplasia Institute (IHDI) classification, a new classification system recently developed by the IHDI, is beginning to be applied to evaluate DDH with the absence of an ossification center. This study aimed to validate its reliability in evaluating DDH with an ossification center and compared the 2 classifications in evaluating all DDH hips. In addition, the prediction values of the 2 classifications on clinical management selection were compared.In total, the pelvic radiographs of 212 DDH patients (318 hips) between the ages of 6 and 48 months admitted to Shanghai Children's Medical Center between 2007 and 2014 were assessed by 3 observers retrospectively using the 2 classifications. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were evaluated using the kappa method. We also assessed the correlation of the 2 radiographic classifications in terms of treatment selection.In total, 216 hips received closed reduction, 61 hips received open reduction, and 41 hips received pelvic osteotomy. Both classifications showed excellent intraobserver and interobserver reliability. However, the IHDI demonstrated more interobserver reliability, especially for evaluating DDH without an ossification center. Both classifications were found to be relevant in detecting the DDH treatment type (P < 0.01). The Tonnis classification was also relevant, especially for evaluating DDH with an ossification center.The IHDI classification exhibited good practicability in classifying the radiographic severity of DDH compared to the Tonnis classification, particularly in hips without an ossification center. Like the Tonnis classification, the IHDI classification can predict treatment plans. Therefore, the IHDI classification seems to be the upgraded version of the Tonnis classification.

  10. Retrospective observational study comparing the international hip dysplasia institute classification with the Tonnis classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Mingyuan; Cai, Haiqing; Hu, Liwei; Wang, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Tonnis radiographic classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has been widely used. The International Hip Dysplasia Institute (IHDI) classification, a new classification system recently developed by the IHDI, is beginning to be applied to evaluate DDH with the absence of an ossification center. This study aimed to validate its reliability in evaluating DDH with an ossification center and compared the 2 classifications in evaluating all DDH hips. In addition, the prediction values of the 2 classifications on clinical management selection were compared. In total, the pelvic radiographs of 212 DDH patients (318 hips) between the ages of 6 and 48 months admitted to Shanghai Children's Medical Center between 2007 and 2014 were assessed by 3 observers retrospectively using the 2 classifications. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were evaluated using the kappa method. We also assessed the correlation of the 2 radiographic classifications in terms of treatment selection. In total, 216 hips received closed reduction, 61 hips received open reduction, and 41 hips received pelvic osteotomy. Both classifications showed excellent intraobserver and interobserver reliability. However, the IHDI demonstrated more interobserver reliability, especially for evaluating DDH without an ossification center. Both classifications were found to be relevant in detecting the DDH treatment type (P < 0.01). The Tonnis classification was also relevant, especially for evaluating DDH with an ossification center. The IHDI classification exhibited good practicability in classifying the radiographic severity of DDH compared to the Tonnis classification, particularly in hips without an ossification center. Like the Tonnis classification, the IHDI classification can predict treatment plans. Therefore, the IHDI classification seems to be the upgraded version of the Tonnis classification. PMID:28099350

  11. Classification of acute pancreatitis--2012: revision of the Atlanta classification and definitions by international consensus.

    PubMed

    Banks, Peter A; Bollen, Thomas L; Dervenis, Christos; Gooszen, Hein G; Johnson, Colin D; Sarr, Michael G; Tsiotos, Gregory G; Vege, Santhi Swaroop

    2013-01-01

    The Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis enabled standardised reporting of research and aided communication between clinicians. Deficiencies identified and improved understanding of the disease make a revision necessary. A web-based consultation was undertaken in 2007 to ensure wide participation of pancreatologists. After an initial meeting, the Working Group sent a draft document to 11 national and international pancreatic associations. This working draft was forwarded to all members. Revisions were made in response to comments, and the web-based consultation was repeated three times. The final consensus was reviewed, and only statements based on published evidence were retained. The revised classification of acute pancreatitis identified two phases of the disease: early and late. Severity is classified as mild, moderate or severe. Mild acute pancreatitis, the most common form, has no organ failure, local or systemic complications and usually resolves in the first week. Moderately severe acute pancreatitis is defined by the presence of transient organ failure, local complications or exacerbation of co-morbid disease. Severe acute pancreatitis is defined by persistent organ failure, that is, organ failure >48 h. Local complications are peripancreatic fluid collections, pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis (sterile or infected), pseudocyst and walled-off necrosis (sterile or infected). We present a standardised template for reporting CT images. This international, web-based consensus provides clear definitions to classify acute pancreatitis using easily identified clinical and radiologic criteria. The wide consultation among pancreatologists to reach this consensus should encourage widespread adoption.

  12. The Influence of Spine Surgeons' Experience on the Classification and Intraobserver Reliability of the Novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System-An International Study.

    PubMed

    Sadiqi, Said; Oner, F Cumhur; Dvorak, Marcel F; Aarabi, Bizhan; Schroeder, Gregory D; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-12-01

    International validation study. To investigate the influence of the spine surgeons' level of experience on the intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification system, and the appropriate classification according to this system. Wide variability has been demonstrated for intraobserver reliability of the AOSpine classification system. The spine surgeons' level of experience may play a crucial role in the appropriate classification of thoracolumbar fractures, and the degree of reproducibility of the same observer on separate occasions. However, this has not been previously investigated. After a training on the classification system, high quality CT images together with clinical data from 25 patients with thoracolumbar fractures were independently assessed by 100 spine surgeons from across the world on 2 different occasions, 1 month apart from each other. The spine surgeons were allocated to a subgroup, according to their years of experience. Intraobserver reliability was calculated for each individual surgeon and for each subgroup, using the Kappa statistics (κ). Descriptive statistics was used to describe any differences between the subgroups. Analysis of any misclassifications was performed by calculating sensitivity and specificity estimates. Almost all surgeons demonstrated at least moderate intraobserver reliability. All surgeon subgroups demonstrated substantial reliability (κ = 0.67-0.69) for fracture subtype grading, and almost all subgroups demonstrated excellent reliability (κ = 0.79-0.83) for fracture morphology type regardless of subtype identified. In general, the fractures were most frequently misclassified by the most experienced surgeons. No major differences were observed among the subgroups when comparing the sensitivity and specificity rates. This international study demonstrated that the spine surgeons' level of experience does not substantially influence the classification and intraobserver

  13. 26 CFR 601.102 - Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification of taxes collected by the... Rules § 601.102 Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service. (a) Principal divisions. Internal revenue taxes fall generally into the following principal divisions: (1) Taxes collected...

  14. 26 CFR 601.102 - Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of taxes collected by the... Rules § 601.102 Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service. (a) Principal divisions. Internal revenue taxes fall generally into the following principal divisions: (1) Taxes collected...

  15. Statistical Redundancy Testing for Improved Gene Selection in Cancer Classification Using Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Simin; Rao, J. Sunil

    2007-01-01

    In gene selection for cancer classification using microarray data, we define an eigenvalue-ratio statistic to measure a gene’s contribution to the joint discriminability when this gene is included into a set of genes. Based on this eigenvalue-ratio statistic, we define a novel hypothesis testing for gene statistical redundancy and propose two gene selection methods. Simulation studies illustrate the agreement between statistical redundancy testing and gene selection methods. Real data examples show the proposed gene selection methods can select a compact gene subset which can not only be used to build high quality cancer classifiers but also show biological relevance. PMID:19455233

  16. Agricultural Land Classification Based on Statistical Analysis of Full Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, M.; Homayouni, S.; Fazel, M. A.; Mohammadimanesh, F.

    2013-09-01

    The discrimination capability of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data makes them a unique source of information with a significant contribution in tackling problems concerning environmental applications. One of the most important applications of these data is land cover classification of the earth surface. These data type, make more detailed classification of phenomena by using the physical parameters and scattering mechanisms. In this paper, we have proposed a contextual unsupervised classification approach for full PolSAR data, which allows the use of multiple sources of statistical evidence. Expectation-Maximization (EM) classification algorithm is basically performed to estimate land cover classes. The EM algorithm is an iterative algorithm that formalizes the problem of parameters estimation of a mixture distribution. To represent the statistical properties and integrate contextual information of the associated image data in the analysis process we used Markov random field (MRF) modelling technique. This model is developed by formulating the maximum posteriori decision rule as the minimization of suitable energy functions. For select optimum distribution which adapts the data more efficiently we used Mellin transform which is a natural analytical tool to study the distribution of products and quotients of independent random variables. Our proposed classification method is applied to a full polarimetric L-band dataset acquired from an agricultural region in Winnipeg, Canada. We evaluate the classification performance based on kappa and overall accuracies of the proposed approach and compared with other well-known classic methods.

  17. Participation in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) programme.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Claudia; Coenen, Amy; Hong, Woi-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The International Council of Nurses (ICN) is a federation of 129 national nurses associations. The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) is a programme of the ICN. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and maintenance processes of the ICNP Programme that are used to increase participation. These include processes by which the ICNP was and continues to be developed, tested, distributed and implemented worldwide, with emphasis on the current version, ICNP Version 1.0. The ICNP is a unified nursing language that facilitates cross-mapping among local terms and existing terminologies. ICNP conforms to current terminology standards and criteria, for example, ISO standards and HL7. The ICNP Alpha and Beta Versions documented the progress of concept validation and classification of nursing phenomena and interventions. The ICNP Beta 2 Version was a combinatorial terminology organized in two multi-axial structures representing nursing phenomena and nursing actions. The ICNP Version 1.0, launched in 2005, changed the relatively straight-forward multi-axial structure into a compositional terminology through the application of description logics using Web Ontology Language (OWL) within Protégé, an ontology development environment. ICNP Version 1.0 is also represented in a multiaxial model (7-Axis) for nurses to compose nursing diagnosis, intervention and outcome statements. Language translations and clinical information systems applications are required to make the ICNP Version 1.0 available to nurses at the point of healthcare delivery. ICNP data collected in healthcare environments provide standardized terminology for nursing that allows comparison of nursing practice across health care settings, specialties and countries; facilitate data-based clinical and management decision making; and contribute to the development of guidelines and standards for best practices and optimal outcomes for patients, families and communities.

  18. The 2017 international classification of the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes.

    PubMed

    Malfait, Fransiska; Francomano, Clair; Byers, Peter; Belmont, John; Berglund, Britta; Black, James; Bloom, Lara; Bowen, Jessica M; Brady, Angela F; Burrows, Nigel P; Castori, Marco; Cohen, Helen; Colombi, Marina; Demirdas, Serwet; De Backer, Julie; De Paepe, Anne; Fournel-Gigleux, Sylvie; Frank, Michael; Ghali, Neeti; Giunta, Cecilia; Grahame, Rodney; Hakim, Alan; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Johnson, Diana; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Kapferer-Seebacher, Ines; Kazkaz, Hanadi; Kosho, Tomoki; Lavallee, Mark E; Levy, Howard; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Pepin, Melanie; Pope, F Michael; Reinstein, Eyal; Robert, Leema; Rohrbach, Marianne; Sanders, Lynn; Sobey, Glenda J; Van Damme, Tim; Vandersteen, Anthony; van Mourik, Caroline; Voermans, Nicol; Wheeldon, Nigel; Zschocke, Johannes; Tinkle, Brad

    2017-03-01

    The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTDs) characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility. Over the past two decades, the Villefranche Nosology, which delineated six subtypes, has been widely used as the standard for clinical diagnosis of EDS. For most of these subtypes, mutations had been identified in collagen-encoding genes, or in genes encoding collagen-modifying enzymes. Since its publication in 1998, a whole spectrum of novel EDS subtypes has been described, and mutations have been identified in an array of novel genes. The International EDS Consortium proposes a revised EDS classification, which recognizes 13 subtypes. For each of the subtypes, we propose a set of clinical criteria that are suggestive for the diagnosis. However, in view of the vast genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic variability of the EDS subtypes, and the clinical overlap between EDS subtypes, but also with other HCTDs, the definite diagnosis of all EDS subtypes, except for the hypermobile type, relies on molecular confirmation with identification of (a) causative genetic variant(s). We also revised the clinical criteria for hypermobile EDS in order to allow for a better distinction from other joint hypermobility disorders. To satisfy research needs, we also propose a pathogenetic scheme, that regroups EDS subtypes for which the causative proteins function within the same pathway. We hope that the revised International EDS Classification will serve as a new standard for the diagnosis of EDS and will provide a framework for future research purposes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hybrid neural network and statistical classification algorithms in computer-assisted diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotzka, Rainer

    2000-06-01

    The development of computer assisted diagnosis systems for image-patterns is still in the early stages compared to the powerful image and object recognition capabilities of the human eye and visual cortex. Rules have to be defined and features have to be found manually in digital images to come to an automatic classification. The extraction of discriminating features is especially in medical applications a very time consuming process. The quality of the defined features influences directly the classification success. Artificial neural networks are in principle able to solve complex recognition and classification tasks, but their computational expenses restrict their use to small images. A new improved image object classification scheme consists of neural networks as feature extractors and common statistical discrimination algorithms. Applied to the recognition of different types of tumor nuclei images this system is able to find differences which are barely discernible by human eyes.

  20. An atmospheric-to-marine synoptic classification for statistical downscaling marine climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camus, Paula; Rueda, Ana; Méndez, Fernando J.; Losada, Iñigo J.

    2016-12-01

    A regression-guided classification is implemented in statistical downscaling models based on weather types for downscaling multivariate wave climate and modelling extreme events. The semi-supervised method classifies the atmospheric circulation conditions (predictor) and the estimations from a regression model linking the circulation with local marine climate (filtered predictand). A weighted factor controls the influence of the predictor and predictand in the weather patterns to improve the performance of the classification to reflect local marine climate characteristics. In addition to the analysis of the variance explained by the predictor and the predictand, the selection of the optimal value of the weighted factor is based on the predictand response in order to avoid subjectivity in the solution. The statistical models using the guided classification are applied in the North Atlantic. The new technique reduces the dispersion of the multivariate predictand within weather types and improves the model skill to downscale waves and to reproduce extremes.

  1. Multi-agent Negotiation Mechanisms for Statistical Target Classification in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Bi, Dao-wei; Ding, Liang; Wang, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The recent availability of low cost and miniaturized hardware has allowed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to retrieve audio and video data in real world applications, which has fostered the development of wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). Resource constraints and challenging multimedia data volume make development of efficient algorithms to perform in-network processing of multimedia contents imperative. This paper proposes solving problems in the domain of WMSNs from the perspective of multi-agent systems. The multi-agent framework enables flexible network configuration and efficient collaborative in-network processing. The focus is placed on target classification in WMSNs where audio information is retrieved by microphones. To deal with the uncertainties related to audio information retrieval, the statistical approaches of power spectral density estimates, principal component analysis and Gaussian process classification are employed. A multi-agent negotiation mechanism is specially developed to efficiently utilize limited resources and simultaneously enhance classification accuracy and reliability. The negotiation is composed of two phases, where an auction based approach is first exploited to allocate the classification task among the agents and then individual agent decisions are combined by the committee decision mechanism. Simulation experiments with real world data are conducted and the results show that the proposed statistical approaches and negotiation mechanism not only reduce memory and computation requirements in WMSNs but also significantly enhance classification accuracy and reliability. PMID:28903223

  2. Incremental E-Mail Classification and Rule Suggestion Using Simple Term Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzywicki, Alfred; Wobcke, Wayne

    In this paper, we present and use a method for e-mail categorization based on simple term statistics updated incrementally. We apply simple term statistics to two different tasks. The first task is to predict folders for classification of e-mails when large numbers of messages are required to remain unclassified. The second task is to support users who define rule bases for the same classification task, by suggesting suitable keywords for constructing Ripple Down Rule bases in this scenario. For both tasks, the results are compared with a number of standard machine learning algorithms. The comparison shows that the simple term statistics method achieves a higher level of accuracy than other machine learning methods when taking computation time into account.

  3. Braiding statistics and classification of two-dimensional charge-2 m superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie

    2016-08-01

    We study braiding statistics between quasiparticles and vortices in two-dimensional charge-2 m (in units of e ) superconductors that are coupled to a Z2 m dynamical gauge field, where m is any positive integer. We show that there exist 16 m types of braiding statistics when m is odd, but only 4 m types when m is even. Based on the braiding statistics, we obtain a classification of topological phases of charge-2 m superconductors—or formally speaking, a classification of symmetry-protected topological phases, as well as invertible topological phases, of two-dimensional gapped fermions with Z2m f symmetry. Interestingly, we find that there is no nontrivial fermionic symmetry-protected topological phase with Z4f symmetry.

  4. Convexity, internal representations and the statistical mechanics of neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opper, M.; Kuhlmann, P.; Mietzner, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present an approach to the statistical mechanics of feedforward neural networks which is based on counting realizable internal representations by utilizing convexity properties of the weight space. For a toy model, our method yields storage capacities based on an annealed approximation, which are in close agreement with one-step replica symmetry-breaking results obtained from a standard approach. For a single-layer perceptron, a combinatorial result for the number of realizable output combinations is recovered and generalized to fixed stabilities.

  5. Exploring strategies for classification of external stimuli using statistical features of the plant electrical response.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Das, Saptarshi; Maharatna, Koushik; Masi, Elisa; Santopolo, Luisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Vitaletti, Andrea

    2015-03-06

    Plants sense their environment by producing electrical signals which in essence represent changes in underlying physiological processes. These electrical signals, when monitored, show both stochastic and deterministic dynamics. In this paper, we compute 11 statistical features from the raw non-stationary plant electrical signal time series to classify the stimulus applied (causing the electrical signal). By using different discriminant analysis-based classification techniques, we successfully establish that there is enough information in the raw electrical signal to classify the stimuli. In the process, we also propose two standard features which consistently give good classification results for three types of stimuli--sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) and ozone (O₃). This may facilitate reduction in the complexity involved in computing all the features for online classification of similar external stimuli in future.

  6. Exploring strategies for classification of external stimuli using statistical features of the plant electrical response

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Shre Kumar; Das, Saptarshi; Maharatna, Koushik; Masi, Elisa; Santopolo, Luisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Vitaletti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Plants sense their environment by producing electrical signals which in essence represent changes in underlying physiological processes. These electrical signals, when monitored, show both stochastic and deterministic dynamics. In this paper, we compute 11 statistical features from the raw non-stationary plant electrical signal time series to classify the stimulus applied (causing the electrical signal). By using different discriminant analysis-based classification techniques, we successfully establish that there is enough information in the raw electrical signal to classify the stimuli. In the process, we also propose two standard features which consistently give good classification results for three types of stimuli—sodium chloride (NaCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and ozone (O3). This may facilitate reduction in the complexity involved in computing all the features for online classification of similar external stimuli in future. PMID:25631569

  7. Health websites in Italy: use, classification and international policy.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Maceratini, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss international policy in relation to the use of health websites and we describe the results obtained from application of a search engine to the recognition and classification of health websites in Italy. We then compare the results with health websites in other countries. Effective use of technology has led to medical advances that have not only extended life expectancy, but also fuelled an increasingly well-informed public to expect more and more from today's healthcare providers. As a consequence of the Web's rapid, chaotic growth, the resulting network of information lacks organization and structure and the quest for a method of quickly finding relevant and reliable information is spawning the growth of Internet portal sites. The US and the European Union and now Italy, have established the importance of rules to check the quality of health sites both for the non-professional users (citizens), mainly for privacy and security (for example, of medical records); and for health operators (physicians and others), where the most important thing is to evaluate the quality of content. In June 2001, the search engine used here found 2627 Italian health sites, of which only 46 exhibited the HON Code, and they can be classified into: 1% personal medical sites, 17% health portals, 18%, metasites, 27% documental sites and 37% information sites for health operators and/or for citizens.

  8. The United Nations recommendations and data efforts: international migration statistics.

    PubMed

    Simmons, A B

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the UN's efforts to improve international migration statistics. The review addresses the challenges faced by the UN, the direction in which this effort is going, gaps in the current approach, and priorities for future action. The content of the UN recommendations has changed in the past and seems to be moving toward further changes. At each stage, the direction of change corresponds broadly to earlier shifts in the overall context of world social-economic affairs and related transformations in international travel and migration patterns. Early (1953) objectives were vaguely stated in terms of social, economic, and demographic impacts of long term settlement. 1976 recommendations continued the focus on long term resettlement and, at the same time, gave more attention to at least 1 kind of short term (work-related) movement. Most recent recommendations have given more attention to other classes of short term travellers, such as refugees and contract workers. Recommendations on the measures and data sources have changed over time, also. The 1953 recommendations were limited to flow data from international border statistics. 1976 recommendations drew attention to stock data and the use of civil registration data to supplement border crossing data. Recent UN reflections recognize that the volume of border crossings has now reached the point where many countries simply refuse to gather data on all travellers, choosing instead to make estimates. It is implied that either sample surveys at border points and/or visas and entry permits may be the best way of counting various specific kinds of migrants. Future recommendations corresponding to contemporary and emerging concerns will require that the guidelines be restructured: 1) to give more explicit attention in international migration statistics to citizenship and access to political and welfare benefits; 2) to distinguish more carefully various sub-classes of movers; 3) to expand objectives of data

  9. Statistical Fractal Models Based on GND-PCA and Its Application on Classification of Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Benqiang; Zhang, Libo; Chen, Yenwei

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed to establish the statistical fractal model for liver diseases classification. Firstly, the fractal theory is used to construct the high-order tensor, and then Generalized N-dimensional Principal Component Analysis (GND-PCA) is used to establish the statistical fractal model and select the feature from the region of liver; at the same time different features have different weights, and finally, Support Vector Machine Optimized Ant Colony (ACO-SVM) algorithm is used to establish the classifier for the recognition of liver disease. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, PCA eigenface method and normal SVM method are chosen as the contrast methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reconstruct liver volume better and improve the classification accuracy of liver diseases. PMID:24224174

  10. Statistical Classification of Soft Solder Alloys by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Review of Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdunek, R.; Nowak, M.; Pliński, E.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews machine-learning methods that are nowadays the most frequently used for the supervised classification of spectral signals in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We analyze and compare various statistical classification methods, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes method, probabilistic neural networks (PNN), and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) method. The theoretical considerations are supported with experiments conducted for real soft-solder-alloy spectra obtained using LIBS. We consider two decision problems: binary and multiclass classification. The former is used to distinguish overheated soft solders from their normal versions. The latter aims to assign a testing sample to a given group of materials. The measurements are obtained for several laser-energy values, projection masks, and numbers of laser shots. Using cross-validation, we evaluate the above classification methods in terms of their usefulness in solving both classification problems.

  11. International Classification of Primary Care: An Indian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Sajitha M. F.; Angeline, Ruby P.; Cynthia, Sharon; David, Kirubah; Christopher, Prince; Sankarapandian, Venkatesan; Kumar, Yashvanth

    2014-01-01

    Background: India is in the process of transition to universal health coverage for Indian citizens. The focus is to strengthen the primary and secondary level services. Coupled with this national scenario, the development of Family medicine as a distinct discipline is in a crucial stage. There is a nation-wide urge to build family medicine training units and service centers across the country to fulfill the unmet health needs of the population. Objectives: This study aimed to bring out reasons for encounter (RFE) and morbidity pattern of patients seen in a family physician run urban health center in South India. Methods: The study was conducted in an urban health center of a tertiary care hospital. Clinicians entered the data using International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) codes. Data included were demographics, 3 RFE, 3 diagnoses, 3 outcomes of care that include prescriptions, investigations, procedures, and referrals made. Results: During 47,590 patient encounters, 59,647 RFE, 62,283 diagnoses and 68269 outcomes of care were recorded. The majority of RFEs and diagnoses are in the following ICPC chapters: Endocrinology (38.6%), cardiovascular (35.91%), respiratory (20.26%), digestive (7.68% and musculo-skeletal (6.8%). The most frequent outcome of care was prescriptions, followed by counseling and nebulization. Conclusion: This study is the first to report on the RFE in India. This study demonstrated the breadth of clinical conditions seen by family physicians across all ages and in both genders. This study attempts to highlight the need for family physician based services as a training ground for trainees. PMID:25657944

  12. International petroleum statistics report, January 1992. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, consumption, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil consumption and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1980, and monthly data for the most two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/consumption balance for the market economies (i.e., non-communist countries). This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, consumption, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD consumption data are for the years 1970 through 1990; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1990; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1990.

  13. The International Coal Statistics Data Base program maintenance guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data Base (ICSD) is a microcomputer-based system which contains information related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase III+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual, and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Program Maintenance Manual provides the information necessary to maintain and update the ICSD system. Two major types of program maintenance documentation are presented in this manual. The first is the source code for the dBase III+ routines and related non-dBase programs used in operating the ICSD. The second is listings of the major component database field structures. A third important consideration for dBase programming, the structure of index files, is presented in the listing of source code for the index maintenance program. 1 fig.

  14. The International Coal Statistics Data Base operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The International Coal Statistics Data base (ICSD) is a micro- computer based system which contains informations related to international coal trade. This includes coal production, consumption, imports and exports information. The ICSD is a secondary data base, meaning that information contained therein is derived entirely from other primary sources. It uses dBase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3 to locate, report and display data. The system is used for analysis in preparing the Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363) publication. The ICSD system is menu driven, and also permits the user who is familiar with dBase and Lotus operations to leave the menu structure to perform independent queries. Documentation for the ICSD consists of three manuals -- the User's Guide, the Operations Manual and the Program Maintenance Manual. This Operations Manual explains how to install the programs, how to obtain reports on coal trade, what systems requirements apply, and how to update the major data files. It also explains file naming conventions, what each file does, and the programming procedures used to make the system work. The Operations Manual explains how to make the system respond to customized queries. It is organized around the ICSD menu structure and describes what each selection will do. Sample reports and graphs generated from individual menu selection are provided to acquaint the user with the various types of output. 17 figs.

  15. [Breastfeeding: nurses' practice under the perspective of the International Classification of Collective Health Nursing Practices].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; de Senna Ávila Farias, Fabiana Costa; Apostólico, Maíra Rosa; Cubas, Marcia Regina; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2011-03-01

    This descriptive and exploratory study aimed to describe nursing diagnoses and interventions under the International Nursing Practice Classification in Collective Health--CIPESC®--in Women's Health Care, sub-theme Pre-Natal and Puerperium, correlating them to nurses' competences at Curitiba's Mother Program. Data used were diagnoses and interventions during nursing consultation from April to July/ 2005. Basic Statistics was used for data treatment. Proper Breastfeeding was the most frequent diagnosis and most interventions are related to strengthening the user to face the health-disease process (68.9%). In spite of nurses' practice during puerperium, such a competence is not part of the Program Protocol. In conclusion, minor adjustments are necessary in the analyzed diagnoses and the Protocol should be reviewed to entail nurses' competences that are developed in their practice in health services according to CIPESC' s registers.

  16. A modern reproducible method for the histologic grading of astrocytomas with statistical classification tools.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Norbert; Iglesias-Rozas, José R; Weidl, Galia

    2008-02-01

    To investigate whether statistical classification tools can infer the correct World Health Organization (WHO) grade from standardized histologic features in astrocytomas and how these tools compare with GRADO-IGL, an earlier computer-assisted method. A total of 794 human brain astrocytomas were studied between January 1976 and June 2005. The presence of 50 histologic features was rated in 4 categories from 0 (not present) to 3 (abundant) by visual inspection of the sections under a microscope. All tumors were also classified with the corresponding WHO grade between I and IV. We tested the prediction performance of several statistical classification tools (learning vector quantization [LVQ], supervised relevance neural gas [SRNG], support vector machines [SVM], and generalized regression neural network [GRNN]) for this data set. The WHO grade was predicted correctly from histologic features in close to 80% of the cases by 2 modern classifiers (SRNG and SVM), and GRADO-IGL was predicted correctly in > 84% of the cases by a GRNN. A standardized report, based the 50 histologic features, can be used in conjunction with modern classification tools as an objective and reproducible method for histologic grading of astrocytomas.

  17. Pediatric Aspects of Headache Classification in the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 (ICHD-3 beta version).

    PubMed

    McAbee, Gary N; Morse, Anne Marie; Assadi, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This analysis looks at the applicability of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 beta (ICHD-3 beta) to various headache syndromes of children and adolescents. Areas of similarities and differences between adult and pediatric headaches are addressed as they relate to the ICHD-3 beta.

  18. Ice Water Classification Using Statistical Distribution Based Conditional Random Fields in RADARSAT-2 Dual Polarization Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Hao, W.; Zhu, T.; Yuan, L.; Xiao, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, Statistical Distribution based Conditional Random Fields (STA-CRF) algorithm is exploited for improving marginal ice-water classification. Pixel level ice concentration is presented as the comparison of methods based on CRF. Furthermore, in order to explore the effective statistical distribution model to be integrated into STA-CRF, five statistical distribution models are investigated. The STA-CRF methods are tested on 2 scenes around Prydz Bay and Adélie Depression, where contain a variety of ice types during melt season. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can resolve sea ice edge well in Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and show a robust distinction of ice and water.

  19. A Statistical Model-Based Speech Enhancement Using Acoustic Noise Classification for Robust Speech Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Hun; Chang, Joon-Hyuk

    In this paper, we present a speech enhancement technique based on the ambient noise classification that incorporates the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The principal parameters of the statistical model-based speech enhancement algorithm such as the weighting parameter in the decision-directed (DD) method and the long-term smoothing parameter of the noise estimation, are set according to the classified context to ensure best performance under each noise. For real-time context awareness, the noise classification is performed on a frame-by-frame basis using the GMM with the soft decision framework. The speech absence probability (SAP) is used in detecting the speech absence periods and updating the likelihood of the GMM.

  20. Optimizing statistical classification accuracy of satellite remotely sensed imagery for supporting fast flood hydrological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Retalis, Adrianos

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to improve classification results of multispectral satellite imagery for supporting flood risk assessment analysis in a catchment area in Cyprus. For this purpose, precipitation and ground spectroradiometric data have been collected and analyzed with innovative statistical analysis methods. Samples of regolith and construction material were in situ collected and examined in the spectroscopy laboratory for their spectral response under consecutive different conditions of humidity. Moreover, reflectance values were extracted from the same targets using Landsat TM/ETM+ images, for drought and humid time periods, using archived meteorological data. The comparison of the results showed that spectral responses for all the specimens were less correlated in cases of substantial humidity, both in laboratory and satellite images. These results were validated with the application of different classification algorithms (ISODATA, maximum likelihood, object based, maximum entropy) to satellite images acquired during time period when precipitation phenomena had been recorded.

  1. Correlation of nuclear morphometric features with animal and human World Health Organization International Histological Classifications of canine spontaneous seminomas.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, P; Restucci, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O; De Vico, G

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate nuclear morphometric features with animal and human World Health Organization International Histological Classifications in canine seminomas. Twenty-three canine seminomas were classified, according to Animal World Health Organization International Histological Classification as intratubular, intratubular with signs of invasion, or diffuse and according to Human World Health Organization International Histological Classification criteria as spermatocytic and typical. The morphonuclear characteristics of tumors were quantitatively evaluated by means of digital cell image analyses of hematoxylin and eosin-stained nuclei. In particular, the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, mean nuclear form factor, and their respective standard deviations were calculated. The relationship between the different variables and the tumor histologic types was assessed. On the basis of animal and human classification systems, statistically significant differences were observed only between intratubular seminomas with signs of invasion and the other two types and between spermatocytic and typical seminomas, respectively. In humans, it is well known that typical seminomas are more common and aggressive than spermatocytic ones. In our study, the canine seminomas classified as typical showed significantly larger and more variable nuclear area and perimeter than spermatocytic seminomas. These results support the opinion that most canine seminomas correspond to human spermatocytic seminomas and could explain the benign behavior of canine seminomas, which derive from a more differentiated type of germ cell.

  2. The Relationship of Skills of Elite Wheelchair Basketball Competitors to the International Functional Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasile, Frank M.; Hedrick, Bradley N.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between skill performance levels of 31 elite male wheelchair basketball players and their international player classification level. Analysis of a skills test of each athlete indicated that there is a need to reevaluate the functional classification system used in wheelchair basketball competitions. (SM)

  3. Stuttering and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaruss, J. Scott; Quesal, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently presented a multidimensional classification scheme for describing health status and the experience of disablement. This new framework, the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health" (ICF; WHO, 2001), is a revision of WHO's prior framework for describing the consequences of…

  4. Polyp morphology: an interobserver evaluation for the Paris classification among international experts.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Sascha C; Hazewinkel, Y; East, James E; van Leerdam, Monique E; Rastogi, Amit; Pellisé, Maria; Sanduleanu-Dascalescu, Silvia; Bastiaansen, Barbara A J; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    The Paris classification is an international classification system for describing polyp morphology. Thus far, the validity and reproducibility of this classification have not been assessed. We aimed to determine the interobserver agreement for the Paris classification among seven Western expert endoscopists. A total of 85 short endoscopic video clips depicting polyps were created and assessed by seven expert endoscopists according to the Paris classification. After a digital training module, the same 85 polyps were assessed again. We calculated the interobserver agreement with a Fleiss kappa and as the proportion of pairwise agreement. The interobserver agreement of the Paris classification among seven experts was moderate with a Fleiss kappa of 0.42 and a mean pairwise agreement of 67%. The proportion of lesions assessed as "flat" by the experts ranged between 13 and 40% (P<0.001). After the digital training, the interobserver agreement did not change (kappa 0.38, pairwise agreement 60%). Our study is the first to validate the Paris classification for polyp morphology. We demonstrated only a moderate interobserver agreement among international Western experts for this classification system. Our data suggest that, in its current version, the use of this classification system in daily practice is questionable and it is unsuitable for comparative endoscopic research. We therefore suggest introduction of a simplification of the classification system.

  5. Optimal statistical damage detection and classification in an experimental wind turbine blade using minimum instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand for carbon neutral energy in a challenging economic environment is a driving factor for erecting ever larger wind turbines in harsh environments using novel wind turbine blade (WTBs) designs characterized by high flexibilities and lower buckling capacities. To counteract resulting increasing of operation and maintenance costs, efficient structural health monitoring systems can be employed to prevent dramatic failures and to schedule maintenance actions according to the true structural state. This paper presents a novel methodology for classifying structural damages using vibrational responses from a single sensor. The method is based on statistical classification using Bayes' theorem and an advanced statistic, which allows controlling the performance by varying the number of samples which represent the current state. This is done for multivariate damage sensitive features defined as partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) estimated from vibrational responses and principal component analysis scores from PACCs. Additionally, optimal DSFs are composed not only for damage classification but also for damage detection based on binary statistical hypothesis testing, where features selections are found with a fast forward procedure. The method is applied to laboratory experiments with a small scale WTB with wind-like excitation and non-destructive damage scenarios. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed procedure and are promising for future applications of vibration-based structural health monitoring in WTBs.

  6. Statistics and classification of the microwave zebra patterns associated with solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin; Mészárosová, H.; Karlický, M.

    2014-01-10

    The microwave zebra pattern (ZP) is the most interesting, intriguing, and complex spectral structure frequently observed in solar flares. A comprehensive statistical study will certainly help us to understand the formation mechanism, which is not exactly clear now. This work presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a big sample with 202 ZP events collected from observations at the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou and the Ondŕejov Radiospectrograph in the Czech Republic at frequencies of 1.00-7.60 GHz from 2000 to 2013. After investigating the parameter properties of ZPs, such as the occurrence in flare phase, frequency range, polarization degree, duration, etc., we find that the variation of zebra stripe frequency separation with respect to frequency is the best indicator for a physical classification of ZPs. Microwave ZPs can be classified into three types: equidistant ZPs, variable-distant ZPs, and growing-distant ZPs, possibly corresponding to mechanisms of the Bernstein wave model, whistler wave model, and double plasma resonance model, respectively. This statistical classification may help us to clarify the controversies between the existing various theoretical models and understand the physical processes in the source regions.

  7. The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN): proposal to delete Rule 3.41

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed to delete Rule 3.41 of the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature, which requires the name of a virus taxon to precede the term for the taxonomic unit. PMID:22932924

  8. Classification.

    PubMed

    Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Kotagal, Prakash

    2008-07-01

    In this article, we review the practical approach and diagnostic relevance of current seizure and epilepsy classification concepts and principles as a basic framework for good management of patients with epileptic seizures and epilepsy. Inaccurate generalizations about terminology, diagnosis, and treatment may be the single most important factor, next to an inadequately obtained history, that determines the misdiagnosis and mismanagement of patients with epilepsy. A stepwise signs and symptoms approach for diagnosis, evaluation, and management along the guidelines of the International League Against Epilepsy and definitions of epileptic seizures and epilepsy syndromes offers a state-of-the-art clinical approach to managing patients with epilepsy.

  9. Hydrometeor classification through statistical clustering of polarimetric radar measurements: a semi-supervised approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besic, Nikola; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Grazioli, Jacopo; Gabella, Marco; Germann, Urs; Berne, Alexis

    2016-09-01

    Polarimetric radar-based hydrometeor classification is the procedure of identifying different types of hydrometeors by exploiting polarimetric radar observations. The main drawback of the existing supervised classification methods, mostly based on fuzzy logic, is a significant dependency on a presumed electromagnetic behaviour of different hydrometeor types. Namely, the results of the classification largely rely upon the quality of scattering simulations. When it comes to the unsupervised approach, it lacks the constraints related to the hydrometeor microphysics. The idea of the proposed method is to compensate for these drawbacks by combining the two approaches in a way that microphysical hypotheses can, to a degree, adjust the content of the classes obtained statistically from the observations. This is done by means of an iterative approach, performed offline, which, in a statistical framework, examines clustered representative polarimetric observations by comparing them to the presumed polarimetric properties of each hydrometeor class. Aside from comparing, a routine alters the content of clusters by encouraging further statistical clustering in case of non-identification. By merging all identified clusters, the multi-dimensional polarimetric signatures of various hydrometeor types are obtained for each of the studied representative datasets, i.e. for each radar system of interest. These are depicted by sets of centroids which are then employed in operational labelling of different hydrometeors. The method has been applied on three C-band datasets, each acquired by different operational radar from the MeteoSwiss Rad4Alp network, as well as on two X-band datasets acquired by two research mobile radars. The results are discussed through a comparative analysis which includes a corresponding supervised and unsupervised approach, emphasising the operational potential of the proposed method.

  10. Statistical shape modeling of the left ventricle: myocardial infarct classification challenge.

    PubMed

    Suinesiaputra, Avan; Ablin, Pierre; Alba, Xenia; Alessandrini, Martino; Allen, Jack; Bai, W; Cimen, Serkan; Claes, Peter; Cowan, Brett R; D'hooge, Jan; Duchateau, Nicolas; Ehrhardt, Jan; Frangi, Alejandro F; Gooya, Ali; Grau, Vicente; Lekadir, Karim; Lu, Allen; Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Oksuz, Ilkay; Pennec, Xavier; Pereanez, Marco; Pinto, Catarina; Piras, Paolo; Rohe, Marc-Michel; Rueckert, Daniel; Sermesant, Maxime; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Tabassian, Mahdi; Teresi, Luciano; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A; Wilms, Matthias; Young, Alistair A; Zhang, Xingyu; Medrano-Gracia, Pau

    2017-01-17

    Statistical shape modeling is a powerful tool for visualizing and quantifying geometric and functional patterns of the heart. After myocardial infarction (MI), the left ventricle typically remodels in response to physiological challenges. Several methods have been proposed in the literature to describe statistical shape changes. Which method best characterizes left ventricular remodeling after MI is an open research question. A better descriptor of remodeling is expected to provide a more accurate evaluation of disease status in MI patients. We therefore designed a challenge to test shape characterization in MI given a set of three-dimensional left ventricular surface points. The training set comprised 100 MI patients, and 100 asymptomatic volunteers (AV). The challenge was initiated in 2015 at the Statistical Atlases and Computational Models of the Heart workshop, in conjunction with the MICCAI conference. The training set with labels was provided to participants, who were asked to submit the likelihood of MI from a different (validation) set of 200 cases (100 AV and 100 MI). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were used as the outcome measures. The goals of this challenge were to (1) establish a common dataset for evaluating statistical shape modeling algorithms in MI, and (2) test whether statistical shape modeling provides additional information characterizing MI patients over standard clinical measures. Eleven groups with a wide variety of classification and feature extraction approaches participated in this challenge. All methods achieved excellent classification results with accuracy ranges from 0.83 to 0.98. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were all above 0.90. Four methods showed significantly higher performance than standard clinical measures. The dataset and software for evaluation are available from the Cardiac Atlas Project website1.

  11. International Paralympic Committee position stand--background and scientific principles of classification in Paralympic sport.

