Science.gov

Sample records for international textile clothing

  1. Clothing and Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The purpose of the subject area guide is to present clothing and textiles in the perspective of family living and to relate clothing and textiles to a variety of life styles. Initial emphasis is placed on curriculum planning and the taxonomy of educational objectives. Skills in clothing construction are developed throughout the four homemaking…

  2. Clothing and Textile Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Forty-seven performance-based instructional modules on six major topics are provided for the home economics content area of clothing and textiles. The six topics are (1) planning basics (psychological, physical, social, and behavioral aspects of clothing; elements of design; principles of design; and style and fashion in clothing), (2) buyership…

  3. Clothing and Textile Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Forty-seven performance-based instructional modules on six major topics are provided for the home economics content area of clothing and textiles. The six topics are (1) planning basics (psychological, physical, social, and behavioral aspects of clothing; elements of design; principles of design; and style and fashion in clothing), (2) buyership…

  4. Stories in the Cloth: Art Therapy and Narrative Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlock, Lisa Raye

    2016-01-01

    In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…

  5. Stories in the Cloth: Art Therapy and Narrative Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlock, Lisa Raye

    2016-01-01

    In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…

  6. Tips for Teaching Textiles and Clothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This guide was prepared to help instructors of adult textiles and clothing programs improve their teaching; it is designed to be used with other department publications: Clothing Services Training Guide, Resource Courses for Planning Local Adult Homemaking Programs, and Resource Kit Tips for Teaching Textiles and Clothing (see AC 008 741). Each…

  7. Textiles & Clothing. Home Economics for Oregon Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This curriculum guide on textiles and clothing is one of a set of five Oregon goal-based home economics curriculum guides. Provided in this guide are the following: one suggested district goal (students will be able to make textile and clothing decisions which meet individual and family needs); four suggested program goals (e.g., the student will…

  8. Clothing and Textiles II. Semester Course. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Harriet; And Others

    The clothing and textiles guide for a second level semester course for grades 10-12 identifies objectives and learning experiences with basic reference to developmental tasks, needs, interests, capacities, and prior learning experiences of students. It was developed for use with students who exhibited skill and a high degree of satisfaction from…

  9. North Carolina Clothing and Textiles Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to be used by consumer home economics teachers as a resource in planning and teaching a year-long course in clothing and textiles for high school students in North Carolina. The guide is organized in units of instruction for a first semester course and a second semester course. Each unit contains a content outline,…

  10. Vocational Home Economics Curriculum Guide for Occupational Clothing and Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewald, Margaret R.

    The training program outlined in this guide focuses upon the development of students for gainful employment through a two-year course of study in clothing and textiles. Instructional topics are provided in six areas: clothing and textiles careers; alterationist; custom dressmaker; industrial sewing; getting, keeping, and using the paycheck; and…

  11. The effect of clothing care activities on textile formaldehyde content.

    PubMed

    Novick, Rachel M; Nelson, Mindy L; McKinley, Meg A; Anderson, Grace L; Keenan, James J

    2013-01-01

    Textiles are commonly treated with formaldehyde-based residues that may potentially induce allergic contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. This study examined the initial formaldehyde content in clothing and resulting changes due to care activities. Twenty clothing articles were examined and 17 of them did not have detectable levels of formaldehyde. One shirt contained a formaldehyde concentration of 3172 ppm, and two pairs of pants had formaldehyde concentrations of 1391 ppm and 86 ppm. The two highest results represent formaldehyde levels that are up to 40-fold greater than international textile regulations. The two items with the greatest formaldehyde content were washed and dried in a manner similar to that used by consumers, including hand and machine washing in hot or cold water followed by air or machine drying. The washing and drying procedures reduced formaldehyde levels to between 26 and 72% of untreated controls. Differences in the temperature or type of washing and drying did not result in a clear trend in the subsequent formaldehyde content. In addition, samples were hot ironed, which did not affect the formaldehyde content as significantly. Understanding the formaldehyde content in clothing and its potential reduction through care activities may be useful for manufacturers and formaldehyde-sensitive individuals.

  12. An Analysis of English in the Workplace: The Communication Needs of Textile and Clothing Merchandisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So-mui, Florence Li; Mead, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an investigation into the workplace English needs of textile and clothing merchandisers who communicate in the international marketplace. Through questionnaire surveys, telephone interviews, analysis of authentic correspondence, and visits to the workplace, a detailed understanding has been obtained of the communication demands placed…

  13. Vocational Training in the Textiles and Clothing Industries in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drimousis, I.; Zisimopoulos, A.

    This document examines the circumstances under which vocational training in Greece is provided for jobs in the textile and clothing industries. Its objective is to identify guidelines for vocational training for a skilled work force at regional and national levels and to contribute to job mobility between industries. Statistical data,…

  14. Textiles & Clothing Curriculum Guide. Energy and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jane S.; Morris, Carol

    This curriculum guide on textiles and clothing, covering one of the five content areas of the Energy and Family Curriculum Guide, has been designed to provide learning experiences and identify resources that can be used to develop units of study related to energy usage and conservation. The guide is intended for use in comprehensive courses of…

  15. Resource Kit Tips for Teaching Textiles and Clothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This kit has been designed to acquaint the instructor of adult textiles and clothing programs with some of the teaching aids that might be used to improve the learning process. The main parts of the publication include: Preparing and Using Transparencies; Developing a Learning Experience Using a Transparency; A Master Transparency with Overlays;…

  16. TEACHING-LEARNING UNITS IN CLOTHING AND TEXTILES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Association of Future Homemakers of America, Phoenix.

    GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS WHO ARE PLANNING LESSONS FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY STUDENTS IN CLOTHING AND TEXTILE CLASSES WERE DEVELOPED BY TEACHERS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, AND STATE SUPERVISORS. MATERIALS WERE TESTED BY CLASSROOM TEACHERS, REFINED, AND EDITED. MODELS OF TEACHING-LEARNING UNITS, EACH ON DIFFERENT COLORED PAPER, ARE PRESENTED FOR THREE…

  17. Textiles & Clothing Curriculum Guide. Energy and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jane S.; Morris, Carol

    This curriculum guide on textiles and clothing, covering one of the five content areas of the Energy and Family Curriculum Guide, has been designed to provide learning experiences and identify resources that can be used to develop units of study related to energy usage and conservation. The guide is intended for use in comprehensive courses of…

  18. Measurement of EMG activity with textile electrodes embedded into clothing.

    PubMed

    Finni, T; Hu, M; Kettunen, P; Vilavuo, T; Cheng, S

    2007-11-01

    Novel textile electrodes that can be embedded into sports clothing to measure averaged rectified electromyography (EMG) have been developed for easy use in field tests and in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity, reliability and feasibility of this new product to measure averaged rectified EMG. The validity was tested by comparing the signals from bipolar textile electrodes (42 cm(2)) and traditional bipolar surface electrodes (1.32 cm(2)) during bilateral isometric knee extension exercise with two electrode locations (A: both electrodes located in the same place, B: traditional electrodes placed on the individual muscles according to SENIAM, n=10 persons for each). Within-session repeatability (the coefficient of variation CV%, n=10) was calculated from five repetitions of 60% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The day-to-day repeatability (n=8) was assessed by measuring three different isometric force levels on five consecutive days. The feasibility of the textile electrodes in field conditions was assessed during a maximal treadmill test (n=28). Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement within 2SD between the textile and traditional electrodes, demonstrating that the textile electrodes provide similar information on the EMG signal amplitude to the traditional electrodes. The within-session CV ranged from 13% to 21% in both the textile and traditional electrodes. The day-to-day CV was smaller, ranging from 4% to 11% for the textile electrodes. A similar relationship (r(2)=0.5) was found between muscle strength and the EMG of traditional and textile electrodes. The feasibility study showed that the textile electrode technique can potentially make EMG measurements very easy in field conditions. This study indicates that textile electrodes embedded into shorts is a valid and feasible method for assessing the average rectified value of EMG.

  19. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module II-D-1: Occupational Opportunities Related to Textiles and Clothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Marjory

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on occupational opportunities related to textiles and clothing is the first in a set of three modules on occupational education relating to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and…

  20. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module I-D-1: Consumer Approach to Textiles and Clothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on consumer approach to textiles and clothing is the first in a set of four modules on consumer education related to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education…

  1. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module I-D-1: Consumer Approach to Textiles and Clothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on consumer approach to textiles and clothing is the first in a set of four modules on consumer education related to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education…

  2. The Engineering Design of Intelligent Protective Textiles and Clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungmee; Jayaraman, Sundaresan

    Terrorism has been on the rise in the past decade and continues to disrupt everyday life in many parts of the world. Protection against such threats is therefore critical for preserving peace and security around the world. In particular, the safety of defense personnel engaged in confronting and responding to such threats must be ensured. Since textiles and clothing are pervasive and are always "on" the soldier, they can serve as an excellent infrastructure or platform for such individual protection systems.

  3. Clothing and Textiles (Intermediate). Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide was developed to assist home economics teachers in implementing the Missouri Vocational Instructional Management System in an intermediate clothing and textiles semester course. A minimum of two performance objectives were developed and validated for each competency by teachers with expertise in the area of clothing and textiles and one…

  4. Research Trends in Textiles and Clothing: An Analysis of Three Journals, 1980-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sharron J.; Johnson, Kim K. P.; Park, Ji-Hye

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of textiles and clothing research in the Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, and Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 1980-1999 (n=586) found that survey and experimentation were used most often; data analysis is primarily quantitative, although qualitative is increasing; and in the…

  5. Textile electrode characterization: dependencies in the skin-clothing-electrode interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, R.; Fernández, M.; Bragós, R.

    2013-04-01

    Given the advances in the technology known as smart textiles, the use of textile electrodes is more and more common. However this kind of electrodes presents some differences regarding the standard ones as the Ag-AgCl electrodes. Therefore to characterize them as best as possible is required. In order to make the characterization reproducible and repetitive, a skin dummy made of agar-agar and a standardized measurement set-up is used in this article. Thus, some dependencies in the skin-electrode interface are described. These dependencies are related to the surface of the textile electrode, the conductive material and the applied pressure. Furthermore, the dependencies on clothing in the skin-textile electrode interface are also analyzed. Thus, based on some parameters such as textile material, width and number of layers, the behavior of the interface made up by the skin, the textile electrode and clothing is depicted.

  6. Program Level Assessment: A Case Study for a University Clothing and Textile Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Zee-Sun; Frazier, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for program assessment and a case study in assessment for a university clothing and textile program in family and consumer sciences. Assessment activities and the process implemented by the Textile and Apparel Studies (TAS) major at Western Michigan University are explained. The process adopts the International…

  7. Competencies in Clothing and Textiles Needed by Beginning Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 300 family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals in North Carolina received 140 responses that rated the importance of teacher competencies in textiles and clothing instruction. Clothing construction ranked highest. Results informed the work of a committee revising FCS curriculum. (JOW)

  8. 78 FR 35875 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Clothing Textiles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Clothing Textiles, Vinyl Plastic... of Vinyl Plastic Film (16 CFR part 1611). These regulations establish requirements for testing and... vinyl plastic film and vinyl plastic film intended for use in clothing (except children's sleepwear...

  9. Arrow damage to textiles--analysis of clothing and bedding in two cases of crossbow deaths.

    PubMed

    Taupin, J M

    1998-01-01

    Two cases of crossbow deaths involving analysis of damage to clothing and bedding are described. The distinctive characteristics of the damage examined in these cases indicate that there is merit in examining damage to clothing as well as wounds to the body in crossbow injuries. Clothing damage analysis may be especially useful if the body is badly decomposed or never recovered. Furthermore, damage to textiles may reflect a clearer geometry of the weapon than that of the associated wounding.

  10. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module I-D-4: Applications and Implications of New Technology in Textiles and Clothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Marjory

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on applications and implications of new technology in textiles and clothing is the fourth in a set of four modules on consumer education related to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching…

  11. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module I-D-4: Applications and Implications of New Technology in Textiles and Clothing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Marjory

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on applications and implications of new technology in textiles and clothing is the fourth in a set of four modules on consumer education related to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching…

  12. 75 FR 5578 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Flammability Standards for Clothing Textiles and Vinyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... Plastic Film AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... clothing textiles and vinyl plastic film. DATES: Written comments on this request for extension of approval... Flammability of Clothing Textiles (16 CFR Part 1610) and the Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl...

  13. Kentucky Consumer & Homemaking Education. Clothing and Textiles. Curriculum Guide, Comprehensive Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Dianne

    Intended for use by teachers on the junior high and high school levels, this curriculum guide, which is one in a series of guides for consumer and homemaking education in Kentucky, outlines four courses in the clothing and textile areas. Starting at the seventh grade level in Unit 1, the topics and instruction increase in complexity from one unit…

  14. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

  15. Attitude and Motivation as Predictors of Academic Achievement of Students in Clothing and Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwameiye, B. E.; Osho, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated attitude and motivation as predictors of academic achievement of students in clothing and textiles. Three colleges of education in Edo and Delta States were randomly selected for use in this study. From each school, 40 students were selected from Year III using simple random technique yielding a total of 240 students. The…

  16. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

  17. Determination of Appropriate Content for a Clothing and Textiles Specialized Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    A study was undertaken to obtain and analyze input from consumer and homemaking education teachers, students, and parents regarding desired content for a clothing and textiles semester course. Of the 1,200 questionnaires mailed to parents, teachers, and students throughout Texas, 327 were returned. Of these, 178 were teacher questionnaires, 84…

  18. Determination of Appropriate Content for a Clothing and Textiles Specialized Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    A study was undertaken to obtain and analyze input from consumer and homemaking education teachers, students, and parents regarding desired content for a clothing and textiles semester course. Of the 1,200 questionnaires mailed to parents, teachers, and students throughout Texas, 327 were returned. Of these, 178 were teacher questionnaires, 84…

  19. Attitude and Motivation as Predictors of Academic Achievement of Students in Clothing and Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwameiye, B. E.; Osho, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated attitude and motivation as predictors of academic achievement of students in clothing and textiles. Three colleges of education in Edo and Delta States were randomly selected for use in this study. From each school, 40 students were selected from Year III using simple random technique yielding a total of 240 students. The…

  20. Clothing and Textiles Curriculum Guide. Basic Unit, Advanced Unit, and Semester Course. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ruth; And Others

    The clothing and textiles guide, part of a consumer and homemaking education unit, was developed in a 3-week curriculum workshop at Winthrop College in June 1972. The identified objectives and learning experiences have been developed with basic reference to developmental tasks, needs, interests, capacities, and prior learning experiences of…

  1. Technical Training Requirements of Middle Management in the Greek Textile and Clothing Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotinopoulou, K.; Manolopoulos, N.

    A case study of 16 companies in the Greek textile and clothing industry elicited the training needs of the industry's middle managers. The study concentrated on large and medium-sized work units, using a lengthy questionnaire. The study found that middle managers increasingly need to solve problems and ensure the reliability of new equipment and…

  2. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module I-D-2: Sociological, Psychological, and Economic Factors Affecting Clothing Selections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Nina

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on sociological, psychological, and economic factors affecting clothing selection is the second in a set of four modules on consumer education related to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching…

  3. Protective clothing textile research for space activities in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Kosmo, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Textile and clothing specifications for space activities are discussed, emphasizing a chronological and utilitarian role. New fabrication techniques led to the Mercury Space Suit, a constant-wear hybrid of the omni-environmental full pressure suit used by high-flying pilots of the 1950s. The Gemini program (1964-1966) provided the first specifically designed protective clothing assembly for both intra- and extravehicular operations. The G4C, used for EV (extravehicular) activities, protected the astronaut against solar radiation, heat loss, and meteoroid penetration. The clothing for the Apollo program (1968-1975) mirrored a greater concern for fire safety with Durette (a halogenated polyamide) and PBI (polybenzimadazole) widely used for intravehicular garments. With the advent of the Shuttle program, cabin pressure and composition were changed from 6 psi, 100% oxygen to 9-14 psi, 23.4% oxygen, 76.6% N2. As a result, 'off-the-shelf' materials were used without compromising fire safety. Reusability was stressed, as textile costs and durability were now important selection criteria noting that existing textile materials will probably be adequate for the next 20 years of space operations and research. A portable lunar survival shelter made of textiles is being developed; and a preliminary design for an EV 'tunnel suit system' (an access tunnel and homoform work station) is already in existence.

  4. Protective clothing textile research for space activities in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Kosmo, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Textile and clothing specifications for space activities are discussed, emphasizing a chronological and utilitarian role. New fabrication techniques led to the Mercury Space Suit, a constant-wear hybrid of the omni-environmental full pressure suit used by high-flying pilots of the 1950s. The Gemini program (1964-1966) provided the first specifically designed protective clothing assembly for both intra- and extravehicular operations. The G4C, used for EV (extravehicular) activities, protected the astronaut against solar radiation, heat loss, and meteoroid penetration. The clothing for the Apollo program (1968-1975) mirrored a greater concern for fire safety with Durette (a halogenated polyamide) and PBI (polybenzimadazole) widely used for intravehicular garments. With the advent of the Shuttle program, cabin pressure and composition were changed from 6 psi, 100% oxygen to 9-14 psi, 23.4% oxygen, 76.6% N2. As a result, 'off-the-shelf' materials were used without compromising fire safety. Reusability was stressed, as textile costs and durability were now important selection criteria noting that existing textile materials will probably be adequate for the next 20 years of space operations and research. A portable lunar survival shelter made of textiles is being developed; and a preliminary design for an EV 'tunnel suit system' (an access tunnel and homoform work station) is already in existence.

  5. Occurrence of and exposure to benzothiazoles and benzotriazoles from textiles and infant clothing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-08-15

    Benzothiazoles (BTHs) and benzotriazoles (BTRs) are used in a wide range of applications, including rubber vulcanization and corrosion inhibition. Limited studies have reported the occurrence of BTHs and BTRs in textiles, including children's clothing. In this study, 79 textile samples (raw as well as tailored) collected in Albany, New York, USA, were analyzed to determine the occurrence of BTH, BTR and their seven common derivatives. BTH, 2-methylthio-benzothiazole (2-Me-S-BTH) and 2-hydroxy-benzothiazole (2-OH-BTH) were found in textiles at a detection rate (DR) of 86%, 54% and 19%, respectively. The DRs of tolyltriazole (TTR), BTR and 5-chloro-benzotriazole (5-Cl-BTR) in textiles were below 20%. Although BTH was the most frequently detected compound, BTR levels were elevated in certain textiles and the overall mean concentrations of BTR in textiles were higher than those of BTH. The concentrations of BTH in textiles ranged from 6.1 to 1120ng/g. The highest concentration of BTR (14,000ng/g) was found in a printed graphic of infant's bodysuit. On the basis of the measured concentrations, we calculated dermal exposure doses to BTHs and BTRs by infants. The dermal exposure doses were high from the use of socks (244 to 395pg/kg·bw/d), and the exposure doses of BTHs and BTRs from textiles were as high as 3740pg/kg·bw/d. Printed graphics on clothes, as well as socks, accounted for a major proportion of the exposure doses to BTHs and BTRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module II-D-3: Merchandising Textiles and Ready-to-Wear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gylling, Margaret

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on merchandising textiles and ready-to-wear is the third in a set of three modules on occupational aspects of textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education…

  7. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module II-D-3: Merchandising Textiles and Ready-to-Wear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gylling, Margaret

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on merchandising textiles and ready-to-wear is the third in a set of three modules on occupational aspects of textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education…

  8. Fiber, Fabric, and Fashion. Clothing and Textiles Curriculum. Environment I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    A competency-based instructional guide for grades 7-14, this volume is one of three parts, each of which focuses on a different instructional environment (psychomotor, cognitive, or affective) for clothing or fashion instruction, and each of which includes competencies and corresponding learning activities for each of three instructional levels.…

  9. Research in intelligent biomedical clothing vs. realities in the European textile business.

    PubMed

    Walter, Lutz

    2004-01-01

    In order to make intelligent biomedical clothing a market reality, a critical mass of scientific, technical and industrial capacities from various disciplines and industries must be successfully brought together. The textiles and clothing sector, i.e. the industry that transform natural or man-made fibres into yarns then with a myriad of processing options into complex tissues and finally into clothing, is undoubtedly a crucial element in such development. With Europe disposing of the world's most diverse, productive and innovative textiles and clothing industry, in addition to relevant expertise and resources in other scientific disciplines and industrial sectors, it could play a leading role in the advancement of the concept of intelligent biomedical clothing. In this process, a great number of challenges--firstly scientific and technical in nature--still need to be overcome and support from public funding programmes could constitute the necessary trigger for research and industrial efforts to be seriously undertaken. In view of the great benefits of such new products for the individual consumer, national health care systems and the society as a whole, a concerted effort in private-public partnership seems merited.