    PubMed

    Tweedy, S M; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2011-04-01

    The Classification Code of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), inter alia, mandates the development of evidence-based systems of classification. This paper provides a scientific background for classification in Paralympic sport, defines evidence-based classification and provides guidelines for how evidence-based classification may be achieved. Classification is a process in which a single group of entities (or units) are ordered into a number of smaller groups (or classes) based on observable properties that they have in common, and taxonomy is the science of how to classify. Paralympic classification is interrelated with systems of classification used in two fields: Health and functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is the most widely used classification in the field of functioning and health. To enhance communication, Paralympic systems of classification should use language and concepts that are consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Sport. Classification in sport reduces the likelihood of one-sided competition and in this way promotes participation. Two types of classification are used in sport-performance classification and selective classification. Paralympic sports require selective classification systems so that athletes who enhance their competitive performance through effective training will not be moved to a class with athletes who have less activity limitation, as they would in a performance classification system. Classification has a significant impact on which athletes are successful in Paralympic sport, but unfortunately issues relating to the weighting and aggregation of measures used in classification pose significant threats to the validity of current systems of classification. To improve the validity of Paralympic classification, the IPC Classification Code mandates the development of evidence-based systems of classification, an evidence

  12. Injury classification agreement in linked Bureau of Labor Statistics and Workers' Compensation data

    PubMed Central

    Wuellner, Sara E; Bonauto, David K

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimates of select occupational injuries and illnesses often differ across data sources. We explored agreement in injury classifications and the impact of differences on case estimates among records reported to multiple data sources. Methods We linked cases reported in the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) to Washington State workers' compensation (WC) claims and evaluated agreement in injury characteristics coded in each data source according to the same occupational injury and illness classification system. Results Agreement between data sources was greatest for body part and lowest for event or exposure. Agreement on nature of injury varied by condition. WC-assigned injury codes estimated 94% more amputations than SOII-assigned codes while SOII-assigned codes estimated 34% more work-related MSD cases. Conclusions Accounting for classification differences may improve case ascertainment within individual data sources and help align injury and illness estimates derived from different data sources. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:1100–1109, 2014. © 2013 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24347557

  13. The International Coal Statistics Data Base user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The ICSD is a microcomputer-based system which presents four types of data: (1) the quantity of coal traded between importers and exporters, (2) the price of particular ranks of coal and the cost of shipping it in world trade, (3) a detailed look at coal shipments entering and leaving the United States, and (4) the context for world coal trade in the form of data on how coal and other primary energy sources are used now and are projected to be used in the future, especially by major industrial economies. The ICSD consists of more than 140 files organized into a rapid query system for coal data. It can operate on any IBM-compatible microcomputer with 640 kilobytes memory and a hard disk drive with at least 8 megabytes of available space. The ICSD is: 1. A menu-driven, interactive data base using Dbase 3+ and Lotus 1-2-3. 2. Inputs include official and commercial statistics on international coal trade volumes and consumption. 3. Outputs include dozens of reports and color graphic displays. Output report type include Lotus worksheets, dBase data bases, ASCII text files, screen displays, and printed reports. 4. Flexible design permits user to follow structured query system or design his own queries using either Lotus or dBase procedures. 5. Incudes maintenance programs to configure the system, correct indexing errors, back-up work, restore corrupted files, annotate user-created files and update system programs, use DOS shells, and much more. Forecasts and other information derived from the ICSD are published in EIA's Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade (DOE/EIA-0363).

  14. Visual classification of very fine-grained sediments: Evaluation through univariate and multivariate statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohn, M. Ed; Nuhfer, E.B.; Vinopal, R.J.; Klanderman, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifying very fine-grained rocks through fabric elements provides information about depositional environments, but is subject to the biases of visual taxonomy. To evaluate the statistical significance of an empirical classification of very fine-grained rocks, samples from Devonian shales in four cored wells in West Virginia and Virginia were measured for 15 variables: quartz, illite, pyrite and expandable clays determined by X-ray diffraction; total sulfur, organic content, inorganic carbon, matrix density, bulk density, porosity, silt, as well as density, sonic travel time, resistivity, and ??-ray response measured from well logs. The four lithologic types comprised: (1) sharply banded shale, (2) thinly laminated shale, (3) lenticularly laminated shale, and (4) nonbanded shale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance showed that the lithologic classification reflects significant differences for the variables measured, difference that can be detected independently of stratigraphic effects. Little-known statistical methods found useful in this work included: the multivariate analysis of variance with more than one effect, simultaneous plotting of samples and variables on canonical variates, and the use of parametric ANOVA and MANOVA on ranked data. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  15. Analysis of sexual assault evidence: statistical classification of condoms by ambient mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Mario F; Ifa, Demian R; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) are employed here in the forensic analysis of chemical compounds found in condoms and relative traces, and their analytical performances are compared. Statistical analysis of data obtained from mass spectra only was applied in order to obtain classification rules for distinguishing ten types of condoms. In particular, two supervised chemometric techniques [linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)] were carried out on absolute and relative intensity values to test the performances of statistical models in terms of predictive capacity. The achieved classification of samples was excellent because of the high prediction percentages of the method used both for DESI and EASI mass spectrometry analyses, confirming these two as potential ambient ionization techniques for forensic analyses in case of sexual assault crimes. EASI-MS showed 99% prediction ability for LDA using relative data and 100% prediction ability for SIMCA using both absolute and relative ones, while DESI showed 94% prediction ability for both LDA and SIMCA. The absence of any sample preparation technique gives advantages in terms of sample preservation and reduced contamination, allowing successive analyses to be performed on the same sample by other techniques.

  16. Multiple-Time-Series Clinical Data Processing for Classification With Merging Algorithm and Statistical Measures.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Liang, Ja-Der; Yang, Pei-Ming; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lai, Feipei

    2015-05-01

    A description of patient conditions should consist of the changes in and combination of clinical measures. Traditional data-processing method and classification algorithms might cause clinical information to disappear and reduce prediction performance. To improve the accuracy of clinical-outcome prediction by using multiple measurements, a new multiple-time-series data-processing algorithm with period merging is proposed. Clinical data from 83 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were used in this research. Their clinical reports from a defined period were merged using the proposed merging algorithm, and statistical measures were also calculated. After data processing, multiple measurements support vector machine (MMSVM) with radial basis function (RBF) kernels was used as a classification method to predict HCC recurrence. A multiple measurements random forest regression (MMRF) was also used as an additional evaluation/classification method. To evaluate the data-merging algorithm, the performance of prediction using processed multiple measurements was compared to prediction using single measurements. The results of recurrence prediction by MMSVM with RBF using multiple measurements and a period of 120 days (accuracy 0.771, balanced accuracy 0.603) were optimal, and their superiority to the results obtained using single measurements was statistically significant (accuracy 0.626, balanced accuracy 0.459, P < 0.01). In the cases of MMRF, the prediction results obtained after applying the proposed merging algorithm were also better than single-measurement results (P < 0.05). The results show that the performance of HCC-recurrence prediction was significantly improved when the proposed data-processing algorithm was used, and that multiple measurements could be of greater value than single.

  17. Scaling up the evaluation of psychotherapy: evaluating motivational interviewing fidelity via statistical text classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy are leading, evidence-based practices for a variety of problems (e.g., substance abuse), but the evaluation of provider fidelity to behavioral interventions is limited by the need for human judgment. The current study evaluated the accuracy of statistical text classification in replicating human-based judgments of provider fidelity in one specific psychotherapy—motivational interviewing (MI). Method Participants (n = 148) came from five previously conducted randomized trials and were either primary care patients at a safety-net hospital or university students. To be eligible for the original studies, participants met criteria for either problematic drug or alcohol use. All participants received a type of brief motivational interview, an evidence-based intervention for alcohol and substance use disorders. The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code is a standard measure of MI provider fidelity based on human ratings that was used to evaluate all therapy sessions. A text classification approach called a labeled topic model was used to learn associations between human-based fidelity ratings and MI session transcripts. It was then used to generate codes for new sessions. The primary comparison was the accuracy of model-based codes with human-based codes. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of model-based codes showed reasonably strong sensitivity and specificity with those from human raters (range of area under ROC curve (AUC) scores: 0.62 – 0.81; average AUC: 0.72). Agreement with human raters was evaluated based on talk turns as well as code tallies for an entire session. Generated codes had higher reliability with human codes for session tallies and also varied strongly by individual code. Conclusion To scale up the evaluation of behavioral interventions, technological solutions will be required. The current study demonstrated preliminary, encouraging findings regarding the utility

  18. Scaling up the evaluation of psychotherapy: evaluating motivational interviewing fidelity via statistical text classification.

    PubMed

    Atkins, David C; Steyvers, Mark; Imel, Zac E; Smyth, Padhraic

    2014-04-24

    Behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy are leading, evidence-based practices for a variety of problems (e.g., substance abuse), but the evaluation of provider fidelity to behavioral interventions is limited by the need for human judgment. The current study evaluated the accuracy of statistical text classification in replicating human-based judgments of provider fidelity in one specific psychotherapy--motivational interviewing (MI). Participants (n = 148) came from five previously conducted randomized trials and were either primary care patients at a safety-net hospital or university students. To be eligible for the original studies, participants met criteria for either problematic drug or alcohol use. All participants received a type of brief motivational interview, an evidence-based intervention for alcohol and substance use disorders. The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code is a standard measure of MI provider fidelity based on human ratings that was used to evaluate all therapy sessions. A text classification approach called a labeled topic model was used to learn associations between human-based fidelity ratings and MI session transcripts. It was then used to generate codes for new sessions. The primary comparison was the accuracy of model-based codes with human-based codes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of model-based codes showed reasonably strong sensitivity and specificity with those from human raters (range of area under ROC curve (AUC) scores: 0.62 - 0.81; average AUC: 0.72). Agreement with human raters was evaluated based on talk turns as well as code tallies for an entire session. Generated codes had higher reliability with human codes for session tallies and also varied strongly by individual code. To scale up the evaluation of behavioral interventions, technological solutions will be required. The current study demonstrated preliminary, encouraging findings regarding the utility of statistical text classification in

  19. Development of a new international classification of health interventions based on an ontology framework.

    PubMed

    Paviot, Béatrice Trombert; Madden, Richard; Moskal, Lori; Zaiss, Albrecht; Bousquet, Cédric; Kumar, Anand; Lewalle, Pierre; Rodrigues, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    : The WHO International Classification of Diseases is used in many national applications to plan, manage and fund through case mix health care systems and allows international comparisons of the performance of these systems. There is no such measuring tool for health interventions or procedures. To fulfil this requirement the WHO-FIC Network recommended in 2006 to develop an International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI). This initiative is aimed to harmonise the existing national classifications and to provide a basic system for the countries which have not developed their own classification systems. It is based on the CEN/ISO ontology framework standard named Categorial Structure defined from a non formal bottom up ontology approach. The process of populating the framework is ongoing to start from a common model structure encompassing the ICD 9CM Volume 3 granularity.

  20. Quality and statistical classification of Brazilian vegetable oils using mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Samyn, Pieter; Van Nieuwkerke, Dieter; Schoukens, Gustaaf; Vonck, Leo; Stanssens, Dirk; Van den Aabbeele, Henk

    2012-05-01

    Palm oil, soy oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil, and rapeseed oil were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The quality of different oils was evaluated and statistically classified by principal component analysis (PCA) and a partial least squares (PLS) regression model. First, a calibration set of spectra was selected from one sampling batch. The qualitative variations in spectra are discussed with a prediction of oil composition (saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids) from mid-infrared analysis and iodine value from FT-Raman analysis, based on ratioing the intensity of bands at given wavenumbers. A more robust and convincing oil classification is obtained from two-parameter statistical models. The statistical analysis of FT-Raman spectra favorably distinguishes according to the iodine value, while the mid-infrared spectra are most sensitive to hydroxyl moieties. Second, the models are validated with a set of spectra from another sampling batch, including the same oil types as-received and after different aging times together with a hydrogenated castor oil and high-oleic sunflower oil. There is very good agreement between the model predictions and the Raman measurements, but the statistical significance is lower for mid-infrared spectra. In the future, this calibration model will be used to check vegetable oil qualities before using them in polymerization processes.

  1. Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Kenneth; Strasser, Florian; Anker, Stefan D; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Bruera, Eduardo; Fainsinger, Robin L; Jatoi, Aminah; Loprinzi, Charles; MacDonald, Neil; Mantovani, Giovanni; Davis, Mellar; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Ottery, Faith; Radbruch, Lukas; Ravasco, Paula; Walsh, Declan; Wilcock, Andrew; Kaasa, Stein; Baracos, Vickie E

    2011-05-01

    To develop a framework for the definition and classification of cancer cachexia a panel of experts participated in a formal consensus process, including focus groups and two Delphi rounds. Cancer cachexia was defined as a multifactorial syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass) that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Its pathophysiology is characterised by a negative protein and energy balance driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and abnormal metabolism. The agreed diagnostic criterion for cachexia was weight loss greater than 5%, or weight loss greater than 2% in individuals already showing depletion according to current bodyweight and height (body-mass index [BMI] <20 kg/m(2)) or skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). An agreement was made that the cachexia syndrome can develop progressively through various stages--precachexia to cachexia to refractory cachexia. Severity can be classified according to degree of depletion of energy stores and body protein (BMI) in combination with degree of ongoing weight loss. Assessment for classification and clinical management should include the following domains: anorexia or reduced food intake, catabolic drive, muscle mass and strength, functional and psychosocial impairment. Consensus exists on a framework for the definition and classification of cancer cachexia. After validation, this should aid clinical trial design, development of practice guidelines, and, eventually, routine clinical management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New Allergic and Hypersensitivity Conditions Section in the International Classification of Diseases-11.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana K; Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Allergy and hypersensitivity, originally perceived as rare and secondary disorders, are one of the fastest growing conditions worldwide, but not adequately tracked in international information systems, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Having allergic and hypersensitivity conditions classification able to capture conditions in health international information systems in a realistic manner is crucial to the identification of potential problems, and in a wider system, can identify contextually specific service deficiencies and provide the impetus for changes. Since 2013, an international collaboration of Allergy Academies has spent tremendous efforts to have a better and updated classification of allergies in the forthcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 version, by providing scientific and technical evidences for the need for changes. The following bilateral discussions with the representatives of the ICD-11 revision, a simplification process was carried out. The new parented "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" section has been built under the "Disorders of the Immune System" chapter through the international collaboration of Allergy Academies and upon ICD WHO representatives support. The classification of allergic and hypersensitivity conditions has been updated through the ICD-11 revision and will allow the aggregation of reliable data to perform positive quality-improvements in health care systems worldwide.

  3. New Allergic and Hypersensitivity Conditions Section in the International Classification of Diseases-11

    PubMed Central

    Tanno, Luciana K.; Calderon, Moises A.

    2016-01-01

    Allergy and hypersensitivity, originally perceived as rare and secondary disorders, are one of the fastest growing conditions worldwide, but not adequately tracked in international information systems, such as the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Having allergic and hypersensitivity conditions classification able to capture conditions in health international information systems in a realistic manner is crucial to the identification of potential problems, and in a wider system, can identify contextually specific service deficiencies and provide the impetus for changes. Since 2013, an international collaboration of Allergy Academies has spent tremendous efforts to have a better and updated classification of allergies in the forthcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 version, by providing scientific and technical evidences for the need for changes. The following bilateral discussions with the representatives of the ICD-11 revision, a simplification process was carried out. The new parented "Allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" section has been built under the "Disorders of the Immune System" chapter through the international collaboration of Allergy Academies and upon ICD WHO representatives support. The classification of allergic and hypersensitivity conditions has been updated through the ICD-11 revision and will allow the aggregation of reliable data to perform positive quality-improvements in health care systems worldwide. PMID:27126732

  4. Fifth International Workshop on Detection, Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals using Passive Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    spring 2011 in Seattle) • The Fourth International Conference on Detection and Classification of Marine Mammals using Passive Acoustics ( Pavia ...Italy, 2009) • The International BioAcoustic Congress ( Pavia , Italy, 2009) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting

  5. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System.

    PubMed

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K; Baranoski, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System into Danish, using the forward-back translation method described by the principles of good practice for the translation process for patient-reported outcomes. In Phase 2, the Danish group sought to replicate the ISTAP validation study and validate the classification system with registered nurses (RN) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists. The ISTAP classification system was validated by 241 RNs, and 29 non-RN. The results indicated a moderate level of agreement on classification of skin tears by type (Fleiss' Kappa=0.460). A moderate level of agreement was demonstrated for both the RN group and the non-RN group (Fleiss' Kappa=0.464 and 0.443, respectively). The ISTAP Skin Tear Classification System was developed with the goal of establishing a global language for describing and documenting skin tears and to raise the health-care community's awareness of skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system supports the earlier ISTAP study and further validates the classification system. The Danish translation of the classification system is vital to the promotion of skin tears in both research and the clinical settings in Denmark.

  6. The International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification of the International Commission on Stratigraphy: The Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification (ISSC) was born in 1955 as an effort to promote awareness of stratigraphic principles and encourage worldwide standardization of stratigraphic approaches and terminology. The first major achievement of ISSC was the 1976 publication of the International Stratigraphic Guide. It was revised in 1994, with an abridged version appearing in 1999. These documents achieved their goals magnificently: cited innumerable times and forming the core of many national stratigraphic codes. As the discipline has evolved, particularly from technological advances and ocean drilling, new tools and methodologies have been developed and these have led to ever finer resolution of geological time and ever more exact correlation of stratigraphic units and events, thereby enhancing the understanding of the genesis of the geological record. Under the leadership of M. B. Cita, ISSC embarked in 2002 on a renewed initiative to disseminate to the global geological community these newer developments, and ultimately incorporate them into a third edition of the Guide. To this aim, traditional and new branches of stratigraphy are being treated: chemostratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy. An open-access review paper is dedicated to each and published in Newsletters on Stratigraphy. The next edition of the Guide will be inclusive of all branches of stratigraphy and also embrace igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is envisaged that a textbook on stratigraphy based on these papers and the revised Guide could prove a timely contribution, especially to younger generations of practitioners, and aid global communication and understanding of stratigraphic principles and methods.

  7. Comparison of statistical clustering techniques for the classification of modelled atmospheric trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassomenos, P.; Vardoulakis, S.; Borge, R.; Lumbreras, J.; Papaloukas, C.; Karakitsios, S.

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we used and compared three different statistical clustering methods: an hierarchical, a non-hierarchical (K-means) and an artificial neural network technique (self-organizing maps (SOM)). These classification methods were applied to a 4-year dataset of 5 days kinematic back trajectories of air masses arriving in Athens, Greece at 12.00 UTC, in three different heights, above the ground. The atmospheric back trajectories were simulated with the HYSPLIT Vesion 4.7 model of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The meteorological data used for the computation of trajectories were obtained from NOAA reanalysis database. A comparison of the three statistical clustering methods through statistical indices was attempted. It was found that all three statistical methods seem to depend to the arrival height of the trajectories, but the degree of dependence differs substantially. Hierarchical clustering showed the highest level of dependence for fast-moving trajectories to the arrival height, followed by SOM. K-means was found to be the least depended clustering technique on the arrival height. The air quality management applications of these results in relation to PM10 concentrations recorded in Athens, Greece, were also discussed. Differences of PM10 concentrations, during certain clusters, were found statistically different (at 95% confidence level) indicating that these clusters appear to be associated with long-range transportation of particulates. This study can improve the interpretation of modelled atmospheric trajectories, leading to a more reliable analysis of synoptic weather circulation patterns and their impacts on urban air quality.

  8. Statistical classification of drug incidents due to look-alike sound-alike mix-ups.

    PubMed

    Wong, Zoie Shui Yee

    2016-06-01

    It has been recognised that medication names that look or sound similar are a cause of medication errors. This study builds statistical classifiers for identifying medication incidents due to look-alike sound-alike mix-ups. A total of 227 patient safety incident advisories related to medication were obtained from the Canadian Patient Safety Institute's Global Patient Safety Alerts system. Eight feature selection strategies based on frequent terms, frequent drug terms and constituent terms were performed. Statistical text classifiers based on logistic regression, support vector machines with linear, polynomial, radial-basis and sigmoid kernels and decision tree were trained and tested. The models developed achieved an average accuracy of above 0.8 across all the model settings. The receiver operating characteristic curves indicated the classifiers performed reasonably well. The results obtained in this study suggest that statistical text classification can be a feasible method for identifying medication incidents due to look-alike sound-alike mix-ups based on a database of advisories from Global Patient Safety Alerts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Utilization of statistics based classification approach to investigate water supply profile of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Boyacioglu, Hayal; Boyacioglu, Hülya

    2009-05-01

    In the paper water supply profile of Turkey was examined. In this scope, the questionnaire survey conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute in 2004 to investigate annual amount of water abstracted to drinking water networks by type of resources in 81 provinces was evaluated. In the questionnaire, sources were grouped under five categories as spring, (artificial) lake, river, reservoir and well. Due to the complex and multivariate characteristics of the data sets, to replace a large collection of variables with a smaller number of factors the statistical method "factor analysis" was performed. Results revealed that, water supply systems in the country were mainly governed by groundwater sources (well and/or spring). However, in the northeastern part of the country, rivers were allocated for drinking water supply. On the other hand, reservoir dependent cities were densely located in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Southeast Anatolia Regions. This study showed that statistics based classification methods assist decision makers to extract information from multidimensional complex data sets representing environmental conditions.

  10. International Student Academic Performance: Some Statistical Evidence and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yunke; Banham, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Using time series data, this study shows that domestic students' academic performance is generally better than international students' performance, but the gap is significantly narrowing as international students' performance is improving over time. The study also shows that there is no strong correlation between the percentage of international…

  11. Adapting internal statistical models for interpreting visual cues to depth

    PubMed Central

    Seydell, Anna; Knill, David C.; Trommershäuser, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The informativeness of sensory cues depends critically on statistical regularities in the environment. However, statistical regularities vary between different object categories and environments. We asked whether and how the brain changes the prior assumptions about scene statistics used to interpret visual depth cues when stimulus statistics change. Subjects judged the slants of stereoscopically presented figures by adjusting a virtual probe perpendicular to the surface. In addition to stereoscopic disparities, the aspect ratio of the stimulus in the image provided a “figural compression” cue to slant, whose reliability depends on the distribution of aspect ratios in the world. As we manipulated this distribution from regular to random and back again, subjects’ reliance on the compression cue relative to stereoscopic cues changed accordingly. When we randomly interleaved stimuli from shape categories (ellipses and diamonds) with different statistics, subjects gave less weight to the compression cue for figures from the category with more random aspect ratios. Our results demonstrate that relative cue weights vary rapidly as a function of recently experienced stimulus statistics, and that the brain can use different statistical models for different object categories. We show that subjects’ behavior is consistent with that of a broad class of Bayesian learning models. PMID:20465321

  12. A statistical method to evaluate dental classification systems used by military dental services.

    PubMed

    Simecek, John W; McGinley, John L; Levine, Michael E; Diefenderfer, Kim E; Ahlf, Renee L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to develop a systematic approach to evaluate the effectiveness of dental classifications used by military dental services to predict dental emergencies. A retrospective cohort study of U.S. Navy recruits were followed for an average of 3.5 years. Dental records of 1,114 recruits who had their initial dental examination during the calendar year 1997 were collected in 2001. Four hundred sixty-two dental emergencies (DE) were recorded, of which 50 were class 3 patients. The incidence density ratio (IDR) of DE was 2.2 (p < 0.001; class 3 compared to class 1 or 2 patients). The mean times to DE in patients who experienced DE were 92 days (class 3 patients) and 418 days (class 1 and 2 patients; p < 0.001), while the median times to DE were 59 days and 295 days (p < 0.001) for class 3 and class 1 or 2, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for DE in class 3 versus class 1 and 2 patients was 1.519 (p = 0.0149). We have concluded that examination of the following statistics is necessary to assess the effectiveness of military dental classification systems: (1) the percentage of DE that occur in class 3 patients, (2) the IDR of DE, (3) the mean time to DE, (4) the median time to DE, and (5) the hazard ratio of DE.

  13. The Abnormal vs. Normal ECG Classification Based on Key Features and Statistical Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun; Tong, Jia-Fei; Liu, Xia

    As cardiovascular diseases appear frequently in modern society, the medicine and health system should be adjusted to meet the new requirements. Chinese government has planned to establish basic community medical insurance system (BCMIS) before 2020, where remote medical service is one of core issues. Therefore, we have developed the "remote network hospital system" which includes data server and diagnosis terminal by the aid of wireless detector to sample ECG. To improve the efficiency of ECG processing, in this paper, abnormal vs. normal ECG classification approach based on key features and statistical learning is presented, and the results are analyzed. Large amount of normal ECG could be filtered by computer automatically and abnormal ECG is left to be diagnosed specially by physicians.

  14. Updates for the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Kirshblum, Steven; Waring, William

    2014-08-01

    The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) is the most widely used classification in the field of spinal cord injury medicine. Since its first publication in 1982, multiple revisions refining the recommended examination, scaling, and classification have taken place to improve communication, consistency, and clarity. This article describes a brief historical perspective on the development and changes over the years leading to the current ISNCSCI, detailing the most recent updates of 2011 and the worksheet 2013 as well as issues facing the ISNCSCI for the future.

  15. Learning about the internal structure of categories through classification and feature inference.

    PubMed

    Jee, Benjamin D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on category learning has found that classification tasks produce representations that are skewed toward diagnostic feature dimensions, whereas feature inference tasks lead to richer representations of within-category structure. Yet, prior studies often measure category knowledge through tasks that involve identifying only the typical features of a category. This neglects an important aspect of a category's internal structure: how typical and atypical features are distributed within a category. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that inference learning results in richer knowledge of internal category structure than classification learning. We introduced several new measures to probe learners' representations of within-category structure. Experiment 1 found that participants in the inference condition learned and used a wider range of feature dimensions than classification learners. Classification learners, however, were more sensitive to the presence of atypical features within categories. Experiment 2 provided converging evidence that classification learners were more likely to incorporate atypical features into their representations. Inference learners were less likely to encode atypical category features, even in a "partial inference" condition that focused learners' attention on the feature dimensions relevant to classification. Overall, these results are contrary to the hypothesis that inference learning produces superior knowledge of within-category structure. Although inference learning promoted representations that included a broad range of category-typical features, classification learning promoted greater sensitivity to the distribution of typical and atypical features within categories.

  16. Linking of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Distal Radius Fracture Clinical Practice Guidelines to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health; International Classification of Diseases; and ICF Core Sets for Hand Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Esakki, Saravanan; MacDermid, Joy; Vajravelu, Saipriya

    2016-01-01

    Background: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) distal radius fracture (DRF) clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are readily available to clinicians, patients, and policymakers. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) provides a framework for describing the impact of health conditions. The International Classification of Diseases–10th Revision (ICD-10) is a classification system to classify health conditions as specific disease or disorders. The aim of this study is to analyze and describe the scope and focus of the AAOS DRF CPG using the ICF and ICD-10 as a basis for content analysis, and to compare the content of the CPG with the ICF hand core sets as the reference standard. Methods: Established linking rules were used by 2 independent raters to analyze the 29 recommendations of the AAOS DRF CPG. ICD-10 codes were assigned in the same process. Summary linkage statistics were used to describe the results for ICF and the hand core sets. Results: Among the 29 recommendations of the AAOS DRF CPG, 5 meaningful concepts were linked to the ICF codes. Of these, 5 codes appeared on the comprehensive ICF core set and only 3 codes appeared in the brief ICF core set, and 7 conditions were covered in ICD-10 codes. Conclusions: The AAOS DRF CPG focuses on surgical interventions and has minimal linkage to the constructs of the ICD-10 and ICF. It does not address activity or participation (disability), and is not well linked to key concepts relevant to hand conditions. PMID:27698634

  17. Linking of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Distal Radius Fracture Clinical Practice Guidelines to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health; International Classification of Diseases; and ICF Core Sets for Hand Conditions.

    PubMed

    Esakki, Saravanan; MacDermid, Joy; Vajravelu, Saipriya

    2016-09-01

    Background: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) distal radius fracture (DRF) clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are readily available to clinicians, patients, and policymakers. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) provides a framework for describing the impact of health conditions. The International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) is a classification system to classify health conditions as specific disease or disorders. The aim of this study is to analyze and describe the scope and focus of the AAOS DRF CPG using the ICF and ICD-10 as a basis for content analysis, and to compare the content of the CPG with the ICF hand core sets as the reference standard. Methods: Established linking rules were used by 2 independent raters to analyze the 29 recommendations of the AAOS DRF CPG. ICD-10 codes were assigned in the same process. Summary linkage statistics were used to describe the results for ICF and the hand core sets. Results: Among the 29 recommendations of the AAOS DRF CPG, 5 meaningful concepts were linked to the ICF codes. Of these, 5 codes appeared on the comprehensive ICF core set and only 3 codes appeared in the brief ICF core set, and 7 conditions were covered in ICD-10 codes. Conclusions: The AAOS DRF CPG focuses on surgical interventions and has minimal linkage to the constructs of the ICD-10 and ICF. It does not address activity or participation (disability), and is not well linked to key concepts relevant to hand conditions.

  18. Introduction of the World Health Organization project of the International Classification of Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng-fei; Watanabe, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    The World Health Organization plans to incorporate "traditional medicine" into the next revision of its International Classification of Diseases-Version 11 (ICD-11). If traditional medicine is included in ICD-11, it is definitely an epoch-making issue. The expected result is the International Classification of Traditional Medicine, China, Japan and Korea Version (ICTM-CJK). The intention of the ICTM project is not only beneficial for traditional medical components, but also might be beneficial for Western biomedicine. For this shared purpose, China, Japan and Korea must understand the meaning of this project and collaborate to develop it.

  19. LIBECON2000 and the Future of International Library, Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuegi, David

    LIBECON2000 is a project funded by DG13 of the European Commission within the Telematics Applications Programme that will run for three years (until early 2001). The project collects and publishes library statistics of 29 European countries on its World Wide Web site, http://www.libecon2000.org. This paper gives an account of the project's…

  20. Attention-gated reinforcement learning of internal representations for classification.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2005-10-01

    Animal learning is associated with changes in the efficacy of connections between neurons. The rules that govern this plasticity can be tested in neural networks. Rules that train neural networks to map stimuli onto outputs are given by supervised learning and reinforcement learning theories. Supervised learning is efficient but biologically implausible. In contrast, reinforcement learning is biologically plausible but comparatively inefficient. It lacks a mechanism that can identify units at early processing levels that play a decisive role in the stimulus-response mapping. Here we show that this so-called credit assignment problem can be solved by a new role for attention in learning. There are two factors in our new learning scheme that determine synaptic plasticity: (1) a reinforcement signal that is homogeneous across the network and depends on the amount of reward obtained after a trial, and (2) an attentional feedback signal from the output layer that limits plasticity to those units at earlier processing levels that are crucial for the stimulus-response mapping. The new scheme is called attention-gated reinforcement learning (AGREL). We show that it is as efficient as supervised learning in classification tasks. AGREL is biologically realistic and integrates the role of feedback connections, attention effects, synaptic plasticity, and reinforcement learning signals into a coherent framework.

  1. Reflections on the Judgement Axis, ICNP beta. International Classification of Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Coler, M S

    2003-03-01

    This article presents questions, reflections and proposed resolutions regarding the Judgement Axis of the International Classification of Nursing Practice, Beta Version (ICNP beta). The Judgement Axis, in its present format, consists of an alphabetical listing of terms that are meant to reflect the clinical opinion of a nurse relating to the state of a nursing phenomenon appearing in Axis A of the ICNP beta. A review of literature indicates that judgement can be more extensive. Not considered in the development of the Axis is the fact that judgement can be clinical and actuarial. Actuarial judgement is predictive and based on statistics. Clinical judgement is patient-centred, creative and intuitive. Both are essential in defining nursing judgement. The list presents 49 modifiers in nominal form. Each of these is subordinated, in alphanumeric descending order, by qualifiers that do not conform to the concept of lexical hierarchy. We propose that the 49 terms which appear in the present listing as unique ordinates should be clustered into major categories with synonyms listed as subordinates of the major cluster headings. The qualifiers of degree, which are presently identified as subordinates in Axis B, might be presented in matrix format, providing a scale of degree of the modifier for the nurse.

  2. International patent families: from application strategies to statistical indicators.

    PubMed

    Dechezleprêtre, Antoine; Ménière, Yann; Mohnen, Myra

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of international patent families, including their domestic component. We exploit a relatively under-studied feature of patent families, namely the number of patents covering the same invention within a given jurisdiction. Using this information, we highlight common patterns in the structure of international patent families, which reflect both the patenting strategies of innovators and the peculiarities of the different patent systems. While the literature has extensively used family size, i.e. the number of countries in which a given invention is protected, as a measure of patent value, our results suggest that the number of patent filings in the priority country within a patent family as well as the timespan between the first and last filings within a family are other insightful indicators of the value of patented innovations.

  3. Understanding the use of standardized nursing terminology and classification systems in published research: A case study using the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®).

    PubMed

    Strudwick, Gillian; Hardiker, Nicholas R

    2016-10-01

    In the era of evidenced based healthcare, nursing is required to demonstrate that care provided by nurses is associated with optimal patient outcomes, and a high degree of quality and safety. The use of standardized nursing terminologies and classification systems are a way that nursing documentation can be leveraged to generate evidence related to nursing practice. Several widely-reported nursing specific terminologies and classifications systems currently exist including the Clinical Care Classification System, International Classification for Nursing Practice(®), Nursing Intervention Classification, Nursing Outcome Classification, Omaha System, Perioperative Nursing Data Set and NANDA International. However, the influence of these systems on demonstrating the value of nursing and the professions' impact on quality, safety and patient outcomes in published research is relatively unknown. This paper seeks to understand the use of standardized nursing terminology and classification systems in published research, using the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®) as a case study. A systematic review of international published empirical studies on, or using, the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®) were completed using Medline and the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Since 2006, 38 studies have been published on the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®). The main objectives of the published studies have been to validate the appropriateness of the classification system for particular care areas or populations, further develop the classification system, or utilize it to support the generation of new nursing knowledge. To date, most studies have focused on the classification system itself, and a lesser number of studies have used the system to generate information about the outcomes of nursing practice. Based on the published literature that features the International Classification for Nursing

  4. Spectral classification with the International Ultraviolet Explorer: An atlas of B-type spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rountree, Janet; Sonneborn, George

    1993-01-01

    New criteria for the spectral classification of B stars in the ultraviolet show that photospheric absorption lines in the 1200-1900A wavelength region can be used to classify the spectra of B-type dwarfs, subgiants, and giants on a 2-D system consistent with the optical MK system. This atlas illustrates a large number of such spectra at the scale used for classification. These spectra provide a dense matrix of standard stars, and also show the effects of rapid stellar rotation and stellar winds on the spectra and their classification. The observational material consists of high-dispersion spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer archives, resampled to a resolution of 0.25 A, uniformly normalized, and plotted at 10 A/cm. The atlas should be useful for the classification of other IUE high-dispersion spectra, especially for stars that have not been observed in the optical.

  5. Classification based hypothesis testing in neuroscience: Below-chance level classification rates and overlooked statistical properties of linear parametric classifiers.

    PubMed

    Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Alizadeh, Sarah; Schönauer, Monika; Leibold, Christian; Gais, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has recently become a popular tool for data analysis. Often, classification accuracy as quantified by correct classification rate (CCR) is used to illustrate the size of the effect under investigation. However, we show that in low sample size (LSS), low effect size (LES) data, which is typical in neuroscience, the distribution of CCRs from cross-validation of linear MVPA is asymmetric and can show classification rates considerably below what would be expected from chance classification. Conversely, the mode of the distribution in these cases is above expected chance levels, leading to a spuriously high number of above chance CCRs. This unexpected distribution has strong implications when using MVPA for hypothesis testing. Our analyses warrant the conclusion that CCRs do not well reflect the size of the effect under investigation. Moreover, the skewness of the null-distribution precludes the use of many standard parametric tests to assess significance of CCRs. We propose that MVPA results should be reported in terms of P values, which are estimated using randomization tests. Also, our results show that cross-validation procedures using a low number of folds, e.g. twofold, are generally more sensitive, even though the average CCRs are often considerably lower than those obtained using a higher number of folds. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1842-1855, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Combined application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the NANDA-International Taxonomy II.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Christine; Grill, Eva; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Brach, Mirjam; Rauch, Alexandra; Eriks-Hoogland, Inge; Stucki, Gerold

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the conceptual and practical relationships between the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the NANDA-International Taxonomy II for nursing diagnoses, and their use in nursing practice. The ICF provides a common classification framework for all healthcare professionals, including nurses. Nursing care plans can be broadly based on NANDA-I taxonomies. No published attempt has been made to systematically compare the NANDA-I Taxonomy II to the ICF. The most recently published descriptions of both classifications and a case example presenting the combined use of both classifications. The work was carried out in 2009. There are conceptual commonalities and differences between the ICF and the NANDA-I Taxonomy II. In the case example, the overlap between the ICF categories and NANDA-I nursing diagnoses reflects the fact that the ICF, focusing on functioning and disability, and the NANDA-I Taxonomy II, with its functioning health patterns, are similar in their approaches. The NANDA-I Taxonomy II permits the fulfilment of requirements that are exclusively nursing issues. The application of the ICF is useful for nurses to communicate nursing issues with other healthcare professionals in a common language. For nurses, knowledge shared with other healthcare professionals may contribute to broader understanding of a patient's situation. The ICF and the NANDA-I Taxonomy II should be used in concert by nurses and can complement each other to enhance the quality of clinical team work and nursing practice.

  7. Utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Educational Psychologists' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah

    2014-01-01

    Despite embracing a bio-psycho-social perspective, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assessment framework has had limited application to date with children who have special educational needs (SEN). This study examines its utility for educational psychologists' work with…

  8. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a framework for describing behaviors by viewing them from three broad and different perspectives: (1) physiologic, physical, and psychological functions; (2) a person's engagement in functional life activities; and (3) their participation in social settings. The…

  9. Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Test Development and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Janet F.; Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the development and use of tests in school settings are enumerated. We predict increased demand for behavioural assessments that consider a person's activities, participation and person-environment interactions, including measures that: (a) address…

  10. Using the International Classification of Functioning to Conceptualize Quality of Life among Rehabilitation Services Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Allison R.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have proposed that quality of life (QOL) is an important and useful way to measure the impact of services, although practical application of QOL in rehabilitation has been limited. In this study, a comprehensive framework (the International Classification of Functioning [ICF]) is used to compare the relationship…

  11. Multiple Sclerosis and Employment: A Research Review Based on the International Classification of Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frain, Michael P.; Bishop, Malachy; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Chan, Fong; Tansey, Timothy N.; Strauser, David; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable, sometimes progressive chronic illness affecting people in the prime of their working lives. This article reviews the effects of MS on employment based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Correlations between employment and…

  12. Utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for Educational Psychologists' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah

    2014-01-01

    Despite embracing a bio-psycho-social perspective, the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assessment framework has had limited application to date with children who have special educational needs (SEN). This study examines its utility for educational psychologists' work with…

  13. Using the International Classification of Functioning to Conceptualize Quality of Life among Rehabilitation Services Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Allison R.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have proposed that quality of life (QOL) is an important and useful way to measure the impact of services, although practical application of QOL in rehabilitation has been limited. In this study, a comprehensive framework (the International Classification of Functioning [ICF]) is used to compare the relationship…

  14. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a framework for describing behaviors by viewing them from three broad and different perspectives: (1) physiologic, physical, and psychological functions; (2) a person's engagement in functional life activities; and (3) their participation in social settings. The…

  15. Evaluating Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Portugal's Special Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a national two-year project, commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education, to investigate the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) under Decree-Law 3/2008. The Decree-Law also introduced the principle that the documentation of students' functioning…

  16. Multiple Sclerosis and Employment: A Research Review Based on the International Classification of Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frain, Michael P.; Bishop, Malachy; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Chan, Fong; Tansey, Timothy N.; Strauser, David; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an unpredictable, sometimes progressive chronic illness affecting people in the prime of their working lives. This article reviews the effects of MS on employment based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Correlations between employment and…

  17. Evaluating Implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Portugal's Special Education Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J.; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a national two-year project, commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education, to investigate the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) under Decree-Law 3/2008. The Decree-Law also introduced the principle that the documentation of students' functioning…

  18. A hospital-wide clinical findings dictionary based on an extension of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

    PubMed Central

    Bréant, C.; Borst, F.; Campi, D.; Griesser, V.; Momjian, S.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a controlled vocabulary set in a hospital-wide clinical information system is of crucial importance for many departmental database systems to communicate and exchange information. In the absence of an internationally recognized clinical controlled vocabulary set, a new extension of the International statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is proposed. It expands the scope of the standard ICD beyond diagnosis and procedures to clinical terminology. In addition, the common Clinical Findings Dictionary (CFD) further records the definition of clinical entities. The construction of the vocabulary set and the CFD is incremental and manual. Tools have been implemented to facilitate the tasks of defining/maintaining/publishing dictionary versions. The design of database applications in the integrated clinical information system is driven by the CFD which is part of the Medical Questionnaire Designer tool. Several integrated clinical database applications in the field of diabetes and neuro-surgery have been developed at the HUG. Images Figure 1 PMID:10566451

  19. A hospital-wide clinical findings dictionary based on an extension of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

    PubMed

    Bréant, C; Borst, F; Campi, D; Griesser, V; Momjian, S

    1999-01-01

    The use of a controlled vocabulary set in a hospital-wide clinical information system is of crucial importance for many departmental database systems to communicate and exchange information. In the absence of an internationally recognized clinical controlled vocabulary set, a new extension of the International statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is proposed. It expands the scope of the standard ICD beyond diagnosis and procedures to clinical terminology. In addition, the common Clinical Findings Dictionary (CFD) further records the definition of clinical entities. The construction of the vocabulary set and the CFD is incremental and manual. Tools have been implemented to facilitate the tasks of defining/maintaining/publishing dictionary versions. The design of database applications in the integrated clinical information system is driven by the CFD which is part of the Medical Questionnaire Designer tool. Several integrated clinical database applications in the field of diabetes and neuro-surgery have been developed at the HUG.

  20. The use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to classify the factors influencing mobility reported by persons with an amputation: An international study.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Seema; Kohler, Friedbert; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Jayaraman, Arun; Li, Jianin; Pieber, Karin; Schiappacasse, Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Amputation of lower limb results in limitations in mobility which are amenable to multiple rehabilitation interventions. The challenges faced by the persons with lower limb amputation vary internationally. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a common language to describe the function of persons with lower limb amputation across various countries. This article reports the concepts in mobility important to persons with lower limb amputation across six countries using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Qualitative study using focus groups and individual interviews. Focus groups and individual interviews of persons with lower limb amputation were organised across six countries to identify the issues faced by patients with an amputation during and after their amputation, subsequent rehabilitation and on an ongoing basis in their daily life. Meaningful concepts were extracted from the responses and linked to suitable second-level and where applicable third-level International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categorical frequencies were analysed to represent the prevalence and spread of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories by location. A total of 133 patients were interviewed. A large percentage (93%) of the identified concepts could be matched to International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health categories for quantitative analysis. The important concepts in mobility were similar across different countries. The comprehensiveness of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a classification system for human function and its universality across the globe is demonstrated by the large proportion of the concepts contained in the interviews from across the study centres that could be matched to International

  1. Evaluating Optical Classification for Fermi Blazar Candidates with a Statistical Method Using Broadband Spectral Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Rui-Jing; Huang, Rui; Liang, En-Wei

    2017-03-01

    We aim to test whether a blazar candidate of uncertain type (BCU) in the third Fermi catalog of active galactic nuclei (3LAC) can be potentially classified as a BL Lac object or a flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) by performing a statistical analysis of its broadband spectral properties. We find that 34% of the radio-selected BCUs (583 BCUs) are BL Lac-like and 20% are FSRQ-like, at a 90% level of confidence. Similarly, 77.3% of the X-ray-selected BCUs (176 BCUs) are evaluated as BL Lac-like and 6.8% may be FSRQ-like sources. And 88.7% of the BL Lac-like BCUs that have synchrotron peak frequencies available are high synchrotron peaked BL Lacs in the X-ray-selected BCUs. The percentages are accordingly 62% and 7.3% in the sample of 124 optically selected BCUs. The high ratio of the number of BL Lac-like sources to the number of FSRQ-like BCUs in the X-ray-selected and optically selected BCU samples is due to selection effects. Examining the consistency between our evaluation and spectroscopic identification case by case with a sample of 78 radio-selected BCUs, it is found that the statistical analysis and its resulting classifications agree with the results of the optical follow-up spectroscopic observations. Our observation campaign for high-| {ρ }{{s}}| BCUs selected with our method, i.e., | {ρ }{{s}}| > 0.8, is ongoing.

  2. Statistically Optimal Approximations of Astronomical Signals: Implications to Classification and Advanced Study of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Chinarova, L. L.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Marsakova, V. I.; Tkachenko, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have elaborated a set of new algorithms and programs for advanced time series analysis of (generally) multi-component multi-channel observations with irregularly spaced times of observations, which is a common case for large photometric surveys. Previous self-review on these methods for periodogram, scalegram, wavelet, autocorrelation analysis as well as on "running" or "sub-interval" local approximations were self-reviewed in (2003ASPC..292..391A). For an approximation of the phase light curves of nearly-periodic pulsating stars, we use a Trigonometric Polynomial (TP) fit of the statistically optimal degree and initial period improvement using differential corrections (1994OAP.....7...49A). For the determination of parameters of "characteristic points" (minima, maxima, crossings of some constant value etc.) we use a set of methods self-reviewed in 2005ASPC..335...37A, Results of the analysis of the catalogs compiled using these programs are presented in 2014AASP....4....3A. For more complicated signals, we use "phenomenological approximations" with "special shapes" based on functions defined on sub-intervals rather on the complete interval. E. g. for the Algol-type stars we developed the NAV ("New Algol Variable") algorithm (2012Ap.....55..536A, 2012arXiv1212.6707A, 2015JASS...32..127A), which was compared to common methods of Trigonometric Polynomial Fit (TP) or local Algebraic Polynomial (A) fit of a fixed or (alternately) statistically optimal degree. The method allows determine the minimal set of parameters required for the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars", as well as an extended set of phenomenological and astrophysical parameters which may be used for the classification. Totally more that 1900 variable stars were studied in our group using these methods in a frame of the "Inter-Longitude Astronomy" campaign (2010OAP....23....8A) and the "Ukrainian Virtual Observatory" project (2012KPCB...28...85V).

  3. [ICNP- International Classification of Nursing Practice: origin, structure and development].

    PubMed

    Marucci, Anna Rita; De Caro, Walter; Petrucci, Cristina; Lancia, Loreto; Sansoni, Julita

    2015-01-01

    ICNP is a standardized nursing terminology included within acknowledged terminologies by WHO, it is a relevant aspect of ICN programs and strategies. This paper aims to describe structure and characteristics of ICNP terminology as well as to highlight how this tool can be useful both in practice and in terms of nursing professional development. This version looks like a pyramid with seven axes describing different areas of nursing and related interventions, enriched by two special axes related to pre-coordinated Diagnosis / Outcomes (DC) and Operations (IC) which facilitate daily use in practice. In order to clarify how this tool can be actually be used in daily nursing practice some examples are provided, clarifying how adopting the current version of ICNP terminology (2015 release) Diagnosis/Outcomes and Interventions can be built. The ICNP Italian Centre is committed to introduce it to Italian nurses as a tool for sharing and disseminating terminology in our Country, having as main final aim to achieve even in Italy, professional visibility objectives promoted in different ways by the International Council of Nurses.

  4. Statistical classification of macroscopic folds as cylindrical, circular conical, or elliptical conical

    SciTech Connect

    Kelker, D.; Langenberg, C.W.

    1988-08-01

    A folded surface can be represented by the orientation of normals to the surface measured at several locations. When plotted on the unit sphere, the pattern of normals determines the type of fold. Poles from a cylindrical fold give a great circle on the unit sphere, whereas poles of a circular conical fold give a small circle, and poles from an elliptical conical fold give the projection of an ellipse onto the surface of the sphere. Several statistical tests that appear in the literature for classifying folds are discussed and compared. All but one of the tests use quantities obtained from an iterative least-squares procedure that fits the appropriate curve on the sphere. The classification procedure is illustrated with folds from the Canadian Rocky Mountains and uses for examples a cylindrical fold and a circular conical fold from the Smoky River coal field near Grande Cache, Alberta, and an elliptical conical fold near Jasper, Alberta. This methodology has resulted in new coal reserves in the Grande Cache area.

  5. Tools based on multivariate statistical analysis for classification of soil and groundwater in Apulian agricultural sites.

    PubMed

    Ielpo, Pierina; Leardi, Riccardo; Pappagallo, Giuseppe; Uricchio, Vito Felice

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the results obtained from multivariate statistical techniques such as PCA (Principal component analysis) and LDA (Linear discriminant analysis) applied to a wide soil data set are presented. The results have been compared with those obtained on a groundwater data set, whose samples were collected together with soil ones, within the project "Improvement of the Regional Agro-meteorological Monitoring Network (2004-2007)". LDA, applied to soil data, has allowed to distinguish the geographical origin of the sample from either one of the two macroaeras: Bari and Foggia provinces vs Brindisi, Lecce e Taranto provinces, with a percentage of correct prediction in cross validation of 87%. In the case of the groundwater data set, the best classification was obtained when the samples were grouped into three macroareas: Foggia province, Bari province and Brindisi, Lecce and Taranto provinces, by reaching a percentage of correct predictions in cross validation of 84%. The obtained information can be very useful in supporting soil and water resource management, such as the reduction of water consumption and the reduction of energy and chemical (nutrients and pesticides) inputs in agriculture.

  6. Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

  7. Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

    2010-10-01

    Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models.

  8. Statistical Comparison of Classifiers Applied to the Interferential Tear Film Lipid Layer Automatic Classification

    PubMed Central

    Remeseiro, B.; Penas, M.; Mosquera, A.; Novo, J.; Penedo, M. G.; Yebra-Pimentel, E.

    2012-01-01

    The tear film lipid layer is heterogeneous among the population. Its classification depends on its thickness and can be done using the interference pattern categories proposed by Guillon. The interference phenomena can be characterised as a colour texture pattern, which can be automatically classified into one of these categories. From a photography of the eye, a region of interest is detected and its low-level features are extracted, generating a feature vector that describes it, to be finally classified in one of the target categories. This paper presents an exhaustive study about the problem at hand using different texture analysis methods in three colour spaces and different machine learning algorithms. All these methods and classifiers have been tested on a dataset composed of 105 images from healthy subjects and the results have been statistically analysed. As a result, the manual process done by experts can be automated with the benefits of being faster and unaffected by subjective factors, with maximum accuracy over 95%. PMID:22567040

  9. Chemical indices and methods of multivariate statistics as a tool for odor classification.

    PubMed

    Mahlke, Ingo T; Thiesen, Peter H; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2007-04-01

    Industrial and agricultural off-gas streams are comprised of numerous volatile compounds, many of which have substantially different odorous properties. State-of-the-art waste-gas treatment includes the characterization of these molecules and is directed at, if possible, either the avoidance of such odorants during processing or the use of existing standardized air purification techniques like bioscrubbing or afterburning, which however, often show low efficiency under ecological and economical regards. Selective odor separation from the off-gas streams could ease many of these disadvantages but is not yet widely applicable. Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify possible model substances in selective odor separation research from 155 volatile molecules mainly originating from livestock facilities, fat refineries, and cocoa and coffee production by knowledge-based methods. All compounds are examined with regard to their structure and information-content using topological and information-theoretical indices. Resulting data are fitted in an observation matrix, and similarities between the substances are computed. Principal component analysis and k-means cluster analysis are conducted showing that clustering of indices data can depict odor information correlating well to molecular composition and molecular shape. Quantitative molecule describtion along with the application of such statistical means therefore provide a good classification tool of malodorant structure properties with no thermodynamic data needed. The approximate look-alike shape of odorous compounds within the clusters suggests a fair choice of possible model molecules.

  10. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Pumarola, Martí Batlle; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification of epilepsy and epileptic seizures. We propose a classification system which reflects new thoughts from the human ILAE but also roots in former well accepted terminology. We think that this classification system can be used by all stakeholders.

  11. A statistical feature selection method for lung cancer classification in CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Absi, Hamada R. H.; Samir, Brahim Belhaouari

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a computer aided diagnosis for lung nodules in CT images. The system consists of feature extraction, feature selection and classification. A two-step feature selection process is introduced to reduce the number of coefficients produced in the feature extraction step. This helps in enhancing the classification performance as it removes unneeded and redundant information. The classification rate of the system reached 98.10 % with minimum false negatives and zero false positives.

  12. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  13. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  14. Methods for Determining the Statistical Significance of Enrichment or Depletion of Gene Ontology Classifications under Weighted Membership.

    PubMed

    Iacucci, Ernesto; Zingg, Hans H; Perkins, Theodore J

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput molecular biology studies, such as microarray assays of gene expression, two-hybrid experiments for detecting protein interactions, or ChIP-Seq experiments for transcription factor binding, often result in an "interesting" set of genes - say, genes that are co-expressed or bound by the same factor. One way of understanding the biological meaning of such a set is to consider what processes or functions, as defined in an ontology, are over-represented (enriched) or under-represented (depleted) among genes in the set. Usually, the significance of enrichment or depletion scores is based on simple statistical models and on the membership of genes in different classifications. We consider the more general problem of computing p-values for arbitrary integer additive statistics, or weighted membership functions. Such membership functions can be used to represent, for example, prior knowledge on the role of certain genes or classifications, differential importance of different classifications or genes to the experimenter, hierarchical relationships between classifications, or different degrees of interestingness or evidence for specific genes. We describe a generic dynamic programming algorithm that can compute exact p-values for arbitrary integer additive statistics. We also describe several optimizations for important special cases, which can provide orders-of-magnitude speed up in the computations. We apply our methods to datasets describing oxidative phosphorylation and parturition and compare p-values based on computations of several different statistics for measuring enrichment. We find major differences between p-values resulting from these statistics, and that some statistics recover "gold standard" annotations of the data better than others. Our work establishes a theoretical and algorithmic basis for far richer notions of enrichment or depletion of gene sets with respect to gene ontologies than has previously been available.

  15. Harmonizing WHO’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): importance and methods to link disease and functioning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To understand the full burden of a health condition, we need the information on the disease and the information on how that disease impacts the functioning of an individual. The ongoing revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) provides an opportunity to integrate functioning information through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Discussion Part of the ICD revision process includes adding information from the ICF by way of “functioning properties” to capture the impact of the disease on functioning. The ICD content model was developed to provide the structure of information required for each ICD-11 disease entity and one component of this content model is functioning properties. The activities and participation domains from ICF are to be included as the value set for functioning properties in the ICD revision process. Summary The joint use of ICD and ICF could create an integrated health information system that would benefit the implementation of a standard language-based electronic health record to better capture and understand disease and functioning in healthcare. PMID:23938048

  16. Comments on "The Internal Correlation: Its Applications in Statistics and Psychometrics."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuenemeyer, John H.

    1989-01-01

    The use of internal correlation for statistical analysis, as proposed by G. W. Joe and J. L. Mendoza (1989), is discussed. The suggestion of using bootstrapping is received well. Applications to collinearity are suggested. (TJH)

  17. High-order statistics of microtexton for HEp-2 staining pattern classification.

    PubMed

    Han, Xian-Hua; Wang, Jian; Xu, Gang; Chen, Yen-Wei

    2014-08-01

    This study addresses the classification problem of the HEp-2 cell using indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) image analysis, which can indicate the presence of autoimmune diseases by finding antibodies in the patient serum. Generally, the method used for IIF analysis remains subjective, and depends too heavily on the experience and expertise of the physician. Recently, studies have shown that it is possible to identify the cell patterns using IIF image analysis and machine learning techniques. However, it still has large gap in recognition rates to the physical experts' one. This paper explores an approach in which the discriminative features of HEp-2 cell images in IIF are extracted and then, the patterns of the HEp-2 cell are identified using machine learning techniques. Motivated by the progress in the research field of computer vision, as a result of which small local pixel pattern distributions can now be highly discriminative, the proposed strategy employs a parametric probability process to model local image patches (textons: microstructures in the cell image) and extract the higher-order statistics of the model parameters for the image description. The proposed strategy can adaptively characterize the microtexton space of HEp-2 cell images as a generative probability model, and discover the parameters that yield a better fitting of the training space, which would lead to a more discriminant representation for the cell image. The simple linear support vector machine is used for cell pattern identification because of its low computational cost, in particular for large-scale datasets. Experiments using the open HEp-2 cell dataset used in the ICIP2013 contest validate that the proposed strategy can achieve a much better performance than the widely used local binary pattern (LBP) histogram and its extensions, rotation invariant co-occurrence LBP, and pairwise rotation invariant co-occurrence LBP, and that the achieved recognition error rate is even very

  18. Statistical tools for the temporal analysis and classification of lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Barros Netto, Stelmo Magalhães; Corrêa Silva, Aristófanes; Lopes, Hélio; Cardoso de Paiva, Anselmo; Acatauassú Nunes, Rodolfo; Gattass, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer remains one of the most common cancers globally. Temporal evaluation is an important tool for analyzing the malignant behavior of lesions during treatment, or of indeterminate lesions that may be benign. This work proposes a methodology for the analysis, quantification, and visualization of small (local) and large (global) changes in lung lesions. In addition, we extract textural features for the classification of lesions as benign or malignant. We employ the statistical concept of uncertainty to associate each voxel of a lesion to a probability that changes occur in the lesion over time. We employ the Jensen divergence and hypothesis test locally to verify voxel-to-voxel changes, and globally to capture changes in lesion volumes. For the local hypothesis test, we determine that the change in density varies by between 3.84 and 40.01% of the lesion volume in a public database of malignant lesions under treatment, and by between 5.76 and 35.43% in a private database of benign lung nodules. From the texture analysis of regions in which the density changes occur, we are able to discriminate lung lesions with an accuracy of 98.41%, which shows that these changes can indicate the true nature of the lesion. In addition to the visual aspects of the density changes occurring in the lesions over time, we quantify these changes and analyze the entire set using volumetry. In the case of malignant lesions, large b-divergence values are associated with major changes in lesion volume. In addition, this occurs when the change in volume is small but is associated with significant changes in density, as indicated by the histogram divergence. For benign lesions, the methodology shows that even in cases where the change in volume is small, a change of density occurs. This proves that even in lesions that appear stable, a change in density occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 56549 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  20. 76 FR 9018 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. 78 FR 53148 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM..., Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  2. 75 FR 39265 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... for Disease Control and Prevention, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards, 3311 Toledo Road... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  3. 78 FR 9055 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... Information: Donna Pickett, Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  4. Correlation between the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification and genomic signature in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Atsuko; Haga, Chizuko; Ohira, Miki; Okita, Hajime; Kamijo, Takehiko; Nakagawara, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) has a prognostic impact that distinguishes two categories of neuroblastoma: favorable histology (FH) and unfavorable histology (UH). We analyzed 92 cases of neuroblastoma with the INPC evaluation and genomic grouping to investigate the correlation between the INPC and genomic signature, together with their prognostic significance. The correlation of UH tumor and partial gains and/or losses (GGP), as well as the correlation of FH tumor and whole gains and/or losses (GGW), was statistically significant. Both UH and GGP were late-onset (median age at diagnosis was 36 and 48 months, respectively) and had poor prognosis (overall survival rate [OS], 43.1% and 42.4%, respectively). In contrast, both FH and GGW were early-onset (median age at diagnosis, 4 and 9.5 months, respectively) and had favorable prognosis (OS, 88.6% and 87.1%, respectively). Unfavorable histology and GGP had significantly inferior OS compared to FH and GGW. Overall survival was not significantly different among the genomic groups in FH; however, it was inferior in UH with GGP. In UH with a single copy MYCN, genomic subgroups GGP2s (both 1p and 11q losses) and GGP3s (partial 11q loss but not 1p loss) indicated significantly poor prognosis compared to GGP4s (no partial 1p and 11q loss). As INPC and MYCN amplification were found to be the most powerful prognostic biological factors, they should be included with genomic grouping as treatment stratification for patients with UH and single copy of MYCN.

  5. International standards related to the classification and deregulation of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Linsley, Gordon

    2006-11-01

    Although solid radioactive waste management is mainly a national concern, there are some aspects that have international implications. One important example is the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, which results in the release of materials that could be reused and recycled. It is possible that these materials could enter international trade, especially if the material is a metal. It is clearly desirable, therefore, to have appropriate international standards to help regulate trade. This paper describes recent international developments relating to the establishment of radiological criteria for the release of materials from regulatory control (clearance). There have already been some experiences of clearance and the transfer of recycled materials within Europe, and this paper reviews that experience. It also discusses recent developments in relation to the international classification of radioactive waste.

  6. Statistical and Scientometric Analysis of International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Fivos; Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Certain statistic and scientometric features of articles published in the journal "International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education" (IRGEE) are examined in this paper for the period 1992-2009 by applying nonparametric statistics and Shannon's entropy (diversity) formula. The main findings of this analysis are: (a) after 2004,…

  7. [International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia 2012].

    PubMed

    Hes, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Kidney tumours form a broad spectrum of distinguished histopathological and molecular genetic entities. The last WHO classification is dated to 2004. Current classification has been published in October 2013 by ISUP (International Society of Urological Pathology). There were 5 new epithelials tumours: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo-)papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. Another 3 subtypes of RCC were added as "provisional" entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Modifications were performed in already existing entities: multicystic clear cell RCC (formerly multilocular cystic RCC) is newly included as a subcategory of clear cell RCC with low malignant potential. Oncocytic papillary RCC (PRCC) has not been recognized as a distinctive subcategory of PRCC yet. Hybrid oncocytic-chromophobe tumour was placed within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC were elucidated. Outside of the epithelial category, current approach to our understanding of angiomyolipoma, including the epithelioid variant and angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts was clarified. Cystic nephroma and mixed epithelial and stromal tumour were considered as a spectrum of one entity. Synovial sarcoma was placed within the sarcoma group. The new classification is to be referred to as the International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia.

  8. International Society Of Neuropathology--Haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Perry, Arie; Burger, Peter; Ellison, David W; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Aldape, Kenneth; Brat, Daniel; Collins, V Peter; Eberhart, Charles; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Fuller, Gregory N; Giangaspero, Felice; Giannini, Caterina; Hawkins, Cynthia; Kleihues, Paul; Korshunov, Andrey; Kros, Johan M; Beatriz Lopes, M; Ng, Ho-Keung; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Paulus, Werner; Pietsch, Torsten; Rosenblum, Marc; Rushing, Elisabeth; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Wiestler, Otmar; Wesseling, Pieter

    2014-09-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neuropathologists with expertise in molecular diagnosis was held in Haarlem, the Netherlands, under the sponsorship of the International Society of Neuropathology (ISN). Prior to the meeting, participants solicited input from clinical colleagues in diverse neuro-oncological specialties. The present "white paper" catalogs the recommendations of the meeting, at which a consensus was reached that incorporation of molecular information into the next WHO classification should follow a set of provided "ISN-Haarlem" guidelines. Salient recommendations include that (i) diagnostic entities should be defined as narrowly as possible to optimize interobserver reproducibility, clinicopathological predictions and therapeutic planning; (ii) diagnoses should be "layered" with histologic classification, WHO grade and molecular information listed below an "integrated diagnosis"; (iii) determinations should be made for each tumor entity as to whether molecular information is required, suggested or not needed for its definition; (iv) some pediatric entities should be separated from their adult counterparts; (v) input for guiding decisions regarding tumor classification should be solicited from experts in complementary disciplines of neuro-oncology; and (iv) entity-specific molecular testing and reporting formats should be followed in diagnostic reports. It is hoped that these guidelines will facilitate the forthcoming update of the fourth edition of the WHO classification of central nervous system tumors.

  9. International Content as Hidden Curriculum in Business Statistics: An Overlooked Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Trussler, Susan

    2006-01-01

    We revisit the issue of internationalizing the required course in business statistics as a means for introducing international subject matter earlier in the undergraduate business curriculum. A survey of sophomore business students indicates that their level of international knowledge is poor. The results are strikingly similar to a decade ago.…

  10. Classification of compression stockings: report of the meeting of the International Compression Club, Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Hendrik A; Partsch, Hugo; Mosti, Giovanni; Flour, Milke

    2016-04-01

    The classification of medical elastic compression stockings (MECS) according to pressure classes varies from country to country and neither provides any information on the elastic property nor on the ambulatory interface pressure profiles of the different products. Beside elasticity, MECS are also characterized by other properties such as stiffness and hysteresis. Recent research showed that MECS behaved differently in static and ambulatory conditions. Since compression therapy is most effective during ambulation, MECS should be labelled in such a way that the user can interpret its effect during walking. The importance of a more rational classification of MECS was discussed at a conference organized by the International Compression Club (ICC) attended by medical experts and representatives from MECS manufacturers. Proposals were made for labelling the MECS according to the pressure and the stiffness in an internationally acceptable format printed on the box informing both the prescribers and the patients on its properties.

  11. Reliability of the radiographic variables in the International Spinal Cord Injury Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set compared with the AO classification.

    PubMed

    Lucantoni, C; Krishnan, R G; Gehrchen, M; Hallager, D W; Biering-Sørensen, F; Dahl, B

    2016-10-01

    Intra- and interrater reliability study for radiological variables of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set. To test reliability of the radiological variables in the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set and compare it with the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification. The database of Eastern Denmark Regional SCI Referral Center, Copenhagen, Denmark. Ratings of the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set radiological variables and AO classification were obtained by two international observers for all the surgically treated spine trauma patients between 1st October 2010 and 31st December 2012 at the Spine Unit, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Statistical analyses for intra- and interrater crude agreement and Cohen's unweighted kappa (κ) coefficients were performed. For 283 spine injuries, the intra- and interrater reliability for the individual radiological variables of the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set was at least substantial (κ=0.67-0.97 for interrater, κ=0.79-0.89 for the intrarater agreement). For the AO classification, intrarater reliability was moderate-to-substantial (κ=0.57-0.75), whereas interrater reliability was substantial (κ=0.67-0.69). The crude intra- and interrater agreement for a combined radiographic SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set variable showed no significant difference compared with the AO classification (P=0.067-0.895). The reliability of International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set radiological variables is comparable to the AO classification system. We encourage its use for spinal column injury description, thus facilitating data collection and comparison between centres and countries.

  12. Development and testing of a statistical texture model for land cover classification of the Black Sea region with MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaneva, M. G.; Krezhova, D. D.; Yanev, T. K.

    2010-10-01

    A statistical model is proposed for analysis of the texture of land cover types for global and regional land cover classification by using texture features extracted by multiresolution image analysis techniques. It consists of four novel indices representing second-order texture, which are calculated after wavelet decomposition of an image and after texture extraction by a new approach that makes use of a four-pixel texture unit. The model was applied to four satellite images of the Black Sea region, obtained by Terra/MODIS and Aqua/MODIS at different spatial resolution. In single texture classification experiments, we used 15 subimages (50 × 50 pixels) of the selected classes of land covers that are present in the satellite images studied. These subimages were subjected to one-level and two-level decompositions by using orthonormal spline and Gabor-like spline wavelets. The texture indices were calculated and used as feature vectors in the supervised classification system with neural networks. The testing of the model was based on the use of two kinds of widely accepted statistical texture quantities: five texture features determined by the co-occurrence matrix (angular second moment, contrast, correlation, inverse difference moment, entropy), and four statistical texture features determined after the wavelet transformation (mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy). The supervised neural network classification was performed and the discrimination ability of the proposed texture indices was found comparable with that for the sets of five GLCM texture features and four wavelet-based texture features. The results obtained from the neural network classifier showed that the proposed texture model yielded an accuracy of 92.86% on average after orthonormal wavelet decomposition and 100% after Gabor-like wavelet decomposition for texture classification of the examined land cover types on satellite images.

  13. International consensus statement on an update of the classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    PubMed

    Miyakis, S; Lockshin, M D; Atsumi, T; Branch, D W; Brey, R L; Cervera, R; Derksen, R H W M; DE Groot, P G; Koike, T; Meroni, P L; Reber, G; Shoenfeld, Y; Tincani, A; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G; Krilis, S A

    2006-02-01

    New clinical, laboratory and experimental insights, since the 1999 publication of the Sapporo preliminary classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), had been addressed at a workshop in Sydney, Australia, before the Eleventh International Congress on antiphospholipid antibodies. In this document, we appraise the existing evidence on clinical and laboratory features of APS addressed during the forum. Based on this, we propose amendments to the Sapporo criteria. We also provide definitions on features of APS that were not included in the updated criteria.

  14. A novel approach to internal crown characterization for coniferous tree species classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harikumar, A.; Bovolo, F.; Bruzzone, L.

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge about individual trees in forest is highly beneficial in forest management. High density small foot- print multi-return airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data can provide a very accurate information about the structural properties of individual trees in forests. Every tree species has a unique set of crown structural characteristics that can be used for tree species classification. In this paper, we use both the internal and external crown structural information of a conifer tree crown, derived from a high density small foot-print multi-return LiDAR data acquisition for species classification. Considering the fact that branches are the major building blocks of a conifer tree crown, we obtain the internal crown structural information using a branch level analysis. The structure of each conifer branch is represented using clusters in the LiDAR point cloud. We propose the joint use of the k-means clustering and geometric shape fitting, on the LiDAR data projected onto a novel 3-dimensional space, to identify branch clusters. After mapping the identified clusters back to the original space, six internal geometric features are estimated using a branch-level analysis. The external crown characteristics are modeled by using six least correlated features based on cone fitting and convex hull. Species classification is performed using a sparse Support Vector Machines (sparse SVM) classifier.

  15. International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, coding for prematurity: need for standardized nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Chabra, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification was introduced in the United States in 1979 as a coding system to document inpatient diagnostic and procedural codes. However, transition to International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) has been federally mandated by October 2015 due to advances in medical technology and procedures in medicine. This includes ICD-10, Clinical Modification and ICD-10, Procedure Coding System. The ICD-10 coding set is more detailed and specific and will add 54 000 diagnosis codes and 83 000 procedure codes to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code set, thereby accounting for increased granularity of codes needed for evidence-based medicine. This article describes the importance of need for specificity of the codes and emphasizes the role of training in preparing for implementation of the ICD-10 coding system. An example is made for the need for accuracy in ICD-10 codes for prematurity as regards defining the premature population using standardized nomenclature.

  16. Comparison and validation of tissue modelization and statistical classification methods in T1-weighted MR brain images.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Cammoun, Leila; Butz, Torsten; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a validation study on statistical nonsupervised brain tissue classification techniques in magnetic resonance (MR) images. Several image models assuming different hypotheses regarding the intensity distribution model, the spatial model and the number of classes are assessed. The methods are tested on simulated data for which the classification ground truth is known. Different noise and intensity nonuniformities are added to simulate real imaging conditions. No enhancement of the image quality is considered either before or during the classification process. This way, the accuracy of the methods and their robustness against image artifacts are tested. Classification is also performed on real data where a quantitative validation compares the methods' results with an estimated ground truth from manual segmentations by experts. Validity of the various classification methods in the labeling of the image as well as in the tissue volume is estimated with different local and global measures. Results demonstrate that methods relying on both intensity and spatial information are more robust to noise and field inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that partial volume is not perfectly modeled, even though methods that account for mixture classes outperform methods that only consider pure Gaussian classes. Finally, we show that simulated data results can also be extended to real data.

  17. The brain uses adaptive internal models of scene statistics for sensorimotor estimation and planning.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh-Sang; Knill, David C

    2013-03-12

    Because of uncertainty and noise, the brain should use accurate internal models of the statistics of objects in scenes to interpret sensory signals. Moreover, the brain should adapt its internal models to the statistics within local stimulus contexts. Consider the problem of hitting a baseball. The impoverished nature of the visual information available makes it imperative that batters use knowledge of the temporal statistics and history of previous pitches to accurately estimate pitch speed. Using a laboratory analog of hitting a baseball, we tested the hypothesis that the brain uses adaptive internal models of the statistics of object speeds to plan hand movements to intercept moving objects. We fit Bayesian observer models to subjects' performance to estimate the statistical environments in which subjects' performance would be ideal and compared the estimated statistics with the true statistics of stimuli in an experiment. A first experiment showed that subjects accurately estimated and used the variance of object speeds in a stimulus set to time hitting behavior but also showed serial biases that are suboptimal for stimuli that were uncorrelated over time. A second experiment showed that the strength of the serial biases depended on the temporal correlations within a stimulus set, even when the biases were estimated from uncorrelated stimulus pairs subsampled from the larger set. Taken together, the results show that subjects adapted their internal models of the variance and covariance of object speeds within a stimulus set to plan interceptive movements but retained a bias to positive correlations.

  18. The brain uses adaptive internal models of scene statistics for sensorimotor estimation and planning

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Sang; Knill, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Because of uncertainty and noise, the brain should use accurate internal models of the statistics of objects in scenes to interpret sensory signals. Moreover, the brain should adapt its internal models to the statistics within local stimulus contexts. Consider the problem of hitting a baseball. The impoverished nature of the visual information available makes it imperative that batters use knowledge of the temporal statistics and history of previous pitches to accurately estimate pitch speed. Using a laboratory analog of hitting a baseball, we tested the hypothesis that the brain uses adaptive internal models of the statistics of object speeds to plan hand movements to intercept moving objects. We fit Bayesian observer models to subjects’ performance to estimate the statistical environments in which subjects’ performance would be ideal and compared the estimated statistics with the true statistics of stimuli in an experiment. A first experiment showed that subjects accurately estimated and used the variance of object speeds in a stimulus set to time hitting behavior but also showed serial biases that are suboptimal for stimuli that were uncorrelated over time. A second experiment showed that the strength of the serial biases depended on the temporal correlations within a stimulus set, even when the biases were estimated from uncorrelated stimulus pairs subsampled from the larger set. Taken together, the results show that subjects adapted their internal models of the variance and covariance of object speeds within a stimulus set to plan interceptive movements but retained a bias to positive correlations. PMID:23440185

  19. Vascular Anomalies Classification: Recommendations From the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Wassef, Michel; Blei, Francine; Adams, Denise; Alomari, Ahmad; Baselga, Eulalia; Berenstein, Alejandro; Burrows, Patricia; Frieden, Ilona J; Garzon, Maria C; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan-Carlos; Lord, David J E; Mitchel, Sally; Powell, Julie; Prendiville, Julie; Vikkula, Miikka

    2015-07-01

    Vascular anomalies represent a spectrum of disorders from a simple "birthmark" to life- threatening entities. Incorrect nomenclature and misdiagnoses are commonly experienced by patients with these anomalies. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for appropriate evaluation and management, often requiring multidisciplinary specialists. Classification schemes provide a consistent terminology and serve as a guide for pathologists, clinicians, and researchers. One of the goals of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) is to achieve a uniform classification. The last classification (1997) stratified vascular lesions into vascular malformations and proliferative vascular lesions (tumors). However, additional disease entities have since been identified that are complex and less easily classified by generic headings, such as capillary malformation, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, etc. We hereby present the updated official ISSVA classification of vascular anomalies. The general biological scheme of the classification is retained. The section on tumors has been expanded and lists the main recognized vascular tumors, classified as benign, locally aggressive or borderline, and malignant. A list of well-defined diseases is included under each generic heading in the "Simple Vascular Malformations" section. A short definition is added for eponyms. Two new sections were created: one dealing with the malformations of individually named vessels (previously referred to as "truncular" malformations); the second groups lesions of uncertain or debated nature (tumor versus malformation). The known genetic defects underlying vascular anomalies are included in an appendix. This classification is meant to be a framework, acknowledging that it will require modification as new scientific information becomes available. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Categorization of allergic disorders in the new World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Calderon, Moises A; Goldberg, Bruce J; Akdis, Cezmi A; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Demoly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Although efforts to improve the classification of hypersensitivity/allergic diseases have been made, they have not been considered a top-level category in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 and still are not in the ICD-11 beta phase linearization. ICD-10 is the most used classification system by the allergy community worldwide but it is not considered as appropriate for clinical practice. The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) on the other hand contains a tightly integrated classification of hypersensitivity/allergic disorders based on the EAACI/WAO nomenclature and the World Health Organization (WHO) may plan to align ICD-11 with SNOMED CT so that they share a common ontological basis. With the aim of actively supporting the ongoing ICD-11 revision and the optimal practice of Allergology, we performed a careful comparison of ICD-10 and 11 beta phase linearization codes to identify gaps, areas of regression in allergy coding and possibly reach solutions, in collaboration with committees in charge of the ICD-11 revision. We have found a significant degree of misclassification of terms in the allergy-related hierarchies. This stems not only from unclear definitions of these conditions but also the use of common names that falsely imply allergy. The lack of understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying some of the conditions contributes to the difficulty in classification. More than providing data to support specific changes into the ongoing linearization, these results highlight the need for either a new chapter entitled Hypersensitivity/Allergic Disorders as in SNOMED CT or a high level structure in the Immunology chapter in order to make classification more appropriate and usable.

  1. Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzkowski, Waldemar

    The following sections are included: * NATIONAL PHYSICS OLYMPIADS * DISTRIBUTION OF PRIZES IN TWENTY INTERNATIONAL PHYSICS OLYMPIADS * NUMBERS OF PRIZES IN SUBSEQUENT INTERNATIONAL PHYSICS OLYMPIADS * PROBLEMS AND THEIR MARKING

  2. Advanced Nursing Process quality: Comparing the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) with the NANDA-International (NANDA-I) and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC).

    PubMed

    Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane; Dantas Cavalcanti, Ana Carla; Ramos Goulart Caldas, Maria Cristina; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu; Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; da Silva, Marcos Barragan; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2017-02-01

    To assess the quality of the advanced nursing process in nursing documentation in two hospitals. Various standardised terminologies are employed by nurses worldwide, whether for teaching, research or patient care. These systems can improve the quality of nursing records, enable care continuity, consistency in written communication and enhance safety for patients and providers alike. Cross-sectional study. A total of 138 records from two facilities (69 records from each facility) were analysed, one using the NANDA-International and Nursing Interventions Classification terminology (Centre 1) and one the International Classification for Nursing Practice (Centre 2), by means of the Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes instrument. Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes scores range from 0-58 points. Nursing records were dated 2012-2013 for Centre 1 and 2010-2011 for Centre 2. Centre 1 had a Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes score of 35·46 (±6·45), whereas Centre 2 had a Quality of Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes score of 31·72 (±4·62) (p < 0·001). Centre 2 had higher scores in the 'Nursing Diagnoses as Process' dimension, whereas in the 'Nursing Diagnoses as Product', 'Nursing Interventions' and 'Nursing Outcomes' dimensions, Centre 1 exhibited superior performance; acceptable reliability values were obtained for both centres, except for the 'Nursing Interventions' domain in Centre 1 and the 'Nursing Diagnoses as Process' and 'Nursing Diagnoses as Product' domains in Centre 2. The quality of nursing documentation was superior at Centre 1, although both facilities demonstrated moderate scores considering the maximum potential score of 58 points. Reliability analyses showed satisfactory results for both standardised terminologies. Nursing leaders should use a validated instrument to investigate the quality of nursing records after implementation of standardised terminologies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. High speed classification of individual bacterial cells using a model-based light scatter system and multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Rajwa, Bartek; Ragheb, Kathy; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Lary, Todd; Robinson, J. Paul; Hirleman, E. Daniel

    2008-02-01

    We describe a model-based instrument design combined with a statistical classification approach for the development and realization of high speed cell classification systems based on light scatter. In our work, angular light scatter from cells of four bacterial species of interest, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Enterococcus faecalis, was modeled using the discrete dipole approximation. We then optimized a scattering detector array design subject to some hardware constraints, configured the instrument, and gathered experimental data from the relevant bacterial cells. Using these models and experiments, it is shown that optimization using a nominal bacteria model (i.e., using a representative size and refractive index) is insufficient for classification of most bacteria in realistic applications. Hence the computational predictions were constituted in the form of scattering-data-vector distributions that accounted for expected variability in the physical properties between individual bacteria within the four species. After the detectors were optimized using the numerical results, they were used to measure scatter from both the known control samples and unknown bacterial cells. A multivariate statistical method based on a support vector machine (SVM) was used to classify the bacteria species based on light scatter signatures. In our final instrument, we realized correct classification of B. subtilis in the presence of E. coli,L. innocua, and E. faecalis using SVM at 99.1%, 99.6%, and 98.5%, respectively, in the optimal detector array configuration. For comparison, the corresponding values for another set of angles were only 69.9%, 71.7%, and 70.2% using SVM, and more importantly, this improved performance is consistent with classification predictions.