  10. Reducing the Cost of Army Clothing and Textile Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Guard clothing issue points (CIPs) "* Two hundred seventy-six ROTC battalions "* U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) units . Depending upon the type item...requisitioned, the customer may be a CIP, an installation CIF, a National Guard CIP, an MCSS, or any number of individual requisitioners, such as a USAR unit or...variances. Unit or organization commanders have discretion in determining what specific items they wish stocked. The CIF must account for the

  11. The Potential of RFID Technology in the Textile and Clothing Industry: Opportunities, Requirements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legnani, Elena; Cavalieri, Sergio; Pinto, Roberto; Dotti, Stefano

    In the current competitive environment, companies need to extensively exploit the use of advanced technologies in order to develop a sustainable advantage, enhance their operational efficiency and better serve customers. In this context, RFID technology has emerged as a valid support for the company progress and its value is becoming more and more apparent. In particular, the textile and clothing industry, characterised by short life-cycles , quick response production , fast distribution, erratic customer preferences and impulsive purchasing, is one of the sectors which can extensively benefit from the RFID technology. However, actual applications are still very limited, especially in the upstream side of the supply network. This chapter provides an insight into the main benefits and potentials of this technology and highlights the main issues which are currently inhibiting its large scale development in the textile and clothing industry. The experience of two industry-academia projects and the relative fallouts are reported.

  12. Clothing and Textiles Curriculum Guide for Vocational Home Economics Programs (Grades 9-12). Volume II. Bulletin 1700.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This second volume of a curriculum guide for use in vocational home economics programs in Louisiana is intended for ninth and tenth grade students, tenth through twelfth grade students, and those studying two one-semester courses in clothing and textiles. Topics covered in the units are the following: social-psychological aspects of clothing,…

  13. The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Avagyan, Rozanna; Hongyu, Ren; Östman, Conny

    2016-02-01

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 μg/g (median 0.44 μg/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 μg/g (median 0.21 μg/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  14. Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles--a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny

    2015-04-01

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from "organic cotton" equipped with the "Nordic Ecolabel" ("Svanenmärkt"). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

  15. Quinolines in clothing textiles--a source of human exposure and wastewater pollution?

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Thorsén, Gunnar; Ostman, Conny

    2014-05-01

    A production process in which the use of various types of chemicals seems to be ubiquitous makes the textile industry a growing problem regarding both public health as well as the environment. Among several substances used at each stage, the present study focuses on the quinolines, a class of compounds involved in the manufacture of dyes, some of which are skin irritants and/or classified as probable human carcinogens. A method was developed for the determination of quinoline derivatives in textile materials comprising ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction, solid phase extraction cleanup, and final analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quinoline and ten quinoline derivatives were determined in 31 textile samples. The clothing samples, diverse in color, material, brand, country of manufacture, and price, and intended for a broad market, were purchased from different shops in Stockholm, Sweden. Quinoline, a possible human carcinogen, was found to be the most abundant compound present in almost all of the samples investigated, reaching a level of 1.9 mg in a single garment, and it was found that quinoline and its derivatives were mainly correlated to polyester material. This study points out the importance of screening textiles with nontarget analysis to investigate the presence of chemicals in an unbiased manner. Focus should be primarily on clothing worn close to the body.

  16. New advances in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation in textiles for summer clothing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, José; de Gálvez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Roldán, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for photoprotection against harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The standard for sun-protective clothing is based on erythema despite other biological effects of UVR on the skin. We analyzed the potential protection against UVR in fabrics destined for summer clothing based on several action spectra. We examined 50 garments classified by type of fabric composition, structure of the fiber yarn and color. The ultraviolet protection factor was calculated based on fabric ultraviolet transmittance corrected for erythema according to the EU standard E-13758 as well as the UVA transmittance of fabrics. UVR protection was also analyzed in base of different action spectra as for previtamin D3, nonmelanoma skin cancer, photoimmunosuppression and photoaging. Most knitted fabrics used for sports T-shirts offered excellent ratings for ultraviolet protection while normal shirts showed very low ratings, particularly against photoaging. The cover is the most influential variable in fabric photoprotection, having an exponential relationship with the UPF. The relation between cover and UVA protection was linearly negative. Information about ultraviolet protection in textiles used for summer clothing should be included in labeling as some types of fabrics, especially those used for shirts, offer very low UVR protection.

  17. Improving the appearance of all textile products from clothing to home textile using laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondogan, Ziynet; Pamuk, Oktay; Ondogan, Ece Nuket; Ozguney, Arif

    2005-11-01

    Denim trousers, commonly known as "blue jeans", have maintained their popularity for many years. For the purpose of supporting customers' purchasing behaviour and to address their aesthetic taste, companies have been trying in recent years to develop various techniques to improve the visual aspects of denim fabrics. These techniques mainly include printing on fabrics, embroidery and washing the final product. Especially, fraying certain areas of the fabric by sanding and stone washing to create designs is a popular technique. However, due to certain inconveniences caused by these procedures and in response to growing demands, research is underway to obtain a similar appearance by creating better quality and more advantageous manufacturing conditions. As is known, the laser is a source of energy which can be directed on desired objects and whose power and intensity can be easily controlled. Use of the laser enables us to cut a great variety of material from metal to fabric. Starting off from this point, we thought it would be possible to transfer certain designs onto the surface of textile material by changing the dye molecules in the fabric and creating alterations in its colour quality values by directing the laser to the material at reduced intensity. This study mainly deals with a machine specially designed for making use of laser beams to transfer pictures, figures as well as graphics of desired variety, size and intensity on all kinds of surfaces in textile manufacturing such as knitted—woven fabrics, leather, etc. at desired precision and without damaging the texture of the material. In the designed system, computer-controlled laser beams are used to change the colour of the dye material on the textile surface by directing the laser beams at a desired wavelength and intensity onto various textile surfaces selected for application. For this purpose, a laser beam source that can reach the initial level of power and that can be controlled by means of a

  18. Vocational Profiles and Training Requirements of Foremen and Overseers in the Textile/Clothing Sector in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Licinio Chainho; And Others

    A study examined the current needs of middle management in the textile and clothing industry in Portugal. Focus was on Level 3--foremen, overseers, and team leaders. Eight of 400 enterprises responded to the first questionnaire; 370 of 1,000 responded to the revised questionnaire. The following data were collected: number of employees according to…

  19. Made to Measure: Language, Literacy and Numeracy in TCF [Textile, Clothing, and Footwear] Industry Training. A Guide for Workplace Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Sue

    This guide is designed to help workplace trainers in the textile, clothing, and footwear (TCF) industry to become more aware of the language, literacy, and numeracy demands of training. It is divided into two main sections. Section 1, "Background Information," covers understanding language, literacy, and numeracy; understanding training…

  20. Made to Measure: Language, Literacy and Numeracy in TCF [Textile, Clothing, and Footwear] Industry Training. A Guide for Workplace Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Sue

    This guide is designed to help workplace trainers in the textile, clothing, and footwear (TCF) industry to become more aware of the language, literacy, and numeracy demands of training. It is divided into two main sections. Section 1, "Background Information," covers understanding language, literacy, and numeracy; understanding training…

  1. Clothing and Textiles Curriculum Guide for Vocational Home Economics Programs (Adults and Out-of-School Youth). Volume III. Bulletin 1700.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This third volume of a curriculum guide for use in vocational home economics programs in Louisiana is intended for adults and out-of-school youth. Learning activities focus on basic and advanced experiences in clothing and textile subject matter. Topics covered in the unit are the following: social-psychological aspects of clothing, personal…

  2. Development of electronic textiles to support networks, communications, and medical applications in future U.S. military protective clothing systems.

    PubMed

    Winterhalter, Carole A; Teverovsky, Justyna; Wilson, Patricia; Slade, Jeremiah; Horowitz, Wendy; Tierney, Edward; Sharma, Vikram

    2005-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on the development of textile-based wearable electronics that can be integrated into military protective clothing. A materials and manufacturing survey was conducted to determine the best performing and most durable materials to withstand the rigors of textile manufacturing and potential military use. Narrow woven technology was selected as one of the most promising textile manufacturing methods. A working wearable narrow fabric version of the Universal Serial Bus (USB), as well as a radiating conductor, were successfully developed and fabricated. A circular knit T-shirt with an integrated spiral bus was also developed. Military products developed include components of a personal area network providing data and power transport, and a body-borne antenna integrated into a load-bearing vest.

  3. Sweat responses to pesticide-proof clothing influenced by textile materials.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi-Yamashita, Y; Hayashi, C; Imamura, R; Tokura, H

    1995-05-01

    Themoregulatory responses were compared at an ambient temperature of 30 degrees C and a relative humidity of 50% between two kinds of protective clothing for pesticide spraying. One was made of nylon with wet coating polyurethane (A) and another was made of cotton with water repellent finish (B). The clothing ensemble was composed of a short-sleeved cotton shirt, long cotton underpants, cotton socks, shoes and the protective clothing. Five young female adults served as subjects. They took a rest with protective clothing ensemble for 15 min and then walked on a motor-driven treadmill (80m/min, 5% uphill grade) for 40 min, followed by 20-min rest. The increase of forearm sweat rate was higher in clothing A than in clothing B in 4 out of 5 subjects, although the average values were not significantly different. The total sweat rate of the whole body was also significantly larger in clothing A. Mean skin temperature and local skin temperatures in the arm, the chest and the thigh were significantly higher in clothing A than in clothing B. Clothing microclimate humidity was significantly higher in clothing A, while clothing microclimate temperature tended to be higher in clothing A. Individual observations about thermal, humidity and comfort sensation disclosed that the sensation was improved as a whole in clothing B. Local sweat rate was linearly related to mean body temperature and the regression line for clothing A was located above that for clothing B in 4 out of 5 subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Speaking through Cloth: Teaching Hmong History and Culture through Textile Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Ava L.

    1999-01-01

    Urges social studies educators to explore textile art and interviews with textile artists as a tool for fostering understanding and empathy for Hmong Americans. Summarizes Hmong history and culture as they lived traditionally in Laos, as refugees in Thailand, and as immigrants in the United States suggesting examples of textile art. (CMK)

  5. More Than a Pretty Cloth: Teaching Hmong History and Culture Through Textile Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Ava L.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that textile arts, often created by women, provide a valuable, but frequently overlooked, resource for learning about a culture. Describes an effort to learn about Hmong culture and history through a study of textile arts and to teach preservice teachers in a social studies methods course about this culture. (DSK)

  6. Highly Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Produced by Sewing Textile Electrodes on Cloth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2014-06-01

    Textile forms of solar cells possess special advantages over other types of solar cells, including their light weight, high flexibility, and mechanical robustness. Recent demand for wearable devices has promoted interest in the development of high-efficiency textile-based solar cells for energy suppliers. However, the weaving process occurs under high-friction, high-tension conditions that are not conducive to coated solar-cell active layers or electrodes deposited on the wire or strings. Therefore, a new approach is needed for the development of textile-based solar cells suitable for woven fabrics for wide-range application. In this report, we present a highly flexible, efficient DSSC, fabricated by sewing textile-structured electrodes onto casual fabrics such as cotton, silk, and felt, or paper, thereby forming core integrated DSSC structures with high energy-conversion efficiency (~5.8%). The fabricated textile-based DSSC devices showed high flexibility and high performance under 4-mm radius of curvature over thousands of deformation cycles. Considering the vast number of textile types, our textile-based DSSC devices offer a huge range of applications, including transparent, stretchable, wearable devices.

  7. Highly flexible dye-sensitized solar cells produced by sewing textile electrodes on cloth.

    PubMed

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y

    2014-06-24

    Textile forms of solar cells possess special advantages over other types of solar cells, including their light weight, high flexibility, and mechanical robustness. Recent demand for wearable devices has promoted interest in the development of high-efficiency textile-based solar cells for energy suppliers. However, the weaving process occurs under high-friction, high-tension conditions that are not conducive to coated solar-cell active layers or electrodes deposited on the wire or strings. Therefore, a new approach is needed for the development of textile-based solar cells suitable for woven fabrics for wide-range application. In this report, we present a highly flexible, efficient DSSC, fabricated by sewing textile-structured electrodes onto casual fabrics such as cotton, silk, and felt, or paper, thereby forming core integrated DSSC structures with high energy-conversion efficiency (~5.8%). The fabricated textile-based DSSC devices showed high flexibility and high performance under 4-mm radius of curvature over thousands of deformation cycles. Considering the vast number of textile types, our textile-based DSSC devices offer a huge range of applications, including transparent, stretchable, wearable devices.

  8. Highly Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Produced by Sewing Textile Electrodes on Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2014-01-01

    Textile forms of solar cells possess special advantages over other types of solar cells, including their light weight, high flexibility, and mechanical robustness. Recent demand for wearable devices has promoted interest in the development of high-efficiency textile-based solar cells for energy suppliers. However, the weaving process occurs under high-friction, high-tension conditions that are not conducive to coated solar-cell active layers or electrodes deposited on the wire or strings. Therefore, a new approach is needed for the development of textile-based solar cells suitable for woven fabrics for wide-range application. In this report, we present a highly flexible, efficient DSSC, fabricated by sewing textile-structured electrodes onto casual fabrics such as cotton, silk, and felt, or paper, thereby forming core integrated DSSC structures with high energy-conversion efficiency (~5.8%). The fabricated textile-based DSSC devices showed high flexibility and high performance under 4-mm radius of curvature over thousands of deformation cycles. Considering the vast number of textile types, our textile-based DSSC devices offer a huge range of applications, including transparent, stretchable, wearable devices. PMID:24957920

  9. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module II-D-2: Assembly Line Garment Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Nina

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on assembly line garment construction is the second in a set of three modules on occupational aspects of textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see…

  10. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Occupational Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module II-D-2: Assembly Line Garment Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Nina

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on assembly line garment construction is the second in a set of three modules on occupational aspects of textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see…

  11. Waiting time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among Danish workers in the textile, clothing, and footwear industries.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, I; Boldsen, J L

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion.

  12. Printed organic conductive polymers thermocouples in textile and smart clothing applications.

    PubMed

    Seeberg, Trine M; Røyset, Arne; Jahren, Susannah; Strisland, Frode

    2011-01-01

    This work reports on an experimental investigation of the potential of using selected commercially available organic conductive polymers as active ingredients in thermocouples printed on textiles. Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(4 styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and polyaniline (PANI) were screen printed onto woven cotton textile. The influence of multiple thermocycles between 235 K (-38 °C) and 350 K (+77 °C) on resistivity and thermoelectric properties was examined. The Seebeck coefficients of PEDOT:PSS and PANI were found to be about +18 μV/K and +15 uV/K, respectively, when "metal-polymer" thermocouples were realized by combining the polymer with copper. When "polymer-polymer" thermocouples were formed by combining PEDOT:PSS and PANI, a thermoelectric voltage of about +10 μV/K was observed. A challenge recognized in the experiments is that the generated voltage exhibited drift and fluctuations.

  13. Development of electronic textiles for U.S. military protective clothing systems.

    PubMed

    Winterhalter, Carole; Teverovsky, Justyna; Wilson, Patricia; Slade, Jeremiah; Farell, Brian; Horowitz, Wendy; Tierney, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the development of a wearable electronic network that provides data and power transport. A materials and manufacturing survey was conducted to determine the best performing and most durable materials to withstand the rigors of textile manufacturing and potential military use. Narrow woven technology was selected as the most appropriate manufacturing method. A working wearable narrow fabric version of the Universal Serial Bus (USB) was successfully developed and fabricated as well as related wearable connectors. Military products developed include a personal area network and body borne antenna.

  14. Identification of non-regulated aromatic amines of toxicological concern which can be cleaved from azo dyes used in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Brüschweiler, Beat J; Küng, Simon; Bürgi, Daniel; Muralt, Lorenz; Nyfeler, Erich

    2014-07-01

    Azo dyes in textiles may release aromatic amines after enzymatic cleavage by skin bacteria or after dermal absorption and metabolism in the human body. From the 896 azo dyes with known chemical structure in the available textile dyes database, 426 azo dyes (48%) can generate one or more of the 22 regulated aromatic amines in the European Union in Annex XVII of REACH. Another 470 azo dyes (52%) can be cleaved into exclusively non-regulated aromatic amines. In this study, a search for publicly available toxicity data on non-regulated aromatic amines was performed. For a considerable percentage of non-regulated aromatic amines, the toxicity database was found to be insufficient or non-existent. 62 non-regulated aromatic amines with available toxicity data were prioritized by expert judgment with objective criteria according to their potential for carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and/or skin sensitization. To investigate the occurrence of azo dye cleavage products, 153 random samples of clothing textiles were taken from Swiss retail outlets and analyzed for 22 high priority non-regulated aromatic amines of toxicological concern. Eight of these 22 non-regulated aromatic amines of concern could be detected in 17% of the textile samples. In 9% of the samples, one or more of the aromatic amines of concern could be detected in concentrations >30 mg/kg, in 8% of the samples between 5 and 30 mg/kg. The highest measured concentration was 622 mg/kg textile. There is an obvious need to assess consumer health risks for these non-regulated aromatic amines and to fill this gap in the regulation of clothing textiles.

  15. The impact of an employee wellness programme in clothing/textile manufacturing companies: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Edries, Naila; Jelsma, Jennifer; Maart, Soraya

    2013-01-11

    The prevalence of health risk behaviours is growing amongst South African employees. Health risk behaviours have been identified as a major contributor to reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL) and the increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Worksite wellness programmes promise to promote behaviour changes amongst employees and to improve their HRQoL. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of an employee wellness programme on HRQoL, health behaviour change, body mass index (BMI) and absenteeism amongst clothing and textile manufacturing employees. The study used a randomised control trial design. The sample consisted of 80 subjects from three clothing manufacturing companies in Cape Town, South Africa. The experimental group was subjected to a wellness programme based on the principles of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) as well as weekly supervised exercise classes over six weeks. The control group received a once-off health promotion talk and various educational pamphlets, with no further intervention. Measurements were recorded at baseline and at six weeks post-intervention. Outcome measures included the EQ-5D, Stanford Exercise Behaviours Scale, body mass index and absenteeism.Data was analysed with the Statistica-8 software program. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate the differences in the medians between the two groups and to determine the level of significance. The Sign test was used to determine the within group changes. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the difference between the two groups. At six weeks post intervention the experimental group (39 subjects) demonstrated improvement in almost every parameter. In contrast, apart from an overall decrease in time off work and a reduction in BMI for all study participants, there was no significant change noted in the behaviour of the control group (41 subjects). Seventy percent of the experimental group had improved HRQoL EQ-5D VAS scores post

  16. Carbon fiber cloth supported Au nano-textile fabrics as an efficient catalyst for hydrogen peroxide electroreduction in acid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-09-01

    The size-controlled hierarchical textile-like Au nanostructures supported carbon fiber cloth (Au NTs/CFC) is successfully fabricated through a simple low-cost electrochemical route. The electrodes are characterised by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometer. Without any conducting carbons and polymer binders, the 3D electrode with unique structure is directly used as the electrocatalyst for H2O2 reduction in acid solution and the catalytic performance is evaluated by voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The Au NTs/CFC electrode exhibits much higher catalytic activity and remarkably improved utilization of Au than Au nanoparticles (Au NPs/CFC) prepared by the same method owing to its unique structure. In the solution of 3.0 mol L-1 H2SO4 + 0.1 mol L-1 H2O2, with the reduction potential of 0 V, the current of -0.72 A cm-2 mg-1 can be obtained on Au NTs/CFC electrode and only a current of -0.09 A cm-2 mg-1 can be achieved on Au NPs/CFC electrode. All these results reveal that the novel Au NTs/CFC electrode exhibits excellent catalytic performance and superior stability for H2O2 electroreduction in acid medium, benefitting from the unique 3D structure which can ensure high utilization of catalyst.