  4. Coping with Changes in International Classifications of Sectors and Occupations: Application in Skills Forecasting. Research Paper No 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvetan, Vladimir, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and consistent time series are essential to any kind of economic forecasting. Skills forecasting needs to combine data from national accounts and labour force surveys, with the pan-European dimension of Cedefop's skills supply and demand forecasts, relying on different international classification standards. Sectoral classification (NACE)…

  5. UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS: CLASSIFICATION OF ATLANTA 2012.

    PubMed

    Souza, Gleim Dias de; Souza, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz; Cuenca, Ronaldo Máfia; Jerônimo, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros; Souza, Guilherme Medeiros de; Vilela, Vinícius Martins

    2016-01-01

    Contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are widely used due to its image quality and ability to study pancreatic and peripancreatic morphology. The understanding of the various subtypes of the disease and identification of possible complications requires a familiarity with the terminology, which allows effective communication between the different members of the multidisciplinary team. Demonstrate the terminology and parameters to identify the different classifications and findings of the disease based on the international consensus for acute pancreatitis ( Atlanta Classification 2012). Search and analysis of articles in the "CAPES Portal de Periódicos with headings "acute pancreatitis" and "Atlanta Review". Were selected 23 articles containing radiological descriptions, management or statistical data related to pathology. Additional statistical data were obtained from Datasus and Population Census 2010. The radiological diagnostic criterion adopted was the Radiology American College system. The "acute pancreatitis - 2012 Rating: Review Atlanta classification and definitions for international consensus" tries to eliminate inconsistency and divergence from the determination of uniformity to the radiological findings, especially the terminology related to fluid collections. More broadly as "pancreatic abscess" and "phlegmon" went into disuse and the evolution of the collection of patient fluids can be described as "acute peripancreatic collections", "acute necrotic collections", "pseudocyst" and "necrosis pancreatic walled or isolated". Computed tomography and magnetic resonance represent the best techniques with sequential images available for diagnosis. Standardization of the terminology is critical and should improve the management of patients with multiple professionals care, risk stratification and adequate treatment. A tomografia computadorizada contrastada e a ressonância magnética são exames amplamente utilizados no estudo da

  6. Cultures in psychiatric nosology: the CCMD-2-R and international classification of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, S

    1996-12-01

    This essay reviews the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, Second Edition, Revised (CCMD-2-R, 1995), by assuming the theoretical stance that symptom recognition, disease construction, and taxonomic strategy in psychiatry reflect, and are constrained by, the cultural norms and values as well as the political and economic organizations of the society in which they are embedded. The CCMD-2-R is an ethnomedical classification grounded in both symptomatology and etiology, in which Chinese psychiatrists seek to conform with international classifications on the one hand, and to sustain a nosology with Chinese cultural characteristics on the other. Although broad similarities between the ICD-10 and CCMD-2-R are evident, their blending is legitimately incomplete. Thus, the particular additions (e.g., travelling psychosis, qigong induced mental disorders), deletions (e.g., somatoform disorders, pathological gambling, a number of personality and sexual disorders), retentions (e.g., unipolar mania, neurosis, hysteria, homosexuality), and variations (e.g., depressive neurosis, neurasthenia) reveal not only the changing notions of illness but also the shifting social realities in contemporary China. The CCMD-2-R will be widely used by Chinese psychiatrists and should standardize diagnostic practice and facilitate research, but its impact on everyday clinical work and psychiatric training remains to be evaluated. For Western researchers, it is one avenue for achieving an understanding of the Chinese social world, and should usefully be contrasted with the ICD-10 and DSM-IV as the move towards an international nosology continues.

  7. The effect of DFD classification and internal cooking temperature on certain pork muscle characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P K; Yakes, L Y; Noland, P R; Brown, C J

    1987-01-01

    The data incorporated in this experiment were gathered from 14 littermate pairs of swine of the same sex differing in weight by <4·5 kg with one animal in each pair subjected to standardized stress. Samples of the Longissimus dorsi (LD) and the Psoas major (PM) muscles were cooked to internal temperatures of 64, 70 and 76°C. The samples of the Quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle were cooked to internal temperatures of 70 and 76°C. DFD classification of the raw muscle was determined by the 48 h pH. Stress produced DFD meat in the PM and QF muscles but not in the LD muscle. DFD muscle required shorter time to reach any of the cooked internal temperatures studied when compared to normal muscle. Slightly-DFD PM muscle more closely resembled the normal muscle in all variables except the panel tenderness score. Cooking DFD PM muscle to an internal temperature 6°C higher than normal muscle caused a reverse in the direction of cooking loss, fiber diameter, tenderness and expressible water when compared to normal and DFD muscle cooked to the same internal temperature. Cooking DFD PM muscle to an internal temperature 12°C higher than normal muscle produced changes associated with increasing the internal temperature of normal muscle. Similar trends, as described for the PM muscle, were observed in the QF muscle. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Using support vector machines with tract-based spatial statistics for automated classification of Tourette syndrome children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hongwei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Jishui; Peng, Yun; He, Huiguang

    2016-03-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder with the cardinal symptoms of motor and vocal tics which emerges in early childhood and fluctuates in severity in later years. To date, the neural basis of TS is not fully understood yet and TS has a long-term prognosis that is difficult to accurately estimate. Few studies have looked at the potential of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with machine learning algorithms in order to automate the classification of healthy children and TS children. Here we apply Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) method to 44 TS children and 48 age and gender matched healthy children in order to extract the diffusion values from each voxel in the white matter (WM) skeleton, and a feature selection algorithm (ReliefF) was used to select the most salient voxels for subsequent classification with support vector machine (SVM). We use a nested cross validation to yield an unbiased assessment of the classification method and prevent overestimation. The accuracy (88.04%), sensitivity (88.64%) and specificity (87.50%) were achieved in our method as peak performance of the SVM classifier was achieved using the axial diffusion (AD) metric, demonstrating the potential of a joint TBSS and SVM pipeline for fast, objective classification of healthy and TS children. These results support that our methods may be useful for the early identification of subjects with TS, and hold promise for predicting prognosis and treatment outcome for individuals with TS.

  9. An improved k-NN method based on multiple-point statistics for classification of high-spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Jing, L.; Li, H.; Liu, Q.; Ding, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the potential of multiple-point statistics (MPS) for object-based classification is explored using a modified k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) classification method (MPk-NN). The method first utilises a training image derived from a classified map to characterise the spatial correlation between multiple points of land cover classes, overcoming the limitations of two-point geostatistical methods, and then the spatial information in the form of multiple-point probability is incorporated into the k-NN classifier. The remotely sensed image of an IKONOS subscene of the Beijing urban area was selected to evaluate the method. The image was object-based classified using the MPk-NN method and several alternatives, including the traditional k-NN, the geostatistically weighted k-NN, the Bayesian method, the decision tree classifier (DTC), and the support vector machine classifier (SVM). It was demonstrated that the MPk-NN approach can achieve greater classification accuracy relative to the alternatives, which are 82.05% and 89.12% based on pixel and object testing data, respectively. Thus, the proposed method is appropriate for object-based classification.

  10. International Headache Society classification: interobserver reliability in the diagnosis of primary headaches.

    PubMed

    Granella, F; D'Alessandro, R; Manzoni, G C; Cerbo, R; Colucci D'Amato, C; Pini, L A; Savi, L; Zanferrari, C; Nappi, G

    1994-02-01

    We assessed interobserver reliability of the International Headache Society (IHS) classification for diagnosis of primary headaches. The study was performed on 103 patients consecutively seen at two Headache Centres. Each patient was given a structured interview recorded on videotape. Four experienced clinicians then reviewed the interviews separately and made a diagnosis of headache according to IHS criteria at the one- and two-digit levels. At both the one- and the two-digit level the agreement was substantial (Kappa = 0.74 and 0.65, respectively). The analysis of reliability for each of nine items necessary for diagnosis showed an agreement ranging from substantial (Kappa = 0.69) to almost perfect (Kappa = 0.89). Our results indicate that the IHS classification has a good reliability for the diagnosis of primary headaches at the one- and two-digit levels.

  11. Creating Statistically Literate Global Citizens: The Use of IPUMS-International Integrated Census Microdata in Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Ann; Lam, David

    2012-01-01

    Census microdata are ideal for developing statistical literacy of university students. Access, particularly to internationally comparable microdata, has been a significant obstacle. The IPUMS-International project offers a uniform solution to providing access for policy analysts, researchers, and students to integrated microdata and metadata, while protecting statistical confidentiality. Eighty-five official statistical agencies have endorsed IPUMS-I dissemination principles and entrusted microdata for 249 censuses to the project. From June 2010, 159 integrated samples, representing 55 countries and totaling over 325 million person records, are available at no cost to researchers and their students. The database is being expanded with the addition of samples for 5–10 countries per year as well as samples for the 2010 round of censuses. This paper illustrates two approaches to using IPUMS-I census microdata in the university curriculum to promote statistical literacy among undergraduates. PMID:25279022

  12. Classification of red wines using suitable markers coupled with multivariate statistic analysis.

    PubMed

    Geana, Elisabeta Irina; Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Dinca, Oana Romina; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Stefanescu, Ioan; Artem, Victoria; Bala, Camelia

    2016-02-01

    Methodologies for chemometric classification of five authentic red wine varieties from Murfatlar wine center, Romania, young and aged are reported. The discriminant analysis based on several anthocyanins, organic acids, (13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O and D/H isotopic ratios, (1)H and (13)C NMR fingerprints revealed a very satisfactory categorization of the wines, both in terms of variety and vintage, thus illustrating the validity of selected variables for wine authentication purposes. LDA applied to the combined data shows 85.7% classification of wines according to grape variety and 71.1% classification of wines according to vintage year, including a control wine set for each categorization, thus allowing an accurate interpretation of the data. Thereby, anthocyanins, certain anthocyanin ratios, oxalic, shikimic, lactic, citric and succinic acids, sugars like glucose, amino acids like histidine, leucine, isoleucine and alanine, and also 2,3-butanediol, methanol, glycerol and isotopic variables were significant for classification of wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    PubMed

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification.

  14. Second International Conference on a classification of ectodermal dysplasias: development of a multiaxis model.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos F; Irvine, Alan D; Itin, Peter H; Di Giovanna, John J; Schneider, Holm; Clarke, Angus J; McGovern, Laura Sternesky; Fete, Mary

    2014-10-01

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) comprise a large clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by abnormalities in tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. Controversy exists over which syndromes should be classified as EDs and which should be excluded from the classification. The challenge will be to balance comprehensiveness within the classification with usability and accessibility so that the benefits truly serve the needs of researchers, health-care providers, and ultimately the individuals and families directly affected by EDs. The overarching goal of the Second International Conference was to develop a consensus on EDs classifications, with the ultimate goal of creating a system that integrates clinical and molecular knowledge, using an interactive Internet-based database that clinicians, researchers, and laymen can use. The Conference, brought together a group of experts from around the world, including a diverse health-care providers, researchers, patient advocate representatives, and administrators. The Conference was modeled after the 2008 conference, with plenary sessions, scientific updates, and small group discussions. Based on the present clinical knowledge, new molecular advances and both coupled with new bioinformatics developments, the participants agree to develop a multi-axis system approach for the classification of EDs. The multi-axis approach will include a clinical/phenotype axis, a gene-based axis, and a functional/pathways axis. The significance of the conference outcomes includes, a new classification approach that will foster a better understanding of EDs, open new fields of research and develop a nosologic approach that may have broad implications for classifying other hereditary conditions.

  15. IASLC/ATS/ERS International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma: novel concepts and radiologic implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Chang Hun; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Chung, Doo Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min; Austin, John H M

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society proposed a new classification for lung adenocarcinoma that included a number of changes to previous classifications. This classification now considers resection specimens, small biopsies, and cytology specimens. Two former histopathologic terms, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma, are no longer to be used. For resection specimens, the new terms of adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma are introduced for small adenocarcinomas showing pure lepidic growth and predominantly lepidic growth, with invasion ≤5 mm, respectively. Invasive adenocarcinomas are now classified by their predominant pattern as lepidic, acinar, papillary, and solid; a micropapillary pattern is newly added. This classification also provides guidance for small biopsies and cytology specimens. For adenocarcinomas that include both an invasive and a lepidic component, it is suggested that for T staging the size of the T-factor may be best measured on the basis of the size of the invasive component rather than on the total size of tumors including lepidic components, both on pathologic and computed tomography assessment. This suggestion awaits confirmation in clinical-radiologic trials. An implication for M staging is that comprehensive histologic subtyping along with other histologic and molecular features can be very helpful in determining whether multiple pulmonary nodules are separate primaries or intrapulmonary metastases. In this review article, we provide an illustrated overview of the proposed new classification for lung adenocarcinoma with an emphasis upon what the radiologist needs to know in order to successfully contribute to the multidisciplinary strategic management of patients with this common histologic subtype of lung cancer.

  16. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: Position Paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robert S; Cross, J Helen; French, Jacqueline A; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirsch, Edouard; Jansen, Floor E; Lagae, Lieven; Moshé, Solomon L; Peltola, Jukka; Roulet Perez, Eliane; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Zuberi, Sameer M

    2017-04-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents a revised operational classification of seizure types. The purpose of such a revision is to recognize that some seizure types can have either a focal or generalized onset, to allow classification when the onset is unobserved, to include some missing seizure types, and to adopt more transparent names. Because current knowledge is insufficient to form a scientifically based classification, the 2017 Classification is operational (practical) and based on the 1981 Classification, extended in 2010. Changes include the following: (1) "partial" becomes "focal"; (2) awareness is used as a classifier of focal seizures; (3) the terms dyscognitive, simple partial, complex partial, psychic, and secondarily generalized are eliminated; (4) new focal seizure types include automatisms, behavior arrest, hyperkinetic, autonomic, cognitive, and emotional; (5) atonic, clonic, epileptic spasms, myoclonic, and tonic seizures can be of either focal or generalized onset; (6) focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure replaces secondarily generalized seizure; (7) new generalized seizure types are absence with eyelid myoclonia, myoclonic absence, myoclonic-atonic, myoclonic-tonic-clonic; and (8) seizures of unknown onset may have features that can still be classified. The new classification does not represent a fundamental change, but allows greater flexibility and transparency in naming seizure types. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. An Investigation of the Variety and Complexity of Statistical Methods Used in Current Internal Medicine Literature.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Roshni; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines require internal medicine residents to develop skills in the interpretation of medical literature and to understand the principles of research. A necessary component is the ability to understand the statistical methods used and their results, material that is not an in-depth focus of most medical school curricula and residency programs. Given the breadth and depth of the current medical literature and an increasing emphasis on complex, sophisticated statistical analyses, the statistical foundation and education necessary for residents are uncertain. We reviewed the statistical methods and terms used in 49 articles discussed at the journal club in the Department of Internal Medicine residency program at Texas Tech University between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013. We collected information on the study type and on the statistical methods used for summarizing and comparing samples, determining the relations between independent variables and dependent variables, and estimating models. We then identified the typical statistics education level at which each term or method is learned. A total of 14 articles came from the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 11 from the New England Journal of Medicine, 6 from the Annals of Internal Medicine, 5 from the Journal of the American Medical Association, and 13 from other journals. Twenty reported randomized controlled trials. Summary statistics included mean values (39 articles), category counts (38), and medians (28). Group comparisons were based on t tests (14 articles), χ2 tests (21), and nonparametric ranking tests (10). The relations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed with simple regression (6 articles), multivariate regression (11), and logistic regression (8). Nine studies reported odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, and seven analyzed test performance using sensitivity and specificity calculations

  18. Maxillofacial Fractures: Midface and Internal Orbit-Part I: Classification and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Mast, Gerson; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Litschel, Ralph; Tasman, Abel-Jan

    2015-08-01

    Fractures of the midface and internal orbit occur isolated or in combination with other injuries. Frequently, the patients are first seen in emergency rooms responsible for the coordination of initial diagnostic procedures, followed by the transfer to specialties for further treatment. It is, therefore, important for all physicians treating facial trauma patients to understand the basic principles of injuries to the midface. Thus, this article aims to describe the anatomy and the current classification systems in use, the related clinical symptoms, and the essential diagnostic measures to obtain precise information about the injury pattern.

  19. New coding in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, for children's interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Popler, Jonathan; Lesnick, Burton; Dishop, Megan K; Deterding, Robin R

    2012-09-01

    The term "children's interstitial lung disease" (chILD) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare and diffuse lung diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These disorders include neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, surfactant dysfunction mutations, and alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins. Diagnosis can be challenging, which may lead to a delay in recognition and treatment of these disorders. Recently, International Classifications of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes have been added for several of the chILD disorders. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the chILD disorders and appropriate diagnostic coding.

  20. Health Policy Basics: Implementation of the International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision.

    PubMed

    Outland, Brian; Newman, Mary M; William, Margo J

    2015-10-06

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) standardizes diagnostic codes into meaningful criteria to enable the storage and retrieval of information regarding patient care. Whereas other countries have been using ICD, 10th Revision (ICD-10), for years, the United States will transition from ICD, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), to ICD-10, on 1 October 2015. This transition is one of the largest and most technically challenging changes that the medical community has experienced in the past several decades. This article outlines the implications of moving to ICD-10 and recommends resources to facilitate the transition.

  1. Classification of Gunshot Residue Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry and Offline Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Perez, Johnny J; Watson, David A; Levis, Robert J

    2016-12-06

    Nonresonant laser vaporization combined with high-resolution electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry enables analysis of a casing after discharge of a firearm revealing organic signature molecules including methyl centralite (MC), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (N-NO-DPA), 4-nitrodiphenylamine (4-NDPA), a DPA adduct, and multiple unidentified features not observed in previous mass spectral measurements. Collision-induced dissociation measurements of unknown GSR signature ions reveals inorganic barium and derivatives BaOH, BaOHCH3, BaCH3COO remaining from the primer. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic signatures are detected using water-methanol electrospray solution. Offline principal component analysis and discrimination of the laser electrospray mass spectral (LEMS) measurements resulted in perfect classification of the gun shot residue with respect to the manufacturer. Principal component analysis of recycled and reloaded casings resulted in classification of the penultimate manufacturer with an accuracy of 89%.

  2. An algorithm for space-time block code classification using higher-order statistics (HOS).

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenjun; Zhang, Limin; Ling, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm for space-time block code classification, when a single antenna is employed at the receiver. The algorithm exploits the discriminating features provided by the higher-order cumulants of the received signal. It does not require estimation of channel and information of the noise. Computer simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show the performance of the algorithm is good.

  3. Statistical Inference on Optimal Points to Evaluate Multi-State Classification Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    invasive tool for evaluating graft function [37]. This study suggested that the biomarkers transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF- β1), angiotensinogen ( AGT ...broken into three classes: NKF, NKF+, CAN) to classify kidney function. Feature Class Mean Standard Deviation Median Range AGT NKF 15.47 16.02 8.02...utilized both the AGT and TGF-β1 biomarkers, splitting the two dimensional parameter space into regions for classification using arrays. However, the

  4. Performance evaluation of statistical and neural network classifiers for automatic land use/cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, Elaine J.; Bailey, Robert R.; Bowden, Ronald L.; Ashley, Ross C.

    1993-04-01

    A comparative analysis of the performance of five classifier types combined with four feature extraction techniques is presented for the automatic recognition of land use/cover categories from aerial imagery through texture analysis. The classification accuracy of the linear, Bayes quadratic, k-nearest neighbor, Parzen, and backpropagation-trained multi-layer perceptron classifiers are evaluated in combination with the following texture measures: spatial gray-level co-occurrence matrix, Laws, Liu-Jernigan, and Fourier domain rings and wedges. Examples of four land use/cover classes -- urban, fields, trees, and water -- are manually delineated from commercial aerial survey panchromatic images per the U.S. Geological Survey Land Use/Land Cover Classification System. Through leave-one-scene-out sampling, each classifier type is trained and tested using feature vectors generated by each feature extraction technique. Mean classification error and an 80% confidence interval for each combination of classifier- feature extraction method is determined. Error overlap is analyzed to assess improvement of performance though fusing the results from two or more classifier-feature set combinations. The significance of this work likes both in the results of the comparative analysis and in its adherence to formal experimental methodology. We anticipate that these results will be applicable to a wide variety of image recognition problems where texture is a principle discriminant, including medical screening, remote sensing, and materials identification.

  5. Military Vehicle Classification via Acoustic and Seismic Signals Using Statistical Learning Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hanguang; Cai, Congzhong; Chen, Yuzong

    It is a difficult and important task to classify the types of military vehicles using the acoustic and seismic signals generated by military vehicles. For improving the classification accuracy and reducing the computing time and memory size, we investigated different pre-processing technology, feature extraction and selection methods. Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) was employed for feature extraction. Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used for feature selection and extraction further. A new feature vector construction method was proposed by uniting PCA and another feature selection method. K-Nearest Neighbor Classifier (KNN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were used for classification. The experimental results showed the accuracies of KNN and SVM were affected obviously by the window size which was used to frame the time series of the acoustic and seismic signals. The classification results indicated the performance of SVM was superior to that of KNN. The comparison of the four feature selection and extraction methods showed the proposed method is a simple, none time-consuming, and reliable technique for feature selection and helps the classifier SVM to achieve more better results than solely using PCA, GA, or combination.

  6. [Guidelines for the use of the International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses of the International Labour Office (ILO): Substantial changes in the currrent edition].

    PubMed

    Muszyńska-Graca, Maja; Dąbkowska, Beata; Brewczyński, Piotr Z

    2016-12-22

    The International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses is the scheme worked out by the International Labour Office in Geneva (ILO), to register radiographic chest abnormalities in a well-ordered, reproducible and comparable way. It is used for diagnosing abnormalities caused by dust exposure. Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses contain detailed information and recommendations on how to use the classification, as well as how the chest X-ray examination should be performed and recorded. To facilitate the diagnosis of observed abnormalities the classification is completed by the set of standard radiograms illustrating typical irregularities referring to lungs and pleura, included in the classification. The article presents the key information on classification and the most important amendments adopted in the 2000 and 2011 ILO guidelines revisions. These changes refer to radiographs quality assessment, the way of presenting abnormalities registered in standard radiographs (QUAD set, digital images) and registration of failures not related to dust exposure. Particularly important complements result from the development of radiological imaging techniques. They are concerned about the classification of radiographic images of the chest recorded digitally. Med Pr 2016;67(6):833-837. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps: A Manual of Classification Relating to the Consequences of Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The manual contains three classifications (impairments, disabilities, and handicaps), each relating to a different plane of experience consequent upon disease. Section 1 attempts to clarify the nature of health related experiences by addressing reponse to acute and chronic illness; the unifying framework for classification (principle events in the…

  8. Integrated Internet based tools for learning and evaluating the International Classification of Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Alecu, C S; Jitaru, E; Moisil, I

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents some tools designed and implemented for learning-related purposes; these tools can be downloaded or run on the TeleNurse web site. Among other facilities, TeleNurse web site is hosting now the version 1.2 of SysTerN (terminology system for nursing) which can be downloaded on request and also the "Evaluation of Translation" form which has been designed in order to improve the Romanian translation of the ICNP (the International Classification of Nursing Practice). SysTerN has been developed using the framework of the TeleNurse ID--ENTITY Telematics for Health EU project. This version is using the beta version of ICNP containing Phenomena and Actions classification. This classification is intended to facilitate documentation of nursing practice, by providing a terminology or vocabulary for use in the description of the nursing process. The TeleNurse site is bilingual, Romanian-English, in order to enlarge the discussion forum with members from other CEE (or Non-CEE) countries.

  9. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Srigley, John R; Delahunt, Brett; Eble, John N; Egevad, Lars; Epstein, Jonathan I; Grignon, David; Hes, Ondrej; Moch, Holger; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tickoo, Satish K; Zhou, Ming; Argani, Pedram

    2013-10-01

    The classification working group of the International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference on renal neoplasia was in charge of making recommendations regarding additions and changes to the current World Health Organization Classification of Renal Tumors (2004). Members of the group performed an exhaustive literature review, assessed the results of the preconference survey and participated in the consensus conference discussion and polling activities. On the basis of the above inputs, there was consensus that 5 entities should be recognized as new distinct epithelial tumors within the classification system: tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, clear cell (tubulo) papillary RCC, the MiT family translocation RCCs (in particular t(6;11) RCC), and hereditary leiomyomatosis RCC syndrome-associated RCC. In addition, there are 3 rare carcinomas that were considered as emerging or provisional new entities: thyroid-like follicular RCC; succinate dehydrogenase B deficiency-associated RCC; and ALK translocation RCC. Further reports of these entities are required to better understand the nature and behavior of these highly unusual tumors. There were a number of new concepts and suggested modifications to the existing World Health Organization 2004 categories. Within the clear cell RCC group, it was agreed upon that multicystic clear cell RCC is best considered as a neoplasm of low malignant potential. There was agreement that subtyping of papillary RCC is of value and that the oncocytic variant of papillary RCC should not be considered as a distinct entity. The hybrid oncocytic chromophobe tumor, which is an indolent tumor that occurs in 3 settings, namely Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome, renal oncocytosis, and as a sporadic neoplasm, was placed, for the time being, within the chromophobe RCC category. Recent advances related to collecting duct carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, and mucinous spindle cell and tubular RCC

  10. Improving the coding and classification of ambulance data through the application of International Classification of Disease 10th revision.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Kate; Morgans, Amee; Smith, Karen; Livingston, Michael; Dietze, Paul

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims to examine whether an adaptation of the International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding system can be applied retrospectively to final paramedic assessment data in an ambulance dataset with a view to developing more fine-grained, clinically relevant case definitions than are available through point-of-call data. Over 1.2 million case records were extracted from the Ambulance Victoria data warehouse. Data fields included dispatch code, cause (CN) and final primary assessment (FPA). Each FPA was converted to an ICD-10-AM code using word matching or best fit. ICD-10-AM codes were then converted into Major Diagnostic Categories (MDC). CN was aligned with the ICD-10-AM codes for external cause of morbidity and mortality. The most accurate results were obtained when ICD-10-AM codes were assigned using information from both FPA and CN. Comparison of cases coded as unconscious at point-of-call with the associated paramedic assessment highlighted the extra clinical detail obtained when paramedic assessment data are used. Ambulance paramedic assessment data can be aligned with ICD-10-AM and MDC with relative ease, allowing retrospective coding of large datasets. Coding of ambulance data using ICD-10-AM allows for comparison of not only ambulance service users but also with other population groups. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? There is no reliable and standard coding and categorising system for paramedic assessment data contained in ambulance service databases. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This study demonstrates that ambulance paramedic assessment data can be aligned with ICD-10-AM and MDC with relative ease, allowing retrospective coding of large datasets. Representation of ambulance case types using ICD-10-AM-coded information obtained after paramedic assessment is more fine grained and clinically relevant than point-of-call data, which uses caller information before ambulance attendance. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? This paper describes

  11. [Italian translation and validation of the ICNP Beta (International Classification for Nursing Practice].

    PubMed

    Sansoni, J; Luzzi, L; Degan, M; Woinowski, G; La Torre, E; Giustini, M; Bonardi, S

    2002-01-01

    The visibility of nursing care can be measured through the results on the patient and studying the existing data on patient care. An important area is tied up for a common language and terminology because it is important to have a universal understanding. For this reason the International Council of Nurses (ICN) has elaborated an international terminology for Nursing Practice that can be useful to pick up and to catalogue the problems of nursing nature in diagnosis also finding a system of classification of the activities The Consociazione Association, as representative of the ICN in Italy, through the School of Advanced Nursing of the University "La Sapienza" of Rome, has set up a Working group for the translation of the document ICNP version Beta. The present article explains the difficulties related to the Italian translation, the working group, the procedure, the validation and the met problems along with a vision for the future development and utilization.

  12. 2009 Review and Revisions of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M.J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI. PMID:21061894

  13. _ 2009 review and revisions of the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Waring, William P; Biering-Sorensen, Fin; Burns, Stephen; Donovan, William; Graves, Daniel; Jha, Amitabh; Jones, Linda; Kirshblum, Steven; Marino, Ralph; Mulcahey, M J; Reeves, Ronald; Scelza, William M; Schmidt-Read, Mary; Stein, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) were recently reviewed by the ASIA's Education and Standards Committees, in collaboration with the International Spinal Cord Society's Education Committee. Available educational materials for the ISNCSCI were also reviewed. The last citable reference for the ISNCSCI's methodology is the ISNCSCI Reference Manual, published in 2003 by ASIA. The Standards Committee recommended that the numerous items that were revised should be published and a precedent established for a routine published review of the ISNCSCI. The Standards Committee also noted that, although the 2008 reprint pocket booklet is current, the reference manual should be revised after proposals to modify/revise the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS as modified from Frankel) are considered. In addition, the Standards Committee adopted a process for thorough and transparent review of requests to revise the ISNCSCI.

  14. Utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for educational psychologists’ work

    PubMed Central

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah

    2014-01-01

    Despite embracing a bio-psycho-social perspective, the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assessment framework has had limited application to date with children who have special educational needs (SEN). This study examines its utility for educational psychologists’ work with children who have Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Mothers of 40 children with ASD aged eight to 12 years were interviewed using a structured protocol based on the ICF framework. The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorder (DISCO) was completed with a subset of 19 mothers. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability of the interview assessments were found to be acceptable and there was evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity. Despite some limitations, initial support for the utility of the ICF model suggests its potential value across educational, health and care fields. Further consideration of its relevance to educational psychologists in new areas of multi-agency working is warranted. PMID:26157197

  15. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  16. [International multidisciplinary classification of acute pancreatitis severity: the 2013 Spanish edition].

    PubMed

    Maraví-Poma, E; Patchen Dellinger, E; Forsmark, C E; Layer, P; Lévy, P; Shimosegawa, T; Siriwardena, A K; Uomo, G; Whitcomb, D C; Windsor, J A; Petrov, M S

    2014-05-01

    To develop a new classification of acute pancreatitis severity on the basis of a sound conceptual framework, comprehensive review of the published evidence, and worldwide consultation. The Atlanta definitions of acute pancreatitis severity are ingrained in the lexicon of specialist in pancreatic diseases, but are suboptimal because these definitions are based on the empiric description of events not associated with severity. A personal invitation to contribute to the development of a new classification of acute pancreatitis severity was sent to all surgeons, gastroenterologists, internists, intensivists and radiologists currently active in the field of clinical acute pancreatitis. The invitation was not limited to members of certain associations or residents of certain countries. A global web-based survey was conducted, and a dedicated international symposium was organized to bring contributors from different disciplines together and discuss the concept and definitions. The new classification of severity is based on the actual local and systemic determinants of severity, rather than on the description of events that are non-causally associated with severity. The local determinant relates to whether there is (peri) pancreatic necrosis or not, and if present, whether it is sterile or infected. The systemic determinant relates to whether there is organ failure or not, and if present, whether it is transient or persistent. The presence of one determinant can modify the effect of another, whereby the presence of both infected (peri) pancreatic necrosis and persistent organ failure has a greater impact upon severity than either determinant alone. The derivation of a classification based on the above principles results in four categories of severity: mild, moderate, severe, and critical. This classification is the result of a consultative process among specialists in pancreatic diseases from 49 countries spanning North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania and

  17. Applying the WHO conceptual framework for the International Classification for Patient Safety to a surgical population

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, L. M.; Woods, D. M.; Yanes, A. F.; Skaro, A. I.; Daud, A.; Curtis, T.; Wymore, E.; Holl, J. L.; Abecassis, M. M.; Ladner, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Efforts to improve patient safety are challenged by the lack of universally agreed upon terms. The International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS) was developed by the World Health Organization for this purpose. This study aimed to test the applicability of the ICPS to a surgical population. Design A web-based safety debriefing was sent to clinicians involved in surgical care of abdominal organ transplant patients. A multidisciplinary team of patient safety experts, surgeons and researchers used the data to develop a system of classification based on the ICPS. Disagreements were reconciled via consensus, and a codebook was developed for future use by researchers. Results A total of 320 debriefing responses were used for the initial review and codebook development. In total, the 320 debriefing responses contained 227 patient safety incidents (range: 0–7 per debriefing) and 156 contributing factors/hazards (0–5 per response). The most common severity classification was ‘reportable circumstance,’ followed by ‘near miss.’ The most common incident types were ‘resources/organizational management,’ followed by ‘medical device/equipment.’ Several aspects of surgical care were encompassed by more than one classification, including operating room scheduling, delays in care, trainee-related incidents, interruptions and handoffs. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a framework for patient safety can be applied to facilitate the organization and analysis of surgical safety data. Several unique aspects of surgical care require consideration, and by using a standardized framework for describing concepts, research findings can be compared and disseminated across surgical specialties. The codebook is intended for use as a framework for other specialties and institutions. PMID:26803539

  18. Identification of AE Bursts by Classification of Physical and Statistical Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mieza, J.I.; Oliveto, M.E.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Armeite, M.; Ruzzante, J.E.; Piotrkowski, R.

    2005-04-09

    Physical and statistical parameters obtained with the Principal Components method, extracted from Acoustic Emission bursts coming from triaxial deformation tests were analyzed. The samples came from seamless steel tubes used in the petroleum industry and some of them were provided with a protective coating. The purpose of our work was to identify bursts originated in the breakage of the coating, from those originated in damage mechanisms in the bulk steel matrix. Analysis was performed by statistical distributions, fractal analysis and clustering methods.

  19. Survey of the use of statistical methods in the international journal of prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Layton, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    This survey aimed to review how scientific articles were reported and to describe the types of statistical tests that had been recently and commonly used in The International Journal of Prosthodontics. All 174 articles published in 2012 and 2013 were hand-searched to identify scientific articles (n = 151) and those using at least one statistical test to explore results (n = 111). Editorials, letters, comments, erratum, and award proceedings were excluded. The number and type of statistical tests used within articles were collated, and the 10 commonly used methods were identified and described. Of the 151 scientific articles, 76% (n = 111) used at least one statistical test and 24% (n = 40) used qualitative methods. Up to 10 tests were used per article, with 237 in total, of which 36 were unique. The 10 most commonly used tests were analysis of variance (ANOVA; n = 34), survival analyses (n = 29), Student t test (n = 19), chi-square (n = 19), Mann-Whitney U (n = 14), logistic regression (n = 13), Wilcoxon signed rank (n = 12), Fisher exact (n = 11), log-rank (n = 10), and Cox proportional hazards (n = 8), and they accounted for 71% (n = 169) of all tests used. The vast majority of articles published in recent years in The International Journal of Prosthodontics employed statistical analyses. Across 2 years, nearly 250 tests were completed, including 36 unique tests. Statistical test use was common but diverse.

  20. Live-site UXO classification studies using advanced EMI and statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamatava, I.; Shubitidze, F.; Fernandez, J. P.; Bijamov, A.; Barrowes, B. E.; O'Neill, K.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present the inversion and classification performance of the advanced EMI inversion, processing and discrimination schemes developed by our group when applied to the ESTCP Live-Site UXO Discrimination Study carried out at the former Camp Butner in North Carolina. The advanced models combine: 1) the joint diagonalization (JD) algorithm to estimate the number of potential anomalies from the measured data without inversion, 2) the ortho-normalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS) to represent targets' EMI responses and extract their intrinsic "feature vectors," and 3) the Gaussian mixture algorithm to classify buried objects as targets of interest or not starting from the extracted discrimination features. The studies are conducted using cued datasets collected with the next-generation TEMTADS and MetalMapper (MM) sensor systems. For the cued TEMTADS datasets we first estimate the data quality and the number of targets contributing to each signal using the JD technique. Once we know the number of targets we proceed to invert the data using a standard non-linear optimization technique in order to determine intrinsic parameters such as the total ONVMS for each potential target. Finally we classify the targets using a library-matching technique. The MetalMapper data are all inverted as multi-target scenarios, and the resulting intrinsic parameters are grouped using an unsupervised Gaussian mixture approach. The potential targets of interest are a 37-mm projectile, an M48 fuze, and a 105-mm projectile. During the analysis we requested the ground truth for a few selected anomalies to assist in the classification task. Our results were scored independently by the Institute for Defense Analyses, who revealed that our advanced models produce superb classification when starting from either TEMTADS or MM cued datasets.

  1. A guide on how to develop an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set.

    PubMed

    Selb, M; Escorpizo, R; Kostanjsek, N; Stucki, G; Üstün, B; Cieza, A

    2015-02-01

    International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets are purpose-tailored shortlists of ICF categories from the whole ICF classification for describing functioning and disability. Although the 34 ICF Core Sets developed up to now already cover many health conditions, there may still be a need to develop additional ICF Core Sets that tackle other health conditions and address other purposes. This paper provides a detailed description of the standard process for developing ICF Core Sets that will serve as a guide for future ICF Core Set development projects. ICF Core Sets are developed by means of a three-phase, multi-method scientific process. The process involves four preparatory studies - an empirical multicentre study, a systematic literature review, a qualitative study and an expert survey. The results of the preparatory studies serve as the starting point for a structured decision-making and consensus process at an international conference, during which participating experts decide on the ICF categories to be included in the Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets. The first version of the ICF Core Set may necessitate modifications for specific applications and implementation in specific settings.

  2. Towards an International Classification for Patient Safety: key concepts and terms.

    PubMed

    Runciman, William; Hibbert, Peter; Thomson, Richard; Van Der Schaaf, Tjerk; Sherman, Heather; Lewalle, Pierre

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the patient safety literature has been compromised by the inconsistent use of language. To identify key concepts of relevance to the International Patient Safety Classification (ICPS) proposed by the World Alliance For Patient Safety of the World Health Organization (WHO), and agree on definitions and preferred terms. Six principles were agreed upon-that the concepts and terms should: be applicable across the full spectrum of healthcare; be consistent with concepts from other WHO Classifications; have meanings as close as possible to those in colloquial use; convey the appropriate meanings with respect to patient safety; be brief and clear, without unnecessary or redundant qualifiers; be fit-for-purpose for the ICPS. Definitions and preferred terms were agreed for 48 concepts of relevance to the ICPS; these were described and the relationships between them and the ICPS were outlined. The consistent use of key concepts, definitions and preferred terms should pave the way for better understanding, for comparisons between facilities and jurisdictions, and for trends to be tracked over time. Changes and improvements, translation into other languages and alignment with other sets of patient safety definitions will be necessary. This work represents the start of an ongoing process of progressively improving a common international understanding of terms and concepts relevant to patient safety.

  3. Disability, human rights, and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aluas, Maria; Colombetti, Elena; Osimani, Barbara; Musio, Alessio; Pessina, Adriano

    2012-02-01

    This literature review focuses on the literature on disability from the ethical and human rights perspective in the light of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in the period from January 1, 2008, to June 30, 2010. This article identifies and examines studies that deal with the subject of disability with reference to rights, ethical issues, and justice. A total of 42 articles and 33 books were selected. The subject most frequently dealt with in studies on disability is that of human rights (76% of the articles and 79% of the books examined), followed by topics relating to welfare (52% of articles and 64% of books), International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (38% of articles and 45% of books), justice (24% of articles and 48% of books), education (21% of articles and 61% of books), and work (19% of articles and 39% of books). The subject of disability is dealt with in various fields of study and various disciplines. Most of the studies are based on the legal approach. It is to be hoped that there will be an increase in the philosophical and ethical study of disability, which has only recently entered the European debate.

  4. Making allergic and hypersensitivity conditions visible in the International Classification of Diseases-11.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    Understanding that the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 revision would be an opportunity to standardize the code definitions for all allergic and hypersensitivity conditions, an international collaboration of Allergy Academies, including first the World Allergy Organization, the American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, has been coordinating tremendous efforts since 2013 to provide a better classification of these disorders in the new ICD-11. During this process, a strategic action plan has been constructed to keep bilateral dialog with representatives of the ICD revision by providing them scientific and technical evidences for the need of changes in the ICD framework. As a major achievement of this process, was the construction of the "allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" parented subchapter guided by the World Health Organization ICD representatives and further supported by three more regional allergy societies: the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American College of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, and the Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology. Believing that the outcomes of all past and future actions will impact positively to the Allergy specialty, we expect for the full approval by the United Nations in 2017.

  5. Making allergic and hypersensitivity conditions visible in the International Classification of Diseases-11

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Moises A.; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Understanding that the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 revision would be an opportunity to standardize the code definitions for all allergic and hypersensitivity conditions, an international collaboration of Allergy Academies, including first the World Allergy Organization, the American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, has been coordinating tremendous efforts since 2013 to provide a better classification of these disorders in the new ICD-11. During this process, a strategic action plan has been constructed to keep bilateral dialog with representatives of the ICD revision by providing them scientific and technical evidences for the need of changes in the ICD framework. As a major achievement of this process, was the construction of the "allergic and hypersensitivity conditions" parented subchapter guided by the World Health Organization ICD representatives and further supported by three more regional allergy societies: the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American College of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, and the Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology. Believing that the outcomes of all past and future actions will impact positively to the Allergy specialty, we expect for the full approval by the United Nations in 2017. PMID:26539400

  6. Single-channel EEG sleep stage classification based on a streamlined set of statistical features in wavelet domain.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Thiago L T; Kozakevicius, Alice J; Rodrigues, Cesar R

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to enhance the performance of sleep stage classification using single-channel electroencephalograms (EEGs), which are highly desirable for many emerging technologies, such as telemedicine and home care. The proposed method consists of decomposing EEGs by a discrete wavelet transform and computing the kurtosis, skewness and variance of its coefficients at selected levels. A random forest predictor is trained to classify each epoch into one of the Rechtschaffen and Kales' stages. By performing a comprehensive set of tests on 106,376 epochs available from the Physionet public database, it is demonstrated that the use of these three statistical moments has enhanced performance when compared to their application in the time domain. Furthermore, the chosen set of features has the advantage of exhibiting a stable classification performance for all scoring systems, i.e., from 2- to 6-state sleep stages. The stability of the feature set is confirmed with ReliefF tests which show a performance reduction when any individual feature is removed, suggesting that this group of feature cannot be further reduced. The accuracies and kappa coefficients yield higher than 90 % and 0.8, respectively, for all of the 2- to 6-state sleep stage classification cases.

  7. Asymmetric statistical features of the Chinese domestic and international gold price fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Zhao, Yingchao; Han, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Analyzing the statistical features of fluctuation is remarkably significant for financial risk identification and measurement. In this study, the asymmetric detrended fluctuation analysis (A-DFA) method was applied to evaluate asymmetric multifractal scaling behaviors in the Shanghai and New York gold markets. Our findings showed that the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold spot markets were asymmetric. The gold return series persisted longer in an increasing trend than in a decreasing trend. Moreover, the asymmetric degree of multifractals in the Chinese and international gold markets decreased with the increase in fluctuation range. In addition, the empirical analysis using sliding window technology indicated that multifractal asymmetry in the Chinese and international gold markets was characterized by its time-varying feature. However, the Shanghai and international gold markets basically shared a similar asymmetric degree evolution pattern. The American subprime mortgage crisis (2008) and the European debt crisis (2010) enhanced the asymmetric degree of the multifractal features of the Chinese and international gold markets. Furthermore, we also make statistical tests for the results of multifractatity and asymmetry, and discuss the origin of them. Finally, results of the empirical analysis using the threshold autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (TARCH) and exponential generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (EGARCH) models exhibited that good news had a more significant effect on the cyclical fluctuation of the gold market than bad news. Moreover, good news exerted a more significant effect on the Chinese gold market than on the international gold market.

  8. Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  9. Statistical Analysis of Categorical Time Series of Atmospheric Elementary Circulation Mechanisms - Dzerdzeevski Classification for the Northern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    Northern hemisphere elementary circulation mechanisms, defined with the Dzerdzeevski classification and published on a daily basis from 1899-2012, are analysed with statistical methods as continuous categorical time series. Classification consists of 41 elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM), which are assigned to calendar days. Empirical marginal probabilities of each ECM were determined. Seasonality and the periodicity effect were investigated with moving dispersion filters and randomisation procedure on the ECM categories as well as with the time analyses of the ECM mode. The time series were determined as being non-stationary with strong time-dependent trends. During the investigated period, periodicity interchanges with periods when no seasonality is present. In the time series structure, the strongest division is visible at the milestone of 1986, showing that the atmospheric circulation pattern reflected in the ECM has significantly changed. This change is result of the change in the frequency of ECM categories; before 1986, the appearance of ECM was more diverse, and afterwards fewer ECMs appear. The statistical approach applied to the categorical climatic time series opens up new potential insight into climate variability and change studies that have to be performed in the future.

  10. Statistical Analysis of Categorical Time Series of Atmospheric Elementary Circulation Mechanisms - Dzerdzeevski Classification for the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    Northern hemisphere elementary circulation mechanisms, defined with the Dzerdzeevski classification and published on a daily basis from 1899–2012, are analysed with statistical methods as continuous categorical time series. Classification consists of 41 elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM), which are assigned to calendar days. Empirical marginal probabilities of each ECM were determined. Seasonality and the periodicity effect were investigated with moving dispersion filters and randomisation procedure on the ECM categories as well as with the time analyses of the ECM mode. The time series were determined as being non-stationary with strong time-dependent trends. During the investigated period, periodicity interchanges with periods when no seasonality is present. In the time series structure, the strongest division is visible at the milestone of 1986, showing that the atmospheric circulation pattern reflected in the ECM has significantly changed. This change is result of the change in the frequency of ECM categories; before 1986, the appearance of ECM was more diverse, and afterwards fewer ECMs appear. The statistical approach applied to the categorical climatic time series opens up new potential insight into climate variability and change studies that have to be performed in the future. PMID:27116375

  11. A model to facilitate implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health into prosthetics and orthotics.

    PubMed

    Jarl, Gustav; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn

    2017-09-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is a classification of human functioning and disability and is based on a biopsychosocial model of health. As such, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health seems suitable as a basis for constructing models defining the clinical P&O process. The aim was to use International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to facilitate development of such a model. Proposed model: A model, the Prosthetic and Orthotic Process (POP) model, is proposed. The Prosthetic and Orthotic Process model is based on the concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and comprises four steps in a cycle: (1) Assessment, including the medical history and physical examination of the patient. (2) Goals, specified on four levels including those related to participation, activity, body functions and structures and technical requirements of the device. (3) Intervention, in which the appropriate course of action is determined based on the specified goal and evidence-based practice. (4) Evaluation of outcomes, where the outcomes are assessed and compared to the corresponding goals. After the evaluation of goal fulfilment, the first cycle in the process is complete, and a broad evaluation is now made including overriding questions about the patient's satisfaction with the outcomes and the process. This evaluation will determine if the process should be ended or if another cycle in the process should be initiated. The Prosthetic and Orthotic Process model can provide a common understanding of the P&O process. Concepts of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health have been incorporated into the model to facilitate communication with other rehabilitation professionals and encourage a holistic and patient-centred approach in clinical practice. Clinical relevance The Prosthetic and Orthotic Process model can support the implementation

  12. A New Approach to the Detection and Statistical Classification of Ca2+ Sparks

    PubMed Central

    Bányász, Tamás; Chen-Izu, Ye; Balke, C. W.; Izu, Leighton T.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D) confocal microscopes and the expanding armamentarium of fluorescent probes presents unprecedented opportunities and new challenges for studying the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellular processes. The need to remove subjectivity from the detection process, the difficulty of the human eye to detect subtle changes in fluorescence in these 2-D images, and the large volume of data produced by these confocal microscopes call for the need to develop algorithms to automatically mark the changes in fluorescence. These fluorescence signal changes are often subtle, so the statistical estimate of the likelihood that the detected signal is not noise is an integral part of the detection algorithm. This statistical estimation is fundamental to our new approach to detection; in earlier Ca2+ spark detectors, this statistical assessment was incidental to detection. Importantly, the use of the statistical properties of the signal local to the spark, instead of over the whole image, reduces the false positive and false negative rates. We developed an automatic spark detection algorithm based on these principles and used it to detect sparks on an inhomogeneous background of transverse tubule-labeled rat ventricular cells. Because of the large region of the cell surveyed by the confocal microscope, we can detect a large enough number of sparks to measure the dynamic changes in spark frequency in individual cells. We also found, in contrast to earlier results, that cardiac sparks are spatially symmetric. This new approach puts the detection of fluorescent signals on a firm statistical foundation. PMID:17400702

  13. A new approach to the detection and statistical classification of Ca2+ sparks.

    PubMed

    Bányász, Tamás; Chen-Izu, Ye; Balke, C W; Izu, Leighton T

    2007-06-15

    The availability of high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D) confocal microscopes and the expanding armamentarium of fluorescent probes presents unprecedented opportunities and new challenges for studying the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellular processes. The need to remove subjectivity from the detection process, the difficulty of the human eye to detect subtle changes in fluorescence in these 2-D images, and the large volume of data produced by these confocal microscopes call for the need to develop algorithms to automatically mark the changes in fluorescence. These fluorescence signal changes are often subtle, so the statistical estimate of the likelihood that the detected signal is not noise is an integral part of the detection algorithm. This statistical estimation is fundamental to our new approach to detection; in earlier Ca(2+) spark detectors, this statistical assessment was incidental to detection. Importantly, the use of the statistical properties of the signal local to the spark, instead of over the whole image, reduces the false positive and false negative rates. We developed an automatic spark detection algorithm based on these principles and used it to detect sparks on an inhomogeneous background of transverse tubule-labeled rat ventricular cells. Because of the large region of the cell surveyed by the confocal microscope, we can detect a large enough number of sparks to measure the dynamic changes in spark frequency in individual cells. We also found, in contrast to earlier results, that cardiac sparks are spatially symmetric. This new approach puts the detection of fluorescent signals on a firm statistical foundation.

  14. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: An Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chapel, Helen; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Fischer, Alain; Franco, Jose Luis; Geha, Raif S.; Hammarström, Lennart; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Notarangelo, Luigi Daniele; Ochs, Hans Dieter; Puck, Jennifer M.; Roifman, Chaim M.; Seger, Reinhard; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiency diseases, compiled by the ad hoc Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. As compared to the previous edition, more than 15 novel disease entities have been added in the updated version. For each disorders, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This updated classification is meant to help in the diagnostic approach to patients with these diseases. PMID:22566844

  15. Classification of employment factors according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in patients with neuromuscular diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Minis, Marie-Antoinette; Heerkens, Yvonne; Engels, Josephine; Oostendorp, Rob; van Engelen, Baziel

    2009-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of the literature to identify health and contextual factors associated with employment in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD) and to perform a best evidence synthesis, taking into account the design of studies, methodological quality and the statistical significance of findings. Publications were retrieved by a computerised search in medical and psychological databases. Two reviewers assessed titles and abstracts first and assessed the quality of the remaining full text publications independently as well. Of the residual publications, health and contextual factors associated with employment in patients with NMD were extracted. The factors found were included in a recently developed expanded International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health scheme. Six hundred and sixty-two titles and abstracts were screened. The main reason to exclude a title and/or abstract was the absence of the study population selected: Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD), Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy (HMSN) & Myotonic Dystrophy (MD). Of the remaining 20 full-text publications, eight publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria: two repeated survey designs and six cross-sectional studies. Factor extraction resulted in 94 factors related to employment. Ten factors in five publications were indicative for an association with employment status: Disease related factors HMSN, MD & NMD in general), factors related to functions (physical functions, muscle power functions), general personal factors (age, gender and education), work related personal factors (type of occupation, and expressed interest in employment by patients with NMD). In the best evidence synthesis ten factors were indicative for an association with employment status in patients with NMD in five publications with good to excellent methodological quality.

  16. A case study of the introduction of the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kilańska, D; Gaworska-Krzemińska, A; Grabowska, H; Gorzkowicz, B

    2016-09-01

    The development of a nursing practice, improvements in nurses' autonomy, and increased professional and personal responsibility for the medical services provided all require professional documentation with records of health status assessments, decisions undertaken, actions and their outcomes for each patient. The International Classification for Nursing Practice is a tool that meets all of these needs, and although it requires continuous evaluation, it offers professional documentation and communication in the practitioner and researcher community. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical critique of an issue related to policy and experience of the current situation in Polish nursing - especially of the efforts to standardize nursing practices through the introduction and development of the Classification in Poland. Despite extensive promotion and training by International Council of Nurses members worldwide, there are still many countries where the Classification has not been implemented as a standard tool in healthcare facilities. Recently, a number of initiatives were undertaken in cooperation with the local and state authorities to disseminate the Classification in healthcare facilities. Thanks to intense efforts by the Polish Nurses Association and the International Council of Nurses Accredited Center for ICNP(®) Research & Development at the Medical University of Łódź, the Classification is known in Poland and has been tested at several centres. Nevertheless, an actual implementation that would allow for national and international interoperability requires strategic governmental decisions and close cooperation with information technology companies operating in the country. Discussing the barriers to the implementation of the Classification can improve understanding of it and its use. At a policy level, decision makers need to understand that use Classification in eHealth services and tools it is necessary to achieve interoperability. © 2016

  17. On exact statistics and classification of ergodic systems of integer dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Guralnik, Zachary Guralnik, Gerald; Pehlevan, Cengiz

    2014-06-01

    We describe classes of ergodic dynamical systems for which some statistical properties are known exactly. These systems have integer dimension, are not globally dissipative, and are defined by a probability density and a two-form. This definition generalizes the construction of Hamiltonian systems by a Hamiltonian and a symplectic form. Some low dimensional examples are given, as well as a discretized field theory with a large number of degrees of freedom and a local nearest neighbor interaction. We also evaluate unequal-time correlations of these systems without direct numerical simulation, by Padé approximants of a short-time expansion. We briefly speculate on the possibility of constructing chaotic dynamical systems with non-integer dimension and exactly known statistics. In this case there is no probability density, suggesting an alternative construction in terms of a Hopf characteristic function and a two-form.

  18. Statistical inference for classification of RRIM clone series using near IR reflectance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Faridatul Aima; Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Hashim, Hadzli; Abdullah, Noor Ezan; Khairuzzaman, Noor Aishah; Azmi, Azrie Faris Mohd; Sampian, Ahmad Faiz Mohd; Harun, Muhammad Hafiz

    2015-08-01

    RRIM clone is a rubber breeding series produced by RRIM (Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia) through "rubber breeding program" to improve latex yield and producing clones attractive to farmers. The objective of this work is to analyse measurement of optical sensing device on latex of selected clone series. The device using transmitting NIR properties and its reflectance is converted in terms of voltage. The obtained reflectance index value via voltage was analyzed using statistical technique in order to find out the discrimination among the clones. From the statistical results using error plots and one-way ANOVA test, there is an overwhelming evidence showing discrimination of RRIM 2002, RRIM 2007 and RRIM 3001 clone series with p value = 0.000. RRIM 2008 cannot be discriminated with RRIM 2014; however both of these groups are distinct from the other clones.

  19. Long-term seizure outcome for international consensus classification of hippocampal sclerosis: a survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Na, Meng; Ge, Haitao; Shi, Chen; Shen, Hong; Wang, Yu; Pu, Song; Liu, Li; Wang, Haiyang; Xie, Chuncheng; Zhu, Minwei; Wang, Jiabin; Shi, Changbin; Lin, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    Surgery is regarded as a common treatment option for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) as a result of hippocampal sclerosis (HS). However, approximately one-third of patients with intractable epilepsy did not become seizure-free after tailored resection strategies. It would be compelling to identify predictive factors of postoperative seizure outcomes. Our aim was to assess the correlation between HS classification and long-term postoperative seizure outcome in patients with MTLE due to HS. To investigate HS classification, semi-quantitative analysis and immunohistochemical staining of neuronal nuclei (NeuN) were performed on 100 postoperative hippocampal specimens. All patients had a 1-7 year postoperative follow-up. The postoperative seizure outcome was evaluated using International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) outcome classification. Three types of HS were recognized. The highest incidence of initial precipitating injury (IPI) was noted in the HS ILAE type 1 group (53.1%). The most favorable long-term seizure outcome was also noted in the HS ILAE type 1 group. The shortest epilepsy duration was recorded in the HS ILAE type 2 group (mean epilepsy duration=6.64 ± 5.83 years). The completely seizure free rate of patients in all groups declined with an increase in time. Our study for the first time demonstrated a significant correlation between HS ILAE types and long-term postoperative seizure outcome in patients with MTLE due to HS. Therefore, HS ILAE types have predictive value in long-term seizure outcome following epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. IPUMS-International Statistical Disclosure Controls: 159 Census Microdata Samples in Dissemination, 100+ in Preparation

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matt

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, a revolution has occurred in access to census microdata for social and behavioral research. More than 325 million person records (55 countries, 159 samples) representing two-thirds of the world’s population are now readily available to bona fide researchers from the IPUMS-International website: www.ipums.org/international hosted by the Minnesota Population Center. Confidentialized extracts are disseminated on a restricted access basis at no cost to bona fide researchers. Over the next five years, from the microdata already entrusted by National Statistical Office-owners, the database will encompass more than 80 percent of the world’s population (85 countries, ~100 additional datasets) with priority given to samples from the 2010 round of censuses. A profile of the most frequently used samples and variables is described from 64,248 requests for microdata extracts. The development of privacy protection standards by National Statistical Offices, international organizations and academic experts is fundamental to eliciting world-wide cooperation and, thus, to the success of the IPUMS initiative. This paper summarizes the legal, administrative and technical underpinnings of the project, including statistical disclosure controls, as well as the conclusions of a lengthy on-site review by the former Australian Statistician, Mr. Dennis Trewin.

  1. Statistics on BCS classification of generic drug products approved between 2000 and 2011 in the USA.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anil K; Anand, Om; Chun, Nam; Conner, Dale P; Mehta, Mehul U; Nhu, Duong T; Polli, James E; Yu, Lawrence X; Davit, Barbara M

    2012-12-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification system (BCS) classifies drug substances based on aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability. The objective of this study was to use the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines to determine the distribution of BCS Class 1, 2, 3, and 4 drugs in Abbreviated New drug Applications (ANDA) submissions. To categorize solubility and intestinal permeability properties of generic drugs under development, we used a list of 61 drugs which were classified as BCS 1, 2, 3, and 4 drugs with certainty in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines. Applying this list to evaluation of 263 ANDA approvals of BCS drugs during the period of 2000 to 2011 indicated 110 approvals (41.8%) for Class 1 drugs (based on both biowaiver and in vivo bioequivalence studies), 55 (20.9%) approvals for Class 2 drugs, 98 (37.3%) approvals for Class 3 drugs, and no (0%) approvals for Class 4 drugs. The present data indicated a trend of more ANDA approvals of BCS Class 1 drugs than Class 3 or Class 2 drugs. Antiallergic drugs in Class 1, drugs for pain relief in Class 2 and antidiabetic drugs in Class 3 have received the largest number of approvals during this period.

  2. Test performance and classification statistics for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in selected clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Dawson, Kyra A; Duff, Kevin; Patton, Doyle; Scott, James G; Adams, Russell L

    2006-10-01

    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT; Rey, A. (1941). L'examen psychologique dans les cas d'encéphalopathie traumatique. Archives de Psychologie, 28, 21] is a commonly used neuropsychological measure that assesses verbal learning and memory. Normative data have been compiled [Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services]. When assessing an individual suspected of neurological dysfunction, useful comparisons include the extent that the patient deviates from healthy peers and also how closely the subject's performance matches those with known brain injury. This study provides the means and S.D.'s of 392 individuals with documented neurological dysfunction [closed head TBI (n=68), neoplasms (n=57), stroke (n=47), Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (n=158), and presurgical epilepsy left seizure focus (n=28), presurgical epilepsy right seizure focus (n=34)] and 122 patients with no known neurological dysfunction and psychiatric complaints. Patients were stratified into three age groups, 16-35, 36-59, and 60-88. Data were provided for trials I-V, List B, immediate recall, 30-min delayed recall, and recognition. Classification characteristics of the RAVLT using [Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] meta-norms found the RAVLT to best distinguish patients suspected of Alzheimer's disease from the psychiatric comparison group.

  3. Conformational Statistics of Semi-Flexible Macromolecular Chains with Internal Joints

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in the bending angles at internal irregularities of DNA and RNA (such as symmetric loops, bulges, and nicks/gaps) have been observed from various experiments. However, little effort has been made to computationally predict and explain the statistical behavior of semi-flexible chains with internal defects. In this paper, we describe the general structure of these macromolecular chains as inextensible elastic chains with one or more internal joints which have limited ranges of rotation, and propose a method to compute the probability density functions of the end-to-end pose of these macromolecular chains. Our method takes advantage of the operational properties of the non-commutative Fourier transform for the group of rigid-body motions in three-dimensional space, SE(3). Two representative types of joints, the hinge for planar rotation and the ball joint for spatial rotation, are discussed in detail. The proposed method applies to various stiffness models of semi-flexible chain-like macromolecules. Examples are calculated using the Kratky-Porod model with specified stiffness, angular fluctuation, and joint locations. Entropic effects associated with internal angular fluctuations of semi-flexible macromolecular chains with internal joints can be computed using this formulation. Our method also provides a potential tool to detect the existence of internal irregularities. PMID:21243113

  4. Water Polo Game-Related Statistics in Women’s International Championships: Differences and Discriminatory Power

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Yolanda; Saavedra, Jose M.; Tella, Victor; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dominguez, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare women’s water polo game-related statistics by match outcome (winning and losing teams) and phase (preliminary, classificatory, and semi-final/bronze medal/gold medal), and (ii) identify characteristics that discriminate performances for each phase. The game-related statistics of the 124 women’s matches played in five International Championships (World and European Championships) were analyzed. Differences between winning and losing teams in each phase were determined using the chi-squared. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to context in each of the three phases. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each phase of an international championship. The differentiating variables were both offensive (centre goals, power-play goals, counterattack goal, assists, offensive fouls, steals, blocked shots, and won sprints) and defensive (goalkeeper-blocked shots, goalkeeper-blocked inferiority shots, and goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots). The discriminant analysis showed the game-related statistics to discriminate performance in all phases: preliminary, classificatory, and final phases (92%, 90%, and 83%, respectively). Two variables were discriminatory by match outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three phases: goals and goalkeeper-blocked shots. Key pointsThe preliminary phase that more than one variable was involved in this differentiation, including both offensive and defensive aspects of the game.The game-related statistics were found to have a high discriminatory power in predicting the result of matches with shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots being discriminatory variables in all three phases.Knowledge of the characteristics of women’s water polo game-related statistics of the winning teams and their power to predict match outcomes will allow coaches to take these characteristics into account when planning training and match preparation. PMID

  5. Statistical classification of flow morphology in rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, David; Rubio, Antonio M.; Julien, Keith

    2014-08-01

    In rapidly rotating convection four flow regimes with distinct characteristics have been identified via simulations of asymptotically reduced equations as a function of a reduced Rayleigh number RaE4/3 and Prandtl number σ (K. Julien, A. Rubio, I. Grooms, and E. Knobloch, "Statistical and physical balances in low Rossby number Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 106, 392-428 (2012)). In each regime the flow organizes, with varying intensity, into coherent vertical structures. The identified morphologies, in order of increasing RaE4/3, consist of the cellular regime, the convective Taylor column regime, the plume regime, and a regime characterized by geostrophic turbulence. Presently, physical limitations on laboratory experiments and spatio-temporal resolution challenges on direct numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations inhibit an exhaustive analysis of the flow morphology in the rapid rotating limit. In this paper the flow morphologies obtained from simulations of the reduced equations are investigated from a statistical perspective. We utilize auto- and cross-correlations of temporal and spatial signals that synthesize experimental data obtained from thermistor measurements or particle image velocimetry. We show how these statistics can be employed in laboratory experiments to (i) identify transitions in the flow morphology, (ii) capture the radial profiles of coherent structures, and (iii) extract transport properties of these structures. These results provide a foundation for comparison and a measure for understanding the extent to which rotationally constrained regime has been accessed by laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations.

  6. Characterization and classification of oral tissues using excitation and emission matrix: a statistical modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniyappan, Udayakumar; Gnanatheepaminstein, Einstein; Prakasarao, Aruna; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Cancer is one of the most common human threats around the world and diagnosis based on optical spectroscopy especially fluorescence technique has been established as the standard approach among scientist to explore the biochemical and morphological changes in tissues. In this regard, the present work aims to extract spectral signatures of the various fluorophores present in oral tissues using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Subsequently, the statistical analysis also to be performed to show its diagnostic potential in distinguishing malignant, premalignant from normal oral tissues. Hence, the present study may lead to the possible and/or alternative tool for oral cancer diagnosis.

  7. Calibration of back-analysed model parameters for landslides using classification statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Jose; Henderson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Back-analyses are useful for characterizing the geomorphological and mechanical processes and parameters involved in the initiation and propagation of landslides. These processes and parameters can in turn be used for improving forecasts of scenarios and hazard assessments in areas or sites which have similar settings to the back-analysed cases. The selection of the modeled landslide that produces the best agreement with the actual observations requires running a number of simulations by varying the type of model and the sets of input parameters. The comparison of the simulated and observed parameters is normally performed by visual comparison of geomorphological or dynamic variables (e.g., geometry of scarp and final deposit, maximum velocities and depths). Over the past six years, a method developed by NGI has been used by some researchers for a more objective selection of back-analysed input model parameters. That method includes an adaptation of the equations for calculation of classifiers, and a comparative evaluation of classifiers of the selected parameter sets in the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) space. This contribution presents an updating of the methodology. The proposed procedure allows comparisons between two or more "clouds" of classifiers. Each cloud represents the performance of a model over a range of input parameters (e.g., samples of probability distributions). Considering the fact that each cloud does not necessarily produce a full ROC curve, two new normalised ROC-space parameters are introduced for characterizing the performance of each cloud. The first parameter is representative of the cloud position relative to the point of perfect classification. The second parameter characterizes the position of the cloud relative to the theoretically perfect ROC curve and the no-discrimination line. The methodology is illustrated with back-analyses of slope stability and landslide runout of selected case studies. This research activity has been

  8. Classification of bladder cancer cell lines using Raman spectroscopy: a comparison of excitation wavelength, sample substrate and statistical algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Adams, Aine; O'Dea, Shirley; Domijan, Katarina; Cullen, Ivor; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Raman microspectroscopy can be applied to the urinary bladder for highly accurate classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. This technique can be applied in vitro to bladder epithelial cells obtained from urine cytology or in vivo as an optical biopsy" to provide results in real-time with higher sensitivity and specificity than current clinical methods. However, there exists a high degree of variability across experimental parameters which need to be standardised before this technique can be utilized in an everyday clinical environment. In this study, we investigate different laser wavelengths (473 nm and 532 nm), sample substrates (glass, fused silica and calcium fluoride) and multivariate statistical methods in order to gain insight into how these various experimental parameters impact on the sensitivity and specificity of Raman cytology.

  9. Unifying Statistical Classification and Geodesic Active Regions for Segmentation of Cardiac MRI

    PubMed Central

    Folkesson, Jenny; Samset, Eigil; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a segmentation method that extends geodesic active region methods by the incorporation of a statistical classifier trained using feature selection. The classifier provides class probability maps based on class representative local features, and the geodesic active region formulation enables the partitioning of the image according to the region information. We demonstrate automatic segmentation results of the myocardium in cardiac late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) data using coupled level set curve evolutions, in which the classifier is incorporated both from a region term and from a shape term from particle filtering. The results show potential for clinical studies of scar tissue in late CE-MRI data. PMID:18693500

  10. Development of consensus International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core sets for lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Viehoff, P B; Heerkens, Y F; Van Ravensberg, C D; Hidding, J; Damstra, R J; Ten Napel, H; Neumann, H A M

    2015-03-01

    To understand the challenges of patients with lymphedema it is important to describe functioning and to measure the effectiveness of treatment in changing functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers an international framework to classify functioning of persons in their personal environment. ICF Core Sets are lists of selected ICF categories concerning those important aspects of functioning that are most likely to be affected by a specific health problem or disease. These Core Sets make it easier and faster to describe and communicate the patient's problems and to define treatment goals. Furthermore, they are available to health care providers of all professions, researchers, health insurance companies and policy-makers. The objective of this document is to present the outcomes of a consensus conference held to determine the first versions of the ICF Core Sets for lymphedema. Frequency rankings were made of the ICF categories derived from four preparatory studies, being: a) a systematic review; b) a qualitative study; c) an expert survey; and d) a cross-sectional study. By means of working group discussions and plenary sessions, a final consensus on ICF categories was achieved and Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets for lymphedema for the upper limb, lower limb, and midline lymphedema were defined. These ICF Core Sets contain different items in each region. Future validation of these Core Sets for health professions and for countries is needed.

  11. Internal Representations of Temporal Statistics and Feedback Calibrate Motor-Sensory Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Luigi; Wolpert, Daniel M.; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been shown to adapt to the temporal statistics of timing tasks so as to optimize the accuracy of their responses, in agreement with the predictions of Bayesian integration. This suggests that they build an internal representation of both the experimentally imposed distribution of time intervals (the prior) and of the error (the loss function). The responses of a Bayesian ideal observer depend crucially on these internal representations, which have only been previously studied for simple distributions. To study the nature of these representations we asked subjects to reproduce time intervals drawn from underlying temporal distributions of varying complexity, from uniform to highly skewed or bimodal while also varying the error mapping that determined the performance feedback. Interval reproduction times were affected by both the distribution and feedback, in good agreement with a performance-optimizing Bayesian observer and actor model. Bayesian model comparison highlighted that subjects were integrating the provided feedback and represented the experimental distribution with a smoothed approximation. A nonparametric reconstruction of the subjective priors from the data shows that they are generally in agreement with the true distributions up to third-order moments, but with systematically heavier tails. In particular, higher-order statistical features (kurtosis, multimodality) seem much harder to acquire. Our findings suggest that humans have only minor constraints on learning lower-order statistical properties of unimodal (including peaked and skewed) distributions of time intervals under the guidance of corrective feedback, and that their behavior is well explained by Bayesian decision theory. PMID:23209386

  12. Statistical separability and classification of land use classes using image-100. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Kumar, R.; Niero, M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The statistical separability of land use classes in the subsets of one to four spectral channels was investigated. Using ground observations and aerial photography, the MSS data of LANDSAT were analyzed with the Image-100. In the subsets of one to three spectral channels, channel 4, channel 4 & 7, and channels 4, 5, & 7 were found to be the best choices (ch.4 - 0.5 to 0.6 microns, ch. 5 - 0.6 to 0.7 microns, ch. 6 - 0.7 to 0.8 microns, and ch. 7 - 0.8 to 1.1 microns). For the single cell option of the Image-100, the errors of omission varied from 5% for the industrial class to 46% for the institutional class. The errors of commission varied from 11% for the commercial class to 39% for the industrial class. On the whole, the sample classifier gave considerably more accurate results compared to the single cell or multicell option.

  13. A statistical model for HIV-1 sequence classification using the subtype analyser (STAR).

    PubMed

    Myers, R E; Gale, C V; Harrison, A; Takeuchi, Y; Kellam, P

    2005-09-01

    HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance testing produces large amounts of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences. These provide an excellent resource to study the incidence, spread and clinical significance of HIV-1 subtypes. We have produced a program, Subtype Analyser (STAR) that rapidly and accurately subtypes HIV-1. Here we have determined a robust and statistically validated model for subtype assignment. We have significantly extended our HIV-1 subtyping tool (STAR), such that each query sequence when evaluated against subtype profile alignments, returns a discriminating score based on the ratio of subtype positive to negative amino acid positions. These scores were transformed into a Z-score distribution and evaluated. Of the 141 sequences used to define the subtype alignments, 98% were correctly reclassified. Inclusion of additional recombination detection within STAR increased the detection of known recombinant sequences to 95%. STAR is available as compiled (Linux Fedora 3) or source code from http://pgv19.virol.ucl.ac.uk/download/star_linux.tar p.kellam@ucl.ac.uk http://pgv19.virol.ucl.ac.uk/download/star_supplement

  14. Validation of the International Labour Office Digitized Standard Images for Recognition and Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis

    PubMed Central

    Halldin, Cara N.; Petsonk, Edward L.; Laney, A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Chest radiographs are recommended for prevention and detection of pneumoconiosis. In 2011, the International Labour Office (ILO) released a revision of the International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses that included a digitized standard images set. The present study compared results of classifications of digital chest images performed using the new ILO 2011 digitized standard images to classification approaches used in the past. Materials and Methods Underground coal miners (N = 172) were examined using both digital and film-screen radiography (FSR) on the same day. Seven National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified B Readers independently classified all 172 digital radiographs, once using the ILO 2011 digitized standard images (DRILO2011-D) and once using digitized standard images used in the previous research (DRRES). The same seven B Readers classified all the miners’ chest films using the ILO film-based standards. Results Agreement between classifications of FSR and digital radiography was identical, using a standard image set (either DRILO2011-D or DRRES). The overall weighted κ value was 0.58.Somespecific differences in the results were seen and noted. However, intrareader variability in this study was similar to the published values and did not appear to be affected by the use of the new ILO 2011 digitized standard images. Conclusions These findings validate the use of the ILO digitized standard images for classification of small pneumoconiotic opacities. When digital chest radiographs are obtained and displayed appropriately, results of pneumoconiosis classifications using the 2011 ILO digitized standards are comparable to film-based ILO classifications and to classifications using earlier research standards. PMID:24507420

  15. Classification of regimes of internal solitary waves transformation over a shelf-slope topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Talipova, Tatiana; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2015-04-01

    The internal waves shoal and dissipate as they cross abrupt changes of the topography in the coastal ocean, estuaries and in the enclosed water bodies. They can form near the coast internal bores propagating into the shallows and re-suspend seabed pollutants that may have serious ecological consequences. Internal solitary waves (ISW) with trapped core can transport masses of water and marine organisms for some distance. The transport of cold, low-oxygen waters results in nutrient pumping. These facts require development of classification of regimes of the ISWs transformation over a shelf-slope topography to recognize 'hot spots' of wave energy dissipation on the continental shelf. A new classification of regimes of internal solitary wave interaction with the shelf-slope topography in the framework of two-layer fluid is proposed. We introduce a new three-dimensional diagram based on parameters α ,β , γ. Here α is the nondimensional wave amplitude normalized on the thermocline thickness α = ain/h1 (α > 0), β is the blocking parameter introduced in (Talipova et al., 2013) that is the ratio of the height of the bottom layer on the the shelf step h2+ to the incident wave amplitude ain, β = h2+/ain (β > -3), and γ is the parameter inverse to the slope inclination (γ > 0.01). Two mechanisms are important during wave shoaling: (i) wave breaking resulting in mixing and (ii) changing of the polarity of the initial wave of depression on the slope. Range of the parameters at which wave breaking occurs can be defined using the criteria, obtained empirically (Vlasenko and Hutter, 2002). In the three-dimensional diagram this criteria is represented by the surface f1(β,γ) = 0 that separates the region of parameters where breaking takes place from the region without breaking. The polarity change surface f2(α,β) = 0 is obtained from the condition of equality of the depth of upper layer h1 to the depth of the lower layer h2. In the two-layer stratification waves of

  16. Completion of a Liver Surgery Complexity Score and Classification Based on an International Survey of Experts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Major K; Gao, Feng; Strasberg, Steven M

    2016-08-01

    Liver resections have classically been distinguished as "minor" or "major," based on number of segments removed. This is flawed because the number of segments resected alone does not convey the complexity of a resection. We recently developed a 3-tiered classification for the complexity of liver resections based on utility weighting by experts. This study aims to complete the earlier classification and to illustrate its application. Two surveys were administered to expert liver surgeons. Experts were asked to rate the difficulty of various open liver resections on a scale of 1 to 10. Statistical methods were then used to develop a complexity score for each procedure. Sixty-six of 135 (48.9%) surgeons responded to the earlier survey, and 66 of 122 (54.1%) responded to the current survey. In all, 19 procedures were rated. The lowest mean score of 1.36 (indicating least difficult) was given to peripheral wedge resection. Right hepatectomy with IVC reconstruction was deemed most difficult, with a score of 9.35. Complexity scores were similar for 9 procedures present in both surveys. Caudate resection, hepaticojejunostomy, and vascular reconstruction all increased the complexity of standard resections significantly. These data permit quantitative assessment of the difficulty of a variety of liver resections. The complexity scores generated allow for separation of liver resections into 3 categories of complexity (low complexity, medium complexity, and high complexity) on a quantitative basis. This provides a more accurate representation of the complexity of procedures in comparative studies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Completion of a Liver Surgery Complexity Score and Classification Based on an International Survey of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Major K; Gao, Feng; Strasberg, Steven M

    2017-01-01

    Background Liver resections have classically been distinguished as “minor” or “major” based on number of segments removed. This is flawed since the number of segments resected alone does not convey the complexity of a resection. We recently developed a three-tiered classification for the complexity of liver resections based on utility weighting by experts. This study aims to complete the prior classification and to illustrate its application. Study Design Two surveys were administered to expert liver surgeons. Experts were asked to rate the difficulty of various open liver resections on a scale of 1–10. Statistical methods were then used to develop a complexity score for each procedure. Results 66 of 135 (48.9%) surgeons responded to the prior survey, and 66 of 122 (54.1%) responded to the current survey. In all, 19 procedures were rated. The lowest mean score of 1.36—indicating least difficulty—was given to peripheral wedge resection. Right hepatectomy with IVC reconstruction was deemed most difficult with a score of 9.35. Complexity scores were similar for nine procedures present in both surveys. Caudate resection, hepaticojejunostomy, and vascular reconstruction all significantly increased the complexity of standard resections. Conclusions These data permit quantitative assessment of the difficulty of a variety of liver resections. The complexity scores generated allow for separation of liver resections into three categories of complexity (Low Complexity, Medium Complexity, and High Complexity) on a quantitative basis. This allows more accurate representation of the complexity of procedures in comparative studies. PMID:27072308

  18. Classification of childhood epilepsies in a tertiary pediatric neurology clinic using a customized classification scheme from the international league against epilepsy 2010 report.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Teik-Beng

    2013-01-01

    In its 2010 report, the International League Against Epilepsy Commission on Classification and Terminology had made a number of changes to the organization, terminology, and classification of seizures and epilepsies. This study aims to test the usefulness of this revised classification scheme on children with epilepsies aged between 0 and 18 years old. Of 527 patients, 75.1% only had 1 type of seizure and the commonest was focal seizure (61.9%). A specific electroclinical syndrome diagnosis could be made in 27.5%. Only 2.1% had a distinctive constellation. In this cohort, 46.9% had an underlying structural, metabolic, or genetic etiology. Among the important causes were pre-/perinatal insults, malformation of cortical development, intracranial infections, and neurocutaneous syndromes. However, 23.5% of the patients in our cohort were classified as having "epilepsies of unknown cause." The revised classification scheme is generally useful for pediatric patients. To make it more inclusive and clinically meaningful, some local customizations are required.

  19. [Current classification and nomenclature of plant viruses (by materials of the International Committee on Virus Taxonomy). Part I].

    PubMed

    Kraev, V G

    2000-01-01

    The rules of classification and nomenclature of plant viruses are reviewed in connection with the reports of the International Committee on Viruses Taxonomy. The characteristics of the families and genera of plant viruses approved by the Committee in 1995 are presented.

  20. Assessment of Patients with Intellectual Disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Evaluate Dental Treatment Tolerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, S.; Kita, F.; Miyawaki, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Ishida, R.; Egusa, M.; Shimada, M.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with serious intellectual disability (ID) are occasionally unable to tolerate dental treatment when intravenous sedation or general anaesthesia (IVSGA) is involved. In order to make a decision regarding the application of IVSGA, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is useful. Therefore, in this…

  1. Assessment of Patients with Intellectual Disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Evaluate Dental Treatment Tolerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, S.; Kita, F.; Miyawaki, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Ishida, R.; Egusa, M.; Shimada, M.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with serious intellectual disability (ID) are occasionally unable to tolerate dental treatment when intravenous sedation or general anaesthesia (IVSGA) is involved. In order to make a decision regarding the application of IVSGA, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is useful. Therefore, in this…

  2. Internet Use in Aphasia: A Case Study Viewed through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Fion; Morris, Julie; Salis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article uses an illustrative case example to discuss a means of producing a holistic profile of Internet use for individuals with aphasia. Methods: The authors used the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health as a framework to select novel and existing assessments to explore the Internet use and skills of…

  3. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: accurate diagnosis of orofacial pain?

    PubMed

    Benoliel, R; Birman, N; Eliav, E; Sharav, Y

    2008-07-01

    The aim was to apply diagnostic criteria, as published by the International Headache Society (IHS), to the diagnosis of orofacial pain. A total of 328 consecutive patients with orofacial pain were collected over a period of 2 years. The orofacial pain clinic routinely employs criteria published by the IHS, the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDCTMD). Employing IHS criteria, 184 patients were successfully diagnosed (56%), including 34 with persistent idiopathic facial pain. In the remaining 144 we applied AAOP/RDCTMD criteria and diagnosed 120 as masticatory myofascial pain (MMP) resulting in a diagnostic efficiency of 92.7% (304/328) when applying the three classifications (IHS, AAOP, RDCTMD). Employing further published criteria, 23 patients were diagnosed as neurovascular orofacial pain (NVOP, facial migraine) and one as a neuropathy secondary to connective tissue disease. All the patients were therefore allocated to predefined diagnoses. MMP is clearly defined by AAOP and the RDCTMD. However, NVOP is not defined by any of the above classification systems. The features of MMP and NVOP are presented and analysed with calculations for positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). In MMP the combination of facial pain aggravated by jaw movement, and the presence of three or more tender muscles resulted in a PPV = 0.82 and a NPV = 0.86. For NVOP the combination of facial pain, throbbing quality, autonomic and/or systemic features and attack duration of > 60 min gave a PPV = 0.71 and a NPV = 0.95. Expansion of the IHS system is needed so as to integrate more orofacial pain syndromes.

  4. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  5. Analysis methodology and development of a statistical tool for biodistribution data from internal contamination with actinides.

    PubMed

    Lamart, Stephanie; Griffiths, Nina M; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a computational tool that integrates several statistical analysis features for biodistribution data from internal contamination experiments. These data represent actinide levels in biological compartments as a function of time and are derived from activity measurements in tissues and excreta. These experiments aim at assessing the influence of different contamination conditions (e.g. intake route or radioelement) on the biological behavior of the contaminant. The ever increasing number of datasets and diversity of experimental conditions make the handling and analysis of biodistribution data difficult. This work sought to facilitate the statistical analysis of a large number of datasets and the comparison of results from diverse experimental conditions. Functional modules were developed using the open-source programming language R to facilitate specific operations: descriptive statistics, visual comparison, curve fitting, and implementation of biokinetic models. In addition, the structure of the datasets was harmonized using the same table format. Analysis outputs can be written in text files and updated data can be written in the consistent table format. Hence, a data repository is built progressively, which is essential for the optimal use of animal data. Graphical representations can be automatically generated and saved as image files. The resulting computational tool was applied using data derived from wound contamination experiments conducted under different conditions. In facilitating biodistribution data handling and statistical analyses, this computational tool ensures faster analyses and a better reproducibility compared with the use of multiple office software applications. Furthermore, re-analysis of archival data and comparison of data from different sources is made much easier. Hence this tool will help to understand better the influence of contamination characteristics on actinide biokinetics. Our approach can aid

  6. IPUMS International: A review and future prospects of a unique global statistical cooperation programme.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Alphonse L

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of the University of Minnesota Population Center (MPC) the author carried out an assessment of the IPUMS International integrated census microdata programme during January - March 2016. The terms of reference included the assessment of the measures taken by the MPC to safe guard the security of the microdata, the quality and adequacy of services provided, characteristics of users and satisfaction with IPUMS, use of available microdata, support to participating developing country National Statistical Offices (NSOs) and adequacy of a proposed Remote Data Center (RDC). The conclusions of the review are that IPUMS International is a unique, flexible, successful and secure programme for managing access to anonymized, harmonised and integrated microdata to academic users and policy makers. While currently the user base is predominantly in developed countries, steps are being taken to expand usage by researchers world-wide. The physical, methodological and technical arrangements for safeguarding the security and confidentiality of the data files are excellent; the possibilities of breaches are minimal. Data users have very positive opinions of the quality of the data, scope of services and expertise of staff but desire more detailed, up-to-date microdata. NSOs rate IPUMS International and its services positively but request advanced methodological training for staff and regular information on the use of their country's data. IPUMS International planned activities are presented and their contributions to census methodology are highlighted.