  17. The impact of an employee wellness programme in clothing/textile manufacturing companies: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of health risk behaviours is growing amongst South African employees. Health risk behaviours have been identified as a major contributor to reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL) and the increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Worksite wellness programmes promise to promote behaviour changes amongst employees and to improve their HRQoL. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of an employee wellness programme on HRQoL, health behaviour change, body mass index (BMI) and absenteeism amongst clothing and textile manufacturing employees. Methods The study used a randomised control trial design. The sample consisted of 80 subjects from three clothing manufacturing companies in Cape Town, South Africa. The experimental group was subjected to a wellness programme based on the principles of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) as well as weekly supervised exercise classes over six weeks. The control group received a once-off health promotion talk and various educational pamphlets, with no further intervention. Measurements were recorded at baseline and at six weeks post-intervention. Outcome measures included the EQ-5D, Stanford Exercise Behaviours Scale, body mass index and absenteeism. Data was analysed with the Statistica-8 software program. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate the differences in the medians between the two groups and to determine the level of significance. The Sign test was used to determine the within group changes. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine the difference between the two groups. Results At six weeks post intervention the experimental group (39 subjects) demonstrated improvement in almost every parameter. In contrast, apart from an overall decrease in time off work and a reduction in BMI for all study participants, there was no significant change noted in the behaviour of the control group (41 subjects). Seventy percent of the experimental group had improved

  18. Determination of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates in tire and clothing textile samples by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Thorsén, Gunnar; Östman, Conny; Westerholm, Roger

    2013-09-13

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method utilizing electrospray ionization in positive and negative mode has been developed for the separation and detection of benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates. Ultra-sonication assisted solvent extraction of these compounds has also been developed and the overall method demonstrated on a selected clothing textile and an automobile tire sample. Matrix effects and extraction recoveries, as well as linearity and limits of detection have been evaluated. The calibration curves spanned over more than two orders of magnitude with coefficients of correlation R(2)>0.99 and the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range 1.7-58pg injected and 18-140pg/g, respectively. The extraction recoveries ranged between 69% and 102% and the matrix effects between 75% and 101%. Benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivates were determined in the textile sample and benzothiazole derivatives determined in the tire sample with good analytical performance.

  19. [The estimation of penetrating of microbes by the protective clothing and textile medical devices, according to obligatory norms].

    PubMed

    Zareba, Tomasz; Zych, Magdalena; Kruszewska, Hanna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Wasińska, Ewa; Tyski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Textile medical products can be widely used as barrier materials and individual protection against biological threats. Rules of introducing such products to market are regulated by the Directive 93/42/ EEC. Detailed requirements and testing methods of textile medical products are presented in obligatory norms. The required level of protection of these products against the penetration of microbes depends on the risk connected with planned type surgical procedure, the duration of the surgical intervention, risks of bleeding or presences of other body liquids of the patient and susceptibilities of the patient to infection. The aim of the study was to establish resistance of medical textiles to wet bacterial penetration. Materials were examined by the apparatus dedicated to this type of testing and obtained results were rated with reference to obligatory contracted requirements. assured Textiles laminated with foils possessed best protective proprieties, whereas medical products made from the cotton do not provide the sufficient level of the protection against microbes.

  20. Literature Reviews on Modeling Internal Geometry of Textile Composites and Rate-Independent Continuum Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su-Yuen, Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Textile composite materials have good potential for constructing composite structures where the effects of three-dimensional stresses are critical or geometric complexity is a manufacturing concern. There is a recent interest in advancing competence within Langley Research Center for modeling the degradation of mechanical properties of textile composites. In an initial effort, two critical areas are identified to pursue: (1) Construction of internal geometry of textile composites, and (2) Rate-independent continuum damage mechanics. This report documents reviews on the two subjects. Various reviewed approaches are categorized, their assumptions, methods, and progress are briefed, and then critiques are presented. Each review ends with recommended research.

  1. The Purchase of a Shirt: International Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Kitty G.; Hester, Susan B.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the international textile and clothing industry--its unique characteristics, its contributions as a major world employer, and the problem of regulating trade. Presents issues as they relate to consumers. (JOW)

  2. The Purchase of a Shirt: International Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Kitty G.; Hester, Susan B.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the international textile and clothing industry--its unique characteristics, its contributions as a major world employer, and the problem of regulating trade. Presents issues as they relate to consumers. (JOW)

  3. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  4. Textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, E. ); Carlton, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

  5. Men's Clothing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerum, B. Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…

  6. Men's Clothing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerum, B. Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…

  7. Painting Cloth with Crayons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1979-01-01

    Painting cloth with crayons is suggested as a challenging art project, especially for students who have difficulty with the complex tools and processes typical of more advanced textile work. Instructions are given for creating decorative banners with this technique. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (Author/SJL)

  8. The Academic, Administrative, Economic, Social, and Psychological Problems Faced by Students of Textile and Clothing Major at King Abdul-Aziz University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsubyani, Noor Abdulhadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic, administrative, economic, social, and psychological problems faced by students of Textile and fabric major at King Abdul-Aziz University. To achieve this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of students in the Textile and fabric major, after the use of…

  9. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  10. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  11. Patch testing to a textile dye mix by the international contact dermatitis research group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E; Diepgen, Thomas; Goh, Chee-Leok; Goossens R, An; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard I; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. Two thousand four hundred ninety-three consecutive dermatitis patients in 9 dermatology clinics were patch tested with a TDM 6.6%, consisting of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, all 1.0% each, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, each 0.3%. 90 reacted positively to the TDM. About 92.2% of the patients allergic to the TDM were also tested with the 8 separate dyes. Contact allergy to TDM was found in 3.6% (1.3-18.2) Simultaneous reactivity to p-phenylenediamine was found in 61.1% of the TDM-positive patients. Contact allergy to TDM and not to other p-amino-substituted sensitizers was diagnosed in 1.2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix should be considered for inclusion into the international baseline series.

  12. Kente Cloth-Inspired Reduction Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    The textiles of Africa are rich with possibilities for art lessons. With their unique balance of color, pattern, symmetry and repetition, they lend themselves to exciting art lessons with cultural significance. Asante cloth--or Kente cloth, as it is commonly known--is a perfect example. These rich, colorful repeat patterns from Ghana are woven in…

  13. Textile Messages: Dispatches from the World of E-Textiles and Education. New Literacies and Digital Epistemologies. Volume 62

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buechley, Leah, Ed.; Peppler, Kylie, Ed.; Eisenberg, Michael, Ed.; Yasmin, Kafai, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Textile Messages" focuses on the emerging field of electronic textiles, or e-textiles--computers that can be soft, colorful, approachable, and beautiful. E-textiles are articles of clothing, home furnishings, or architectures that include embedded computational and electronic elements. This book introduces a collection of tools that…

  14. Textile Messages: Dispatches from the World of E-Textiles and Education. New Literacies and Digital Epistemologies. Volume 62

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buechley, Leah, Ed.; Peppler, Kylie, Ed.; Eisenberg, Michael, Ed.; Yasmin, Kafai, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Textile Messages" focuses on the emerging field of electronic textiles, or e-textiles--computers that can be soft, colorful, approachable, and beautiful. E-textiles are articles of clothing, home furnishings, or architectures that include embedded computational and electronic elements. This book introduces a collection of tools that…

  15. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10(-6)) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes.

  16. Tin Can Textile Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Patricia; Sanford, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes the process of "canning"--applying textile pigment or dye to cloth by moving a pigment-filled can across the fabric to create a linear design. This printing process is described as low-cost, easy, and suitable for all age and artistic levels. (Author/SJL)

  17. Tin Can Textile Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Patricia; Sanford, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes the process of "canning"--applying textile pigment or dye to cloth by moving a pigment-filled can across the fabric to create a linear design. This printing process is described as low-cost, easy, and suitable for all age and artistic levels. (Author/SJL)

  18. A dynamic approach to assess international competitiveness of Vietnam's garment and textile industry.

    PubMed

    Vu, Huong Thanh; Pham, Lam Cat

    2016-01-01

    Garment and textile (G&T) industry has been playing as a driving force for the socio-economic development of Vietnam. With the international integration process and rising challenges from the global market, there is a need to examine international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry to find out what Vietnam should focus on to enhance its position in the global market place. This paper, by using the Generalized Double Diamond Model (GDDM), analyzed international competitiveness of Vietnam's G&T industry and compared it with China. The results showed that Vietnam was less competitive than China in all four attributes of the GDDM. The lowest competitiveness of Vietnam in comparison with China was Related and Supporting industries, followed by Factor Conditions. Therefore, the paper argued that although Vietnam should improve all of the four attributes in the long term, Vietnam must put a high priority on developing Related and Supporting Industries and then enhance Factor Conditions while maintaining its strengths over China in terms of G&T export growths and favorable business context.

  19. Scripting patienthood with patient clothing.

    PubMed

    Topo, Päivi; Iltanen-Tähkävuori, Sonja

    2010-06-01

    The potential of care environments to promote patient healing has gained increasing attention over the last decade, with evidence-based designs used to explore developments in this field. Medical textiles, such as clothes provided to patients, are part of the care environment in many countries. Our study focuses on patients' experiences of such clothing. The goal of this research is to understand how patienthood is constructed in relation to patient clothing and the practices around their use. The study is based on four group interviews involving a total of 12 people with experience of being patients in a hospital or of visiting residential care environments. We employed an active interview format, and the medical textiles currently used in Finnish hospitals and residential care facilities were available for scrutiny during the interviews. Content analyses were carried out on the interview transcripts. Patient clothing was critically evaluated by the participants; they experienced giving up their own clothes as akin to a rite of passage into their new role as a patient. The low status of a patient in a hospital environment was symbolised by the outworn appearance of patient clothing and the problems in protecting privacy. Patient clothing was also felt to provide limited possibilities for being active and in some cases was found to be annoying or even harmful and upsetting. For patients, being dressed in patient clothing may be symbolic of lower status and narrowed agency in everyday life. We can conclude that artefacts such as clothing worn in care environments need to be given attention when considering possibilities for improving care.

  20. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  1. Defined UV protection by apparel textiles.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Laperre, J; Avermaete, A; Altmeyer, P; Gambichler, T

    2001-08-01

    This article was written to update information on test methods and standards for determining the UV protection of apparel textiles and on factors affecting UV protective properties of fabrics, from dermatological and textile technological viewpoints. Articles from dermatological and textile technological journals published from 1990 to 2001 were identified from MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, World Textiles, and Textile Technology Digest. Peer-reviewed dermatological articles, textile technological research articles, and normative publications were selected. Independent data extraction was performed by several observers. Spectrophotometry is the preferred method for determining UV protection factor of textile materials. Various textile qualities affect the UV protection factor of a finished garment; important elements are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight, and thickness. The application of UV absorbers in the yarns significantly improves the UV protection factor of a garment. With wear and use, several factors can alter the UV protective properties of a textile, including stretch, wetness, and degradation due to laundering. Standards in the field exist in Australia and Great Britain, and organizations such as the European Standardization Commission in Europe and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists and the American Society for Testing and Materials in the United States are also establishing standards for the determination and labeling of sun protective clothing. Various textile qualities and conditions of wear and use affect UV protective properties of apparel textiles. The use of UV blocking fabrics can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV protective clothing.

  2. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and are...), when tested as described in § 1610.6 shall be classified as Class 1, Normal flammability, when the...

  3. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1, Normal Flammability. Class 1 textiles exhibit normal flammability and are...), when tested as described in § 1610.6 shall be classified as Class 1, Normal flammability, when the...

  4. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1,...

  5. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1,...

  6. 16 CFR 1610.4 - Requirements for classifying textiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for classifying textiles. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.4 Requirements for classifying textiles. (a) Class 1,...

  7. Toxic and biomedical effects of textiles and textile production. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity associated with textiles. Vapors from burning flame-resistant fabric, magnesium vapors from polyester foam, and toxic emissions from insulation, clothing, and upholstery are described and evaluated. Health effects resulting from formaldehyde treatment of fabrics for crease-resistance, lubricant addition to polyester fabrics, and exposure to textile mill effluents and airborne particulates from textile mill rooms are examined. (Contains a minimum of 150 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Improvements in CB Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    of unique features. It is a clothing system utilizing a variety of materials, including textiles, polymeric foam, unsup- ported films , elastomers and...activated carbon particles are contained in a microporous hollow fiber. The potential advantage in this concept is that one would have basically a... polypropylene and wax were spun into < fibers. After the fibers filled with carbon were drawn, the wax was S~extracted to produce pores. These pores

  9. Textiles and Training in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrez, Jaime Serrao; Dias, Mario Caldeira

    Analyzing the role of vocational training in an economic sector that is declining in Portugal, this document consists of five chapters, a bibliography, and a list of training organizations. An introduction tells why the study is important and explains that the major obstacles to development of the Portuguese textile and clothing sector are the…

  10. Role of clothes in sun protection.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, Thilo; Altmeyer, Peter; Hoffmann, Klauss

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the carcinogenic factor in sunlight. Damage to skin cells from repeated UV exposure can lead to the development of skin cancer. Apart from avoidance of the sun, the most frequently used form of UV protection has been the application of sunscreens. The use of textiles as a means of sun protection has been underrated in previous educational campaigns, even though suitable clothing offers usually simple and effective broadband protection against the sun. Apart from skin cancer formation, exacerbation of photosensitive disorders and premature skin aging could be prevented by suitable UV-protective clothing. Nevertheless, several studies have recently shown that, contrary to popular opinion, some textiles provide only limited UV protection. It has been found that one-third of commercial summer clothing items provide a UV protection factor (UPF) less than 15. Given the increasing interest in sun protection, recreationally and occupationally, test methods and a rating scheme for clothing were needed that would ensure sufficient UV protection. Various textile parameters have an influence on the UPF of a finished garment. Important parameters are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight and thickness. The application of UV absorbers into the yarns significantly improves the UPF of a garment. Under the conditions of wear and use several factors can alter the UV-protective properties of a textile, e.g., stretch, wetness and laundering. The use of UV-blocking cloths can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV-protective clothing. However, further educational efforts are necessary to change people's sun behavior and raise awareness for the use of adequate sun-protective clothing.

  11. 19 CFR 10.5 - Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's... Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.5 Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account. (a... record of cloth boards of domestic manufacture exported to be wrapped with foreign textiles shall be...

  12. 19 CFR 10.5 - Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's... Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.5 Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account. (a... record of cloth boards of domestic manufacture exported to be wrapped with foreign textiles shall be...

  13. 19 CFR 10.5 - Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's... Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.5 Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account. (a... record of cloth boards of domestic manufacture exported to be wrapped with foreign textiles shall be...

  14. 19 CFR 10.5 - Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's... Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.5 Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account. (a... record of cloth boards of domestic manufacture exported to be wrapped with foreign textiles shall be...

  15. Smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Van Langenhove, Lieva; Hertleer, Carla; Catrysse, Michael; Puers, Robert; Van Egmond, Harko; Matthijs, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    After technical textiles and functional textiles, also smart textiles came into force a few years ago. The term 'smart textiles' covers a broad range. The application possibilities are only limited by our imagination and creativity. In this presentation, it is further explored what smart textiles precisely mean. In a second part, an analysis is made of the possibilities, the state of affairs and the needs for further research.

  16. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant

    PubMed Central

    Bergfjord, C.; Mannering, U.; Frei, K. M.; Gleba, M.; Scharff, A. B.; Skals, I.; Heinemeier, J.; Nosch, M. -L; Holst, B.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe. PMID:23024858

  17. Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant.

    PubMed

    Bergfjord, C; Mannering, U; Frei, K M; Gleba, M; Scharff, A B; Skals, I; Heinemeier, J; Nosch, M-L; Holst, B

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of plant fibre textiles in ancient Europe, especially woven textiles for clothing, was closely linked to the development of agriculture through the use of cultivated textile plants (flax, hemp). Here we present a new investigation of the 2800 year old Lusehøj Bronze Age Textile from Voldtofte, Denmark, which challenges this assumption. We show that the textile is made of imported nettle, most probably from the Kärnten-Steiermark region, an area which at the time had an otherwise established flax production. Our results thus suggest that the production of woven plant fibre textiles in Bronze Age Europe was based not only on cultivated textile plants but also on the targeted exploitation of wild plants. The Lusehøj find points to a hitherto unrecognized role of nettle as an important textile plant and suggests the need for a re-evaluation of textile production resource management in prehistoric Europe.

  18. Clothing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for clothing management is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task is…

  19. Clothing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for clothing management is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task is…

  20. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube-textile anode for high-performance microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Hu, Liangbing; Pasta, Mauro; Wells, George F; Kong, Desheng; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-12

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC performance, but only a little development has been reported. Here, we describe a biocompatible, highly conductive, two-scale porous anode fabricated from a carbon nanotube-textile (CNT-textile) composite for high-performance MFCs. The macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT-textile fibers creates an open 3D space for efficient substrate transport and internal colonization by a diverse microflora, resulting in a 10-fold-larger anolyte-biofilm-anode interfacial area than the projective surface area of the CNT-textile. The conformally coated microscale porous CNT layer displays strong interaction with the microbial biofilm, facilitating electron transfer from exoelectrogens to the CNT-textile anode. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater.

  1. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Competence Management System Design in International Multicultural Environment: Registration, Transfer, Recognition and Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starcic, Andreja Istenic

    2012-01-01

    A competence management system (CMS) was devised to assist the registration of competencies in the textile and clothing sector, starting in the four EU countries of Portugal, Slovenia, the UK and Denmark, further leading to the European network. This paper presents the design and development framework assisting international multicultural…

  9. Competence Management System Design in International Multicultural Environment: Registration, Transfer, Recognition and Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starcic, Andreja Istenic

    2012-01-01

    A competence management system (CMS) was devised to assist the registration of competencies in the textile and clothing sector, starting in the four EU countries of Portugal, Slovenia, the UK and Denmark, further leading to the European network. This paper presents the design and development framework assisting international multicultural…

  10. Textile Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Textile Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from textile industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as removing heavy metals in textile wastes, and the biodegradability of six dyes. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Pernicious anaemia in the textile industry.

    PubMed Central

    Roman, E; Beral, V; Sanjose, S; Schilling, R; Watson, A

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to examine whether the observed excess mortality from anaemia in textile and clothing workers was associated with any specific anaemia type or occupational activity. The design was a death certificate based case-control study of textile and clothing workers who died in England and Wales in the years surrounding the decennial censuses of 1961, 1971, and 1981. The main outcome measures were type of anaemia, place of residence, place of birth, and occupation. The frequency of the different types of anaemia in textile and clothing workers differed from that of England and Wales with relatively more deaths from pernicious anaemia than in the country as a whole (74 observed v 55 expected deaths). Within the industry, those whose death was attributed to pernicious anaemia were more than twice as likely as other textile and clothing workers to have worked in textile mills (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.4-4.2). These results could not be explained by age, sex, place of residence, or place of birth, and review of the death certificates did not suggest that pernicious anaemia as a cause of death had been recorded in error. Historical support for the finding was found in the Registrar General's 1931 decennial supplement on occupational mortality, in which the standardised mortality ratio from pernicious anaemia in male textile mill workers was estimated to be twice that of the general population. In conclusion, occupational factors, specifically work in textile mills, could be implicated in the pathogenesis of pernicious anaemia. The aetiology of this disease is not well understood and further study of pernicious anaemia in textile mill workers is required. PMID:2039748

  13. Simultaneous Production of High-Performance Flexible Textile Electrodes and Fiber Electrodes for Wearable Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liubing; Xu, Chengjun; Li, Yang; Wu, Changle; Jiang, Baozheng; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Enlou; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-02-24

    High-performance flexible textile electrodes and fiber electrodes are produced simultaneously by a newly proposed effective strategy. Activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and ACFC/MnO2/CNTs composites are designed as high-performance flexible textile electrodes. Theses textiles can also be easily dismantled into individual fiber bundles used as high-performance flexible fiber electrodes.

  14. Textile damage caused by vapour cloud explosions.

    PubMed

    Was-Gubala, J; Krauss, W

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the project was to investigate the damage to garments caused by particular vapour cloud explosions. The authors would like to be able to provide investigators with specific information on how to link clothes to a specific type of crime: a particular case study was the inspiration for the examinations. Experiments were carried out in the fire reconstruction chamber of the laboratory using a selection of 26 clothes and 15 household garments differing in colour, fibre composition and textile construction.

  15. Antimicrobial textiles, skin-borne flora and odour.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Along with climate and physical activity, textiles have an effect on sweating and the development of odours. Accordingly, textiles inadequately optimized in terms of clothing technology as a result of poorly cut structures or poor materials result in increased sweating and odour. However, the development of body odour itself cannot be avoided, even with optimally designed clothing. Therefore new textiles, 'treated with antimicrobial agents', have been developed, with the aim of reducing odour by decreasing the number of germs on the skin. From the scientific point of view, the interactions between textiles, sweat, skin and skin flora are extremely complex. For this reason, this article explains in more detail the basic principles of odour formation resulting from sweat and how this can be influenced by textiles treated with antimicrobial agents. With reference to the results of recent research, the article looks into questions of how textiles treated with antimicrobial agents have an effect on populations of skin bacteria.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Textile Fibers by Thermal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Fiona M.; Smith, Michael J.; Silva, Magda B.

    2011-01-01

    Textile fibers are ubiquitous in the sense that they are present in the fabric of clothing, furniture, and floor and wall coverings. A remarkable variety of textile fibers with different chemical compositions are produced for many different commercial applications. As fibers are readily transferred, they are frequently recovered from crime scenes…

  17. Identification and Characterization of Textile Fibers by Thermal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Fiona M.; Smith, Michael J.; Silva, Magda B.

    2011-01-01

    Textile fibers are ubiquitous in the sense that they are present in the fabric of clothing, furniture, and floor and wall coverings. A remarkable variety of textile fibers with different chemical compositions are produced for many different commercial applications. As fibers are readily transferred, they are frequently recovered from crime scenes…

  18. Radio frequency and infrared drying of sized textile warp yarns

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddick, H.G. )

    1990-11-01

    Drying sized textile warp yarns without contacting the warp is easily accomplished by either radio frequency or infrared techniques. Although the process is more expensive than conventional drying, the substantial savings accrued during subsequent weaving and finishing of the cloth can help keep the US textile industry competitive and support electrical load. 5 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Textile electrodes and integrated smart textile for reliable biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, R; Pacelli, M

    2011-01-01

    Since birth the first and the most natural interface for the body is fabric, a soft, warm and reassuring material. Cloth is usually covering more than 80 % of the skin; which leads us to consider textile material as the most appropriate interface where new sensorial and interactive functions can be implemented. The new generation of personalised monitoring systems is based on this paradigm: functions like sensing, transmission and elaboration are implementable in the materials through the textile technology. Functional yarns and fibres are usable to realise garments where electrical and computing properties are combined with the traditional mechanical characteristics, giving rise to textile platforms that are comparable with the cloths that are normally used to produce our garments. The feel of the fabric is the same, but the functionality is augmented. Nowadays, consumers demand user-friendly connectivity and interactivity; sensing clothes are the most natural and ordinary interface able to follow us, everywhere in a non-intrusive way, in natural harmony with our body.

  20. The Progress of the Clothing for Cold Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Takeshi; Ijiri, Tokiko

    The clothing for cold weather were discused. The total insulation in man is made up of sum of the insulation afforded by clothes, air and tissues. A function of clothing is to protect the body from the environment, this is especially true when himalayan expedition. Many expedition to the himalayan high altitude have had useful experiences in the textile and clothing field. Historical development and fundamental matters of clothing for himalayan expedition were explained. The insulating properties of a fabric are due not to the fibers of the fabric itseif, but to the air trapped with in the fabric. it is impotant to realise that the thermal insulation of clothing is proportional to the thickness of the dead space air trapped within the clothing. Down clothes are extremely warm, light and comfortable. A windproof outer layer is necessary to prevent penetration by external air. If air penetrates, clothing the trapped dead air is moved and insu1ation will diminish. Overheating when exercising in the cold with loss of insulation associated with the production of sweat, and thus of darnp clothing, is a well recognized hazard. It was considered that we must make every effort to be as safe as possible in clothing science field for cold environment.

  1. 19 CFR 10.5 - Shooks and staves; cloth boards; port director's account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Customs Form 4455. (e) The Certificate of Registration, CF 4455, shall be completed in triplicate by the... record of cloth boards of domestic manufacture exported to be wrapped with foreign textiles shall be kept...

  2. Auxetic textiles.

    PubMed

    Rant, Darja; Rijavec, Tatjana; Pavko-Čuden, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Common materials have Poisson's ratio values ranging from 0.0 to 0.5. Auxetic materials exhibit negative Poisson's ratio. They expand laterally when stretched longitudinally and contract laterally when compressed. In recent years the use of textile technology to fabricate auxetic materials has attracted more and more attention. It is reflected in the extent of available research work exploring the auxetic potential of various textile structures and subsequent increase in the number of research papers published. Generally there are two approaches to producing auxetic textiles. The first one includes the use of auxetic fibers to produce an auxetic textile structure, whereas the other utilizes conventional fibres to produce a textile structure with auxetic properties. This review deals with auxetic materials in general and in the specific context of auxetic polymers, auxetic fibers, and auxetic textile structures made from conventional fibers and knitted structures with auxetic potential.

  3. Potential applications of smart clothing solutions in health care and personal protection.

    PubMed

    Meinander, Harriet; Honkala, Markku

    2004-01-01

    The rapid development in the fields of sensor and telecommunication technologies has created completely new possibilities also for the textile and clothing field. New smart textile and clothing systems can be developed by integrating sensors in the textile constructions. Application fields for these added-value products are e.g. protective clothing for extreme environments, garments for the health care sector, technical textiles, sport and leisure wear. Some products have already been introduced on the markets, but generally it can be stated that the development is only in its starting phase, and the expectations for the future are big. Many different aspects have to be considered in the development of the wearable technology products for the health care sector: medical problems and their diagnosis, sensor choice, data processing and telecommunication solutions, clothing requirements. A functional product can be achieved only if all aspects work together, and therefore experts from all fields should participate in the RTD projects. In the EC-funded project DE3002 Easytex clothing and textiles for disabled and elderly people were investigated. Some recommendations concerning durability, appearance, comfort, service and safety of products for different special user groups were defined, based on user questionnaires and seminars, general textile and clothing requirements and on laboratory test series."Clothing Area Network--Clan" is a research project aiming to develop a technical concept and technology needed in enabling both wired and wireless data and power transfer between different intelligent modules (user interfaces, sensors, CPU's, batteries etc.) integrated into a smart clothing system. Fire-fighters clothing system is chosen as the development platform, being a very challenging application from which the developed technology can be transferred to other protective clothing systems.

  4. Thermal Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Gateway Technologies, Inc. is marketing and developing textile insulation technology originally developed by Triangle Research and Development Corporation. The enhanced thermal insulation stems from Small Business Innovation Research contracts from NASA's Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Air Force. The effectiveness of the insulation comes from the microencapsulated phase-change materials originally made to keep astronauts gloved hands warm. The applications for the product range from outer wear, housing insulation, and blankets to protective firefighting gear and scuba diving suits. Gateway has developed and begun marketing thermal regulating products under the trademark, OUTLAST. Products made from OUTLAST are already on the market, including boot and shoe liners, winter headgear, hats and caps for hunting and other outdoor sports, and a variety of men's and women's ski gloves.

  5. State Skill Standards: Fashion, Textiles and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rene Crepaldi; Gaudy, Glenna; Green-Jobe, Victoria; Hatch, Susan; Moen, Julianne; Sheldon, Shannon; Smith, Loree; Chessell, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The mission of Fashion, Textiles and Design Education is to prepare students for family and community life and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Examine skills needed to effectively manage clothing decisions; (2) Evaluate the use, care and production…

  6. [See symptoms and signs of six channels of feet in Huangdi's Internal Classic from medical books of bamboo slips and silk cloth].

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2007-11-01

    Some champers besides Miraculous Pivot: Channels and Vessels in Huangdi's Internal Classic are involved in diseases of channels and vessels, and most of them which mainly discuss diseases of channels and vessels are explained in the type of six channels of feet. Studies have showed that the diseases of six channels of the feet are closely related with diseases of channels and vessels in the medical books of bamboo slips and silk cloth, indicating that on the one hand, the studies on diseases of channels and vessels are not only limited in Miraculous Pivot: Channels and Vessels, and on the other hand, the influence of the literature of channels and vessels in the medical books of bamboo slips and silk cloth is quite profound and lasting. Widening the field of vision of investigating concept of diseases of channels and vessels, and looking closely at the course of history from academic development are favorable to deeply understanding diseases of channels and vessels, even early theories of channels and vessels.

  7. Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and other

  9. Development of smart textiles with embedded fiber optic chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Saif E.; Yuan, Jianming; El-Sherif, Mahmoud A.

    2004-03-01

    Smart textiles are defined as textiles capable of monitoring their own health conditions or structural behavior, as well as sensing external environmental conditions. Smart textiles appear to be a future focus of the textile industry. As technology accelerates, textiles are found to be more useful and practical for potential advanced technologies. The majority of textiles are used in the clothing industry, which set up the idea of inventing smart clothes for various applications. Examples of such applications are medical trauma assessment and medical patients monitoring (heart and respiration rates), and environmental monitoring for public safety officials. Fiber optics have played a major role in the development of smart textiles as they have in smart structures in general. Optical fiber integration into textile structures (knitted, woven, and non-woven) is presented, and defines the proper methodology for the manufacturing of smart textiles. Samples of fabrics with integrated optical fibers were processed and tested for optical signal transmission. This was done in order to investigate the effect of textile production procedures on optical fiber performance. The tests proved the effectiveness of the developed methodology for integration of optical fibers without changing their optical performance or structural integrity.

  10. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    PubMed

    Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2012-06-01

    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  11. Physiological comfort of biofunctional textiles.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2006-01-01

    Statistics show that the wear comfort is the most important property of clothing demanded by users and consumers. Hence, biofunctional textiles only have a high market potential, if they are comfortable. In this work it is shown how the thermophysiological and skin sensorial wear comfort of biofunctional textiles can be measured effectively by means of the Skin Model and skin sensorial test apparatus. From these measurements, wear comfort votes can be predicted, assessing a textile's wear comfort in practice. These wear comfort votes match exactly the subjective perceptions of test persons. As a result validated by wearer trials with human test subjects, biofunctional textiles can offer the same good wear comfort as classical, non-biofunctional materials. On the other hand, some of the biofunctional treatments lead to a perceivably poorer wear comfort. In particular, the skin sensorial comfort is negatively affected by hydrophobic, smooth (flat) surfaces that easily cling to sweat-wetted skin, or which tend to make textiles stiffer. As guidelines for the improvement of the thermophysiological or skin sensorial wear comfort, it is recommended to use hydrophilic treatments in a suitable concentration and spun yarns instead of filaments.

  12. The effects of clothes on independent walking in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Théveniau, Nicolas; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Varieras, Sabine; Olivier, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal features of walking in toddlers are known to be related to the level of maturation of the central nervous system. However, previous studies did not assess whether there could be an effect of clothes on the acquisition of walking. In this study, it was hypothesized that clothes modify the toddlers' walking. To test this hypothesis, 22 healthy toddlers divided into 3 groups of walking experience were assessed in four clothing conditions (Diaper+Trousers; Diaper+Pants of tracksuit; Diaper; Underwear). Results revealed significant effects of clothing on velocity and step length of toddlers from 6 to 18 months of walking experience. These results suggested that biomechanical constraints induced by the textile features alter the walking of toddlers. Therefore, in studies of toddler's gait, the clothing worn should be carefully mentioned and controlled.

  13. Textile Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Kristy Alana

    Innovative and interdisciplinary solutions to wearable textile energy storage are explored as power sources for wearable electronics and smart textiles. Due to their long cycle life, non-toxic and inexpensive materials, supercapacitors were converted into textiles. Textile supercapacitors were developed using scalable fabrication methods including screen-printing, yarn making, and 3D computerized knitting. The electrode materials reported in this thesis undergo thorough electrochemical analysis, and are capable of storing up to 0.5 F/cm2 which is on par with conventionally solid supercapacitors (0.6 F/cm2). Capacitive yarns are capable of storing up to 37 mF/cm and are shown to be knittable on industrial knitting equipment. Both are some of the highest reported capacitance for all-carbon systems in the field. Yet both are the only systems composed of inexpensive and non-toxic activated carbon, the most commonly used electrode material used in supercapacitors, opposed to carbon nanotubes or graphene, which are typically more 10-100 times more expensive. However, all of the fabrication techniques reported here are also capable of incorporating a wide variety of materials, ultimately broadening the applications of textile energy storage as a whole. Fully machine knitted supercapacitors are also explored and electrochemically characterized in order to determine how the textile structure affects the capacitance. In conclusion, a wide variety of fabrication techniques for making textile supercapacitors were successfully explored.

  14. Guidelines for Clothing Education. H. E. Bulletin No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    The curriculum guide is organized around major concepts and generalizations on textiles and clothing considered educationally significant. The first major part of the document (15 pages) provides a detailed organizational outline of the behavioral outcomes and generalizations for the unit plans. The material is organized according to levels of…

  15. Making Complex Electrically Conductive Patterns on Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Andrew; Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.; Scully, Robert C.; Trevino, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A method for automated fabrication of flexible, electrically conductive patterns on cloth substrates has been demonstrated. Products developed using this method, or related prior methods, are instances of a technology known as 'e-textiles,' in which electrically conductive patterns ar formed in, and on, textiles. For many applications, including high-speed digital circuits, antennas, and radio frequency (RF) circuits, an e-textile method should be capable of providing high surface conductivity, tight tolerances for control of characteristic impedances, and geometrically complex conductive patterns. Unlike prior methods, the present method satisfies all three of these criteria. Typical patterns can include such circuit structures as RF transmission lines, antennas, filters, and other conductive patterns equivalent to those of conventional printed circuits. The present method overcomes the limitations of the prior methods for forming the equivalent of printed circuits on cloth. A typical fabrication process according to the present method involves selecting the appropriate conductive and non-conductive fabric layers to build the e-textile circuit. The present method uses commercially available woven conductive cloth with established surface conductivity specifications. Dielectric constant, loss tangent, and thickness are some of the parameters to be considered for the non-conductive fabric layers. The circuit design of the conductive woven fabric is secured onto a non-conductive fabric layer using sewing, embroidery, and/or adhesive means. The portion of the conductive fabric that is not part of the circuit is next cut from the desired circuit using an automated machine such as a printed-circuit-board milling machine or a laser cutting machine. Fiducials can be used to align the circuit and the cutting machine. Multilayer circuits can be built starting with the inner layer and using conductive thread to make electrical connections between layers.

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384

  17. UV clothing and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna; Martinis, Mladen

    2010-04-01

    Skin cancer incidence in Croatia is steadily increasing in spite of public and governmental permanently measurements. It is clear that will soon become a major public health problem. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The future designers of UV protective materials should be able to block totally the ultraviolet radiation. The aim of this paper is to present results of measurements concerning UV protecting ability of garments and sun-screening textiles using transmission spectrophotometer Cary 50 Solarscreen (Varian) according to AS/NZS 4399:1996; to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV radiation to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose.

  18. The European standard for sun-protective clothing: EN 13758.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, T; Laperre, J; Hoffmann, K

    2006-02-01

    Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for sun protection. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some summer fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV) protection. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN), has developed a new standard on requirements for test methods and labelling of sun-protective garments. This document has now been completed and is published. Within CEN, a working group, CEN/TC 248 WG14 'UV protective clothing', was set up with the mission to produce standards on the UV-protective properties of textile materials. This working group started its activities in 1998 and included 30 experts (dermatologists, physicists, textile technologists, fabric manufacturers and retailers of apparel textiles) from 11 European member states. Within this working group, all medical, ethical, technical and economical aspects of standardization of UV-protective clothing were discussed on the basis of the expertise of each member and in consideration of the relevant literature in this field. Decisions were made in consensus. The first part of the standard (EN 13758-1) deals with all details of test methods (e.g. spectrophotometric measurements) for textile materials and part 2 (EN 13758-2) covers classification and marking of apparel textiles. UV-protective cloths for which compliance with this standard is claimed must fulfill all stringent instructions of testing, classification and marking, including a UV protection factor (UPF) larger than 40 (UPF 40+), average UVA transmission lower than 5%, and design requirements as specified in part 2 of the standard. A pictogram, which is marked with the number of the standard EN 13758-2 and the UPF of 40+, shall be attached to the garment if it is in compliance with the standard. The dermatology community should take cognizance of this new standard document. Garment manufacturers and retailers may now follow these official guidelines for testing and labelling of UV-protective summer clothes, and the

  19. Exercise clothing and shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... layer should also be breathable. In the hot sun, wear light-colored clothing that dries fast. You ... to block out the harmful rays of the sun. These clothes come with a sun protection factor ( ...

  20. Why We Wear Clothes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowles, Jib

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of clothing as a means of communicating nonverbally in social situations and urges that a "semantics of clothing communication" be compiled to increase understanding of human life. (RB)

  1. Repellent-Treated Clothing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates the pesticide permethrin to pre-treat clothing. We evaluate the safety and effectiveness of such insecticide uses, by exposure scenarios and risk assessment. Read and follow the label directions for use of permethrin-treated clothing.

  2. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  3. Textile allergy--the Melbourne experience.

    PubMed

    Slodownik, Dan; Williams, Jason; Tate, Bruce; Tam, Mei; Cahill, Jennifer; Frowen, Kathryn; Nixon, Rosemary

    2011-07-01

    Textile allergy is a well-established entity, but there are relatively few Australian reports in this area. To report the combined experience of textile contact dermatitis from the general and occupational contact dermatitis clinics at the Skin and Cancer Foundation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. On the basis of the clinical suspicion of textile allergy, 2069 patients were tested with a textile series. One hundred and fifty-seven (7.6%) patients reacted to any of the textile-related allergens. The most common allergen was Basic Red 46 (20.2% of the positive reactions), followed by Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124 (11.8% and 11.2%, respectively). Reactions to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing chemicals accounted for 30.6% of the concomitant reactions, and reactions to p-phenylenediamine accounted for 12.6% of the concomitant reactions. The use of Disperse Blue mix yielded only 12.2% of patients sensitive to either of these two allergens, and it is not endorsed as a screening agent for textile dye allergy. Textile allergy is not uncommon. In Melbourne, Basic Red 46 in inexpensive, dark-coloured, acrylic-blend, men's work socks is the most important cause. It is important to test with samples of patients' clothing. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Wearable Electricity Generators Fabricated Utilizing Transparent Electronic Textiles Based on Polyester/Ag Nanowires/Graphene Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaoxing; Kim, Tae Whan; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-07-26

    The technological realization of wearable triboelectric generators is attractive because of their promising applications in wearable self-powered intelligent systems. However, the low electrical conductivity, the low electrical stability, and the low compatibility of current electronic textiles (e-textiles) and clothing restrict the comfortable and aesthetic integration of wearable generators into human clothing. Here, we present high-performance, transparent, smart e-textiles that employ commercial textiles coated with silver nanowire/graphene sheets fabricated by using a scalable, environmentally friendly, full-solution process. The smart e-textiles show superb and stable conduction of below 20 Ω/square as well as excellent flexibility, stretchability, foldability, and washability. In addition, wearable electricity-generating textiles, in which the e-textiles act as electrodes as well as wearable substrates, are presented. Because of the high compatibility of smart e-textiles and clothing, the electricity-generating textiles can be easily integrated into a glove to harvest the mechanical energy induced by the motion of the fingers. The effective output power generated by a single generator due to that motion reached as high as 7 nW/cm(2). The successful demonstration of the electricity-generating glove suggests a promising future for polyester/Ag nanowire/graphene core-shell nanocomposite-based smart e-textiles for real wearable electronic systems and self-powered clothing.