  7. IPUMS International: A review and future prospects of a unique global statistical cooperation programme

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Alphonse L.

    2017-01-01

    At the invitation of the University of Minnesota Population Center (MPC) the author carried out an assessment of the IPUMS International integrated census microdata programme during January – March 2016. The terms of reference included the assessment of the measures taken by the MPC to safe guard the security of the microdata, the quality and adequacy of services provided, characteristics of users and satisfaction with IPUMS, use of available microdata, support to participating developing country National Statistical Offices (NSOs) and adequacy of a proposed Remote Data Center (RDC). The conclusions of the review are that IPUMS International is a unique, flexible, successful and secure programme for managing access to anonymized, harmonised and integrated microdata to academic users and policy makers. While currently the user base is predominantly in developed countries, steps are being taken to expand usage by researchers world-wide. The physical, methodological and technical arrangements for safeguarding the security and confidentiality of the data files are excellent; the possibilities of breaches are minimal. Data users have very positive opinions of the quality of the data, scope of services and expertise of staff but desire more detailed, up-to-date microdata. NSOs rate IPUMS International and its services positively but request advanced methodological training for staff and regular information on the use of their country’s data. IPUMS International planned activities are presented and their contributions to census methodology are highlighted. PMID:28835781

  8. Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Martin; Johanssen, Sarah; Quinkler, Marcus; Bucsky, Peter; Willenberg, Holger S; Beuschlein, Felix; Terzolo, Massimo; Mueller, Hans-Helge; Hahner, Stefanie; Allolio, Bruno

    2009-01-15

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, and it was only in 2004 that the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) defined TNM criteria and published the first staging classification. However, to date, the prognostic value of the proposed classification has not been evaluated. The German ACC Registry comprising 492 patients was searched for patients who were diagnosed between 1986 and 2007 with detailed information on primary diagnosis and a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Patients were assigned to UICC tumor stage, and disease-specific survival (DSS) was assessed. In addition, the contribution of potential risk factors for DSS was evaluated. In total, 416 patients with a mean follow-up of 36 months met the inclusion criteria (stage I, n=23 patients; stage II, n=176 patients; stage III, n=67 patients; stage IV, n=150 patients). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a stage-dependent DSS. However, DSS in patients with stage II ACC did not differ significantly from DSS in patients with stage III ACC (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.16). Furthermore, patients who had stage IV ACC without distant metastases had an improved DSS compared with patients who had metastatic disease (P=.004). An analysis of different potential risk factors for defining stage III ACC revealed important roles in DSS for tumor infiltration in surrounding tissue, venous tumor thrombus (VTT), and positive lymph nodes; whereas tumor invasion in adjacent organs carried a prognosis similar to that of infiltration in surrounding tissue only. The 2004 UICC staging classification for ACC has significant limitations. On the basis of the current analysis, a revised classification with superior prognostic accuracy is proposed (the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors classification). In this system, stage III ACC is defined by the presence of positive lymph nodes, infiltration of surrounding tissue, or VTT; and stage IV ACC is restricted to patients with distant

  9. Benchmarking Physical Therapy Clinic Performance: Statistical Methods to Enhance Internal Validity When Using Observational Data

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, Linda; Liu, Dawei; Hart, Dennis L; Mor, Vince

    2008-01-01

    Many clinics and payers are beginning programs to collect and interpret outcomes related to quality of care and provider performance (ie, benchmarking). Outcomes assessment is commonly done using observational research designs, which makes it important for those involved in these endeavors to appreciate the underlying challenges and limitations of these designs. This perspective article discusses the advantages and limitations of using observational research to evaluate quality of care and provider performance in order to inform clinicians, researchers, administrators, and policy makers who want to use data to guide practice and policy or critically appraise observational studies and benchmarking efforts. Threats to internal validity, including potential confounding, patient selection bias, and missing data, are discussed along with statistical methods commonly used to address these limitations. An example is given from a recent study comparing physical therapy clinic performance in terms of patient outcomes and service utilization with and without the use of these methods. The authors demonstrate that crude differences in clinic outcomes and service utilization tend to be inflated compared with the differences that are statistically adjusted for selected threats to internal validity. The authors conclude that quality of care measurement and ranking procedures that do not use similar methods may produce findings that may be misleading. PMID:18689608

  10. Understanding the causal factors of obesity using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Keisha Tyler; Butler, James

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural, personal, psychological, sociodemographic, environmental, biological and childbearing factors have been associated with obesity among women. This study quantitatively explored the effects of these factors on predicting body mass index (BMI) in U.S. women using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and determined the effectiveness of using the ICF with population-level data. We used the ICF Core Sets for Obesity, and data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in a sample of 8766 U.S. women to quantify the impact of all associated causal factors. Linear regression was used in the analyses. Body image perceptions (42%) was the most significant contributor, followed by hypertension (12%), general health condition (11%), diabetes/borderline diabetes (10%), arthritis (9%) and performing vigorous activity (9%). To decrease obesity prevalence rates in U.S. women, obesity prevention and treatment programmes should parallel the contributory effects of its most significant causal factors of psychological, biological and behavioural. In addition, more research and data are needed to explore the relationship between BMI in women and the multiple influencing factors by going beyond the more frequently available information of age, gender, race, education, income and parity.

  11. Mapping SAGE questionnaire to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Quintas, Rui; Russo, Emanuela; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Costardi, Daniela; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Ojala, Matti; Peña, Sebastián; Perales, Jaime; Chatterji, Somnath; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Frattura, Lucilla; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    The collaborative research on ageing in Europe protocol was based on that of the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) project that investigated the relationship between health and well-being and provided a set of instruments that can be used across countries to monitor health and health-related outcomes of older populations as well as the strategies for addressing issues concerning the ageing process. To evaluate the degree to which SAGE protocol covered the spectrum of disability given the scope of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a mapping exercise was performed with SAGE protocol. Results show that the SAGE protocol covers ICF domains in a non-uniform way, with environmental factors categories being underrepresented, whereas mental, cardiovascular, sensory functions and mobility were overrepresented. To overcome this partial coverage of ICF functioning categories, new assessment instruments have been developed. PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: Mapping exercises are valid procedures to understand the extent to which a survey protocol covers the spectrum of functioning. The mapping exercise with SAGE protocol shows that it provides only a partial representation of body functions and activities and participation domains, and the coverage of environmental factors is poor. New instruments are therefore needed for researchers to properly understand the health and disability of ageing populations.

  12. Adolescents with Hearing Loss and the International Classification of Functioning, Health, and Disability: Children & Youth Version

    PubMed Central

    English, Kris; Pajevic, Emily

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, the World Health Organization published a set of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) codes designed for children and youth (ICF-CY version). The ICF-CY considers typical developmental changes associated with childhood while describing health status and the effects of intervention. In this article we will describe how a specific intervention (transition planning for adolescents) can be documented with the ICF-CY. Transition planning in health care prepares adolescents and their families for the transfer from pediatric to adult health services and has been demonstrated to be an effective practice for adolescents with many types of chronic health conditions (e.g., cystic fibrosis, epilepsy, diabetes). Audiology has not yet addressed transition planning for adolescents with hearing loss; therefore, we propose using the ICF-CY to design a pathway of care. The ICF-CY can standardize transition planning to the benefit of both teen patients and audiologists: teens and their families would gradually acquire necessary knowledge and skills, and audiologists would develop a meaningful data set to help further inform our pediatric practices, as well as give more structure, depth, and accountability to our role in rehabilitation. PMID:27489402

  13. Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for monitoring patients using cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Morettin, Marina; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Delamura, Aline Malavasi; Zabeu, Julia Speranza; Amantini, Regina Célia Bortoleto; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the profile of patients with cochlear implant as proposed by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY). This is a descriptive, cross-sectional retrospective study, which examined 30 medical records of patients using the cochlear implant of Centro de Pesquisas Audiológicas; To characterize the profile of the patients, the ICF-CY was used. Regarding the assessment, researchers relied on procedures performed in clinical routine, besides information registered in the medical record. After reviewing the information, it was related to codes from the ICF-CY; with the addition of a qualifier afterwards. Overall, 55 codes from the ICF were related to the instruments to characterize this population. Regarding the Body Functions field, most participants did not have disabilities related to reception and expression of oral language and auditory functions, with only written language disabilities being found. These same findings were observed in the Activity and Participation Field. Regarding environmental factors, noise and the non-availability of technology resources to assist in the auditory comprehension of noise were characterized as a barrier, as well as the absence of speech therapy. This study concluded that most of the participating children showed no deficiency in the body functions, with difficulties being only reported in relation to school performance. Environmental factors (noise, non-availability of technological resources, absence of speech therapy) were characterized as a barrier. The need to expand assessments in the clinical routine was also noted.

  14. [The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and experience of its implementation into practice].

    PubMed

    Krisciūnas, Aleksandras; Keizeris, Alvidas; Urboniene, Ausrine

    2010-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) organizes and classifies health and other related conditions, their consequences, and factors. The aim of this article is to summarize the experience of implementation of the ICF and possibilities for its application based on the recent literature data. This article gives brief information about background and history of the ICF development; essential ICF regulations and aims are defined as well as data on designing the methods of evaluation of health and other conditions related to it according to the ICF and their practical use in various rehabilitation spheres are presented. Examples of other countries where the ICF is accepted and implemented in social security sphere are given. After summarizing the information on experience of the ICF implementation in other countries, the following aspects are emphasized: evaluation methods of functional state for patients and disabled are being developed and implemented according to the Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets; the need for service in rehabilitation, geriatrics, and social security spheres is identified; the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs is evaluated based on the changes of personal functionality, described by the ICF categories. Development of a rehabilitation program is illustrated by the example of practical application of the ICF. According to the experience of other countries, guidelines of the ICF implementation into practice in Lithuania are given.

  15. Improving accuracy of International Classification of Diseases codes for venous thromboembolism in administrative data.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Kristen M; Wang, Tzu-Fei; Gage, Brian F; Liu, Weijian; Carson, Kenneth R

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly, clinicians and researchers are using administrative data for clinical and outcomes research. However, they continue to question the accuracy of using International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes alone to capture diagnoses, especially venous thromboembolism (VTE), in administrative data. We tested the hypothesis that incorporation of treatment data and/or common procedural terminology (CPT) codes could improve accuracy of administrative data in detecting VTE. Research Design Using the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry, we compared three competing algorithms by performing three cross-sectional studies. Algorithm 1 identified patients by ICD-9 codes alone. Algorithm 2 required VTE treatment in addition to ICD-9 codes. Algorithm 3 required a VTE diagnostic CPT code in addition to treatment and ICD-9 criteria. The accuracy of ICD-9 codes alone for detection of VTE was marginal, with a PPV of 72%. The PPV was improved to 91% after addition of treatment data (algorithm 2). As compared to algorithm 2, addition of CPT codes (algorithm 3) did not significantly increase the accuracy of detecting VTE (PPV 92%), but decreased sensitivity from 72% to 67%. Accuracy of VTE detection significantly improved with addition of treatment data to ICD-9 codes. This approach should facilitate use of administrative data to assess the incidence, epidemiology, and outcomes of VTE. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Sexual health in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD): implications for measurement and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chou, Doris; Cottler, Sara; Khosla, Rajat; Reed, Geoffrey M; Say, Lale

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines different dimensions of sexual health as related to the measurement of sexual health indicators and the proposed changes in the International Classification of Diseases to address issues related to sexuality and sexual health with an aim of informing health policy-making and programming. The lack of mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating sexual health outcomes has impeded the development of policies and programmes that support sexual health. The potential impact of changes to the ICD-11 is major and far-reaching given that the ICD is used by countries to define eligibility and access to health services and to formulate relevant policies and laws, and is used by health professionals as a basis for conceptualizing health conditions, treatments and outcomes. Improving the measurement of sexual health-related indicators builds the evidence base on scientific knowledge of sex, sexuality, sexual health and rights. As we stand on the cusp of the post-2015 era and the development agenda transitions to the Sustainable Development Goals, a unique opportunity presents itself to further consider how sexual health is defined, conceptualized, and monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Catalyst for interprofessional education and collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Snyman, Stefanus; Von Pressentin, Klaus B; Clarke, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centred and community-based care is required for promotion of health equity. To enhance patient-centred interprofessional care, the World Health Organization recommends using the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Stellenbosch University's Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice (IPECP) strategy has promoted using ICF since 2010. Undergraduate medical students on rural clinical placements are expected to use ICF in approaching and managing patients. Students' ability to develop interprofessional care plans using ICF is assessed by a team of preceptors representing various health professions. This study explored the experiences of medical students and their preceptors using ICF in IPECP, and how patients perceived care received. Associative Group Analysis methodology was used to collect data for this study. In total, 68 study participants were enrolled of which 37 were medical students, 16 preceptors and 15 patients. Students found ICF enabled a patient-centred approach and reinforce the importance of context. Patients felt listened to and cared for. Preceptors, obliged to use ICF, came to appreciate the advantages of interprofessional care, promoting mutually beneficial teamwork and job satisfaction. The value of integrating IPECP as an authentic learning experience was demonstrated as was ICF as a catalyst in pushing boundaries for change.

  18. Metabolic outcomes of workers according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wanhyung; Yeom, Hyungseon; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Jung, Pil Kyun; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-08-01

    Occupation influences the risk for developing chronic metabolic diseases. We compared the prevalence of MetS by International Standard Classification of Occupations using the nationally representative data in Korea (KNHANES). We enrolled 16,763 workers (9,175 males; 7,588 females) who had measurements for the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria III and other variables. OR and 95%CIs for MetS and its components were estimated according to occupation using the multiple logistic regression models. The occupational groups with the highest age-standardized prevalence of MetS were lower skilled white-collar men (31.1 ± 2.4%) and green-collar women (24.2 ± 2.9%). Compared with the unskilled male blue-collar group, which had the lowest prevalence of MetS, the OR (95%CIs) of MetS in men were 1.77 (1.45-2.15) in higher skilled white-collar, 1.82 (1.47-2.26) in lower-skilled white-collar, 1.63 (1.32-2.01) in pink-collar and 1.37 (1.13-1.66) in skilled blue-collar workers in final logistic regression model. MetS and its components vary by occupational category and gender in ways that may guide health interventions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:685-694, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: An Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chatila, Talal; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Franco, Jose Luis; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Holland, Steven M.; Klein, Christoph; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D.; Oksenhendler, Erik; Picard, Capucine; Puck, Jennifer M.; Sullivan, Kate; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) compiled by the Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. In comparison to the previous version, more than 30 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. In addition, we have added a table of acquired defects that are phenocopies of PIDs. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This classification is the most up-to-date catalog of all known PIDs and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases. PMID:24795713

  20. Statistical construction of a Japanese male liver phantom for internal radionuclide dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mofrad, Farshid Babapour; Zoroofi, Reza Aghaeizadeh; Tehrani-Fard, Ali Abbaspour; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram; Hori, Masatoshi; Chen, Yen-Wei; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2010-09-01

    A computational framework is presented, based on statistical shape modelling, for construction of race-specific organ models for internal radionuclide dosimetry and other nuclear-medicine applications. This approach was applied to the construction of a Japanese liver phantom, using the liver of the digital Zubal phantom as the template and 35 liver computed tomography (CT) scans of male Japanese individuals as a training set. The first step was the automated object-space registration (to align all the liver surfaces in one orientation), using a coherent-point-drift maximum-likelihood alignment algorithm, of each CT scan-derived manually contoured liver surface and the template Zubal liver phantom. Six landmark points, corresponding to the intersection of the contours of the maximum-area sagittal, transaxial and coronal liver sections were employed to perform the above task. To find correspondence points in livers (i.e. 2000 points for each liver), each liver surface was transformed into a mesh, was mapped for the parameter space of a sphere (parameterisation), yielding spherical harmonics (SPHARMs) shape descriptors. The resulting spherical transforms were then registered by minimising the root-mean-square distance among the SPHARMs coefficients. A mean shape (i.e. liver) and its dispersion (i.e. covariance matrix) were next calculated and analysed by principal components. Leave-one-out-tests using 5-35 principal components (or modes) demonstrated the fidelity of the foregoing statistical analysis. Finally, a voxelisation algorithm and a point-based registration is utilised to convert the SPHARM surfaces into its corresponding voxelised and adjusted the Zubal phantom data, respectively. The proposed technique used to create the race-specific statistical phantom maintains anatomic realism and provides the statistical parameters for application to radionuclide dosimetry.

  1. Awareness and the Arguments for and against the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health among Representatives of Disability Organisations

    PubMed Central

    Lundälv, Jörgen; Törnbom, Marie; Larsson, Per-Olof; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S.

    2015-01-01

    Disability organisations have not been engaged in the debate about the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Sweden. We wanted to know representatives’ attitudes about the ICF. The aim of the study was to elucidate the arguments for and against the ICF among representatives of disability organisations. The study consisted of eighteen representatives (from six disability organisations) that answered electronic questionnaires. The questionnaires involved ten open questions about the arguments for and against the ICF. The answers of the questionnaires have been categorized according to qualitative content analysis. Our results indicated four themes: awareness, arguments for and against, influence and the future. More than half of the representatives had very limited awareness of the ICF. There was an explicit criticism of individual classification but more positive comments about classification on an aggregated level. The most important issue for representatives was influencing social policy in society, not learning and spreading information about the ICF. PMID:25794190

  2. Awareness and the arguments for and against the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health among representatives of disability organisations.

    PubMed

    Lundälv, Jörgen; Törnbom, Marie; Larsson, Per-Olof; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2015-03-18

    Disability organisations have not been engaged in the debate about the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Sweden. We wanted to know representatives' attitudes about the ICF. The aim of the study was to elucidate the arguments for and against the ICF among representatives of disability organisations. The study consisted of eighteen representatives (from six disability organisations) that answered electronic questionnaires. The questionnaires involved ten open questions about the arguments for and against the ICF. The answers of the questionnaires have been categorized according to qualitative content analysis. Our results indicated four themes: awareness, arguments for and against, influence and the future. More than half of the representatives had very limited awareness of the ICF. There was an explicit criticism of individual classification but more positive comments about classification on an aggregated level. The most important issue for representatives was influencing social policy in society, not learning and spreading information about the ICF.

  3. Risk of Stroke After the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision Discharge Code Diagnosis of Hypertensive Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lerario, Michael P; Merkler, Alexander E; Gialdini, Gino; Parikh, Neal S; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman

    2016-02-01

    Although chronic hypertension is a well-established risk factor for stroke, little is known about stroke risk after hypertensive encephalopathy (HE), when neurologic sequelae of hypertension become evident. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of stroke after a diagnosis of HE. We identified all patients discharged from California, New York, and Florida emergency departments and acute care hospitals between 2005 and 2012 with a primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification discharge diagnosis of HE (437.2). Patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of seizure (345.x) served as negative controls, whereas patients with a primary diagnosis of transient ischemic attack (435.x) were positive controls. Our primary outcome was the composite of subsequent ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Kaplan-Meier survival statistics were used to calculate cumulative outcome rates, and Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to examine the association between index disease types and outcomes while adjusting for vascular risk factors. We identified 8233 patients with HE, 191 091 with seizure, and 308 680 with transient ischemic attack. The 1-year cumulative rate of ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage after HE was 4.90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.45-5.40) when compared with 0.92% (95% CI, 0.88-0.97) after seizure and 4.49% (95% CI, 4.42-4.57) after transient ischemic attack. The risk of intracerebral hemorrhage was significantly elevated in those with HE (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7-2.5) but not in those with transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.1), when compared with seizure patients. Patients discharged with a diagnosis of HE face a high risk of future cerebrovascular events, particularly intracerebral hemorrhage. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Assessment of Aphasia Across the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Using an iPad-Based Application.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiting Emily; Togher, Leanne; Power, Emma; Hutomo, Edwin; Yang, Yi-Fei; Tay, Arthur; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2017-04-01

    Access2Aphasia™ is an iPad™-based aphasia assessment application that enables real-time audiovisual communication between people with aphasia (PWA) and speech-language pathologists (SLPs), and the use of supported conversation techniques. This study aimed to establish the reliability of aphasia assessment across the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) using Access2Aphasia, and compare it with face-to-face (FTF) assessment. Consumer perspectives of Access2Aphasia were also examined. Thirty PWA were randomized into two conditions: online-led and FTF assessment. Participants in the online-led group were assessed remotely using Access2Aphasia™ in their own homes, while an FTF SLP scored silently simultaneously. Participants in the FTF group were assessed FTF using standard administration materials. Assessment included two subtests of the Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing Activities (PALPA) and the Assessment of Living with Aphasia (ALA) to allow for outcomes to be captured across the ICF domains. Consumer perspectives on Access2Aphasia were obtained from both PWA and research SLPs in the online-led group. Kappa statistics indicated moderate to almost perfect agreement between online and FTF SLPs (k = 0.71-1.00). Intrarater and interrater reliability was excellent (ICC = 0.99-1.00) and equivalent for the online-led and FTF conditions. Both PWA and research SLPs in the online-led group reported being satisfied with the experience overall, with suggestions provided by research SLPs to improve Access2Aphasia. This study supports the provision of iPad-based aphasia assessments across the ICF in the online environment, with comparable reliability to FTF assessments. Future research is warranted to support the development of iPad-based aphasia assessment and treatment as an alternative mode of service delivery to PWA.

  5. PREFACE: International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics 2008 (IW-SMI 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Statistical mechanical informatics (SMI) is an approach that applies physics to information science, in which many-body problems in information processing are tackled using statistical mechanics methods. In the last decade, the use of SMI has resulted in great advances in research into classical information processing, in particular, theories of information and communications, probabilistic inference and combinatorial optimization problems. It is expected that the success of SMI can be extended to quantum systems. The importance of many-body problems is also being recognized in quantum information theory (QIT), for which quantification of entanglement of bipartite systems has recently been almost completely established after considerable effort. SMI and QIT are sufficiently well developed that it is now appropriate to consider applying SMI to quantum systems and developing many-body theory in QIT. This combination of SMI and QIT is highly likely to contribute significantly to the development of both research fields. The International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics has been organized in response to this situation. This workshop, held at Sendai International Conference Center, Sendai, Japan, 14-17 September 2008, and sponsored by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas `Deepening and Expansion of Statistical Mechanical Informatics (DEX-SMI)' (Head investigator: Yoshiyuki Kabashima, Tokyo Institute of Technology) (Project http://dex-smi.sp.dis.titech.ac.jp/DEX-SMI), was intended to provide leading researchers with strong interdisciplinary interests in QIT and SMI with the opportunity to engage in intensive discussions. The aim of the workshop was to expand SMI to quantum systems and QIT research on quantum (entangled) many-body systems, to discuss possible future directions, and to offer researchers the opportunity to exchange ideas that may lead to joint research initiatives. We would like to thank the contributors of the workshop

  6. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis.

  7. Describing Peripancreatic Collections According to the Revised Atlanta Classification of Acute Pancreatitis: An International Interobserver Agreement Study.

    PubMed

    Bouwense, Stefan A; van Brunschot, Sandra; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Besselink, Marc G; Bollen, Thomas L; Bakker, Olaf J; Banks, Peter A; Boermeester, Marja A; Cappendijk, Vincent C; Carter, Ross; Charnley, Richard; van Eijck, Casper H; Freeny, Patrick C; Hermans, John J; Hough, David M; Johnson, Colin D; Laméris, Johan S; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Mortele, Koenraad J; Sarr, Michael G; Stedman, Brian; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Werner, Jens; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Gooszen, Hein G; Horvath, Karen D

    2017-08-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with peripancreatic morphologic changes as seen on imaging. Uniform communication regarding these morphologic findings is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment. For the original 1992 Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement is poor. We hypothesized that for the revised Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement will be better. An international, interobserver agreement study was performed among expert and nonexpert radiologists (n = 14), surgeons (n = 15), and gastroenterologists (n = 8). Representative computed tomographies of all stages of acute pancreatitis were selected from 55 patients and were assessed according to the revised Atlanta classification. The interobserver agreement was calculated among all reviewers and subgroups, that is, expert and nonexpert reviewers; interobserver agreement was defined as poor (≤0.20), fair (0.21-0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), good (0.61-0.80), or very good (0.81-1.00). Interobserver agreement among all reviewers was good (0.75 [standard deviation, 0.21]) for describing the type of acute pancreatitis and good (0.62 [standard deviation, 0.19]) for the type of peripancreatic collection. Expert radiologists showed the best and nonexpert clinicians the lowest interobserver agreement. Interobserver agreement was good for the revised Atlanta classification, supporting the importance for widespread adaption of this revised classification for clinical and research communications.

  8. Discussion of "The Internal Correlation: Its Applications in Statistics and Psychometrics" by G. W. Joe and J. L. Mendoza.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargmann, Rolf

    1989-01-01

    Use of internal correlation for statistical analysis--as proposed by G. W. Joe and J. L. Mendoza (1989)--is discussed. Use of the bootstrap technique to deal with the distributional problem is questioned. Joe and Mendoza attempt the interpretation of the two linear composites that produce the largest internal correlation. (TJH)

  9. A speed distance-based classification system for injury prevention and research in international and domestic youth baseball players.

    PubMed

    Axe, Michael J; Strube, Michael; Osinski, David; Andrews, James R; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    An objective classification system for studying youth baseball players in the U.S.A. was published in 1996. Professional baseball is composed of greater than 25% international players a majority of whom come from five countries. Many youth baseball players are injured in early years play, both in the U.S.A. and internationally. There is no international classification system to study youth baseball pitching injuries, biomechanics, or maturation, but one is needed in order to compare and combine pitchers in multi-center studies. Uniform domestic and international pre-injury normative data is optimum. Ideally, data collection should be practical requiring inexpensive equipment and limited time demands. The mathematical model, developed in 1996 on 853 boys and validated on 114 boys in the Mid-Atlantic Region, U.S.A., is internationally applicable, allowing easy classification of youth baseball pitchers and levels throughout the world. Seven-hundred-twenty-one international pitchers, ages 8-14, threw five full-speed pitches recorded with a calibrated radar gun and four maximum distance throws on a marked field. Demographics included age, height, weight, and years pitched. Collection sites included foreign national baseball clubs (Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Japan and the Philippines), the Mexican national youth tournament, and a multinational tournament (Brazil, Peru and Colombia). The mathematical model developed in 1996 was used to generate predicted distances for this sample for comparison with actual distances. In addition to the overall analysis, adequate sample sizes were available for comparing predicted and actual distances by country for four of the countries. The correlation between predicted distance using the mathematical model and actual distance was 0.90. The mean of the international players was 1-2 standard deviations above the USA mean for speed and one standard deviation above the mean for distance. There was no systematic over or

  10. First Dutch guidelines on lipedema using the international classification of functioning, disability and health.

    PubMed

    Halk, Anne B; Damstra, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Lipedema is a chronic, progressive condition that can result in considerable disability. In 2011, the Dutch Society of Dermatology and Venereology organized a task force to create guidelines on lipedema, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health of the World Health Organization. Guideline development Clinical questions on significant issues in lipedema care were proposed, involving (1) making the diagnosis of lipedema; (2) clinimetric measurements for early detection and adequate follow-up; and (3) treatment. A systematic review of literature published up to June 2013 was conducted. Based on available evidence and experience of the task force, answers were formed and recommendations were stated. The guidelines define criteria to make a medical diagnosis of lipedema, a minimum data set of (repeated) clinical measurements that should be used to ensure early detection and an individually outlined follow-up plan, pillars on which conservative treatment should be based and recommendations on surgical treatment options. Conclusions Little consistent information concerning either diagnostics or therapy can be found in the literature. It is likely that lipedema is frequently misdiagnosed or wrongly diagnosed as only an aesthetic problem and therefore under- or mis-treated. Treatment is divided into conservative and chirurgic treatment. The only available technique to correct the abnormal adipose tissue is surgery. Recommendations To ensure early detection and an individually outlined follow-up, the committee advises the use of a minimum data set of (repeated) measurements of waist circumference, circumference of involved limbs, body mass index and scoring of the level of daily practice and psychosocial distress. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle with individually adjusted weight control measures, graded activity training programs, edema reduction, and other supportive measures are pillars of conservative therapy. Tumescent

  11. Validation of International Classification of Diseases Codes for the Epidemiologic Study of Dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Kwa, Michael C; Ardalan, Kaveh; Laumann, Anne E; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis P; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2017-05-01

    To assess the validity of using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code 710.3 to identify adult patients with dermatomyositis in outpatient and inpatient settings. Electronic medical records of adult patients with ICD-9 code 710.3 between January 2001 and November 2014 (n = 511) were examined. Physician diagnosis, clinical findings, and diagnostic testing results were recorded. A dermatomyositis rating scale was assigned based on classic cutaneous findings and at least 2 additional clinical and diagnostic findings from the Bohan criteria. Sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPVs) were determined. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the accuracy of multiple ICD-9 codes in the outpatient setting, as well as primary and secondary inpatient codes. The sensitivity and PPV for multiple 710.3 ICD-9 codes in the outpatient setting were 0.89 and 0.35, respectively. The PPV for primary and secondary 710.3 inpatient codes was 0.95 and as high as 0.8. However, the sensitivity of ICD-9 code 710.3 was poor in the inpatient setting (primary 0.23 and secondary 0.26). The most common reason for failure to meet appropriate dermatomyositis criteria was miscoding as diabetes mellitus (32%), followed by diagnosis at an outside institution (19%), dermatomyositis as a rule-out diagnosis (10%), cutaneous dermatomyositis (8%), and juvenile dermatomyositis (6%). One or more occurrences of ICD-9 code 710.3 is insufficient to support the diagnosis of dermatomyositis in the outpatient setting. However, ICD-9 710.3 codes appear to be valid in the inpatient setting. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Aphasia and Auditory Processing after Stroke through an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Lens

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Suzanne C.; Wanigasekara, Iruni; Cañete, Oscar M.; Moore, Celia; McCann, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment affecting speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Aphasia occurs in about a third of patients who have ischemic stroke and significantly affects functional recovery and return to work. Stroke is more common in older individuals but also occurs in young adults and children. Because people experiencing a stroke are typically aged between 65 and 84 years, hearing loss is common and can potentially interfere with rehabilitation. There is some evidence for increased risk and greater severity of sensorineural hearing loss in the stroke population and hence it has been recommended that all people surviving a stroke should have a hearing test. Auditory processing difficulties have also been reported poststroke. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used as a basis for describing the effect of aphasia, hearing loss, and auditory processing difficulties on activities and participation. Effects include reduced participation in activities outside the home such as work and recreation and difficulty engaging in social interaction and communicating needs. A case example of a young man (M) in his 30s who experienced a left-hemisphere ischemic stroke is presented. M has normal hearing sensitivity but has aphasia and auditory processing difficulties based on behavioral and cortical evoked potential measures. His principal goal is to return to work. Although auditory processing difficulties (and hearing loss) are acknowledged in the literature, clinical protocols typically do not specify routine assessment. The literature and the case example presented here suggest a need for further research in this area and a possible change in practice toward more routine assessment of auditory function post-stroke. PMID:27489401

  13. Linking Frailty Instruments to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, Roberta Vella; Vermeiren, Sofie; Gorus, Ellen; Habbig, Ann-Katrin; Petrovic, Mirko; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; De Vriendt, Patricia; Bautmans, Ivan; Beyer, Ingo

    2016-11-01

    To date, the major dilemma concerning frailty is the lack of a standardized language regarding its operationalization. Considering the demographic challenge that the world is facing, standardization of frailty identification is indeed the first step in tackling the burdensome consequences of frailty. To demonstrate this diversity in frailty assessment, the available frailty instruments have been linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): a standardized and hierarchically coded language developed by World Health Organization regarding health conditions and their positive (functioning) and negative (disability) consequences. A systematic review on frailty instruments was carried out in PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO. The items of the identified frailty instruments were then linked to the ICF codes. 79 original or adapted frailty instruments were identified and categorized into single (n = 25) and multidomain (n = 54) groups. Only 5 frailty instruments (indexes) were linked to all 5 ICF components. Whereas the ICF components Body Functions and Activities and Participation were frequently linked to the frailty instruments, Body Structures, Environmental and Personal factors were sparingly represented mainly in the multidomain frailty instruments. This review highlights the heterogeneity in frailty operationalization. Environmental and personal factors should be given more thought in future frailty assessments. Being unambiguous, structured, and neutral, the ICF language allows comparing observations made with different frailty instruments. In conclusion, this systematic overview and ICF translation can be a cornerstone for future standardization of frailty assessment. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Empirical analysis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) using structural equation modeling

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Fabiana C. M. S.; Mancini, Marisa C.; Neves, Jorge A.; Kirkwood, Renata N.; Sampaio, Rosana F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To empirically test the relationships proposed by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) among its domains. Method: The cross-sectional study was completed with 226 adult patients with different health conditions who attended a Brazilian rehabilitation unit. The ICF components were measured with the following instruments: World Health Organization Disability Assessment Instrument II, Functional Independence Measure, Participation Scale, Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors, and a protocol designed to gather information on body structure and function and personal factors. Results: Structural equation modeling showed good model adjustment, GFI=0.863; AGFI=0.795; RMSEA=0.028 (90% CI=0.014-0.043). Significant relationships were found between activity and both body structure and function (standard coefficient=0.32; p<0.0001) and participation components (standard coefficient=–0.70; p<0.0001). Environmental and personal factors had a significant effect on the three functioning components (standard coefficient =0.39; p<0.0001; standard coefficient =-0.35; p<0.001, respectively). In contrast, body structure and function had no significant effect on participation (standard coefficient=–0.10; p=0.111) and health conditions had no significant effect on any of the functioning components, i.e., body structure and function, activity, and participation (standard coefficient=–0.12; p=0.128). Conclusion: Some of the ICF’s proposed relationships across domains were confirmed, while others were not found to be significant. Our results reinforce the contextual dependency of the functioning and disability processes, in addition to putting into perspective the impact of health conditions. PMID:27878225

  15. A tool for enhancing strategic health planning: a modeled use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Lisa Bundara; Fox, Michael H.; Betts, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This article describes use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for strategic planning. The ICF is the international classification system for factors that influence health, including Body Structures, Body Functions, Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors. An overview of strategic planning and the ICF are provided. Selected ICF concepts and nomenclature are used to demonstrate its utility in helping develop a classic planning framework, objectives, measures and actions. Some issues and resolutions for applying the ICF are described. Applying the ICF for strategic health planning is an innovative approach that fosters the inclusion of social ecological health determinants and broad populations. If employed from the onset of planning, the ICF can help public health organizations systematically conceptualize, organize and communicate a strategic health plan. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:23147247

  16. A tool for enhancing strategic health planning: a modeled use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Lisa Bundara; Fox, Michael H; Betts, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This article describes use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a tool for strategic planning. The ICF is the international classification system for factors that influence health, including Body Structures, Body Functions, Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors. An overview of strategic planning and the ICF are provided. Selected ICF concepts and nomenclature are used to demonstrate its utility in helping develop a classic planning framework, objectives, measures and actions. Some issues and resolutions for applying the ICF are described. Applying the ICF for strategic health planning is an innovative approach that fosters the inclusion of social ecological health determinants and broad populations. If employed from the onset of planning, the ICF can help public health organizations systematically conceptualize, organize and communicate a strategic health plan. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Derivation and Validation of Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Michelle; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Gordon, Caroline; Merrill, Joan T.; Fortin, Paul R.; Bruce, Ian N.; Isenberg, David; Wallace, Daniel J.; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Hanly, John G.; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Clarke, Ann; Aranow, Cynthia; Manzi, Susan; Urowitz, Murray; Gladman, Dafna; Kalunian, Kenneth; Costner, Melissa; Werth, Victoria P.; Zoma, Asad; Bernatsky, Sasha; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Khamashta, Munther A.; Jacobsen, Soren; Buyon, Jill P.; Maddison, Peter; Dooley, Mary Anne; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.; Ginzler, Ellen; Stoll, Thomas; Peschken, Christine; Jorizzo, Joseph L.; Callen, Jeffrey P.; Lim, S. Sam; Fessler, Barri J.; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L.; Rahman, Anisur; Steinsson, Kristjan; Franks, Andrew G.; Sigler, Lisa; Hameed, Suhail; Fang, Hong; Pham, Ngoc; Brey, Robin; Weisman, Michael H.; McGwin, Gerald; Magder, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) revised and validated the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria in order to improve clinical relevance, meet stringent methodology requirements and incorporate new knowledge in SLE immunology. Methods The classification criteria were derived from a set of 702 expert-rated patient scenarios. Recursive partitioning was used to derive an initial rule that was simplified and refined based on SLICC physician consensus. SLICC validated the classification criteria in a new validation sample of 690 SLE patients and controls. Results Seventeen criteria were identified. The SLICC criteria for SLE classification requires: 1) Fulfillment of at least four criteria, with at least one clinical criterion AND one immunologic criterion OR 2) Lupus nephritis as the sole clinical criterion in the presence of ANA or anti-dsDNA antibodies. In the derivation set, the SLICC classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications than the current ACR classification criteria (49 versus 70, p=0.0082), had greater sensitivity (94% versus 86%, p<0.0001) and equal specificity (92% versus 93%, p=0.39). In the validation set, the SLICC Classification criteria resulted in fewer misclassifications (62 versus 74, p=0.24), had greater sensitivity (97% versus 83%, p<0.0001) but less specificity (84% versus 96%, p<0.0001). Conclusions The new SLICC classification criteria performed well on a large set of patient scenarios rated by experts. They require that at least one clinical criterion and one immunologic criterion be present for a classification of SLE. Biopsy confirmed nephritis compatible with lupus (in the presence of SLE autoantibodies) is sufficient for classification. PMID:22553077

  18. Uncertainty analysis of statistical downscaling models using general circulation model over an international wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadi, H.; Samadi, S.; Sharifikia, M.

    2014-06-01

    Regression-based statistical downscaling model (SDSM) is an appropriate method which broadly uses to resolve the coarse spatial resolution of general circulation models (GCMs). Nevertheless, the assessment of uncertainty propagation linked with climatic variables is essential to any climate change impact study. This study presents a procedure to characterize uncertainty analysis of two GCM models link with Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) and SDSM in one of the most vulnerable international wetland, namely "Shadegan" in an arid region of Southwest Iran. In the case of daily temperature, uncertainty is estimated by comparing monthly mean and variance of downscaled and observed daily data at a 95 % confidence level. Uncertainties were then evaluated from comparing monthly mean dry and wet spell lengths and their 95 % CI in daily precipitation downscaling using 1987-2005 interval. The uncertainty results indicated that the LARS-WG is the most proficient model at reproducing various statistical characteristics of observed data at a 95 % uncertainty bounds while the SDSM model is the least capable in this respect. The results indicated a sequences uncertainty analysis at three different climate stations and produce significantly different climate change responses at 95 % CI. Finally the range of plausible climate change projections suggested a need for the decision makers to augment their long-term wetland management plans to reduce its vulnerability to climate change impacts.