  5. Toxic and biomedical effects of textiles and textile production. January 1975-October 1989 (A Bibliography from World Textile Abstracts). Report for January 1975-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning toxicity and general health effects from the production of textiles. Vapors from burning flame resistant fabric, magnesium vapors from polyester foam, and toxic emissions from insulation, clothing, and upholstery are described and evaluated. Health effects resulting from formaldehyde use in treating fabrics for crease-resistance, lubricant use on polyester, textile mill effluents, and toxic substances found in textile mill room air are examined. (This updated bibliography contains 136 citations, 66 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. 16 CFR 1610.35 - Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard. 1610.35 Section 1610.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules...

  7. 16 CFR 1610.35 - Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard. 1610.35 Section 1610.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.35 Procedures...

  8. 16 CFR 1610.35 - Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard. 1610.35 Section 1610.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.35 Procedures...

  9. 16 CFR 1610.35 - Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard. 1610.35 Section 1610.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.35 Procedures...

  10. International standards for the assessment of the risk of thermal strain on clothed workers in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Parsons, K C

    1999-07-01

    The International Standards Organisation (ISO) has produced an integrated series of international standards for the assessment of human responses to thermal environments. They include standards for the assessment of thermal comfort, heat stress and cold stress and many have been adopted as European and British standards. This paper describes the series of standards and in particular those concerned with the assessment of risk in hot environments. A three tier approach is taken which involves a simple thermal index that can be used for monitoring and control of hot environments (ISO 7243), a rational approach which involves an analysis of the heat exchange between a worker and his or her environment (ISO 7933) and a standard that describes the principles of physiological measurement which can be used in the establishment of personal monitoring systems of workers exposed to hot environments (ISO 9886). The standards are self-contained and can be used independently. In any comprehensive assessment however they would be used in conjunction. The simple index provides a first stage analysis and can confirm whether or not there is likely to be unacceptable thermal strain. Where a more detailed analysis is required then ISO 7933 provides an analytical method that can provide a more extensive assessment and interpretation leading to recommendations for improvement to the working environment. Where a method needs to be confirmed, or conditions are beyond the scope of ISO 7243 and ISO 7933, then ISO 9886 provides guidance on physiological measurement and interpretation. This would be used in extreme environments where individual responses are required to ensure health and safety or, in the case where personal protective equipment (PPE) is worn, which is beyond the scope of ISO 7243 and ISO 7933. The ISO system therefore covers almost all exposures to hot environments. It would be useful however to extend the scope of the standards that provide a simple index or analytical

  11. A comprehensive approach to evaluating and classifying sun-protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Downs, N J; Harrison, S L

    2017-09-08

    National standards for clothing designed to protect the wearer from the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been implemented in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and the USA. Industry standards reflect the need to protect the skin by covering a considerable proportion of the potentially exposed body surface area (BSA) and by reducing UVR-transmission through fabric (the Ultraviolet Protection Factor; UPF). This research aimed to develop a new index for rating sun-protective clothing that incorporates the BSA coverage of the garment in addition to the UPF of the fabric. A mannequin model was fixed to an optical bench and marked with horizontal lines at 1 cm intervals. An algorithm (the Garment Protector Factor; GPF) was developed based on the number of lines visible on the clothed versus unclothed mannequin and the UPF of the garment textile. This data was collected in 2015-16 and analysed in 2016. The GPF weights fabric UPF by BSA coverage above the minimum required by international sun-protective clothing standards for upper-body, lower-body and full-body garments. GPF increases with BSA coverage of the garment and fabric UPF. Three nominal categories are proposed for the GPF: 0 ≤ GPF < 3 for garments that 'meet' minimum standards; 3 ≤ GPF < 6 for garments providing 'good' sun-protection; and GPF ≥ 6 indicating 'excellent' protection. Adoption of the proposed rating scheme should encourage manufacturers to design sun-protective garments that exceed the minimum standard for BSA coverage, with positive implications for skin cancer prevention, consumer education and sun-protection awareness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Weed seeds on clothing: a global review.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Weeds are a major threat to biodiversity including in areas of high conservation value. Unfortunately, people may be unintentionally introducing and dispersing weed seeds on their clothing when they visit these areas. To inform the management of these areas, we conducted a systematic quantitative literature review to determine the diversity and characteristics of species with seeds that can attach and be dispersed from clothing. Across 21 studies identified from systematic literature searches on this topic, seeds from 449 species have been recorded on clothing, more than double the diversity found in a previous review. Nearly all of them, 391 species, are listed weeds in one or more countries, with 58 classified as internationally-recognised environmental weeds. When our database was compared with weed lists from different countries and continents we found that clothing can carry the seeds of important regional weeds. A total of 287 of the species are listed as aliens in one or more countries in Europe, 156 are invasive species/noxious weeds in North America, 211 are naturalized alien plants in Australia, 97 are alien species in India, 33 are invasive species in China and 5 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. Seeds on the clothing of hikers can be carried to an average distance of 13 km, and where people travel in cars, trains, planes and boats, the seeds on their clothing can be carried much further. Factors that affect this type of seed dispersal include the type of clothing, the type of material the clothing is made from, the number and location of the seeds on plants, and seed traits such as adhesive and attachment structures. With increasing use of protected areas by tourists, including in remote regions, popular protected areas may be at great risk of biological invasions by weeds with seeds carried on clothing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective clothing in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Holmér, Ingvar

    2006-07-01

    The high level of protection required by personal protective clothing (PPC) severely impedes heat exchange by sweat evaporation. As a result work associated with wearing PPC, particularly in hot environments, implies considerable physiological strain and may render workers exhausted in a short time. Recent development of algorithms for describing the heat transfer, accounting for pumping and wind effects, comprises improvement of the prediction of thermal stress. Realistic corrections can then be made to the available measures of thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of a given clothing ensemble. Currently this information is incorporated in international standards for assessment of thermal environments. Factors, such as directional radiation and wetting of layers, were studied in a recently completed EU research project. The development of advanced thermal manikins and measurement procedures should provide better measures for predictive models. As with all methods and models, the results need validation in realistic wear trials in order to prove their relevance and accuracy.

  14. Microbial Odor Profile of Polyester and Cotton Clothes after a Fitness Session

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation. PMID:25128346

  15. Microbial odor profile of polyester and cotton clothes after a fitness session.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-11-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation.

  16. The Effect of Drycleaning Moisture on Fused Cloth Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT NATICK/TR-89/024 et, THE EFFECT OF DRYCLEANING MOISTURE ON FUSED CLOTH SYSTEMS BY ELIZABETH J. MORELAND International...MOISTUP.E ON FUSED CLOTH SYSTEMS 12. PERSONAL AUTMOR(S) Elizabeth J. MorelanJ 13«. TYPE OF REPORT Final Technical Report 13b. TIME COVERED...This project was initiated to investigate the effect of moisture in drycleaning systems on preselected fused cloth structures. Adverse surface

  17. Evaluating occupational health nursing units in Bangkok textile factories: exploring the world through international occupational health programs.

    PubMed

    Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Phalee, Piangjai; Kalampakorn, Surintorn

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the service quality of nursing units in Bangkok textile factories. Descriptive survey research was combined with a qualitative design using participative observation. The sample consisted of factory managers, nurses, and employees. Data were collected between November 2001 and February 2002 using questionnaires, observation, in-depth interviews, and focus groups. Nurses' education levels and quality of design and arrangement of nursing units explained 15.7% of the variance in service quality. Furthermore, qualitative data supported clients' satisfaction with service quality, except for the tangibility of the service. These findings suggest that the quality of nursing service units could be improved by management's attention to unit design, arrangement of nursing units, and nurses' education levels. Hiring registered nurses and restructuring nursing units are recommended.

  18. Numerical simulations of heat and moisture transport in thermal protective clothing under flash fire conditions.

    PubMed

    Song, Guowen; Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Ding, Dan

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of heat and moisture transport in thermal protective clothing during exposure to a flash fire was introduced. The model was developed with the assumption that textiles are treated as porous media. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data from different fabric systems and configurations. Additionally, with the introduction of a skin model, the parameters that affect the performance of thermal protective clothing were investigated.

  19. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: porosity and vapour resistance.

    PubMed

    Havenith, George; den Hartog, Emiel; Martini, Svein

    2011-05-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve protection, but questions are raised regarding their effect on heat strain. In this paper the use of selectively permeable membranes with low vapour resistance was compared to textile-based outer layers with similar ensemble vapour resistance. For textile-based outer layers, the effect of increasing air permeability was investigated. When comparing ensembles with a textile vs. a membrane outer layer that have similar heat and vapour resistances measured for the sum of fabric samples, a higher heat strain is observed in the membrane ensemble, as in actual wear, and the air permeability of the textile version improves ventilation and allows better cooling by sweat evaporation. For garments with identical thickness and static dry heat resistance, but differing levels of air permeability, a strong correlation of microclimate ventilation due to wind and movement with air permeability was observed. This was reflected in lower values of core and skin temperatures and heart rate for garments with higher air permeability. For heart rate and core temperature the two lowest and the two highest air permeabilities formed two distinct groups, but they did not differ within these groups. Based on protection requirements, it is concluded that air permeability increases can reduce heat strain levels allowing optimisation of chemical protective clothing. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: In this study on chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing, heat strain is shown to be significantly higher with selectively permeable membranes compared to air permeable ensembles. Optimisation of CBRN personal protective equipment needs to balance sufficient protection with reduced heat

  20. Integrated Approach To An Efficiency Assessment Of Self-Organizing Textile Materials Packages In The Subnormal Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodicheva, M.; Abramov, A.; Kanatnikova, P.; Kanatnikov, N.; Kharlamov, G.

    2017-01-01

    Design of heat-shielding clothes for subnormal climate still remains one of the unsolved problems of complex security. The solution is connected with the use of the self-organizing textile materials. Reasoning of textile package optimal selection requires the development of a comprehensive approach combining theoretical and experimental researches.

  1. UV radiation transmittance: regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Kenneth; Bielinski, Nolan

    2014-09-01

    There are many clothing options available for patients who are interested in limiting their exposure to UV radiation; however, these options can be confusing for patients. For dermatologists, there is limited clinical data regarding the advantages, if any, of sun-protective clothing. In this study, we examined the UV radiation transmittance of regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing. We found that regular clothing may match or even exceed sun-protective clothing in blocking the transmittance of UV radiation. These data will help dermatologists better counsel their patients on clothing options for sun protection.

  2. Development and characterization of textile batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normann, M.; Grethe, T.; Schwarz-Pfeiffer, A.; Ehrmann, A.

    2017-02-01

    During the past years, smart textiles have gained more and more attention. Products cover a broad range of possible applications, from fashion items such as LED garments to sensory shirts detecting vital signs to clothes with included electrical stimulation of muscles. For all electrical or electronic features included in garments, a power supply is needed - which is usually the bottleneck in the development of smart textiles, since common power supplies are not flexible and often not lightweight, prohibiting their unobtrusive integration in electronic textiles. In a recent project, textile-based batteries are developed. For this, metallized woven fabrics (e.g. copper, zinc, or silver) are used in combinations with carbon fabrics. The article gives an overview of our recent advances in optimizing power storage capacity and durability of the textile batteries by tailoring the gel-electrolyte. The gel-electrolyte is modified with respect to thickness and electrolyte concentration; additionally, the influence of additives on the long-time stability of the batteries is examined.

  3. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  4. All-fabric-based wearable self-charging power cloth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Zhang, Jinxin; Guo, Hang; Chen, Xuexian; Su, Zongming; Chen, Haotian; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-08-01

    We present an all-fabric-based self-charging power cloth (SCPC), which integrates a fabric-based single-electrode triboelectric generator (STEG) and a flexible supercapacitor. To effectively scavenge mechanical energy from the human motion, the STEG could be directly woven among the cloth, exhibiting excellent output capability. Meanwhile, taking advantage of fabric structures with a large surface-area and carbon nanotubes with high conductivity, the wearable supercapacitor exhibits high areal capacitance (16.76 mF/cm2) and stable cycling performance. With the fabric configuration and the aim of simultaneously collecting body motion energy by STEG and storing in supercapacitors, such SCPC could be easily integrated with textiles and charged to nearly 100 mV during the running motion within 6 min, showing great potential in self-powered wearable electronics and smart cloths.

  5. How an Electron Beam (Eventually) Penetrates Ceramic Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE) the effect of an electron beam was investigated on Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. It was anticipated that the cloth would take a static charge that would repel the beam and remain undamaged. It was found that after some seconds the impinging beam penetrated penetrated the cloth. Further, the penetration time went up significantly both at longer and at closer standoff distances. A tentative explanation appears to fit the observed facts. The electrons in the beam generate positive ions by collisions with the contaminant gas molecules in the vacuum chamber. The positive ions transfer a small but significant fraction of the beam power to the cloth. Under the impingement of the positive ions the cloth heats up until sufficient outgassing occurs to initiate arcing. Once arcing occurs the full beam power impinges on the cloth and, almost instantaneously, burns a hole.

  6. How an Electron Beam (Eventually) Penetrates Ceramic Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Russell, C. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Fragomeni, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the International Space Welding Experiment (ISWE) the effect of an electron beam was investigated on Nextel AF-62 ceramic cloth designed to withstand temperatures up to 1427 C. It was anticipated that the cloth would take a static charge that would repel the beam and remain undamaged. It was found that after some seconds the impinging beam penetrated penetrated the cloth. Further, the penetration time went up significantly both at longer and at closer standoff distances. A tentative explanation appears to fit the observed facts. The electrons in the beam generate positive ions by collisions with the contaminant gas molecules in the vacuum chamber. The positive ions transfer a small but significant fraction of the beam power to the cloth. Under the impingement of the positive ions the cloth heats up until sufficient outgassing occurs to initiate arcing. Once arcing occurs the full beam power impinges on the cloth and, almost instantaneously, burns a hole.

  7. Color tunable photonic textiles for wearable display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, I.; Berzowska, J.; Skorobogatiy, M.

    2010-04-01

    Integration of optical functionalities such as light emission, processing and collection into flexible woven matrices of fabric have grabbed a lot of attention in the last few years. Photonic textiles frequently involve optical fibers as they can be easily processed together with supporting fabric fibers. This technology finds uses in various fields of application such as interactive clothing, signage, wearable health monitoring sensors and mechanical strain and deformation detectors. Recent development in the field of Photonic Band Gap optical fibers (PBG) could potentially lead to novel photonic textiles applications and techniques. Particularly, plastic PBG Bragg fibers fabricated in our group have strong potential in the field of photonic textiles as they offer many advantages over standard silica fibers at the same low cost. Among many unusual properties of PBG textiles we mention that they are highly reflective, PBG textiles are colored without using any colorants, PBG textiles can change their color by controlling the relative intensities of guided and reflected light, and finally, PBG textiles can change their colors when stretched. Some of the many experimental realization of photonic bandgap fiber textiles and their potential applications in wearable displays are discussed.

  8. Nonflammable Clothing Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Richard; Radnofsky, Matthew I.

    1968-01-01

    Protective clothing is of major importance in our space program. The authors discuss the requirements, selection, and testing of materials considered for use in the program. The various types of garments worn by astronauts and support personnel are briefly described.

  9. Laundering Your Baby's Clothes

    MedlinePlus

    ... than powder detergents, so might be better for sensitive skin.) Unless your baby has allergies , eczema/atopic dermatitis , or another condition causing sensitive skin, washing your little one's clothes with the rest ...

  10. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  11. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  12. Clothing and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  13. Clean room wiping cloths

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of various fabrics for use as clean room wiping cloths was investigated. These fabrics included knit polyester, knit nylon, urethane foam, woven cotton, nonwoven polyester, nonwoven rayon, nonwoven polyethylene and polypropylene, and woven nylon. These materials were tested for detachable lint and fibers, deterioration, and oil content which could leave contaminating films on wiped surfaces. Well-laundered nylon and polyester cloths knitted from filamentary yarn, with hems, were found to be suitable. (LCL)

  14. Recent Trends in Sustainable Textile Waste Recycling Methods: Current Situation and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Pensupa, Nattha; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Hu, Yunzi; Du, Chenyu; Liu, Hao; Jing, Houde; Wang, Huaimin; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2017-08-16

    In recent years, there have been increasing concerns in the disposal of textile waste around the globe. The growth of textile markets not only depends on population growth but also depends on economic and fashion cycles. The fast fashion cycle in the textile industry has led to a high level of consumption and waste generation. This can cause a negative environmental impact since the textile and clothing industry is one of the most polluting industries. Textile manufacturing is a chemical-intensive process and requires a high volume of water throughout its operations. Wastewater and fiber wastes are the major wastes generated during the textile production process. On the other hand, the fiber waste was mainly created from unwanted clothes in the textile supply chain. This fiber waste includes natural fiber, synthetic fiber, and natural/synthetic blends. The natural fiber is mostly comprised of cellulosic material, which can be used as a resource for producing bio-based products. The main challenge for utilization of textile waste is finding the method that is able to recover sugars as monosaccharides. This review provides an overview of valorization of textile waste to value-added products, as well as an overview of different strategies for sugar recovery from cellulosic fiber and their hindrances.

  15. Fabric-based active electrode design and fabrication for health monitoring clothing.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Carey R; Nagle, H Troy; Grant, Edward

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, two versions of fabric-based active electrodes are presented to provide a wearable solution for ECG monitoring clothing. The first version of active electrode involved direct attachment of surface-mountable components to a textile screen-printed circuit using polymer thick film techniques. The second version involved attaching a much smaller, thinner, and less obtrusive interposer containing the active electrode circuitry to a simplified textile circuit. These designs explored techniques for electronic textile interconnection, chip attachment to textiles, and packaging of circuits on textiles for durability. The results from ECG tests indicate that the performance of each active electrode is comparable to commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes. The interposer-based active electrodes survived a five-cycle washing test while maintaining good signal integrity.

  16. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  17. Fundamental Aspects on Conductive Textiles Implemented in Intelligent System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.; Ene, D.; Amariei, N.; Popa, A.

    2017-06-01

    Conductive fibers, which are electrically conductive elements having the structure of a fiber, have a fairly long history and have been used for applications in electronic textiles as well as for aesthetics, anti-static and shielding purposes. Electrically conducting textile fibers, such as gold-coated threads, were produced in antiquity for aesthetic purposes, before the discovery of electricity, using various manufacturing methods. The textile intelligent systems, which comprise conducting textile structures (electroconducting wires or structures), present a dynamic behavior which favors the self regulation of the thermal insulation and vapor permeability with the purpose to maintain the thermo-physiological balance; the clothing assembly aims at monitoring the biologic potential, used only in critical situation (ex. accidents, falling down in a precipice etc.).

  18. Modification of Three Clothing Diploma Programs in the Consumer and Hospitality Services Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advincula-Carpenter, Marietta M.

    A curriculum project modified the three occupational programs in clothing according to the results of the DACUM (Develop a Curriculum) process done in Summer 1992 and the needle trade industry surveys done in Fall 1992 and Summer 1993. Six procedures were used to develop the modified two-year alteration and textile services diploma program. First,…

  19. A Task Analysis of the Clothing Service Occupations in the State of Wisconsin. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazejy, Shamiram

    A study was conducted to identify the different entry level jobs available and to determine the competencies, qualifications, and/or training important for persons seeking employment in clothing apparel and textile service occupations in the State of Wisconsin. The four occupations studied were sewing machine operator, fabric specialist,…

  20. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  1. A review of stimuli-responsive polymers for smart textile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinlian; Meng, Harper; Li, Guoqiang; Ibekwe, Samuel I.

    2012-05-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymers (SRPs) are smart materials which can show noticeable changes in their properties with environmental stimulus variations. Novel functionalities can be delivered to textiles by integrating smart SRPs into them. SRPs inclusive of thermal-responsive polymers, moisture-responsive polymers, thermal-responsive hydrogels, pH-responsive hydrogels, and light-responsive polymers have been applied in textiles to improve or achieve textile smart functionalities. The functionalities include aesthetic appeal, comfort, textile soft display, smart controlled drug release, fantasy design with color changing, wound monitoring, smart wetting properties and protection against extreme variations in environmental conditions. In this review, the applications of SRPs in the textile and clothing sector are elucidated; the associated constraints in fabrication processes for textiles and their potential applications in the near future are discussed.

  2. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  3. [Evaluation of the practicability of linen bed-clothes and underwear in space flight].

    PubMed

    Shumilina, G A; Bogatova, R I; Solov'eva, Z O; Kutina, I V; Grishchenkova, V A

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation was performed in a pressurized chamber (ground-based experimental facility) with participation of nine volunteered test-subjects. Linen and cotton underwear and bed-clothes were intercompared by physiological and hygienic well-being of the test-subjects Comparison was made with the help of methods of the sanitary-hygienic assessment and clinical-physiological investigations, and subjective data. Alterations in integument microflora were observed in all the test-subjects irrelative of type of textile. The extent of disbiotic shifts varied with volunteers and did not depend on type of textile. The weighted mean cutaneous and body temperatures were lower in the test-subjects provided with the linen bed-clothes and underwear. According to the clinical investigations, general condition of the test-subjects was stably good no matter type of textile.

  4. On the structural analysis of textile composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    The local structural inhomogeneities which distinguish textile composites from laminated materials are discussed. Techniques for quantifying these inhomogeneities through three dimensional geometric modelling are introduced and methods of translating them into elastic properties are presented. Some basic ideas on application of spline functions to the stress field analysis in textile composites are proposed. The significance of internal continuity conditions for these materials is emphasized. Several analytical techniques based on the concept of a meso-volume are discussed. An example is presented to demonstrate the application of the method to structural analysis of textile composites.

  5. Long-term respiratory health effects in textile workers.

    PubMed

    Lai, Peggy S; Christiani, David C

    2013-03-01

    Over 60 million people worldwide work in the textile or clothing industry. Recent studies have recognized the contribution of workplace exposures to chronic lung diseases, in particular chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Early studies in textile workers have focused on the relationship between hemp or cotton dust exposure and the development of a syndrome termed byssinosis. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure to organic dust in textile workers on chronic respiratory disease in the broader context of disease classifications, such as reversible or irreversible obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma or COPD), and restrictive lung disease. Cessation of exposure to cotton dust leads to improvement in lung function. Recent animal models have suggested a shift in the lung macrophage:dendritic cell population ratio as a potential mechanistic explanation for persistent inflammation in the lung due to repeated cotton dust-related endotoxin exposure. Other types of textile dust, such as silk, may contribute to COPD in textile workers. Textile dust-related obstructive lung disease has characteristics of both asthma and COPD. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of chronic lung disease due to organic dust exposure in textile workers.

  6. Bacterial burden of worn therapeutic silver textiles for neurodermitis patients and evaluation of efficacy of washing.

    PubMed

    Daeschlein, G; Assadian, O; Arnold, A; Haase, H; Kramer, A; Jünger, M

    2010-01-01

    To reduce pruritus and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, textiles containing silver are increasingly used as therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). While wearing such textiles, the contained silver is in close contact with the patient's skin. The silver serves two purposes: to reduce bacterial colonization of the skin, and to prevent contamination of the textile with ensuing growth of microorganisms. It is unknown whether the silver impregnation is able to reduce bacterial contamination of the textile during wearing and to prevent bacterial growth within the textile. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in textiles containing silver versus placebo worn by patients with AD and to determine the efficacy of processing worn textiles by manual and machine-based washing. Additionally, the effect of silver textiles on S. aureus and total bacterial counts colonizing the skin of AD patients was analyzed. The reduction factor of silver textile compared to placebo was 0.5 log steps against S. aureus and 0.4 log steps against total bacteria. Silver textiles exhibited significantly less S. aureus as well as total bacterial colonization after 2 days of wearing without washing, as compared with a placebo textile. On placebo textiles 385.6 +/- 63.5 CFU total bacteria and 236.5 +/- 49.9 CFU S. aureus, and on silver textiles 279.9 +/- 78.7 CFU total bacteria and 119.3 +/- 39.4 CFU S. aureus were found on the inner side of the textiles facing the neurodermitis lesions. However, the unexpectedly high residual contamination despite the silver exposure represents a potential risk as recontamination source of S. aureus that could maintain the proinflammatory process in AD. This contamination is nearly completely eliminated by machine-based washing at 60 degrees C using conventional washing powder. AD patients wearing silver textiles should change their used clothes at least daily and wash them in a washing machine at 60 degrees

  7. Photoprotection: clothing and glass.

    PubMed

    Almutawa, Fahad; Buabbas, Hanan

    2014-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVR) has well-known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Little attention is given to physical means of photoprotection, namely glass, window films, sunglasses, and clothing. In general, all types of glass block UV-B. For UV-A, the degree of transmission depends on the type, thickness, and color of the glass. Adding window films to glass can greatly decrease the transmission of UV-A. Factors that can affect the transmission of UVR through cloth include tightness of weave, thickness, weight, type of fabrics, laundering, hydration, stretch, fabric processing, UV absorbers, color, and fabric-to-skin distance.

  8. Smart Textiles: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Langenhove, Lieva; Hertleer, Carla; Schwarz, Anne

    This chapter introduces smart textiles and explains how textile materials and structures can be used as sensors, actuators, communication devices, energy sources and storage tools, and even processors. Conductive materials serve as the base for smart textiles. There are several advantages of using textiles as a substrate for smart functions; this chapter explains their important role in thermoregulation and highlights a smart suit for rescue workers.

  9. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  10. Career Awareness through Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domalski, Beverly

    This collection of art units is intended to be incorporated into the curriculum throughout the career motivation program, kindergarten through grade six. The units use simulated classroom art projects to provide students with exposure to the work done in textile decoration. General information about the textile industry and textile decoration, a…

  11. Career Awareness through Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domalski, Beverly

    This collection of art units is intended to be incorporated into the curriculum throughout the career motivation program, kindergarten through grade six. The units use simulated classroom art projects to provide students with exposure to the work done in textile decoration. General information about the textile industry and textile decoration, a…

  12. Textiles and Apparel Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a seven-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on textiles and apparel design. The units cover: (1) fiber/fiber characteristics and textile development (including fabrication and dyeing, printing, and finishing); (2) textile and apparel design industries (including their history and…

  13. Textiles and Apparel Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a seven-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on textiles and apparel design. The units cover: (1) fiber/fiber characteristics and textile development (including fabrication and dyeing, printing, and finishing); (2) textile and apparel design industries (including their history and…

  14. Conductive fiber-based ultrasensitive textile pressure sensor for wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehong; Kwon, Hyukho; Seo, Jungmok; Shin, Sera; Koo, Ja Hoon; Pang, Changhyun; Son, Seungbae; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jang, Yong Hoon; Kim, Dae Eun; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-04-17

    A flexible and sensitive textile-based pressure sensor is developed using highly conductive fibers coated with dielectric rubber materials. The pressure sensor exhibits superior sensitivity, very fast response time, and high stability, compared with previous textile-based pressure sensors. By using a weaving method, the pressure sensor can be applied to make smart gloves and clothes that can control machines wirelessly as human-machine interfaces. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 4-H Textile Science Textile Arts Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This packet contains three 4-H textile arts projects for students in the textile sciences area. The projects cover weaving, knitting, and crocheting. Each project provides an overview of what the student will learn, what materials are needed, and suggested projects for the area. Projects can be adapted for beginning, intermediate, or advanced…

  16. Hmong Story Cloths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkenberg, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a brief history of Hmong and traces the origin of Hmong story cloths. The Hmong, a nomadic and agrarian people, may date back 5000 years. Today they live in China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos, where during the Vietnam War and its aftermath, many Hmong were killed or persecuted for siding with the American…

  17. Occupational Clothing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Annette J.

    Designed to provide individualized, hands-on experience for secondary or postsecondary students in gainful homemaking programs, this occupational clothing curriculum contains eight learning modules. The following topics are covered in the modules: plant production for the needle trades (needle trade structure and operation, terminology, history,…

  18. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Ammon, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  19. Chiang Xiong: Story Cloth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappetta, Ann; Fitzgerald, Donna

    1989-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan that introduces students in grades 10-12 to the decorative arts as a vehicle for exploring the cultural framework as a means of communicating various aspects of the human experience. Students design a story cloth based on a visual symbol they have developed to represent a human issue such as famine or war. (LS)

  20. Sex and Clothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stember, Charles H.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This roundtable discussion focusos on fashion which may be indicative of the prevailing social climate. Clothing may be a reflection of ambivalence toward the body, used to cover it from shame" while also displaying it to advantage. A discussion of historical changes in dress, together with psychological implications, is presented. (Author/CJ)

  1. Hmong Story Cloths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkenberg, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a brief history of Hmong and traces the origin of Hmong story cloths. The Hmong, a nomadic and agrarian people, may date back 5000 years. Today they live in China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos, where during the Vietnam War and its aftermath, many Hmong were killed or persecuted for siding with the American…

  2. Occupational Clothing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Annette J.

    Designed to provide individualized, hands-on experience for secondary or postsecondary students in gainful homemaking programs, this occupational clothing curriculum contains eight learning modules. The following topics are covered in the modules: plant production for the needle trades (needle trade structure and operation, terminology, history,…

  3. Advanced Textile Laminates for Chemical Biological Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    of study During this second phase of the study, laminates of ePTFE films were placed between lightly pre- bonded spunbond (SB) polypropylene (PP) webs...in a lattice-like porous structure of micro-sized interconnected fibrils and nodes. The size of the micropores is controllable and is directly related...to the moisture vapor transport of the film , which, in tum, is related to comfort. Furthermore, the ePTFE film and its adhered outer layers can be

  4. Multimedia in the University Textiles and Clothing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batra, Mansi; Marcketti, Sara B.; Ratute, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Teaching has always been a multimedia enterprise; what has changed dramatically is the technology available for delivering course information. The use of technology for today's "digital native" students is an assumed rather than a novel activity. From a pedagogical perspective, technology is a powerful tool for customizing instruction to the needs…

  5. Multimedia in the University Textiles and Clothing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batra, Mansi; Marcketti, Sara B.; Ratute, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Teaching has always been a multimedia enterprise; what has changed dramatically is the technology available for delivering course information. The use of technology for today's "digital native" students is an assumed rather than a novel activity. From a pedagogical perspective, technology is a powerful tool for customizing instruction to the needs…

  6. DLA Troop Support, Clothing & Textiles, DOD Emall Tent Superstore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    equipment to military personnel worldwide surpassed $2.1 billion. While buying more than 8,000 different items ranging from uniforms, footwear and...explode high resolution parts breakdown. 12 Specialty Stores Component Part Identification 13 Specialty Stores Layered browser 14 environment

  7. Maths Work: Maths in the Textile, Clothing, Footwear & Allied Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Midge

    This book is designed to help individuals be aware of how much mathematics is used at work. It is designed to help trainers decide what to do if workers need help to improve their mathematics skills. An introduction looks at mathematics as it is used at work by discussing how it is used on the job. The book discusses the problems for workers with…

  8. Flexible Textile-Based Organic Transistors Using Graphene/Ag Nanoparticle Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn; Kwon, Yeon Ju; Lee, Kang Eun; Oh, Youngseok; Um, Moon-Kwang; Seong, Dong Gi; Lee, Jea Uk

    2016-01-01

    Highly flexible and electrically-conductive multifunctional textiles are desirable for use in wearable electronic applications. In this study, we fabricated multifunctional textile composites by vacuum filtration and wet-transfer of graphene oxide films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile in association with embedding Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) to improve the electrical conductivity. A flexible organic transistor can be developed by direct transfer of a dielectric/semiconducting double layer on the graphene/AgNP textile composite, where the textile composite was used as both flexible substrate and conductive gate electrode. The thermal treatment of a textile-based transistor enhanced the electrical performance (mobility = 7.2 cm2·V−1·s−1, on/off current ratio = 4 × 105, and threshold voltage = −1.1 V) due to the improvement of interfacial properties between the conductive textile electrode and the ion-gel dielectric layer. Furthermore, the textile transistors exhibited highly stable device performance under extended bending conditions (with a bending radius down to 3 mm and repeated tests over 1000 cycles). We believe that our simple methods for the fabrication of graphene/AgNP textile composite for use in textile-type transistors can potentially be applied to the development of flexible large-area electronic clothes. PMID:28335276

  9. Flexible Textile-Based Organic Transistors Using Graphene/Ag Nanoparticle Electrode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn; Kwon, Yeon Ju; Lee, Kang Eun; Oh, Youngseok; Um, Moon-Kwang; Seong, Dong Gi; Lee, Jea Uk

    2016-08-16

    Highly flexible and electrically-conductive multifunctional textiles are desirable for use in wearable electronic applications. In this study, we fabricated multifunctional textile composites by vacuum filtration and wet-transfer of graphene oxide films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile in association with embedding Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) to improve the electrical conductivity. A flexible organic transistor can be developed by direct transfer of a dielectric/semiconducting double layer on the graphene/AgNP textile composite, where the textile composite was used as both flexible substrate and conductive gate electrode. The thermal treatment of a textile-based transistor enhanced the electrical performance (mobility = 7.2 cm²·V(-1)·s(-1), on/off current ratio = 4 × 10⁵, and threshold voltage = -1.1 V) due to the improvement of interfacial properties between the conductive textile electrode and the ion-gel dielectric layer. Furthermore, the textile transistors exhibited highly stable device performance under extended bending conditions (with a bending radius down to 3 mm and repeated tests over 1000 cycles). We believe that our simple methods for the fabrication of graphene/AgNP textile composite for use in textile-type transistors can potentially be applied to the development of flexible large-area electronic clothes.

  10. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y.; Catrysse, Peter B.; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management.

  11. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y; Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-02

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management.

  12. Smart textile device using ion polymer metal compound.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Taro; Ihara, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a smart textile device that detects angular displacement of attached surface using ion polymer metal compound. The device was composed of ion polymer metal compound (IPMC) which was fabricated from Nafion resin by heat-press and chemical gold plating. The generated voltage from IPMC was measured as a function of bending angle. Fabricated IPMC device was weaved into a cotton cloth and multidirectional movements were detected.

  13. Comparison of Observed Beta Cloth Interactions with Simulated and Actual Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzy, R. R.; Finckenor, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    A common component of multilayer insulation blankets is beta cloth, a woven fiberglass cloth impregnated with Teflon(TM). It is planned for extensive use on the International Space Station. The Environmental Etl'ects Group of the Marshall Space Flight Center Materials, Processing, and Manufacturing Department has investigated the impact of atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the optical properties of plain and aluminized beta cloth. both in the laboratory and as part of long-duration flight experiments. These investigations indicate that beta cloth is susceptible to darkening in the presence of UV radiation, dependent on the additives used. AO interactions resulted in bleaching of the beta cloth.

  14. Vibration in textile mills.

    PubMed

    Sorainen, E

    1988-12-01

    The vibration in nine halls of the six weaving mills was measured in 1978-80. The measurements were taken at regular intervals in the working area of the weavers, which was the wooden support attached to the machine or the floor of the textile mill. The accelerometer was mounted with screws onto the working area, and all vibration samples were analyzed immediately, in situ. The vibration of the floor was tangent to or exceeded slightly the "reduced comfort boundary" specified in International Standard ISO 2631/1 (1985) only in the areas where the floor was not against the ground. The greatest amount of vibration occurred on the supports which had been attached to the machines. On these supports the vibration in places exceeded the "fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary."

  15. Recovery of spray paint traces from clothing by beating.

    PubMed

    Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-03-01

    Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-07-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE’s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  17. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-09

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE’s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  18. Recent researches concerning the obtaining of functional textiles based on conductive yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, A. L.; Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.

    2016-08-01

    Modem textile industry is influenced both by consumers' lifestyle and by novel materials. Functional textiles can be included into the group of technical textiles. The functional activity can be shortly interpreted as "sense - react - adapt" to the environment while traditional materials meet only passive protective role, a barrier between body and environment. Functional materials cross the conventional limits because they are designed for specific performances, being part of domains as: telemedicine, medicine, aeronautics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, protective clothes, sportswear, etc. This paper highlights the most recent developments in the field of using conductive yarns for obtaining functional textiles. Conductive fabrics can be done by incorporating into the textile structure the conductive fibers / yarns. The technologies differ from embroidering, sewing, weaving, knitting to braiding and obtaining nonwovens. The conductive fabrics production has a quickly growth because it is a high demand for these textiles used for data transfer in clothing, monitoring vital signs, germ-free garments, brain-computer interface, etc. Nowadays it is of high interest surface treatments of fibers/yarns which can be considered as a novel kind of textile finishing. There are presented some researches related to obtaining conductive yarns by coating PET and PP yarns with PANi conductive polymer.

  19. 75 FR 11845 - Exporters' Textile Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Exporters' Textile Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting A meeting of the Exporters' Textile Advisory Committee will be held on Tuesday, April 20th, 2010. The meeting will... officials on the identification and surmounting of barriers to the expansion of textile exports, and...

  20. Malignant mesothelioma in non-asbestos textile workers in Florence

    SciTech Connect

    Paci, E.; Dini, S.; Buiatti, E.; Seniori Costantini, A.; Lenzi, S.; Zappa, M.

    1987-01-01

    By means of a review of histological diagnosis in the Pathology Department of the University of Florence, suspected cases of malignant mesothelioma, diagnosed in the period 1979-1984, were identified. Study of histological specimens permitted the selection of 13 cases of malignant mesothelioma resident in the Province of Florence. To these cases, referents were matched for age, sex, and year of hospital admission, with residence weighted for the general population of the Province. Both cases and referents (or their next of kin) completed an occupational questionnaire detailing possible occupational exposures. Out of the 13 cases of mesothelioma, 6 were textile workers and 5 of these were rag-sorters. There were only 5 textile workers among the 52 controls. No asbestos cloth production plants have been in operation in the area from which the cases and referents are derived. Possible sources of exposure to asbestos in the textile industry of this area are discussed.

  1. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Textiles and Microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, Jean; Renaud, François N. R.

    Microbes can be carried by and even multiply on textiles. The first real, premeditated, microbiological warfare happened in 1763, during the Anglo-French wars in North America, when Native American emissaries were given blankets or handkerchiefs contaminated with smallpox. Thus, a small epidemic started and spread rapidly, causing considerable damage to the rank and file of the Native Americans. Nowadays, it could be said that textiles could be vectors of infections in hospitals or communities. The making of antimicrobial textiles could prevent them from becoming a reservoir of microbes in the transmission of infections and in cases of voluntary contamination in a terrorist threat for example. However, methods have to show that textiles are really active and do not attack the cutaneous flora they are in contact with. In this chapter, the role of textiles in the transmission of infections is summarized and the main characteristics of antimicrobial textiles are described.