  19. Defining pediatric traumatic brain injury using International Classification of Diseases Version 10 Codes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vincy; Thurairajah, Pravheen; Colantonio, Angela

    2015-02-04

    Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on the International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD-10) codes used to define TBI among children and youth internationally. This study systematically reviewed the literature to explore the range of ICD-10 codes that are used to define TBI in this population. The identification of the range of ICD-10 codes to define this population in administrative data is crucial, as it has implications for policy, resource allocation, planning of healthcare services, and prevention strategies. The databases MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched. Grey literature was searched using Grey Matters and Google. Reference lists of included articles were also searched for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A full text screen was conducted on articles that met the first screen inclusion criteria. All full text articles that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were included for analysis in this systematic review. A total of 1,326 publications were identified through the predetermined search strategy and 32 articles/reports met all eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review. Five articles specifically examined children and youth aged 19 years or under with TBI. ICD-10 case definitions ranged from the broad injuries to the head codes (ICD-10 S00 to S09) to concussion only (S06.0). There was overwhelming consensus on the inclusion of ICD-10 code S06, intracranial injury, while codes S00 (superficial injury of the head), S03 (dislocation, sprain, and strain of joints and ligaments of head), and S05 (injury of eye and orbit) were only used by articles that examined head injury, none of which specifically examined children and

  20. Effect of altitude on physiological performance: a statistical analysis using results of international football games

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of altitude on match results and physiological performance of a large and diverse population of professional athletes. Design Statistical analysis of international football (soccer) scores and results. Data resources FIFA extensive database of 1460 football matches in 10 countries spanning over 100 years. Results Altitude had a significant (P<0.001) negative impact on physiological performance as revealed through the overall underperformance of low altitude teams when playing against high altitude teams in South America. High altitude teams score more and concede fewer goals with increasing altitude difference. Each additional 1000 m of altitude difference increases the goal difference by about half of a goal. The probability of the home team winning for two teams from the same altitude is 0.537, whereas this rises to 0.825 for a home team with an altitude difference of 3695 m (such as Bolivia v Brazil) and falls to 0.213 when the altitude difference is −3695 m (such as Brazil v Bolivia). Conclusions Altitude provides a significant advantage for high altitude teams when playing international football games at both low and high altitudes. Lowland teams are unable to acclimatise to high altitude, reducing physiological performance. As physiological performance does not protect against the effect of altitude, better predictors of individual susceptibility to altitude illness would facilitate team selection. PMID:18156225

  1. Why is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders so hard to revise? Path-dependence and "lock-in" in classification.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the D.S.M.-5, was published in May 2013. In the lead up to publication, radical changes to the classification were anticipated; there was widespread dissatisfaction with the previous edition and it was accepted that a "paradigm shift" might be required. In the end, however, and despite huge efforts at revision, the published D.S.M.-5 differs far less than originally envisaged from its predecessor. This paper considers why it is that revising the D.S.M. has become so difficult. The D.S.M. is such an important classification that this question is worth asking in its own right. The case of the D.S.M. can also serve as a study for considering stasis in classification more broadly; why and how can classifications become resistant to change? I suggest that classifications like the D.S.M. can be thought of as forming part of the infrastructure of science, and have much in common with material infrastructure. In particular, as with material technologies, it is possible for "path dependent" development to cause a sub-optimal classification to become "locked in" and hard to replace.

  2. Waveform classification and statistical analysis of seismic precursors to the July 2008 Vulcanian Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Mel; Smith, Patrick; Pyle, David; Mather, Tamsin

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the transition between quiescence and eruption at dome-forming volcanoes, such as Soufrière Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, is important for monitoring volcanic activity during long-lived eruptions. Statistical analysis of seismic events (e.g. spectral analysis and identification of multiplets via cross-correlation) can be useful for characterising seismicity patterns and can be a powerful tool for analysing temporal changes in behaviour. Waveform classification is crucial for volcano monitoring, but consistent classification, both during real-time analysis and for retrospective analysis of previous volcanic activity, remains a challenge. Automated classification allows consistent re-classification of events. We present a machine learning (random forest) approach to rapidly classify waveforms that requires minimal training data. We analyse the seismic precursors to the July 2008 Vulcanian explosion at SHV and show systematic changes in frequency content and multiplet behaviour that had not previously been recognised. These precursory patterns of seismicity may be interpreted as changes in pressure conditions within the conduit during magma ascent and could be linked to magma flow rates. Frequency analysis of the different waveform classes supports the growing consensus that LP and Hybrid events should be considered end members of a continuum of low-frequency source processes. By using both supervised and unsupervised machine-learning methods we investigate the nature of waveform classification and assess current classification schemes.

  3. Using the international classification of functioning, disease and health in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: separating the disease from its epiphenomena.

    PubMed

    Ustün, T Bedirhan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the description of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a possible "disease entity" and the "disabilities" associated with it. It builds on the nosological descriptions of ADHD from International Classification of Disease (ICD) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) perspectives and introduces the distinct disability dimension from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) perspective. It advocates for separating assessment of disease and disability dimensions and then utilizing these constructs jointly by using both the ICD and ICF classifications. The ICF analyzes functioning in relation to a health condition in terms of 1) body functions and body structures, 2) activities of the person and participation of the person in society, and 3) contextual factors such as environmental factors and personal factors. The separation of signs/symptoms and consequences permits better understanding of the disease pathophysiology on the one hand and the consequences (eg, its impact on the person, family, peers, school, work, and social life) on the other hand. It will therefore enable us to better understand the nature of ADHD because the core body functions associated with the disorder will be better delineated. In addition, capturing environmental factors may help people with ADHD by modifying their environments. The ICF provides a good outcome monitoring and evaluation tool for the assessment of treatment response. As in many other disorders, diagnosis alone is not a sufficient predictor of health care needs, utilization, costs, or outcomes. When one adds disability as a predictor, our capacity to predict these parameters is increased dramatically. It is therefore suggested that the ICF framework be considered in future ADHD research activities.

  4. Statistical investigation of simulated intestinal fluid composition on the equilibrium solubility of biopharmaceutics classification system class II drugs.

    PubMed

    Khadra, Ibrahim; Zhou, Zhou; Dunn, Claire; Wilson, Clive G; Halbert, Gavin

    2015-01-25

    A drug's solubility and dissolution behaviour within the gastrointestinal tract is a key property for successful administration by the oral route and one of the key factors in the biopharmaceutics classification system. This property can be determined by investigating drug solubility in human intestinal fluid (HIF) but this is difficult to obtain and highly variable, which has led to the development of multiple simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) recipes. Using a statistical design of experiment (DoE) technique this paper has investigated the effects and interactions on equilibrium drug solubility of seven typical SIF components (sodium taurocholate, lecithin, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, pH, pancreatin and sodium oleate) within concentration ranges relevant to human intestinal fluid values. A range of poorly soluble drugs with acidic (naproxen, indomethacin, phenytoin, and piroxicam), basic (aprepitant, carvedilol, zafirlukast, tadalafil) or neutral (fenofibrate, griseofulvin, felodipine and probucol) properties have been investigated. The equilibrium solubility results determined are comparable with literature studies of the drugs in either HIF or SIF indicating that the DoE is operating in the correct space. With the exception of pancreatin, all of the factors individually had a statistically significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds and drug specific interactions were evident. Interestingly for the neutral compounds pH was the factor with the second largest solubility effect. Around one third of all the possible factor combinations showed a significant influence on equilibrium solubility with variations in interaction significance and magnitude of effect between the acidic and basic or neutral compounds. The least number of significant media component interactions were noted for the acidic compounds with three and the greatest for the neutral compounds at seven

  5. Defining traumatic brain injury in children and youth using international classification of diseases version 10 codes: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vincy; Thurairajah, Pravheen; Colantonio, Angela

    2013-11-13

    Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on using the International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes to define traumatic brain injury among children and youth. This protocol is for a systematic review of the literature to explore the range of International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes that are used to define traumatic brain injury in this population. The databases MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews will be systematically searched. Grey literature will be searched using Grey Matters and Google. Reference lists of included articles will also be searched. Articles will be screened using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and all full-text articles that meet the predefined inclusion criteria will be included for analysis. The study selection process and reasons for exclusion at the full-text level will be presented using a PRISMA study flow diagram. Information on the data source of included studies, year and location of study, age of study population, range of incidence, and study purpose will be abstracted into a separate table and synthesized for analysis. All International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes will be listed in tables and the codes that are used to define concussion, acquired traumatic brain injury, head injury, or head trauma will be identified. The identification of the optimal International Classification of Diseases version 10 codes to define this population in administrative data is crucial, as it has implications for policy, resource allocation, planning of healthcare services, and prevention strategies. It also allows for comparisons across countries and studies. This protocol is for a review that identifies the range and most common diagnoses used to conduct surveillance for traumatic brain injury in children and youth. This

  6. Surgical management of morbidity due to lymphatic filariasis: the usefulness of a standardized international clinical classification of hydroceles.

    PubMed

    Capuano, G P; Capuano, C

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the usefulness of a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries to guide their surgical management. 64 patients with hydroceles were operated in 2009-2010, in Level II hospitals (WHO classification), during two visits to Fiji, by the same mobile surgical team. The number of hydroceles treated was 83. We developed and evaluated a much needed clinical classification of hydroceles based on four criteria: Type (uni/bilateral); Side (left/right); Stage of enlargement of the scrotum rated from I to VI; Grade of burial of the penis rated from 0 to 4. It lead to the conclusion that 1) A Stage I or II hydrocele, associated with Grade 0 or 1 penis burial could be considered a "Simple Hydrocele". The surgical treatment is simple with no anticipated early complication. WHO Level II of health care structure seems adapted. 2) A Stage III or IV hydrocele associated with Grade 2, 3 or 4 penis burial could be considered a "Complicated Hydrocele". The operation is longer, more complicated and the possibility of occurrence of complications seems greater. A level III health care facility would be more adapted under the normal functioning of the health system. We conclude that a standardized clinical classification of hydroceles based on the Stage of enlargement of the scrotum and the Grade of burial of the penis appears to be a useful tool to guide the decision about the level of care and the surgical technique required. We use the same classification for penoscrotal lymphoedema. A decision tree is presented for the management of hydroceles in lymphatic filariasis endemic countries which could usefully complement the "Algorithm for management of scrotal swelling" proposed by WHO in 2002. An international classification system of hydroceles would also allow standardization and facilitate study design and comparisons of their results.

  7. Exceeding chance level by chance: The caveat of theoretical chance levels in brain signal classification and statistical assessment of decoding accuracy.

    PubMed

    Combrisson, Etienne; Jerbi, Karim

    2015-07-30

    Machine learning techniques are increasingly used in neuroscience to classify brain signals. Decoding performance is reflected by how much the classification results depart from the rate achieved by purely random classification. In a 2-class or 4-class classification problem, the chance levels are thus 50% or 25% respectively. However, such thresholds hold for an infinite number of data samples but not for small data sets. While this limitation is widely recognized in the machine learning field, it is unfortunately sometimes still overlooked or ignored in the emerging field of brain signal classification. Incidentally, this field is often faced with the difficulty of low sample size. In this study we demonstrate how applying signal classification to Gaussian random signals can yield decoding accuracies of up to 70% or higher in two-class decoding with small sample sets. Most importantly, we provide a thorough quantification of the severity and the parameters affecting this limitation using simulations in which we manipulate sample size, class number, cross-validation parameters (k-fold, leave-one-out and repetition number) and classifier type (Linear-Discriminant Analysis, Naïve Bayesian and Support Vector Machine). In addition to raising a red flag of caution, we illustrate the use of analytical and empirical solutions (binomial formula and permutation tests) that tackle the problem by providing statistical significance levels (p-values) for the decoding accuracy, taking sample size into account. Finally, we illustrate the relevance of our simulations and statistical tests on real brain data by assessing noise-level classifications in Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) baseline recordings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Civil Registration and Vital Statistics, Emergencies, and International Law: Understanding the Intersection.

    PubMed

    Brolan, Claire E; Gouda, Hebe

    2017-05-01

    Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are typically run by governments to record every birth, adoption, death, marriage, and divorce that occurs among a country's population. Registration of vital events provides individuals with a formal relationship with the State and each other, and is the foundation of a person's identity, nationality, and legal status. At a population level, vital statistics are essential for effective planning and implementation of policies and services. Globally, strong CRVS systems are increasingly recognised as a crucial backbone for redressing health inequities and as a priority in strengthening global health and development efforts. Many countries, however, currently lack adequate and reliable CRVS systems, leaving many people vulnerable to statelessness, limited access to important government services (such as education and health services), and effective legal protection. Public health and humanitarian emergencies in such contexts can expose those already disadvantaged and marginalised to heightened risk. CRVS systems weakened by crises make registration difficult or impossible and unregistered people may be displaced or separated from their families, exacerbating their susceptibility. The presence of a strong CRVS system, therefore, can facilitate effective and cost-effective emergency responses, help prevent exploitation of individuals (particularly women and children), and help to rebuild communities post-crisis. This article will consequently review the international legal mandates that exist to strengthen CRVS systems globally, with particular view to public health and humanitarian emergencies. Identity and citizenship, and the socio-political contexts in which these concepts co-exist, are inevitably interconnected with CRVS. This can create potential for CRVS systems and data to be exploited as a political instrument. Grounding CRVS strengthening in a single binding, human rights law instrument is a potential way

  9. PREFACE: 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Alexandre Wang, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The 3rd International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS2012) was held between 25-30 August at Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation. This workshop was jointly organized by Kazan Federal University and Institut Supérieur des Matériaux et Mécaniques Avancées (ISMANS), France. The series of SPMCS workshops was created in 2008 with the aim to be an interdisciplinary incubator for the worldwide exchange of innovative ideas and information about the latest results. The first workshop was held at ISMANS, Le Mans (France) in 2008, and the third at Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan (China) in 2010. At SPMCS2012, we wished to bring together a broad community of researchers from the different branches of the rapidly developing complexity science to discuss the fundamental theoretical challenges (geometry/topology, number theory, statistical physics, dynamical systems, etc) as well as experimental and applied aspects of many practical problems (condensed matter, disordered systems, financial markets, chemistry, biology, geoscience, etc). The program of SPMCS2012 was prepared based on three categories: (i) physical and mathematical studies (quantum mechanics, generalized nonequilibrium thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamics, condensed matter physics, nanoscience); (ii) natural complex systems (physical, geophysical, chemical and biological); (iii) social, economical, political agent systems and man-made complex systems. The conference attracted 64 participants from 10 countries. There were 10 invited lectures, 12 invited talks and 28 regular oral talks in the morning and afternoon sessions. The book of Abstracts is available from the conference website (http://www.ksu.ru/conf/spmcs2012/?id=3). A round table was also held, the topic of which was 'Recent and Anticipated Future Progress in Science of Complexity', discussing a variety of questions and opinions important for the understanding of the concept of

  10. Correspondence Between NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses and Outcomes as Proposed by the Nursing Outcomes Classification.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Eduardo, Aline Helena Appoloni; Romanzini, Adilson; Simão, Talita Prado; Zamarioli, Cristina Mara; Garbuio, Danielle Cristina; Herdman, Tracy Heather

    2016-04-05

    The accurate identification of the nursing diagnoses and the corresponding measurement of their indicators will depend on the elements in the standardized language systems. To analyze the correspondence between elements of four NANDA-I nursing diagnoses and outcomes suggested by the nursing outcomes classification (NOC) for the resolution of these diagnoses. A methodological study consisting of cross-mapping was performed in the first stage between definitions, defining characteristics (DCs), and related factors (RFs) of impaired oral mucous membrane, impaired tissue integrity, spiritual distress, and delayed surgical recovery and outcome definitions and indicators to measure results of diagnoses resolution and an analysis of its relevance by experts in the second stage. It found partial correspondence between outcome indicators, DCs, RFs, and definitions. The data evidence the relevance of this review for a reliable application of these taxonomies and demonstrated partial correspondence between concepts analyzed. A identificação precisa dos diagnósticos de enfermagem e a medida correspondente dos seus indicadores dependerá dos elementos nos sistemas de linguagem padronizados. Foi analisar a correspondência entre os elementos de quatro NANDA-I diagnósticos de enfermagem e os resultados sugeridos pelo NOC para a resolução destes diagnósticos. MÉTODO: um estudo metodológico que consiste em cross-mapping foi realizado em uma primeira fase entre as definições, características definidoras e fatores relacionados de Mucosa oral prejudicada, Integridade tissular prejudicada, Sofrimento espiritual e Recuperação cirúrgica retardada e as definições dos resultados indicados para a resolução destes diagnósticos; na segunda fase, foi realizada uma análise desta concordância por especialistas. RESULTADOS: correspondência parcial entre as definições dos diagnósticos e dos resultados, características definidoras e fatores relacionados. CONCLUSÃO: Os

  11. Building an intercultural nursing terminology bank for the phenomenon, Violence, of the International Classification of Nursing Practice: a methodological perspective.

    PubMed

    Coler, M S

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this article was to present the methodology and results of an investigation into the intercultural evolution of the nursing phenomenon--Violence--from the identification phase to the summative evaluation phase, in order to contribute to the evolution of the International Classification of Nursing Practice (ICNP). The organizing construct was concept analysis of a nursing phenomenon. The identification of a universal problem in psychiatric-mental health nursing by a team of 10 international leaders in the speciality led from the phase of concept analysis to development of a postgraduate educational module. The results of the original analysis of the concept and findings from clinical and evaluation data resulted in further analysis and consequent synthesis of the concept. Results will be disseminated to the International Council of Nursing (ICN) for the International Classification of Nursing Practice (ICNP) to further the evolution of the phenomenon from a focus on the individual to that of the aggregate (social violence). The methodology pointed to a lack of transfer in the phenomenon from a focus on the individual to that of aggregates in the ICNP. There was also a paucity of intercultural components. The phenomena of Abuse and Aggression appear to have been used synonymously with Violence, without an explanation. The data, and the methods used for its collection and submission, will enhance the ICNP.

  12. Perspectives on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) and Occupational Therapy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Heidi; Aiken, Alice B.; Stewart, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Classifying disability for children and youth has typically meant describing a diagnosis or developmental lag. The publication of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child & Youth" version (ICF-CY) marks a global paradigm shift in the conceptualization and classification of childhood disability. Knowledge and…

  13. Perspectives on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) and Occupational Therapy Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramm, Heidi; Aiken, Alice B.; Stewart, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Classifying disability for children and youth has typically meant describing a diagnosis or developmental lag. The publication of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child & Youth" version (ICF-CY) marks a global paradigm shift in the conceptualization and classification of childhood disability. Knowledge and…

  14. Portugal's special education law: implementing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Simeonsson, Rune J; Silveira-Maia, Mónica; Alves, Sílvia; Tavares, Ana; Pinheiro, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was introduced in Portuguese education law as the compulsory system to guide eligibility policy and practice in special education. This paper describes the implementation of the ICF and its utility in the assessment process and eligibility determination of students for special education. A study to evaluate the utility of the ICF was commissioned by the Portuguese Ministry of Education and carried out by an external evaluation team. A document analysis was made of the assessment and eligibility processes of 237 students, selected from a nationally representative sample. The results provided support for the use of the ICF in student assessment and in the multidimensional approach of generating student functioning profiles as the basis for determining eligibility. The use of the ICF contributed to the differentiation of eligible and non eligible students based on their functioning profiles. The findings demonstrate the applicability of the ICF framework and classification system for determining eligibility for special education services on the basis of student functioning rather than medical or psychological diagnose. The use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework in special education policy is as follows: • The functional perspective of the ICF offers a more comprehensive, holistic assessment of student needs than medical diagnoses. • ICF-based assessment of the nature and severity of functioning can serve as the basis for determining eligibility for special education and habilitation. • Profiles of functioning can support decision making in designing appropriate educational interventions for students.

  15. Dynamical and statistical effects of the intrinsic curvature of internal space of molecules.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Hiroshi; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2005-02-15

    The Hamilton dynamics of a molecule in a translationally and/or rotationally symmetric field is kept rigorously constrained in its phase space. The relevant dynamical laws should therefore be extracted from these constrained motions. An internal space that is induced by a projection of such a limited phase space onto configuration space is an intrinsically curved space even for a system of zero total angular momentum. In this paper we discuss the general effects of this curvedness on dynamics and structures of molecules in such a manner that is invariant with respect to the selection of coordinates. It is shown that the regular coordinate originally defined by Riemann is particularly useful to expose the curvature correction to the dynamics and statistical properties of molecules. These effects are significant both qualitatively and quantitatively and are studied in two aspects. One is the direct effect on dynamics: A trajectory receives a Lorentz-like force from the curved space as though it was placed in a magnetic field. The well-known problem of the trapping phenomenon at the transition state is analyzed from this point of view. By showing that the trapping force is explicitly described in terms of the curvature of the internal space, we clarify that the physical origin of the trapped motion is indeed originated from the curvature of the internal space and hence is not dependent of the selection of coordinate system. The other aspect is the effect of phase space volume arising from the curvedness: We formulate a general expression of the curvature correction of the classical density of states and extract its physical significance in the molecular geometry along with reaction rate in terms of the scalar curvature and volume loss (gain) due to the curvature. The transition state theory is reformulated from this point of view and it is applied to the structural transition of linear chain molecules in the so-called dihedral angle model. It is shown that the

  16. Statistical characterization of the internal structure of noiselike pulses using a nonlinear optical loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiez, O.; Paez-Aguirre, R.; Cruz, J. L.; Andrés, M. V.; Kuzin, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study statistically the internal structure of noiselike pulses generated by a passively mode-locked fiber laser. For this purpose, we use a technique that allows estimating the distribution of the amplitudes of the sub-pulses in the bunch. The technique takes advantage of the fast response of the optical Kerr effect in a fiber nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM). It requires the measurement of the energy transfer characteristic of the pulses through the NOLM, and the numerical resolution of a system of nonlinear algebraic equations. The results yield a strongly asymmetric distribution, with a high-amplitude tail that is compatible with the existence of extreme-intensity sub-pulses in the bunch. Following the recent discovery of pulse-energy rogue waves and spectral rogue waves in the noiselike pulse regime, we propose a new way to look for extreme events in this particular mode of operation of mode-locked fiber lasers, and confirm that rogue wave generation is a key ingredient in the complex dynamics of these unconventional pulses.

  17. Improved equilibrium reconstructions by advanced statistical weighting of the internal magnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Murari, A; Gelfusa, M; Peluso, E; Gaudio, P; Mazon, D; Hawkes, N; Point, G; Alper, B; Eich, T

    2014-12-01

    In a Tokamak the configuration of the magnetic fields remains the key element to improve performance and to maximise the scientific exploitation of the device. On the other hand, the quality of the reconstructed fields depends crucially on the measurements available. Traditionally in the least square minimisation phase of the algorithms, used to obtain the magnetic field topology, all the diagnostics are given the same weights, a part from a corrective factor taking into account the error bars. This assumption unduly penalises complex diagnostics, such as polarimetry, which have a limited number of highly significant measurements. A completely new method to choose the weights, to be given to the internal measurements of the magnetic fields for improved equilibrium reconstructions, is presented in this paper. The approach is based on various statistical indicators applied to the residuals, the difference between the actual measurements and their estimates from the reconstructed equilibrium. The potential of the method is exemplified using the measurements of the Faraday rotation derived from JET polarimeter. The results indicate quite clearly that the weights have to be determined carefully, since the inappropriate choice can have significant repercussions on the quality of the magnetic reconstruction both in the edge and in the core. These results confirm the limitations of the assumption that all the diagnostics have to be given the same weight, irrespective of the number of measurements they provide and the region of the plasma they probe.

  18. Multivariate statistical analysis strategy for multiple misfire detection in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chongqing; Li, Aihua; Zhao, Xingyang

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes a multivariate statistical analysis approach to processing the instantaneous engine speed signal for the purpose of locating multiple misfire events in internal combustion engines. The state of each cylinder is described with a characteristic vector extracted from the instantaneous engine speed signal following a three-step procedure. These characteristic vectors are considered as the values of various procedure parameters of an engine cycle. Therefore, determination of occurrence of misfire events and identification of misfiring cylinders can be accomplished by a principal component analysis (PCA) based pattern recognition methodology. The proposed algorithm can be implemented easily in practice because the threshold can be defined adaptively without the information of operating conditions. Besides, the effect of torsional vibration on the engine speed waveform is interpreted as the presence of super powerful cylinder, which is also isolated by the algorithm. The misfiring cylinder and the super powerful cylinder are often adjacent in the firing sequence, thus missing detections and false alarms can be avoided effectively by checking the relationship between the cylinders.

  19. Classification of bones from MR images in torso PET-MR imaging using a statistical shape model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Ay, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Afshin; Ahmadian, Alireza; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    There have been exclusive features for hybrid PET/MRI systems in comparison with its PET/CT counterpart in terms of reduction of radiation exposure, improved soft-tissue contrast and truly simultaneous and multi-parametric imaging capabilities. However, quantitative imaging on PET/MR is challenged by attenuation of annihilation photons through their pathway. The correction for photon attenuation requires the availability of patient-specific attenuation map, which accounts for the spatial distribution of attenuation coefficients of biological tissues. However, the lack of information on electron density in the MR signal poses an inherent difficulty to the derivation of the attenuation map from MR images. In other words, the MR signal correlates with proton densities and tissue relaxation properties, rather than with electron density and, as such, it is not directly related to attenuation coefficients. In order to derive the attenuation map from MR images at 511 keV, various strategies have been proposed and implemented on prototype and commercial PET/MR systems. Segmentation-based methods generate an attenuation map by classification of T1-weighted or high resolution Dixon MR sequences followed by assignment of predefined attenuation coefficients to various tissue types. Intensity-based segmentation approaches fail to include bones in the attenuation map since the segmentation of bones from conventional MR sequences is a difficult task. Most MR-guided attenuation correction techniques ignore bones owing to the inherent difficulties associated with bone segmentation unless specialized MR sequences such as ultra-short echo (UTE) sequence are utilized. In this work, we introduce a new technique based on statistical shape modeling to segment bones and generate a four-class attenuation map. Our segmentation approach requires a torso bone shape model based on principle component analysis (PCA). A CT-based training set including clearly segmented bones of the torso region

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Sensory Component of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI): A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hales, M; Biros, E; Reznik, J E

    2015-01-01

    Since 1982, the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) has been used to classify sensation of spinal cord injury (SCI) through pinprick and light touch scores. The absence of proprioception, pain, and temperature within this scale creates questions about its validity and accuracy. To assess whether the sensory component of the ISNCSCI represents a reliable and valid measure of classification of SCI. A systematic review of studies examining the reliability and validity of the sensory component of the ISNCSCI published between 1982 and February 2013 was conducted. The electronic databases MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, PEDro, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. A secondary search of reference lists was also completed. Chosen articles were assessed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine hierarchy of evidence and critically appraised using the McMasters Critical Review Form. A statistical analysis was conducted to investigate the variability of the results given by reliability studies. Twelve studies were identified: 9 reviewed reliability and 3 reviewed validity. All studies demonstrated low levels of evidence and moderate critical appraisal scores. The majority of the articles (~67%; 6/9) assessing the reliability suggested that training was positively associated with better posttest results. The results of the 3 studies that assessed the validity of the ISNCSCI scale were confounding. Due to the low to moderate quality of the current literature, the sensory component of the ISNCSCI requires further revision and investigation if it is to be a useful tool in clinical trials.

  1. Proposal of Classification Method of Time Series Data in International Emissions Trading Market Using Agent-based Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Tomohiro; Takadama, Keiki; Watanabe, Shigeyoshi

    This paper proposes the classification method using Bayesian analytical method to classify the time series data in the international emissions trading market depend on the agent-based simulation and compares the case with Discrete Fourier transform analytical method. The purpose demonstrates the analytical methods mapping time series data such as market price. These analytical methods have revealed the following results: (1) the classification methods indicate the distance of mapping from the time series data, it is easier the understanding and inference than time series data; (2) these methods can analyze the uncertain time series data using the distance via agent-based simulation including stationary process and non-stationary process; and (3) Bayesian analytical method can show the 1% difference description of the emission reduction targets of agent.

  2. Correlation between patients' reasons for encounters/health problems and population density in Japan: a systematic review of observational studies coded by the International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and the International Classification of Primary care (ICPC).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Makoto; Ohta, Ryuichi; Nago, Naoki; Fukushi, Motoharu; Matsushima, Masato

    2017-09-13

    The Japanese health care system has yet to establish structured training for primary care physicians; therefore, physicians who received an internal medicine based training program continue to play a principal role in the primary care setting. To promote the development of a more efficient primary health care system, the assessment of its current status in regard to the spectrum of patients' reasons for encounters (RFEs) and health problems is an important step. Recognizing the proportions of patients' RFEs and health problems, which are not generally covered by an internist, can provide valuable information to promote the development of a primary care physician-centered system. We conducted a systematic review in which we searched six databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Ichushi-Web, JDreamIII and CiNii) for observational studies in Japan coded by International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) up to March 2015. We employed population density as index of accessibility. We calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to examine the correlation between the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems in each study area in consideration of the population density. We found 17 studies with diverse designs and settings. Among these studies, "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs, which was not thought to be covered by internists, ranged from about 4% to 40%. In addition, "non-internal medicine-related" health problems ranged from about 10% to 40%. However, no significant correlation was found between population density and the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems. This is the first systematic review on RFEs and health problems coded by ICHPPC and ICPC undertaken to reveal the diversity of health problems in Japanese primary care. These results suggest that primary care physicians in some rural areas of Japan

  3. Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a Functional Assessment Tool for Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Bo-ram; Shin, Hyung Ik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop a patient self-completed questionnaire from the items of the Brief Core Set Questionnaire for Breast Cancer (BCSQ-BC) and to investigate the prevalence of specific dysfunctions throughout the course of cancer and treatments. Methods From January 2010 to February 2011, 96 breast cancer patients were evaluated with BCSQ-BC developed for clinical application of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Quality of life and upper limb dysfunction using disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) were assessed. Content validity was evaluated using correlations between BCSQ-BC and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ and DASH scores. Construct validity was computed using exploratory factor analysis. Kappa statistics were computed for agreement between test-retest ICF data. The level of significance and odds ratios were reported for individuals with early post-acute and long-term context and with total mastectomy and breast conservative surgery. Results There was consistently good test-retest agreement in patient-completed questionnaires (kappa value, 0.76). Body function, activity and participation subscales are significantly related with EORTC QLQ and DASH. Problems with activity and participation were strongly associated with physical functional domains of EORTC QLQ (r=-0.708, p<0.001) and DASH (r=0.761, p<0.001). The prevalence of dysfunctions varied with type of surgery and time after cancer. Immobility of joint (15% vs. 7%) and lymphatic dysfunction (17% vs. 3%) were indexed more frequently in extensive surgery cases than in conservative surgery. Muscle power (16% vs. 8%), exercise tolerance functions (12% vs. 4%) and looking after one's health (10% vs. 2%) were impaired within 1 year after surgery, while sleep dysfunction (8% vs. 14%) was a major problem over 1 year after surgery. Conclusion The BCSQ-BC identifies the problems comprehensively in functioning of patients with breast

  4. 46 CFR 8.320 - Classification society authorization to issue international certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... international certificates. 8.320 Section 8.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTION ALTERNATIVES International Convention Certificate Issuance § 8.320...) International Maritime Organization (IMO) Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety Certificate; (8) MARPOL 73/78...

  5. The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN): proposal for text changes for improved differentiation of viral taxa and viruses.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Bavari, Sina; Jahrling, Peter B

    2013-07-01

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is responsible for the classification of viruses into taxa. Importantly, the ICTV is currently not responsible for the nomenclature of viruses or their subclassification into strains, lineages, or genotypes. ICTV rules for classification of viruses and nomenclature of taxa are laid out in a code, the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN). The most recent version of the Code makes it difficult for the unfamiliar reader to distinguish between viruses and taxa, thereby often giving the impression that certain Rules apply to viruses. Here, Code text changes are proposed to address this problem.

  6. Application of PCA and SIMCA statistical analysis of FT-IR spectra for the classification and identification of different slag types with environmental origin.

    PubMed

    Stumpe, B; Engel, T; Steinweg, B; Marschner, B

    2012-04-03

    In the past, different slag materials were often used for landscaping and construction purposes or simply dumped. Nowadays German environmental laws strictly control the use of slags, but there is still a remaining part of 35% which is uncontrolled dumped in landfills. Since some slags have high heavy metal contents and different slag types have typical chemical and physical properties that will influence the risk potential and other characteristics of the deposits, an identification of the slag types is needed. We developed a FT-IR-based statistical method to identify different slags classes. Slags samples were collected at different sites throughout various cities within the industrial Ruhr area. Then, spectra of 35 samples from four different slags classes, ladle furnace (LF), blast furnace (BF), oxygen furnace steel (OF), and zinc furnace slags (ZF), were determined in the mid-infrared region (4000-400 cm(-1)). The spectra data sets were subject to statistical classification methods for the separation of separate spectral data of different slag classes. Principal component analysis (PCA) models for each slag class were developed and further used for soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Precise classification of slag samples into four different slag classes were achieved using two different SIMCA models stepwise. At first, SIMCA 1 was used for classification of ZF as well as OF slags over the total spectral range. If no correct classification was found, then the spectrum was analyzed with SIMCA 2 at reduced wavenumbers for the classification of LF as well as BF spectra. As a result, we provide a time- and cost-efficient method based on FT-IR spectroscopy for processing and identifying large numbers of environmental slag samples.

  7. Measuring elimination of podoconiosis, endemicity classifications, case definition and targets: an international Delphi exercise

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; Muheki Tukahebwa, Edridah; Umulisa, Irenee; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is one of the major causes of lymphoedema in the tropics. Nonetheless, currently there are no endemicity classifications or elimination targets to monitor the effects of interventions. This study aimed at establishing case definitions and indicators that can be used to assess endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis. Methods This paper describes the result of a Delphi technique used among 28 experts. A questionnaire outlining possible case definitions, endemicity classifications, elimination targets and clinical outcomes was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to experts working on podoconiosis and other neglected tropical diseases in two rounds. The experts rated the importance of case definitions, endemic classifications, elimination targets and the clinical outcome measures. Median and mode were used to describe the central tendency of expert responses. The coefficient of variation was used to describe the dispersals of expert responses. Results Consensus on definitions and indicators for assessing endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis directed at policy makers and health workers was achieved following the two rounds of Delphi approach among the experts. Conclusions Based on the two Delphi rounds we discuss potential indicators and endemicity classification of this disabling disease, and the ongoing challenges to its elimination in countries with the highest prevalence. Consensus will help to increase effectiveness of podoconiosis elimination efforts and ensure comparability of outcome data. PMID:26185194

  8. Measuring elimination of podoconiosis, endemicity classifications, case definition and targets: an international Delphi exercise.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Kebede; Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; Muheki Tukahebwa, Edridah; Umulisa, Irenee; Davey, Gail

    2015-09-01

    Podoconiosis is one of the major causes of lymphoedema in the tropics. Nonetheless, currently there are no endemicity classifications or elimination targets to monitor the effects of interventions. This study aimed at establishing case definitions and indicators that can be used to assess endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis. This paper describes the result of a Delphi technique used among 28 experts. A questionnaire outlining possible case definitions, endemicity classifications, elimination targets and clinical outcomes was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to experts working on podoconiosis and other neglected tropical diseases in two rounds. The experts rated the importance of case definitions, endemic classifications, elimination targets and the clinical outcome measures. Median and mode were used to describe the central tendency of expert responses. The coefficient of variation was used to describe the dispersals of expert responses. Consensus on definitions and indicators for assessing endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis directed at policy makers and health workers was achieved following the two rounds of Delphi approach among the experts. Based on the two Delphi rounds we discuss potential indicators and endemicity classification of this disabling disease, and the ongoing challenges to its elimination in countries with the highest prevalence. Consensus will help to increase effectiveness of podoconiosis elimination efforts and ensure comparability of outcome data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. 6th International workshop on the Detection, Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Dr Douglas Gillespie Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of St Andrews, Scottish Oceans Institute,Sea Mammal

  10. [Anthropometry: the modern statistical analysis and significance for clinics of internal diseases and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Petykhov, A B; Maev, I V; Deriabin, V E

    2012-01-01

    Anthropometry--a technique, allowing to obtain the necessary features for the characteristic of human body's changes in norm and at pathology. Statistical analysis of anthropometric parameters, such as--body mass, length, waist line, hip, shoulder and wrist circumferences, skin rolls of fat thickness: on triceps, under a bladebone, on a breast, on a venter and on a biceps, with calculation of indexes and an assessment of possible age influence was carried out for the first time in domestic medicine. Complexes of showing interrelations anthropometric characteristics were detected. Correlation coefficients (r) were counted and the factorial (on a method main a component with the subsequent rotation--a varimax method), covariance and discriminative analyses (with application of the Kaiser and Wilks criterions and F-test) is applied. Study of intergroup variability of body composition was carried out on separate characteristics in healthy individuals groups (135 surveyed aged 45,6 +/- 1,2 years, 56,3% men and 43,7% women) and at internal pathology: patients after a gastrectomy--121 (57,7 +/- 1,2 years, 52% men and 48% women); after Billroth operation--214 (56,1 +/- 1,0 years, 53% men and 47% women); after enterectomy--103 (44,5 +/- 1,8 years, 53% men and 47% women); after mixed genesis protein-energy wasting--206 (29,04 +/- 1,6 years, 79% men and 21% women). The group of interlocking characteristics which includes anthropometric parameters of hypodermic lipopexia (rolls of fat thickness on triceps, a biceps, under a bladebone, on a venter) and fatty body mass was defined by results of the analysis. These characteristics are interconnected with age and growth and have more expressed dependence at women, that reflects development of a fatty component of a body, at assessment of body mass index at women (unlike men). The waist-hip circumference index differs irrespective of body composition indicators that doesn't allow to characterize it with the terms of truncal or

  11. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Travis, William D.; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Geisinger, Kim R.; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G.; Powell, Charles A.; Riely, Gregory J.; Van Schil, Paul E.; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H. M.; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M.; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A.; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. Methods An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection

  12. International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Noguchi, Masayuki; Nicholson, Andrew G; Geisinger, Kim R; Yatabe, Yasushi; Beer, David G; Powell, Charles A; Riely, Gregory J; Van Schil, Paul E; Garg, Kavita; Austin, John H M; Asamura, Hisao; Rusch, Valerie W; Hirsch, Fred R; Scagliotti, Giorgio; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Huber, Rudolf M; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Jett, James; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Takahashi, Takashi; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Wistuba, Ignacio; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Aberle, Denise; Brambilla, Christian; Flieder, Douglas; Franklin, Wilbur; Gazdar, Adi; Gould, Michael; Hasleton, Philip; Henderson, Douglas; Johnson, Bruce; Johnson, David; Kerr, Keith; Kuriyama, Keiko; Lee, Jin Soo; Miller, Vincent A; Petersen, Iver; Roggli, Victor; Rosell, Rafael; Saijo, Nagahiro; Thunnissen, Erik; Tsao, Ming; Yankelewitz, David

    2011-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies. An international core panel of experts representing all three societies was formed with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons. A systematic review was performed under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society Documents Development and Implementation Committee. The search strategy identified 11,368 citations of which 312 articles met specified eligibility criteria and were retrieved for full text review. A series of meetings were held to discuss the development of the new classification, to develop the recommendations, and to write the current document. Recommendations for key questions were graded by strength and quality of the evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. The classification addresses both resection specimens, and small biopsies and cytology. The terms BAC and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (AIS) or predominant lepidic growth with ≤ 5 mm invasion (MIA) to define patients who, if they undergo complete resection, will have 100% or near 100

  13. Independence in self-care activities in children with myelomeningocele: exploring factors based on the International Classification of Function model.

    PubMed

    Steinhart, Shoshana; Kornitzer, Emmanuel; Baron, Adi Bracha; Wever, Coos; Shoshan, Levana; Katz-Leurer, Michal

    2016-11-10

    To investigate the relationship between disease factors, body functions and structures, activities, personal and environmental factors with independence in self-care activities in children with myelomeningocele (MMC), utilizing the International Classification of Function model. 113 children with MMC, aged 3-18 years were assessed during an annual MMC-clinic visit. Data on the personal and environmental factors, disease factors, hand function, mobility, visual perception, cognition, and communication were assessed in relation to the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) self-care domain. The mean PEDI caregiver assistance score was 22.1 (ranged between <10 and 62) well below the norms. The most significant determinant of dependence in self-care activities was the presence of hydrocephalus, a child with hydrocephalus scored a mean of 9.2 points less on the PEDI caregiver scale (p = 0.02). By using a linear regression, the most significant factors associated with the PEDI scores among children with hydrocephalus were the age of the child, function of the non-dominant hand, ambulation, and cognitive function. In children with MMC the presence of hydrocephalus appears to be more significantly associated with functional independence than the neurological level. The International Classification of Function model provides an in-depth multidisciplinary model that facilitates in investigating independence in self-care activities in children with MMC. It is important to take personal factors and various functional impairments into account when working with these children to promote independence. Implications for Rehabilitation When working with children with myelomeningocele on independence in daily living activities, it is necessary that health professionals demonstrate a holistic view of the child and his/her disability. Health professionals should take into account information on all factors of the International Classification of Function, in order to

  14. [A contemporary conception of insomnia syndrome and its treatments in view of International classification of sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Poluektov, M G; Tsenteradze, S L

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is one of the most common and wide-spread sleep disorders. It includes difficulties of sleep initiation, sustaining and daytime impairment. A condition of cerebral hyperarousal plays the most important role in the genesis of insomnia. Cognitive, electrophysiological and metabolic parameters are correlated with hyperarousal state. According to the International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD-3), insomnia is divided into acute, chronic and unclassified. Treatment of insomnia includes specific and nonspecific approaches. Regardless of the origin of insomnia, sleep hygiene and behavioral therapy remain the methods of choice for the treatment.