  3. Clothing adaptations: the occupational therapist and the clothing designer collaborate.

    PubMed

    White, L W; Dallas, M J

    1977-02-01

    An occupational therapist and a clothing designer collaborated in solving the dressing problem of a child with multiple amputations. The dressing problems were identified and solutions for clothing adaptations relating to sleeves, closures, fasteners, fit, and design were incorporated into two test garments. Evaluation of the garments was based on ease in dressing and undressing, the effect on movement and mobility, the construction techniques, and their appearance. A description is given of the pattern adjustments, and considerations for clothing adaptations or selection or both are discussed. These clothing adaptations can be generalized to a wider population of handicapped persons.

  4. Textile solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Guadard, Y.; Guillemaud, H.

    1982-04-27

    Disclosed is a solar collector employing a liquid collecting medium. A textile collection surface of which the thickness possesses different densities is employed to carry the medium. These densities are such that the densities increase from the surface exposed to the sun to the opposite surface, in order to enable the liquid to run in the upper thickness. The textile collecting surface consists of at least one nonwoven textile thickness.

  5. Detection of the Deformation of an Intelligent Textile in a Specific Point

    PubMed Central

    Alsina, Maria; Escudero, Francesc; Margalef, Jordi; Cambra, Vicente; Gisbert, José

    2007-01-01

    An intelligent textile is a textile structure that measures and reacts in front of external agents or stimulus with or without integrated electronic equipment. The finality of the present textile is to take one more step towards intelligent textile, considering the integration of electronics and textile needs, to be industrially viable and to keep up the necessary competitiveness, raising the final price as little as possible. The finality of these experiments is to develop a textile that varies in conductivity and resistance in relation to the elongation of the textile, detecting changes caused by the alteration of a piece of clothing, from the pressure of a finger on the material, for example. One of the most important characteristics of textile is the capacity of reproducing measures, of varying the response in different tests. Two lines of research were opened: the study of the most adequate structure to achieve a response that can be reproduced and the study of the best way of taking measures without altering the behavior of the textile.

  6. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Portuguese Child Labour: Manufacturing for Change or Continuing Exploitation in the Textiles Industry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Martin; da Silva, Carlos Pereira

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the role of Portuguese child laborers, focusing on the textile, clothing, and footwear industries. Argues that in the long term, positive outcomes will be based upon improved education; an alteration in the views of the factory owners, parents, and their children; and greater knowledge of innovative working practices among…

  8. [The identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on textiles].

    PubMed

    Kirichek, A V; Shabalina, A E; Rassinskaya, L A

    Thus article was designed to report a few cases of the identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on the clothes and other textiles. The data presented give evidence that barbiturates are capable of persisting in dry blood stains during rather a long period. The authors emphasize the necessity of mandatory control investigations to avoid obtaining the false positive results.

  9. Portuguese Child Labour: Manufacturing for Change or Continuing Exploitation in the Textiles Industry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Martin; da Silva, Carlos Pereira

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the role of Portuguese child laborers, focusing on the textile, clothing, and footwear industries. Argues that in the long term, positive outcomes will be based upon improved education; an alteration in the views of the factory owners, parents, and their children; and greater knowledge of innovative working practices among…

  10. Analysing performance of protective clothing upon hot liquid exposure using instrumented spray manikin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Li, Jun

    2013-07-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments present a common risk in workplace safety in numerous industries. In this study, a newly developed instrumented manikin system was used to assess the protective performance provided by protective clothing against hot liquid splash. The skin burn injury and its distribution for the selected clothing system were predicted and the effects of clothing design features (fabric properties and garment size) on protective performance were investigated. The air gap size and distribution existing between protective clothing and human skin were characterized using 3D body scanning, and their relation to skin burn injury was identified. The mechanism associated with heat and mass transfer under exposure to hot liquid splashes was discussed. The findings provided technical bases to improve the performance of protective clothing. For protective clothing design, minimizing mass transfer through clothing system is very important to provide high performance. Keeping the air gap between the garment and the human body is an essential approach to improve thermal performance. This can be achieved by proper design in size and fit, or applying functional textile materials.

  11. Application of biomass-derived flexible carbon cloth coated with MnO2 nanosheets in supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shuijian; Chen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Successful application of inexpensive energy storage devices lies in the exploitation of fabrication approaches that are based on cost-efficient materials and that can be easily scaled up. Here, inexpensive textile weaved by natural flax fiber is selected as raw material in preparing flexible and binder-free electrode material for supercapacitors. Although carbon fiber cloth obtained from the direct carbonization of flax textile exhibits a low specific capacitance of 0.78 F g-1, carbon fiber cloth electrode shows a very short relaxation time of 39.1 m s and good stability with almost 100% capacitance retaining after 104 cycles at 5 A g-1. To extend the application of the resulting carbon cloth in supercapacitor field, a layer of MnO2 nanosheets is deposited on the surface of carbon fiber via in situ redox reaction between carbon and KMnO4. The specific capacitance of MnO2 reaches 683.73 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and still retains 269.04 F g-1 at 300 A g-1, indicating the excellent rate capacitance performance of the carbon cloth/MnO2 hybrids. The present study shows that carbon cloth derived from flax textile can provide a low-cost material platform for the facile, cost-efficient and large scale fabrication of binder-free electrode materials for energy storage devices.

  12. Advanced Clothing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that add an unprecedented burden on longduration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For these missions with limited cleaning resources, a new wardrobe must be developed to reduce this logistical burden by reducing clothing mass and extending clothing wear. The present studies have been undertaken, for the first time, to measure length of wear and to assess the acceptance of such extended wear. Garments in these studies are commercially available exercise T-shirts and shorts, routine-wear T-shirts, and longsleeved pullover shirts. Fabric composition (cotton, polyester, light-weight, superfine Merino wool, modacrylic, cotton/rayon, polyester/Cocona, modacrylic/Xstatic, modacrylic/rayon, modacrylic/lyocell/aramid), construction (open knit, tight knit, open weave, tight weave), and finishing treatment (none, quaternary ammonium salt) are the independent variables. Eleven studies are reported here: five studies of exercise T-shirts, three of exercise shorts, two of routine wear Tshirts, and one of shirts used as sleep-wear. All studies are conducted in a climate-controlled environment, similar to a space vehicle's. For exercise clothing, study participants wear the garments during aerobic exercise. For routine wear clothing, study participants wear the T-shirts daily in an office or laboratory. Daily questionnaires collected data on ordinal preferences of nine sensory elements and on reason for retiring a used garment. Study 1 compares knitted cotton, polyester, and Merino exercise T-shirts (61 participants), study 2, knitted polyester, modacrylic, and polyester/Cocona exercise T-shirts (40 participants), study 3, cotton and polyester exercise shorts, knitted and woven (70 participants), all three using factorial experimental designs with and without a finishing treatment, conducted at the Johnson Space Center, sharing study participants. Study 4 compares knitted polyester and ZQ Merino exercise T

  13. Occupational needs and evaluation methods for cold protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, H

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the needs for and properties of the occupational cold protective clothing with different methods and the risks related to work in cold conditions from the point of view of occupational hygiene and clothing physiology. The thermal insulation of textile materials and clothing was investigated with the equipment, methods and parameters developed especially in cold and windy conditions in dynamic and steady states. Also the simulation and calculation of results were done and compared to the measurements. The cold exposure from the point of occupational hygiene was evaluated in working life to evaluate the risk of cooling and frostbite and utility ranges of clothing. The function of the sweating hot plate constructed and cylinder in the wind tunnel could be regarded adequate for the evaluation of winter clothing with good precision, stability and repeatability. The measured total thermal resistance was mainly dependent on, and operative thermal resistance independent of, temperature. The operative thermal resistance was also very sensitive to errors in measurement procedures. The heat flow usually evaluated by thermal and water vapour resistance could be substituted for total thermal resistance. Both the measurements and theories showed that, in addition to air permeability, also the ambient temperature, air gaps, contact layers and thickness of clothing were important parameters. Increase of wind (1...8 m/s) decreased the total thermal resistance and mass transfer up to 60% depending on conditions. The comparison of calculation models with material measurements proved the value of the simulation models. The reason for differences between the methods was mainly due to changes in water vapour resistance in the cold. The heat flux method was exact enough in the evaluation of the insulation of clothing in the field but in sweating conditions the condensation and evaporation must be taken into consideration. In the case of heat debt in

  14. NIR Analysis for Textiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been found to be a useful technique to characterize raw materials and finished textile products, and NIR methods and techniques continue to find increasingly diverse and wide-ranging quantitative and qualitative applications in the textile industry. NIR methods ...

  15. Textile industry needs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The immediate customer of the cotton gin is the producer; however the ultimate customers are the textile mill and the consumer. The ginner has the challenging job to satisfy both the producer and the textile industry. The classing and grading systems are intended to assign economic value to the ba...

  16. New Clothing for Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is influenced by many factors, trends, and social happenings. Much of what is worn today had utilitarian roots in the past. In the activitiy presented in this article, students will have the opportunity to redesign clothing for new trends, in this case, the explosion of handheld electronic devices.

  17. New Clothing for Handheld Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is influenced by many factors, trends, and social happenings. Much of what is worn today had utilitarian roots in the past. In the activitiy presented in this article, students will have the opportunity to redesign clothing for new trends, in this case, the explosion of handheld electronic devices.

  18. Acquiring Clothing Verbs in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameyama, Megumi

    The acquisition order of four Japanese verbs for the act of clothing was investigated. Each of the verbs investigated corresponds to the act of clothing different body parts. There are two theories for the prediction of acquisition order: the checklist and the prototype theories of word meaning. According to the checklist view, word meanings…

  19. Carbon Cloth Supports Catalytic Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, W. T. P.; Ammon, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon cloth is starting material for promising new catalytic electrodes. Carbon-cloth electrodes are more efficient than sintered-carbon configuration previously used. Are also chemically stable and require less catalyst--an important economic advantage when catalyst is metal such as platinum.

  20. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  1. Wearable healthcare systems, new frontiers of e-textile.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Rita; Belloc, Carine; Loriga, Giannicola; Taccini, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need of renovation in our health care managing systems; people need to be more interactive and more conscious of their own health condition in a way to adjust incorrect lifestyles, to obtain a personalized therapy tuned to their own physiological reactions and on their own environmental condition. To gain knowledge of a citizen's health status and to monitor without harassing them (until they refuse any medical supervision), a comfortable remote monitoring of important physiological parameters is necessary. The approach is therefore to integrate system solutions into functional clothes with integrated textile sensors. The combination of functional clothes and integrated electronics and on-body processing, is defined as e-textile and gives rise to intelligent biomedical clothes. Systems, designed to be minimally invasive, are based on smart textile technologies, where conductive and piezoresistive materials in the form of fiber and yarn are used to realize clothes, in which knitted fabric sensors and electrodes are distributed and connected to an electronic portable unit. These systems are able to detect, acquire and transmit physiological signals. They are conformable to the human body, and move towards improving the patient's quality of life and their autonomy. These systems are also cost-effective in providing around-the-clock assistance, in helping physicians to monitor for example cardiac patients during periods of rehabilitation, and in addition result in decreased hospitalization time. Finally, by providing direct feedback to the users, they improve their awareness and potentially allow better control of their own condition, while the simultaneous recording of vital signs permits parameter extrapolation and inter-signal elaboration that contributes to produce alert messages and personalized synoptic tables of the patient's health.

  2. Fat from contused adipose tissue may cause yellow discoloration of clothes in blunt trauma victims.

    PubMed

    Geisenberger, D; Wuest, F; Bielefeld, L; Große Perdekamp, M; Pircher, R; Pollak, S; Thierauf-Emberger, A; Huppertz, L M

    2014-12-01

    In some fatalities from intense blunt trauma, the victims' clothes show strikingly yellow discoloration being in topographic correspondence with lacerated skin and crush damage to the underlying fatty tissue. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in light-colored textiles such as underwear made of cotton and in the absence of concomitant blood-staining. The constellation of findings seems to indicate that the fabric has been soaked with liquid body fat deriving from the contused adipose tissue. To check this hypothesis, textiles suspected to be contaminated with fat were investigated in 6 relevant cases. GC-MS-analysis proved the presence of 11 fatty acids. The fatty acid composition was similar to that of human adipose tissue with a high proportion of oleic acid (18:1). In total, the morphological and chemical findings demonstrated that the yellow discoloration of the victims' clothes was caused by fat from traumatized adipose tissue.

  3. Flexible technologies and smart clothing for citizen medicine, home healthcare, and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Axisa, Fabrice; Schmitt, Pierre Michael; Gehin, Claudine; Delhomme, Georges; McAdams, Eric; Dittmar, André

    2005-09-01

    Improvement of the quality and efficiency of healthcare in medicine, both at home and in hospital, is becoming more and more important for patients and society at large. As many technologies (micro technologies, telecommunication, low-power design, new textiles, and flexible sensors) are now available, new user-friendly devices can be developed to enhance the comfort and security of the patient. As clothes and textiles are in direct contact with about 90% of the skin surface, smart sensors and smart clothes with noninvasive sensors are an attractive solution for home-based and ambulatory health monitoring. Moreover, wearable devices or smart homes with exosensors are also potential solutions. All these systems can provide a safe and comfortable environment for home healthcare, illness prevention, and citizen medicine.

  4. N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide-containing microcapsules for bio-cloth finishing.

    PubMed

    Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2007-07-01

    To obtain long-duration protection from mosquitoes using insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), this compound was incapsulated in situ during the graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate onto chitosan in an aqueous solution. Morphology of microcapsules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. This morphology supported successful encapsulation of DEET into polymer capsules. The encapsulation ratio of DEET was greater than 33%, as estimated from thermo-gravimetric results. The aqueous emulsions were applied to cotton textiles by spraying. Treated cloth showed high bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Mosquito repellency of the bio-cloth was evaluated with Aedes albopictus. The 90% effective dose of emulsions on textiles was compared with that of DEET in ethanol. A time profile showed that the repellency of an optimized emulsion was 100% after eight hours, and partially preserved even after exposure to air for 48 hours.

  5. The effect of soil texture on the degradation of textiles associated with buried bodies.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A C; Beresford, D V; Carter, D O; Gaspari, F; O'Brien, R C; Stuart, B H; Forbes, S L

    2013-09-10

    There are many factors which affect the rate of decomposition in a grave site including; the depth of burial, climatic conditions, physical conditions of the soil (e.g. texture, pH, moisture), and method of burial (e.g. clothing, wrappings). Clothing is often studied as a factor that can slow the rate of soft tissue decomposition. In contrast, the effect of soft tissue decomposition on the rate of textile degradation is usually reported as anecdotal evidence rather than being studied under controlled conditions. The majority of studies in this area have focused on the degradation of textiles buried directly in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soil texture on the degradation and/or preservation of textile materials associated with buried bodies. The study involved the burial of clothed domestic pig carcasses and control clothing in contrasting soil textures (silty clay loam, fine sand and fine sandy loam) at three field sites in southern Ontario, Canada. Graves were exhumed after 2, 12 and 14 months burial to observe the degree of degradation for both natural and synthetic textiles. Recovered textile samples were chemically analyzed using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the lipid decomposition by-products retained in the textiles. The findings of this study demonstrate that natural textile in contact with a buried decomposing body will be preserved for longer periods of time when compared to the same textile buried directly in soil and not in contact with a body. The soil texture did not visually impact the degree of degradation or preservation. Furthermore, the natural-synthetic textile blend was resistant to degradation, regardless of soil texture, contact with the body or time since deposition. Chemical analysis of the textiles using GC-MS correctly identified a lipid degradation profile consistent with the degree of soft tissue decomposition. Such information may be

  6. Smart textiles: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherenack, Kunigunde; van Pieterson, Liesbeth

    2012-11-01

    Smart textiles research represents a new model for generating creative and novel solutions for integrating electronics into unusual environments and will result in new discoveries that push the boundaries of science forward. A key driver for smart textiles research is the fact that both textile and electronics fabrication processes are capable of functionalizing large-area surfaces at very high speeds. In this article we review the history of smart textiles development, introducing the main trends and technological challenges faced in this field. Then, we identify key challenges that are the focus of ongoing research. We then proceed to discuss fundamentals of smart textiles: textile fabrication methods and textile interconnect lines, textile sensor, and output device components and integration of commercial components into textile architectures. Next we discuss representative smart textile systems and finally provide our outlook over the field and a prediction for the future.

  7. Finite element based micro-mechanics modeling of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Textile composites have the advantage over laminated composites of a significantly greater damage tolerance and resistance to delamination. Currently, a disadvantage of textile composites is the inability to examine the details of the internal response of these materials under load. Traditional approaches to the study fo textile based composite materials neglect many of the geometric details that affect the performance of the material. The present three dimensional analysis, based on the representative volume element (RVE) of a plain weave, allows prediction of the internal details of displacement, strain, stress, and failure quantities. Through this analysis, the effect of geometric and material parameters on the aforementioned quantities are studied.

  8. The interactive effect of the degradation of cotton clothing and decomposition fluid production associated with decaying remains.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Maiken; Nizio, Katie D; Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H

    2015-10-01

    Textiles are a commonly encountered source of evidence in forensic cases. In the past, most research has been focused on how textiles affect the decomposition process while little attention has been paid to how the decomposition products interact with the textiles. While some studies have shown that the presence of remains will have an effect on the degradation of clothing associated with a decaying body, very little work has been carried out on the specific mechanisms that prevent or delay textile degradation when in contact with decomposing remains. In order to investigate the effect of decomposition fluid on textile degradation, three clothed domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses were placed on a soil surface, textile specimens were collected over a period of a year and were then analysed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to analyse the data. Cotton specimens not associated with remains degraded markedly, whereas the samples exposed to decomposition fluids remained relatively intact over the same time frame. An investigation of the decomposition by-products found that the protein-related bands remained stable and unchanged throughout the experiment. Lipid components, on the other hand, demonstrated a significant change; this was confirmed with the use of both ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. Through an advanced statistical approach, information about the decomposition by-products and their characteristics was obtained. There is potential that the lipid profile in a textile specimen could be a valuable tool used in the examination of clothing located at a crime scene.

  9. [Rhinitis and asthma related to cotton dust exposure in apprentices in the clothing industry].

    PubMed

    Chaari, N; Amri, C; Khalfallah, T; Alaya, A; Abdallah, B; Harzallah, L; Henchi, M-A; Bchir, N; Kamel, A; Akrout, M

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory allergies are the most common occupational diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rhinitis and asthma among apprentices exposed to cotton dust in the clothing industry and to describe their epidemiologic and clinical profiles. We carried out a descriptive study of 600 apprentices in a textile and clothing vocational training centre in the Monastir area. The investigation comprised a questionnaire exploring risk factors and symptoms appearing during their training. Subjects who developed allergic respiratory symptoms at the work-place underwent a clinical examination, rhinomanometry and investigation of their allergic status and respiratory function. One hundred twenty apprentices (20%) developed allergic respiratory reactions due to exposure to textile dust (exclusively cotton) during their training, with a positive withdrawal-re-exposure test. Conjunctivitis (14.3%) and rhinitis (8.5%) were the most frequent allergic symptoms. Twenty eight apprentices (4.6%) presented symptoms of asthma. Rhinitis was associated with asthma in 45% of cases. Two cases of asthma were diagnosed clinically at the work-place following their exposure to textile dust. The prick test performed in 120 symptomatic apprentices was positive in 41.6% of cases. There was sensitization to pollens in 29 cases and to dermatophagoides in 13 cases. Cotton and wool allergy was noted in two cases. Allergic symptoms developing during the training were significantly more frequent in the atopic group, and they varied according to the intensity of textile dust exposure. In the textile and clothing industry the frequency of respiratory disorders caused by allergens remains high, especially in atopic apprentices who constitute a population at high risk.

  10. Silicon on graphite cloth

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, J.A.; Cotter, J.E.; Thomas, C.J.; Ingram, A.E.; Bai, Y.B.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    A new polycrystalline silicon solar cell has been developed that utilizes commercially available graphite cloth as a substrate. This solar cell has achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 13.4% (AM1.5G). It is believed that this is a record efficiency for a silicon solar cell formed on a graphite substrate. The silicon-on-fabric structure is comprised of a thin layer of polycrystalline silicon grown directly on the graphite fabric substrate. The structure is fabricated by a low-cost ribbon process that avoids the expense and waste of wafering. The fabric substrate gives structural support to the thin device. Critical to the achievement of device quality silicon layers is control over impurities in the graphite fabric. The silicon-on-fabric technology has the potential to supply lightweight, low-cost solar cells to weight-sensitive markets at a fraction of the cost of conventionally thinned wafers.

  11. Unexpected radiation hazard in dyes of textiles.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghany, Hayam A; Ibrahim, Eman M

    2014-01-01

    Textile dyes are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Many of the chemicals used in the textile industry may represent some health concerns. The determination of the radioactivity in textile dyes is therefore very important for both human health and environment. The study was designated to determine, for the first time, the values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in nine different dyes employed in the textile industry using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were 29.37 ± 4.48, 1.15 ± 0.13 and 565 ± 4 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated radium equivalents for all samples were lower than the maximum admissible value (370 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity of the investigated samples ranged from 2.94 ± 0.05 to 166 ± 3 nGy/h. So, the absorbed dose rates for all samples of textile dyes were lower than the international recommended value (55 nGy/h) except the yellow dye (166 ± 3 nGy/h), which recorded a significant radiological hazard. The external hazard index was also calculated. Conclusively, the results have indicated that the textile dyes may possess a measurable amount of radioactivity that should be taken into account. Therefore, safety rules and precautions should be applied for dyes used in the textile industry and for people working in this field.

  12. Economic and employment potential in textile waste management of Faisalabad.

    PubMed

    Noman, Muhammad; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhary, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the waste from the textile industry, to identify the sources and types of waste generation and to find out the economic and employment potential in this sector. Textile waste, its management, and the economic and employment potential in this sector are unrevealed facts in developing countries such as Pakistan. The textile industry is ranked first in export earning in Pakistan. Textile export of yarn and cloth from Faisalabad is US$3 billion per year. On average 161 325 people are employed in the textile sector in Faisalabad, of which 11 860 are involved in solid waste handling and management. The textile industries generate solid wastes such as fibre, metal, plastic and paper waste. A total of 794 209 kg day(-1) (289 886 285 kg year(-1)) solid waste is produced from this sector and purchased by cotton waste junkshop owners at US$125 027 day(-1) (US$45 634 855 year(-1)). Only pre-consumer textile waste is considered. Interestingly no waste is sent to landfill. The waste is first segregated into different categories/ types by hand and then weighed. Cotton waste is sold to brick kilns where it is used as an alternative fuel as it is cheaper than wood/coal. Iron scrap is sold in the junk market from where it is resold to recycling industries. Paper waste is recycled, minimizing the virgin material used for producing new paper products. Iron and plastic drums are returned to the chemical industries for refilling, thus decreasing the cost of dyes and decreasing the demand for new drums. Cutting rags are used for making different things such as ropes and underlay, it is also shredded and used as fillings for pillows and mattresses, thus improving waste management, reducing cost and minimizing the need for virgin material. As no system of quality control and no monitoring of subsequent products exist there is a need to carry out quality control and monitoring.

  13. Skin physiology and textiles - consideration of basic interactions.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Abdel-Naser, M B; Verma, S

    2006-01-01

    The skin exerts a number of essential protective functions ensuring homeostasis of the whole body. In the present review barrier function of the skin, thermoregulation, antimicrobial defence and the skin-associated immune system are discussed. Barrier function is provided by the dynamic stratum corneum structure composed of lipids and corneocytes. The stratum corneum is a conditio sine qua non for terrestrial life. Impairment of barrier function can be due to injury and inflammatory skin diseases. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. Mechanical properties like roughness of fabric surface are responsible for non-specific skin reactions like wool intolerance or keratosis follicularis. Thermoregulation, which is mediated by local blood flow and evaporation of sweat, is an important subject for textile-skin interactions. There are age-, gender- and activity-related differences in thermoregulation of skin that should be considered for the development of specifically designed fabrics. The skin is an important immune organ with non-specific and specific activities. Antimicrobial textiles may interfere with non-specific defence mechanisms like antimicrobial peptides of skin or the resident microflora. The use of antibacterial compounds like silver, copper or triclosan is a matter of debate despite their use for a very long period. Macromolecules with antimicrobial activity like chitosan that can be incorporated into textiles or inert material like carbon fibres or activated charcoal seem to be promising agents. Interaction of textiles with the specific immune system of skin is a rare event but may lead to allergic contact dermatitis. Electronic textiles and other smart textiles offer new areas of usage in health care and risk management but bear their own risks for allergies.

  14. Clothing and thermoregulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P

    2003-01-01

    Exercise increases heat production. During exercise in both warm and cold conditions, the major dilemma is the dissipation of the heat produced from muscular activity. The use of clothing generally represents a layer of insulation and as such imposes a barrier to heat transfer and evaporation from the skin surface. In warm environments, additional clothing increases thermal insulation causing more rapid increases in temperature during exercise and imposes a barrier to sweat evaporation. However, clothing can serve a protective function by reducing radiant heat gain and thermal stress. Recent research suggests that neither the inclusion of modest amounts of clothing nor the clothing fabric alter thermoregulation or thermal comfort during exercise in warm conditions. In the cold, most reports do not support an effect of clothing fabric on thermoregulation; however, there are reports demonstrating an effect. Clothing construction does alter thermoregulation during and following exercise in the cold, where fishnet construction offers greater heat dissipation. Future research should include conditions that more closely mimic outdoor conditions, where high work rates, large airflow and high relative humidity can significantly impact thermoregulation.

  15. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water.

  16. Bioassays to evaluate non-contact spatial repellency, contact irritancy, and acute toxicity of permethrin-treated clothing against nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Rose, Dominic; Prose, Robert; Breuner, Nicole E; Dolan, Marc C; Thompson, Karen; Connally, Neeta

    2017-10-01

    Summer-weight clothing articles impregnated with permethrin are available as a personal protective measure against human-biting ticks in the United States. However, very few studies have addressed the impact of contact with summer-weight permethrin-treated textiles on tick vigor and behavior. Our aim was to generate new knowledge of how permethrin-treated textiles impact nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks, the primary vectors in the eastern United States of the causative agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, and human babesiosis. We developed a series of bioassays designed to: (i) clarify whether permethrin-treated textiles impact ticks through non-contact spatial repellency or contact irritancy; (ii) evaluate the ability of ticks to remain in contact with vertically oriented permethrin-treated textiles, mimicking contact with treated clothing on arms or legs; and (iii) determine the impact of timed exposure to permethrin-treated textiles on the ability of ticks to move and orient toward a human finger stimulus, thus demonstrating normal behavior. Our results indicate that permethrin-treated textiles provide minimal non-contact spatial repellency but strong contact irritancy against ticks, manifesting as a "hot-foot" effect and resulting in ticks actively dislodging from contact with vertically oriented treated textile. Preliminary data suggest that the contact irritancy hot-foot response may be weaker for field-collected nymphs as compared with laboratory-reared nymphs placed upon permethrin-treated textile. We also demonstrate that contact with permethrin-treated textiles negatively impacts the vigor and behavior of nymphal ticks for >24h, with outcomes ranging from complete lack of movement to impaired movement and unwillingness of ticks displaying normal movement to ascend onto a human finger. The protective effect of summer-weight permethrin-treated clothing against tick bites merits further study. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Passive and Active Protective Clothing against High-Power Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigs, C.; Hustedt, M.; Kaierle, S.; Wenzel, D.; Markstein, S.; Hutter, A.

    The main objective of the work described in this paper was the development of passive and active protective clothing for the protection of the human skin against accidental laser irradiation and of active protective curtains. Here, the passive systems consist of functional multi-layer textiles, providing a high level of passive laser resistance. In addition, the active functional multi-layer textiles incorporate sensors that detect laser exposure and are, by means of a safety control, able to deactivate the laser beam automatically.Due to the lack of regulations for testing and qualifying textiles to be used as laser PPE, test methods were defined and validated. Additionally, corresponding testing set-ups were developed.Finally, the gap with respect to standardization was bridged by the definition of a test procedure and the requirements with respect to laser PPE.The developments were demonstrated by a set of tailored functional passive and active laser-protective clothing prototypes (gloves, jackets, aprons, trousers) and active curtains as well as by a prototype testing rig, providing the possibility to perform the specified low-power and high-power textile test procedure.

  18. 20 CFR 638.525 - Clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clothing. 638.525 Section 638.525 Employees... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.525 Clothing. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures to provide clothing for all students by means of a clothing purchase allowance and...

  19. Flame-resistant textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogg, L. C.; Stringham, R. S.; Toy, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    Flame resistance treatment for acid resistant polyamide fibers involving photoaddition of fluorocarbons to surface has been scaled up to treat 10 yards of commercial width (41 in.) fabric. Process may be applicable to other low cost polyamides, polyesters, and textiles.

  20. Nanotechnology in Textiles.

    PubMed

    Yetisen, Ali K; Qu, Hang; Manbachi, Amir; Butt, Haider; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hinestroza, Juan P; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-03-22

    Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanomaterials to be integrated into textile substrates. Nanomoieties can induce stain repellence, wrinkle-freeness, static elimination, and electrical conductivity to fibers without compromising their comfort and flexibility. Nanomaterials also offer a wider application potential to create connected garments that can sense and respond to external stimuli via electrical, color, or physiological signals. This review discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability, and connectivity. Risk factors including nanotoxicity, nanomaterial release during washing, and environmental impact of nanotextiles based on life cycle assessments have been evaluated. This review also provides an analysis of nanotechnology consolidation in the textiles market to evaluate global trends and patent coverage, supplemented by case studies of commercial products. Perceived limitations of nanotechnology in the textile industry and future directions are identified.

  1. Flame-resistant textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogg, L. C.; Stringham, R. S.; Toy, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    Flame resistance treatment for acid resistant polyamide fibers involving photoaddition of fluorocarbons to surface has been scaled up to treat 10 yards of commercial width (41 in.) fabric. Process may be applicable to other low cost polyamides, polyesters, and textiles.

  2. Nonwoven electrowetting textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, K.; Heikenfeld, J.; Agarwal, M.; Lvov, Y.; Varahramyan, K.

    2007-07-01

    Electrowetting of two nonwoven textile platforms is reported. Demonstrated nonwoven textiles include a polyethylene naphthalate film that was laser milled with ˜125μm pores, and pressed paper that was made using wood microfibers of 35-50μm diameter. Vacuum deposition provided an Al electrode on the polymer textile whereas layer-by-layer nanoassembly provided an organic PEI-PEDOT:PSS electrode on the wood microfibers. Both textiles were electrically insulated with parylene C and fluoropolymer. Irreversible electrowetting of water was achieved over contact angles of ˜120° to ˜70° by applying 0-100V. Completely reversible electrowetting of water/oil was also demonstrated.

  3. Optical spectroscopy of ancient paper and textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missori, M.

    2016-03-01

    Ancient paper and textiles represent a striking example of optically inhomogenous materials whose optical responses are strongly governed by scattering effects. In order to recover the absorption coefficient from non-invasive and non-destructive reflectance measurements a specific approach based on Kubelka-Munk two-flux theory must be applied. In this way quantitative chemical information, such as chromophores concentration, can be obtained, as well as quantitative spectra of additional substances such as pigments or dyes. Results on a folio of the Codex on the Flight of Birds by Leonardo da Vinci and a linen cloth dated back to 1653 and called the Shroud of Arquata, a copy of the Shroud of Turin, will be presented.

  4. Designing Clothing for Coal Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Susan M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes procedures taken by apparel design students, working in an industrial setting, in designing functional clothing for coal miners as part of the Armco Steel Corporation's Student Design Program. (TA)

  5. Testing Adhesive Bonds to Cloths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomann, David G.

    1987-01-01

    Nondestructive tool simple and inexpensive. Easy-to-use tool nondestructively tests strength of adhesive bond between cloth and straight rigid edge. Developed for testing advanced flexible reusable surface insulation.

  6. Designing Clothing for Coal Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Susan M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes procedures taken by apparel design students, working in an industrial setting, in designing functional clothing for coal miners as part of the Armco Steel Corporation's Student Design Program. (TA)

  7. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  8. The UTCI-clothing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Richards, Mark; Bröde, Peter; Holmér, Ingvar; Rintamaki, Hannu; Benshabat, Yael; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was conceived as a thermal index covering the whole climate range from heat to cold. This would be impossible without considering clothing as the interface between the person (here, the physiological model of thermoregulation) and the environment. It was decided to develop a clothing model for this application in which the following three factors were considered: (1) typical dressing behaviour in different temperatures, as observed in the field, resulting in a model of the distribution of clothing over the different body segments in relation to the ambient temperature, (2) the changes in clothing insulation and vapour resistance caused by wind and body movement, and (3) the change in wind speed in relation to the height above ground. The outcome was a clothing model that defines in detail the effective clothing insulation and vapour resistance for each of the thermo-physiological model's body segments over a wide range of climatic conditions. This paper details this model's conception and documents its definitions.

  9. The UTCI-clothing model.

    PubMed

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Richards, Mark; Bröde, Peter; Holmér, Ingvar; Rintamaki, Hannu; Benshabat, Yael; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was conceived as a thermal index covering the whole climate range from heat to cold. This would be impossible without considering clothing as the interface between the person (here, the physiological model of thermoregulation) and the environment. It was decided to develop a clothing model for this application in which the following three factors were considered: (1) typical dressing behaviour in different temperatures, as observed in the field, resulting in a model of the distribution of clothing over the different body segments in relation to the ambient temperature, (2) the changes in clothing insulation and vapour resistance caused by wind and body movement, and (3) the change in wind speed in relation to the height above ground. The outcome was a clothing model that defines in detail the effective clothing insulation and vapour resistance for each of the thermo-physiological model's body segments over a wide range of climatic conditions. This paper details this model's conception and documents its definitions.

  10. Thermal insulation and clothing area factors of typical Arabian Gulf clothing ensembles for males and females: measurements using thermal manikins.

    PubMed

    Al-ajmi, F F; Loveday, D L; Bedwell, K H; Havenith, G

    2008-05-01

    The thermal insulation of clothing is one of the most important parameters used in the thermal comfort model adopted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) [BS EN ISO 7730, 2005. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Standardisation Organisation, Geneva.] and by ASHRAE [ASHRAE Handbook, 2005. Fundamentals. Chapter 8. American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA.]. To date, thermal insulation values of mainly Western clothing have been published with only minimal data being available for non-Western clothing. Thus, the objective of the present study is to measure and present the thermal insulation (clo) values of a number of Arabian Gulf garments as worn by males and females. The clothing ensembles and garments of Arabian Gulf males and females presented in this study are representative of those typically worn in the region during both summer and winter seasons. Measurements of total thermal insulation values (clo) were obtained using a male and a female shape thermal manikin in accordance with the definition of insulation as given in ISO 9920. In addition, the clothing area factors (f cl) determined in two different ways were compared. The first method used a photographic technique and the second a regression equation as proposed in ISO 9920, based on the insulation values of Arabian Gulf male and female garments and ensembles as they were determined in this study. In addition, fibre content, descriptions and weights of Arabian Gulf clothing have been recorded and tabulated in this study. The findings of this study are presented as additions to the existing knowledge base of clothing insulation, and provide for the first time data for Arabian Gulf clothing. The analysis showed that for these non-Western clothing designs, the

  11. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  12. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  13. Work-related injuries in textile industry workers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Serinken, Mustafa; Türkçüer, Ibrahim; Dağlı, Bekir; Karcıoğlu, Ozgür; Zencir, Mehmet; Uyanık, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted as a survey including work-related injuries (WRI) of workers in the textile and clothing industry admitted to the emergency department (ED). This prospective study included patients with WRI reportedly occurring in the textile and clothing industry over a two-year period. The study sample comprised only the casualties occurring at the workplace and while working de facto. A total of 374 patients were eligible for the study. More than three-fourths of the study sample were females (76.2%, n=285). A significant proportion of the patients were between 14 and 24 years of age (44.7%, n=167). Approximately two-thirds reported that this was their first admission to a hospital related to WRI (65.8%, n=246). WRIs occurred most frequently between 07:00-09:00 (27.3%) and 23:00-01:00 (17.9%). "Carelessness" and "rushing" were the most commonly reported causes of WRIs from the patients perspective (40.6% and 21.4%, respectively). Three-fourths of the patients reported that they were using protective equipment (74.3%, n=278). With respect to injury types, laceration/puncture/ amputation/avulsion injuries accounted for 55.6% (n=208) of the sample. Trauma to the upper extremities was the main type of injury in 75.1% (n=281) of the cases. Broad population-based studies are needed to define the situation as a whole in WRIs in the textile and clothing industry in the country. Strict measures should be undertaken and revised accordingly to prevent WRIs in these growing sectors.

  14. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y

    2016-10-06

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells-including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles-face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes' surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research.

  15. The Structure and Properties of Parachute Cloths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnicholas, H J; Hedrick, F

    1930-01-01

    The requisite properties of a parachute cloth are discussed and the methods for measuring these properties described. In addition to the structural analysis of the cloths, the properties measured were weight, breaking strength, tear resistance, elasticity, and air permeability. Thirty-six silk cloths of domestic manufacture, not previously used in parachute construction are compared with some silk cloths of foreign manufacture. These foreign cloths were ones proven by trial and extended use to be suitable materials for parachute construction. Contrary to the belief that domestic woven cloths were not suitable materials for parachute construction, it is shown that many domestic silk cloths are satisfactory and in some respects superior to the foreign products. Based on a comparative study of all the cloths, specifications are drawn for the manufacture of silk parachute cloth.

  16. Expanding and Updating the Knowledge and Skills in Clothing-Related Services of Home Economics Trained Persons by Means of Inservice Training Utilizing Community Resources. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. School of Education.

    The project was designed to acquaint home economics teachers with the textile and power sewing industry's history, job possibilities, and student (including disadvantaged and handicapped) needs and interests. Teachers were taught industrial machine operation, basic maintenance, and safety tips. Four objectives related to gainful clothing services…

  17. Sensitization to reactive textile dyes in patients with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Manzini, B M; Motolese, A; Conti, A; Ferdani, G; Seidenari, S

    1996-03-01

    Reactive dyes are used especially for colouring natural fibres (cotton, silk and wool) that are widely used in Western countries, particularly Italy, in the production of clothes. The aim of our study was to investigate sensitization to the most commonly used reactive textile dyes in patients undergoing patch tests, and to assess the clinical relevance of contact sensitization to these dyes. 1813 consecutive patients underwent patch tests with the GIRDCA standard series and an additional textile series of 12 reactive dyes. 18 of these patients were sensitized to reactive dyes (0.99%) (4 only to reactive dyes). The dyes most frequently responsible for positive patch tests were Red Cibacron CR and Violet Remazol 5R (respectively, 8 and 5 positivities). In 5 cases only was a history of intolerance to particular garments given; of 4 patch tests performed with pieces of garment, 2 were positive. In 1 occupationally-exposed patient, airborne contact dermatitis was suspected. Owing to the lack of up-to-date patch test series, some cases of allergic contact dermatitis from textile dyes are probably misdiagnosed: new colouring agents are continuously introduced to the market, so that a close relationship with textile industry is necessary to improve our diagnostic tools.

  18. Clothing creator trademark : Business plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, B.

    1990-10-01

    SYMAGERY has developed a patented process to manufacture clothing without direct human labor. This CLOTHING CREATOR{trademark}, will have the ability to produce two (2) perfect garments every 45 seconds or one (1) every 30 seconds. The process will combine Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology with heat molding and ultrasonic bonding/cutting techniques. This system for garment production, will have the capacity to produce garments of higher quality and at lower productions costs than convention cut and sew methods. ADVANTAGES of the process include: greatly reduced production costs; increased quality of garments