  15. Functions and Statistics: International Space Station: Up to Us. NASA Connect: Program 5 in the 2000-2001 Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of functions and statistics in the context of the International Space Station (ISS). The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each…

  16. [The practical application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in medical rehabilitation of psychiatric patients].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, J; Keller, K; Bräuning-Edelmann, M

    2005-12-01

    The WHO Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health enables the description of functional health, disability and impairment on an international and interdisciplinary level in a common language. The fundamental underlying assumption of this Classification, which is orientated around a bio-psycho-social model of health and impairment, has been accepted by rehabilitation scientists in general. Unfortunately, the WHO does not make any recommendations as to how this classification could be applied in practice. In this article, various problems are outlined which could occur when the ICF is applied. Furthermore an example from a psychiatric rehabilitation institution illustrates the way the ICF could serve as an instrument for an extensive rehabilitation management programme. Here, Stucki's use will be made of Rehab-Cycle model. This describes a comprehensive sequence of steps which help analyse the patients problems from a patient-centred standpoint, to set up a schedule for treatment and to evaluate the results. Within Stucki's model the ICF is used as a system to analyse problems upon which intervention can be set. This method is illustrated with an example from a rehabilitation case. Summarizing, it is pointed out that through easier communication (as a result of the ICF) interdisciplinary productivity and efficiency will increase. On this basis it is possible to achieve a more comprehensive multimodal approach in the treatment of people suffering from psychic impairments or disability.

  17. Automated Internal Classification of Beadless Chinese ZhuJi Fleshwater Pearls based on Optical Coherence Tomography Images.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Tiebing; Shi, Yang; Chen, Zhengwei; Mao, Jianwei; Zhou, Wujie

    2016-09-26

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied to inspect the internal defect of beadless Chinese ZhuJi fleshwater pearls. A novel fully automated algorithm is proposed to classify between normal and defective sub-layer in nacre layer. Our algorithm utilizes the graph segmentation approach to estimate the up and down boundaries of defect sub-layers from flattened and cropped image, and also proposes the strategy for edge and weight construction in segmentation process. The vertical gradients of boundary pixels are used to make grading decision. The algorithm is tested by typical pearl samples, and achieves 100% classification accuracy. The experiment result shows the feasibility and adaptability of the proposed approach, and proves that the OCT technique combined with proposed algorithm is a potential tool for fast and non-destructive diagnosis of internal structure of beadless pearl.

  18. Automated Internal Classification of Beadless Chinese ZhuJi Fleshwater Pearls based on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Tiebing; Shi, Yang; Chen, Zhengwei; Mao, Jianwei; Zhou, Wujie

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied to inspect the internal defect of beadless Chinese ZhuJi fleshwater pearls. A novel fully automated algorithm is proposed to classify between normal and defective sub-layer in nacre layer. Our algorithm utilizes the graph segmentation approach to estimate the up and down boundaries of defect sub-layers from flattened and cropped image, and also proposes the strategy for edge and weight construction in segmentation process. The vertical gradients of boundary pixels are used to make grading decision. The algorithm is tested by typical pearl samples, and achieves 100% classification accuracy. The experiment result shows the feasibility and adaptability of the proposed approach, and proves that the OCT technique combined with proposed algorithm is a potential tool for fast and non-destructive diagnosis of internal structure of beadless pearl. PMID:27666087

  19. Automated Internal Classification of Beadless Chinese ZhuJi Fleshwater Pearls based on Optical Coherence Tomography Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Liu, Tiebing; Shi, Yang; Chen, Zhengwei; Mao, Jianwei; Zhou, Wujie

    2016-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied to inspect the internal defect of beadless Chinese ZhuJi fleshwater pearls. A novel fully automated algorithm is proposed to classify between normal and defective sub-layer in nacre layer. Our algorithm utilizes the graph segmentation approach to estimate the up and down boundaries of defect sub-layers from flattened and cropped image, and also proposes the strategy for edge and weight construction in segmentation process. The vertical gradients of boundary pixels are used to make grading decision. The algorithm is tested by typical pearl samples, and achieves 100% classification accuracy. The experiment result shows the feasibility and adaptability of the proposed approach, and proves that the OCT technique combined with proposed algorithm is a potential tool for fast and non-destructive diagnosis of internal structure of beadless pearl.

  20. An anomalous metal-rich phosphogypsum: Characterization and classification according to international regulations.

    PubMed

    Macías, Francisco; Cánovas, Carlos R; Cruz-Hernández, Pablo; Carrero, Sergio; Asta, Maria P; Nieto, José Miguel; Pérez-López, Rafael

    2017-06-05

    Phosphogypsum is the main waste generated by the phosphate fertilizer industry. Despite the high level of pollutants found in phosphogypsum and the proximity of stacks to cities, there are no specific regulations for the management of this waste. This study addresses this issue by applying to phosphogypsum, from a fertilizer plant in Huelva (SW Spain), the leaching tests proposed by the current European and US environmental regulations for wastes management and classification. Two main conclusions were obtained: 1) the anomalous metal and metalloid concentrations (e.g. As, Fe, Pb, Sb, Mn, V and Cu) and higher mobility observed in the Huelva phosphogypsum compared to other stacks worldwide, and 2) the discrepancies observed between EU and US regulations dealing with hazardousness classification of these materials. This latter finding suggests the need to use complementary assessment protocols to obtain a better characterization and classification of these wastes. An evaluation of the potential risk to the aquatic life according to the US EPA regulation is proposed in this study. The results warn about the acute and chronic effects on the aquatic life of this waste and suggest the adoption of more strict measures for a safe disposal of phosphogypsum stacks.

  1. Comparison of simple screening criteria with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System classification in determining restorative treatment need.

    PubMed

    Kämppi, Antti; Tanner, Tarja; Päkkilä, Jari; Patinen, Pertti; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Defence Forces' unique oral health-screening protocol (FDFsp) has been in use for decades. In FDFsp, restorative treatment need is determined based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of screening restorative treatment need with the outcome of using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) classification at both individual and tooth levels. Our hypothesis was that the outcome of screening with FDFsp agrees with the outcome of using the ICDAS classification. In this study, a trained, calibrated examiner estimated, in a visual-tactile manner the restorative treatment need of 337 young healthy adults using the FDFsp. During the screening, 74 conscripts were selected for a thorough inspection. The inclusion criteria for those selected were: having no, having one to five, or having six or more caries lesions needing restorative treatment. In the thorough inspection, the participants were inspected in a visual-tactile manner using the ICDAS classification. The association of the outcomes achieved using the two different methods was analysed at individual and tooth levels. Sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values were calculated. Wisdom teeth were excluded. At the individual level, the agreement between the outcomes of using FDFsp and ICDAS ≥4 was excellent: sensitivity, 94.1%; specificity, 97.5%; and kappa = 0.92. When ICDAS ≥3 was used, the values were 72.7%, 96.7%, and 0.66%, respectively. Screening performed by a trained examiner using specific criteria is a reliable method for detecting individuals with restorative treatment need. The outcome of screening agrees strongly with results using the ICDAS classification. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint terminology and classification of the complications related directly to the insertion of prostheses (meshes, implants, tapes) and grafts in female pelvic floor surgery.

    PubMed

    Haylen, Bernard T; Freeman, Robert M; Swift, Steven E; Cosson, Michel; Davila, G Willy; Deprest, Jan; Dwyer, Peter L; Fatton, Brigitte; Kocjancic, Ervin; Lee, Joseph; Maher, Chris; Petri, Eckhard; Rizk, Diaa E; Sand, Peter K; Schaer, Gabriel N; Webb, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    A terminology and standardized classification has yet to be developed for those complications arising directly from the insertion of synthetic (prostheses) and biological (grafts) materials in female pelvic floor surgery. This report on the above terminology and classification combines the input of members of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS) and a Joint IUGA/ICS Working Group on Complications Terminology, assisted at intervals by many expert external referees. An extensive process of 11 rounds of internal and external review took place with exhaustive examination of each aspect of the terminology and classification. Decision-making was by collective opinion (consensus). A terminology and classification of complications related directly to the insertion of prostheses and grafts in female pelvic floor surgery has been developed, with the classification based on category (C), time (T) and site (S) classes and divisions, that should encompass all conceivable scenarios for describing insertion complications and healing abnormalities. The CTS code for each complication, involving three (or four) letters and three numerals, is likely to be very suitable for any surgical audit or registry, particularly one that is procedure-specific. Users of the classification have been assisted by case examples, colour charts and online aids (www.icsoffice.org/complication). A consensus-based terminology and classification report for prosthesis and grafts complications in female pelvic floor surgery has been produced, aimed at being a significant aid to clinical practice and research. © 2010 Wiley-Liss.

  3. [Quality control in the therapy of chronic pain. Results obtained by a task force of the German Section of the International Association for the Study of Pain on psychological assessment of chronic pain. XI. Assessment and multiaxial classification of pain].

    PubMed

    Klinger, R; Denecke, H; Glier, B; Kröner-Herwig, B; Nilges, P; Redegeld, M; Weiss, L

    1997-12-12

    This paper reviews instruments in German language for the psychological assessment and classification of pain. Usually chronic pain syndromes are classified within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Instead of the psychiatric chapter of the ICD, it is possible to use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The proposed classification system of the International Association of the Study of Pain (IASP) is based on a multiaxial solution. The numerous ways to classify chronic pain include many problems and limits, especially in the case of an interdisciplinary assessment. They provide no specific system for classifying pain syndromes. They are impractical to handle and restrict classifying pain as either somatogenic or psychogenic. It is not possible to describe both sides in one diagnosis without loss of information. As a result of this situation, a task force of the German Chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain developed a Multiaxial Classification of Pain (Multiaxiale Schmerzklassifikation; MASK) as an advanced system of pain assessment and an alternative to the common classification systems. MASK embraces a somatic (MASK-S) and a psychological (MASK-P) part. Both parts constitute an 'interdisciplinary diagnosis'. MASK-S enables classifying a pain syndrome using hierarchical levels, with progredient specific degrees of differentiation. In addition there are 6 axes to describe pain syndromes qualitatively and quantitatively (e.g. localization, quality). The psychosocial part (MASK-P) embraces 5 main levels (1. behavioral, 2. emotional, 3. cognitive, 4. stress-related, 5. habitual personal factors) and 2 additional levels (6. functional coherence, 7. ICD/DSM-diagnosis additional). The MASK-P part of the diagnosis is composed of graduation on these levels. Differential axis of the pain syndromes are described phenomenologically and specifically. MASK provides the possibility of establishing an

  4. Statistics of Internal Tide Bores and Internal Solitary Waves on the Inner Continental Shelf North of Pt. Conception CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colosi, J. A.; MacMahan, J.; Freismuth, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Nine moorings recording vertical profiles of temperature and current were deployed between the 30 and 50 meter isobaths and along a 10-km stretch of coastline off Point Sal California between June and August of 2015. Two dominant features of the records are highly variable internal tide bores and high frequency internal solitary waves (ISWs). Beamforming using 4 moorings at a time reveals that the bores are moving onshore and primarily aligned with the local, relatively straight isobaths. Bore speeds vary from 15 to 40 cm/s, and are roughly consistent with linear wave speed variations in response to changing stratification. Bore dissipation is significant. ISWs show strong variability with little coherence between moorings separated by as little as 1-km in the across shelf direction. The energy flux and number of ISWs observed during a tide cycle depends strongly on the background stratification. Probability density functions for several bore and ISW characteristics are computed and dissipation rates are estimated.

  5. Can Statistical Machine Learning Algorithms Help for Classification of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity to Optimal Utilization of Polysomnography Resources?

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Selen; Bostanci, Asli; Turhan, Murat

    2017-08-11

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the results of machine learning methods for the classification of OSA severity of patients with suspected sleep disorder breathing as normal, mild, moderate and severe based on non-polysomnographic variables: 1) clinical data, 2) symptoms and 3) physical examination. In order to produce classification models for OSA severity, five different machine learning methods (Bayesian network, Decision Tree, Random Forest, Neural Networks and Logistic Regression) were trained while relevant variables and their relationships were derived empirically from observed data. Each model was trained and evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation and to evaluate classification performances of all methods, true positive rate (TPR), false positive rate (FPR), Positive Predictive Value (PPV), F measure and Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristics curve (ROC-AUC) were used. Results of 10-fold cross validated tests with different variable settings promisingly indicated that the OSA severity of suspected OSA patients can be classified, using non-polysomnographic features, with 0.71 true positive rate as the highest and, 0.15 false positive rate as the lowest, respectively. Moreover, the test results of different variables settings revealed that the accuracy of the classification models was significantly improved when physical examination variables were added to the model. Study results showed that machine learning methods can be used to estimate the probabilities of no, mild, moderate, and severe obstructive sleep apnea and such approaches may improve accurate initial OSA screening and help referring only the suspected moderate or severe OSA patients to sleep laboratories for the expensive tests.

  6. Detection and Classification of Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Using Parallel Filter Arrays and Higher Order Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Resulting Plots for Different LPI Radar Signals (1) FMCW Table 9 shows a FMCW signal with carrier frequency equal to 1 KHz, sampling frequency equal to...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Detection and Classification of LPI Radar Signals using Parallel Filter...In order to detect LPI radar waveforms new signal processing techniques are required. This thesis first develops a MATLAB® toolbox to generate

  7. [Contribution of the 10th International Classification of Diseases to pediatric and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Vojtík, V

    1993-12-01

    The 10th revision of the classification of mental disorders and behavioural disorders is due to description of clinical symptoms and diagnostic criteria more accurate and enriches the activities of departments of child and adolescent psychiatry. Diagnostics, therapy and prevention profit not only from sections dealing with newly conceived disorders which begin in childhood and adolescence but also other sections where problems relating to children and adolescents are pointed out. The Czech translation inovates clinical pictures given in our textbook of Child psychiatry published in 1963 and thus replaces partly a hitherto not published modern Czech textbook of child and adolescent psychiatry.

  8. The measurement of functioning using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: comparing qualifier ratings with existing health status instruments.

    PubMed

    Prodinger, Birgit; Stucki, Gerold; Coenen, Michaela; Tennant, Alan

    2017-10-08

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is the international standard for describing and monitoring functioning. While the categories, the units of the classification, were not designed with measurement in mind, the hierarchical structure of the classification lends itself to the possibility of summating categories into some higher order domain. Focusing on the chapters of d4 Mobility, d5 Self-Care and d6 Domestic Life, this study seeks to ascertain if qualifiers rating of categories (0-No problem to 4-Complete problem) within those chapters can be summated, and whether such derived measurement is consistent with estimates obtained from well-known instruments which purport to measure the same constructs. The current study applies secondary analysis to data previously collected in the context of validating Core Sets for stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Data included qualifier-based ratings of the categories in the Core Sets, and the physical functioning sub-scale of the Short-Form 36, and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. To examine qualifier-comparator scale item agreement Kappa statistics were used. To identify whether appropriate gradients of the comparator scales were observed across qualifier levels, an Independent Sample Median Test of the ordinal scores was deployed. To investigate the internal validity of the summated ICF categories, the Rasch model was applied. Data from 2,927 subjects from Europe, Australasia, Middle East and South America were available for analysis; 36.3% had experienced a stroke, 35.8% osteoarthritis, and 27.9% had rheumatoid arthritis. The items from the Short-Form 36 could not match directly the qualifier categories as the former had only 3 response options. The Kappa between World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 items and categories was low. For all qualifiers, a significant (<0.001) overall gradient was observed across the

  9. Intervention categories for physiotherapists treating patients with internal medicine conditions on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Bürge, Elisabeth; Cieza, Alarcos; Allet, Lara; Finger, Monika Elisabeth; Stucki, Gerold; Huber, Erika Omega

    2008-03-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is considered to be a useful tool to overcome differences among different health professionals and to facilitate a common understanding of the patient and of what constitutes care. Three lists of ICF intervention categories for internal medicine have been developed. The next step of the development process is to address their content validity. The data for this study were derived from 300 clinical records. The study was conducted as a retrospective cross-sectional multicentre study in Switzerland. It was performed using convenience samples of records of patients with internal medicine conditions. The validation process enabled the identification of 36 ICF intervention categories in the acute, 41 in the rehabilitation and 38 in the long-term contexts. The developed lists might help define the core competencies of the profession of physiotherapy. These intervention categories are available for intervention documentation in a standardized common language, the ICF, and they offer the possibility of responding to the health-political demand for transparency regarding services offered by health care providers.

  10. Hunting statistics: what data for what use? An account of an international workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Lebreton, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Hunting interacts with the underlying dynamics of game species in several different ways and is, at the same time, a source of valuable information not easily obtained from populations that are not subjected to hunting. Specific questions, including the sustainability of hunting activities, can be addressed using hunting statistics. Such investigations will frequently require that hunting statistics be combined with data from other sources of population-level information. Such reflections served as a basis for the meeting, ?Hunting Statistics: What Data for What Use,? held on January 15-18, 2001 in Saint-Benoist, France. We review here the 20 talks held during the workshop and the contribution of hunting statistics to our knowledge of the population dynamics of game species. Three specific topics (adaptive management, catch-effort models, and dynamics of exploited populations) were highlighted as important themes and are more extensively presented as boxes.

  11. A systematic literature review of the situation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health-Children and Youth version in education: a useful tool or a flight of fancy?

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marta; Alves, Ines; Maxwell, Gregor

    2012-02-01

    This article presents the outcome of a systematic literature review exploring the applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and its Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) at various levels and in processes within the education systems in different countries. A systematic database search using selected search terms has been used. The selection of studies was then refined further using four protocols: inclusion and exclusion protocols at abstract and full text and extraction levels along with a quality protocol. Studies exploring the direct relationship between education and the ICF/ICF-CY were sought.As expected, the results show a strong presence of studies from English-speaking countries, namely from Europe and North America. The articles were mainly published in noneducational journals. The most used ICF/ICF-CY components are activity and participation, participation, and environmental factors. From the analysis of the papers included, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY is currently used as a research tool, theoretical framework, and tool for implementing educational processes. The ICF/ICF-CY can provide a useful language to the education field where there is currently a lot of disparity in theoretical, praxis, and research issues. Although the systematic literature review does not report a high incidence of the use of the ICF/ICF-CY in education, the results show that the ICF/ICF-CY model and classification have potential to be applied in education systems.

  12. Linking quality-of-life measures using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version in chronic health conditions: the example of young people with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Krasuska, Marta; Riva, Silvia; Fava, Leonardo; von Mackensen, Sylvia; Bullinger, Monika

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to measure the health and functioning of children with hemophilia in Europe using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY) as a frame of reference and items from health-related quality-of-life instruments as a measurement tool within a European data set. Based on the results of linkage of items from the hemophilia-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaire for children and adolescents to ICF/ICF-CY, the categories most relevant for the description of health and functioning of children with hemophilia were identified for each domain of the ICF/ICF-CY. Using data from the European Study of Clinical, Health, Economic, and Quality-of-Life Outcomes of Hemophilia treatment on 446 children, the frequency of impairments in body structures and body functions, restrictions in activities and participation, and barriers in contextual factors were calculated. In general, the frequency of impairments, restrictions, and barriers was low in the studied population of children with hemophilia. However, the level of restriction as well as barriers was higher than the level of impairments. Older children, children receiving on-demand treatment, and children with severe hemophilia tended to have more problems compared with younger children, children receiving prophylaxis treatment, and children with mild to moderate hemophilia. Using items from quality-of-life instruments with the ICF-CY as a frame of reference proved to be a useful approach for the assessment of health and functioning in children with hemophilia.

  13. Security Classification Using Automated Learning (SCALE): Optimizing Statistical Natural Language Processing Techniques to Assign Security Labels to Unstructured Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    techniques de traitement du langage naturel statistique et d’apprentissage automa- tique pour attribuer automatiquement une classification de sécurité à...automatique de la sensibilité d’un document ont été publiées. Dans le présent document, nous examinons l’efficacité du traitement du langage na...résultats démontrent que le traitement du langage naturel statistique combiné à l’apprentissage automatique est un moyen efficace qui permet

  14. A complete solution classification and unified algorithmic treatment for the one- and two-step asymmetric S-transverse mass event scale statistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Joel W.

    2014-08-01

    The M T2, or "s-transverse mass", statistic was developed to associate a parent mass scale to a missing transverse energy signature, given that escaping particles are generally expected in pairs, while collider experiments are sensitive to just a single transverse momentum vector sum. This document focuses on the generalized extension of that statistic to asymmetric one- and two-step decay chains, with arbitrary child particle masses and upstream missing transverse momentum. It provides a unified theoretical formulation, complete solution classification, taxonomy of critical points, and technical algorithmic prescription for treatment of the event scale. An implementation of the described algorithm is available for download, and is also a deployable component of the author's selection cut software package AEAC uS (Algorithmic Event Arbiter and C ut Selector). appendices address combinatoric event assembly, algorithm validation, and a complete pseudocode.

  15. Proposals for Paraphilic Disorders in the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Eleventh Revision (ICD-11).

    PubMed

    Krueger, Richard B; Reed, Geoffrey M; First, Michael B; Marais, Adele; Kismodi, Eszter; Briken, Peer

    2017-02-16

    The World Health Organization is currently developing the 11th revision of the International Classifications of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), with approval of the ICD-11 by the World Health Assembly anticipated in 2018. The Working Group on the Classification of Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health (WGSDSH) was created and charged with reviewing and making recommendations for categories related to sexuality that are contained in the chapter of Mental and Behavioural Disorders in ICD-10 (World Health Organization 1992a). Among these categories was the ICD-10 grouping F65, Disorders of sexual preference, which describes conditions now widely referred to as Paraphilic Disorders. This article reviews the evidence base, rationale, and recommendations for the proposed revisions in this area for ICD-11 and compares them with DSM-5. The WGSDSH recommended that the grouping, Disorders of sexual preference, be renamed to Paraphilic Disorders and be limited to disorders that involve sexual arousal patterns that focus on non-consenting others or are associated with substantial distress or direct risk of injury or death. Consistent with this framework, the WGSDSH also recommended that the ICD-10 categories of Fetishism, Fetishistic Transvestism, and Sadomasochism be removed from the classification and new categories of Coercive Sexual Sadism Disorder, Frotteuristic Disorder, Other Paraphilic Disorder Involving Non-Consenting Individuals, and Other Paraphilic Disorder Involving Solitary Behaviour or Consenting Individuals be added. The WGSDSH's proposals for Paraphilic Disorders in ICD-11 are based on the WHO's role as a global public health agency and the ICD's function as a public health reporting tool.

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Sensory Component of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hales, M.; Biros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since 1982, the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) has been used to classify sensation of spinal cord injury (SCI) through pinprick and light touch scores. The absence of proprioception, pain, and temperature within this scale creates questions about its validity and accuracy. Objectives: To assess whether the sensory component of the ISNCSCI represents a reliable and valid measure of classification of SCI. Methods: A systematic review of studies examining the reliability and validity of the sensory component of the ISNCSCI published between 1982 and February 2013 was conducted. The electronic databases MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, PEDro, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. A secondary search of reference lists was also completed. Chosen articles were assessed according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine hierarchy of evidence and critically appraised using the McMasters Critical Review Form. A statistical analysis was conducted to investigate the variability of the results given by reliability studies. Results: Twelve studies were identified: 9 reviewed reliability and 3 reviewed validity. All studies demonstrated low levels of evidence and moderate critical appraisal scores. The majority of the articles (~67%; 6/9) assessing the reliability suggested that training was positively associated with better posttest results. The results of the 3 studies that assessed the validity of the ISNCSCI scale were confounding. Conclusions: Due to the low to moderate quality of the current literature, the sensory component of the ISNCSCI requires further revision and investigation if it is to be a useful tool in clinical trials. PMID:26363591

  17. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a unifying model for the conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Gerold; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    There is a need to develop a contemporary and internationally accepted conceptual description of physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). The process of evolving such a definition can now rely on the unifying conceptual model and taxonomy of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and an ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy. The PRM section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) has endorsed the application of the ICF as a unifying conceptual model for PRM and supports the process of moving towards an "ICF-based conceptual description and according definitions of PRM". With this goal in mind, the authors have developed a first tentative conceptual description in co-operation with the professional practice committee of the UEMS-PRM-section. A respective brief definition describes PRM as the medical specialty that, based on the assessment of functioning and including the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, performs, applies and co-ordinates biomedical and engineering and a wide range of other interventions with the goal of optimizing functioning of people experiencing or likely to experience disability. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute to the process of achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of PRM by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  18. Classification and regression tree analysis vs. multivariable linear and logistic regression methods as statistical tools for studying haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Henrard, S; Speybroeck, N; Hermans, C

    2015-11-01

    Haemophilia is a rare genetic haemorrhagic disease characterized by partial or complete deficiency of coagulation factor VIII, for haemophilia A, or IX, for haemophilia B. As in any other medical research domain, the field of haemophilia research is increasingly concerned with finding factors associated with binary or continuous outcomes through multivariable models. Traditional models include multiple logistic regressions, for binary outcomes, and multiple linear regressions for continuous outcomes. Yet these regression models are at times difficult to implement, especially for non-statisticians, and can be difficult to interpret. The present paper sought to didactically explain how, why, and when to use classification and regression tree (CART) analysis for haemophilia research. The CART method is non-parametric and non-linear, based on the repeated partitioning of a sample into subgroups based on a certain criterion. Breiman developed this method in 1984. Classification trees (CTs) are used to analyse categorical outcomes and regression trees (RTs) to analyse continuous ones. The CART methodology has become increasingly popular in the medical field, yet only a few examples of studies using this methodology specifically in haemophilia have to date been published. Two examples using CART analysis and previously published in this field are didactically explained in details. There is increasing interest in using CART analysis in the health domain, primarily due to its ease of implementation, use, and interpretation, thus facilitating medical decision-making. This method should be promoted for analysing continuous or categorical outcomes in haemophilia, when applicable. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  20. Descriptors for Competence: Towards an International Standard Classification for Skills and Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Plaimauer, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential of already existing skills and competence ontologies to benefit European transparency tools and especially the implementation of the European Qualification Framework. Furthermore, it asks whether any of them could serve as a starting point to develop an International Standard…

  1. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  2. Development and Validation of the "Student Internalizing Behavior Screener": Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Classification Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Rasetshwane, Kutlo B.; Truelson, Erica; Grant, Stephanie; Dart, Evan H.; Collins, Tai A.; Sprague, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Students with internalizing behavior patterns are often overlooked and underserved in schools, which is problematic in that they are at risk for a host of negative outcomes. As a result, there is a need for universal screening procedures to proactively detect students with these behavior patterns and to provide them with early, ongoing supports.…

  3. Development and Validation of the "Student Internalizing Behavior Screener": Examination of Reliability, Validity, and Classification Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Rasetshwane, Kutlo B.; Truelson, Erica; Grant, Stephanie; Dart, Evan H.; Collins, Tai A.; Sprague, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Students with internalizing behavior patterns are often overlooked and underserved in schools, which is problematic in that they are at risk for a host of negative outcomes. As a result, there is a need for universal screening procedures to proactively detect students with these behavior patterns and to provide them with early, ongoing supports.…

  4. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXI. Nomenclature and Classification of Adenosine Receptors—An Update

    PubMed Central

    IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Linden, Joel; Müller, Christa E.

    2011-01-01

    In the 10 years since our previous International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology report on the nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors, no developments have led to major changes in the recommendations. However, there have been so many other developments that an update is needed. The fact that the structure of one of the adenosine receptors has recently been solved has already led to new ways of in silico screening of ligands. The evidence that adenosine receptors can form homo- and heteromultimers has accumulated, but the functional significance of such complexes remains unclear. The availability of mice with genetic modification of all the adenosine receptors has led to a clarification of the functional roles of adenosine, and to excellent means to study the specificity of drugs. There are also interesting associations between disease and structural variants in one or more of the adenosine receptors. Several new selective agonists and antagonists have become available. They provide improved possibilities for receptor classification. There are also developments hinting at the usefulness of allosteric modulators. Many drugs targeting adenosine receptors are in clinical trials, but the established therapeutic use is still very limited. PMID:21303899

  5. Diagnosis of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. An update based on the International classification of sleep disorders, 2nd edition.

    PubMed

    Billiard, Michel

    2007-10-01

    Defining the precise nosological limits of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia is an ongoing process dating back to the first description of the two conditions. The most recent step forward has been done within the preparation of the second edition of the "International classification of sleep disorders" published in June 2005. Appointed by Dr Emmanuel Mignot, the Task Force on "Hypersomnias of central origin, not due to a circadian rhythm sleep disorder, sleep related breathing disorder, or other causes of disturbed nocturnal sleep" thoroughly revisited the nosology of narcolepsy and of idiopathic hypersomnia. Narcolepsy is now distinguished into three different entities, narcolepsy with cataplexy, narcolepsy without cataplexy and narcolepsy due to medical condition, and idiopathic hypersomnia into two entities, idiopathic hypersomnia with long sleep time and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time. Nevertheless there are still a number of pending issues. What are the limits of narcolepsy without cataplexy? Is there a continuum in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with and without cataplexy? Should sporadic and familial forms of narcolepsy with cataplexy appear as subgroups in the classification? Are idiopathic hypersomnia with long sleep time and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time, two forms of the same condition or two different conditions? Is there a pathophysiological relationship between narcolepsy without cataplexy and idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time?

  6. Revised diagnostic criteria and classification for the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS): report from the 2009 NIH International Workshop.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joao B; Bleesing, Jack J; Dianzani, Umberto; Fleisher, Thomas A; Jaffe, Elaine S; Lenardo, Michael J; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic; Siegel, Richard M; Su, Helen C; Teachey, David T; Rao, V Koneti

    2010-10-07

    Lymphadenopathy in children for which no infectious or malignant cause can be ascertained constitutes a challenging diagnostic dilemma. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human genetic disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis resulting in an accumulation of lymphocytes and childhood onset chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, multilineage cytopenias, and an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. In 1999, investigators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) suggested criteria to establish the diagnosis of ALPS. Since then, with approximately 500 patients with ALPS studied worldwide, significant advances in our understanding of the disease have prompted the need for revisions to the existing diagnostic criteria and classification scheme. The rationale and recommendations outlined here stem from an international workshop held at NIH on September 21 and 22, 2009, attended by investigators from the United States, Europe, and Australia engaged in clinical and basic science research on ALPS and related disorders. It is hoped that harmonizing the diagnosis and classification of ALPS will foster collaborative research and better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune cytopenias and B-cell lymphomas.

  7. Revised diagnostic criteria and classification for the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS): report from the 2009 NIH International Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Bleesing, Jack J.; Dianzani, Umberto; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Lenardo, Michael J.; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic; Siegel, Richard M.; Su, Helen C.; Teachey, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphadenopathy in children for which no infectious or malignant cause can be ascertained constitutes a challenging diagnostic dilemma. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human genetic disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis resulting in an accumulation of lymphocytes and childhood onset chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, multilineage cytopenias, and an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. In 1999, investigators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) suggested criteria to establish the diagnosis of ALPS. Since then, with approximately 500 patients with ALPS studied worldwide, significant advances in our understanding of the disease have prompted the need for revisions to the existing diagnostic criteria and classification scheme. The rationale and recommendations outlined here stem from an international workshop held at NIH on September 21 and 22, 2009, attended by investigators from the United States, Europe, and Australia engaged in clinical and basic science research on ALPS and related disorders. It is hoped that harmonizing the diagnosis and classification of ALPS will foster collaborative research and better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune cytopenias and B-cell lymphomas. PMID:20538792

  8. Characterization of hourly NOx atmospheric concentrations near the Venice International Airport with additive semi-parametric statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Varin, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    An additive modeling approach is employed to provide a statistical description of hourly variation in concentrations of NOx measured in proximity of the Venice "Marco Polo" International Airport, Italy. Differently from several previous studies on airport emissions based on daily time series, the paper analyzes hourly data because variations of NOx concentrations during the day are informative about the prevailing emission source. The statistical analysis is carried out using a one-year time series. Confounder effects due to seasonality, meteorology and airport traffic volume are accounted for by suitable covariates. Four different model specifications of increasing complexity are considered. The model with the aircraft source expressed as the NOx emitted near the airport is found to have the best predictive quality. Although the aircraft source is statistically significant, the comparison of model-based predictions suggests that the relative impact of aircraft emissions to ambient NOx concentrations is limited and the road traffic is the likely dominant source near the sampling point.

  9. Evaluation of post-stroke functionality based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: a proposal for use of assessment tools

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Soraia Micaela; Corrêa, Fernanda Ishida; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais; Buchalla, Cássia Maria; Silva, Paula Fernanda da Costa; Corrêa, João Carlos Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories addressed by the assessment tools commonly used in post-stroke rehabilitation and characterize patients based on its evaluation model. [Subjects and Methods] An exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 35 individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Handgrip strength was assessed to evaluate body functions and structures. The 10-meter gait speed test and Timed Up and Go test were administered to evaluate activity. The Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale was used to evaluate participation. Moreover, a systematic review of the literature was performed to identify studies that have associated these assessment tools with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories. [Results] The tools employed in this study for evaluating function addressed 63 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories: 24 related to body functions and structures; 36 related to activity and participation; and 3 related to environmental factors. [Conclusion] The assessment tools employed in this study addressed 63 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health categories and allowed a more complete evaluation of stroke survivors with hemiparesis. Use of this classification can therefore be more easily incorporated into clinical practice. PMID:26180294

  10. Predictive capabilities of statistical learning methods for lung nodule malignancy classification using diagnostic image features: an investigation using the Lung Image Database Consortium dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Matthew C.; Magnan, Jerry F.

    2017-03-01

    To determine the potential usefulness of quantified diagnostic image features as inputs to a CAD system, we investigate the predictive capabilities of statistical learning methods for classifying nodule malignancy, utilizing the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and only employ the radiologist-assigned diagnostic feature values for the lung nodules therein, as well as our derived estimates of the diameter and volume of the nodules from the radiologists' annotations. We calculate theoretical upper bounds on the classification accuracy that is achievable by an ideal classifier that only uses the radiologist-assigned feature values, and we obtain an accuracy of 85.74 (+/-1.14)% which is, on average, 4.43% below the theoretical maximum of 90.17%. The corresponding area-under-the-curve (AUC) score is 0.932 (+/-0.012), which increases to 0.949 (+/-0.007) when diameter and volume features are included, along with the accuracy to 88.08 (+/-1.11)%. Our results are comparable to those in the literature that use algorithmically-derived image-based features, which supports our hypothesis that lung nodules can be classified as malignant or benign using only quantified, diagnostic image features, and indicates the competitiveness of this approach. We also analyze how the classification accuracy depends on specific features, and feature subsets, and we rank the features according to their predictive power, statistically demonstrating the top four to be spiculation, lobulation, subtlety, and calcification.

  11. The ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) developed by the WHO for measuring function in hemophilia.

    PubMed

    De la Corte-Rodriguez, H; Rodriguez-Merchan, E C

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of the disease in people with hemophilia (PWH) must include an analysis of functioning. Researchers have done a lot of work over the last two decades in developing disease specific assessment tools in hemophilia - some of them based on the ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health). This article is a narrative review of the ICF developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the context of hemophilia. Expert commentary: The WFH has developed a website with a 'compendium of assessment tools' based on the ICF. The ICF developed by the WHO makes it possible to propose an approach that prioritizes capacities over difficulties. This article is intended to motivate physicians who treat PWH to incorporate the ICF into their assessments. A generalized use of the ICF will provide a common communication context. The ICF developed by the WHO should be used in hemophilia.

  12. Comparing existing national and international classification systems of surgical procedures with the CEN/ISO 1828 ontology framework standard.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jean M; Casey, Ann; Bousquet, Cédric; Kumar, Anand; Lewalle, Pierre; Trombert Paviot, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    Among different standardization strategies for biomedical terminologies the European Standard Body CEN TC 251 followed by ISO TC 215 have stated that it was not possible to convince the different European or international member states using different national languages to agree on a reference clinical terminology or to standardize a detailed language independent biomedical ontology. Since 1990 they have developed since an approach named the Categorial Structure that standardises only the terminologies' model structure. The methodology for the Categorial Structure development and a comparison of the different existing classification systems based on this ontology framework is presented as a step towards increased interoperability between biomedical terminologies through conformity to a minimum set of ontological requirements.

  13. Introduction to the international classification of functioning disability and health - ICF - in the context of vestibular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Mariella

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation focuses at decreasing the impact of symptoms, such as vertigo dizziness and imbalance have on people's daily life and their role in society. The international Classification of Functioning Disability and Health - ICF offers a unified and standard language and framework for describing health and health related states. The ICF aims at facilitating communication information about health, like functioning and disability. For this purpose the ICF has a systematic coding scheme for health data with more than 1400 categories. The big number of categories is impractical to apply in a specific area like vestibular disorders. Therefore a narrowing down to the relevant categories in a comprehensive core set for vertigo (100 categories) and a brief core set (29 categories) were developed. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the potential use of ICF in vestibular rehabilitation.

  14. Applying the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to guide home health care services planning and delivery in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pimdee, Atipong; Nualnetr, Nomjit

    2017-01-01

    Home health care is an essential service for home-bound patients in Thailand. In this action research study, we used the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to modify home health care services provided by a university hospital. Staff responsible for delivering the services (physical therapist, nurses, and Thai traditional medicine practitioners) participated in the development of an ICF-based assessment tool and home health care service procedure. After an 8-month trial of implementing these changes, professional satisfaction and empowerment were high among the home health care team members. Patients and their caregivers were also satisfied with the services. In conclusion, the ICF is an effective means of guiding home health care.

  15. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in women with breast cancer: a proposal for measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Flávia Nascimento de; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Bergmann, Anke

    2013-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) aims at standardization, but its applicability requires consistent instruments. In Brazil, invasive therapeutic approaches are frequent, leading to functional alterations. The current study thus aimed to identify and discuss instruments capable of measuring ICF core set codes for breast cancer. The review included ICF studies in women with breast cancer diagnosis and studies with the objective of translating and validating instruments for the Brazilian population, and consistent with the codes. Review studies, systematic or not, were excluded. Eight instruments were selected, and the WHOQOL-Bref was the most comprehensive. The use of various instruments showed 19 coinciding codes, and the instruments as a whole covered 58 of the total of 81 codes. The use of multiple instruments is time-consuming, so new studies are needed to propose parsimonious tools capable of measuring functioning in women treated for breast cancer.

  16. What Is the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Why Is It Relevant to Audiology?

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Carly; Grenness, Caitlin; Scarinci, Nerina; Hickson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is widely used in disability and health sectors as a framework to describe the far-reaching effects of a range of health conditions on individuals. This biopsychosocial framework can be used to describe the experience of an individual in the components of body functions, body structures, and activities and participation, and it considers the influence of contextual factors (environmental and personal) on these components. Application of the ICF in audiology allows the use of a common language between health care professionals in both clinical and research settings. Furthermore, the ICF is promoted as a means of facilitating patient-centered care. In this article, the relevance and application of the ICF to audiology is described, along with clinical examples of its application in the assessment and management of children and adults with hearing loss. Importantly, the skills necessary for clinicians to apply the ICF effectively are discussed. PMID:27489397

  17. High-frequency normal-mode statistics in shallow water: the combined effect of random surface and internal waves.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A

    2015-05-01

    In an earlier article, the statistical properties of mode propagation were studied at a frequency of 1 kHz in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves, using a hybrid transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulations. Here, the analysis is extended to include the effects of random linear surface waves, in isolation and in combination with internal waves. Mode coupling rates for both surface and internal waves are found to be significant, but strongly dependent on mode number. Mode phase randomization by surface waves is found to be dominated by coupling effects, and therefore a full transport theory treatment of the range evolution of the cross mode coherence matrix is needed. The second-moment of mode amplitudes is calculated using transport theory, thereby providing the mean intensity while the fourth-moment is calculated using Monte Carlo simulations, which provides the scintillation index. The transport theory results for second-moment statistics are shown to closely reproduce Monte Carlo simulations. Both surface waves and internal waves strongly influence the acoustic field fluctuations.

  18. Application of Different Statistical Techniques in Integrated Logistics Support of the International Space Station Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepehry-Fard, F.; Coulthard, Maurice H.

    1995-01-01

    The process to predict the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as mean time between failures (MTBF) over time must be one that will not in turn introduce uncontrolled deviation in the results of the ILS analysis such as life cycle cost spares calculation, etc. A minor deviation in the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as MTBF over time will have a significant impact on the logistics resources demands, International Space Station availability, and maintenance support costs. It is the objective of this report to identify the magnitude of the expected enhancement in the accuracy of the results for the International Space Station reliability and maintainability data packages by providing examples. These examples partially portray the necessary information hy evaluating the impact of the said enhancements on the life cycle cost and the availability of the International Space Station.

  19. Application of Different Statistical Techniques in Integrated Logistics Support of the International Space Station Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepehry-Fard, F.; Coulthard, Maurice H.

    1995-01-01

    The process to predict the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as mean time between failures (MTBF) over time must be one that will not in turn introduce uncontrolled deviation in the results of the ILS analysis such as life cycle cost spares calculation, etc. A minor deviation in the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as MTBF over time will have a significant impact on the logistics resources demands, International Space Station availability, and maintenance support costs. It is the objective of this report to identify the magnitude of the expected enhancement in the accuracy of the results for the International Space Station reliability and maintainability data packages by providing examples. These examples partially portray the necessary information hy evaluating the impact of the said enhancements on the life cycle cost and the availability of the International Space Station.

  20. Development and validation of a computerized algorithm for International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI).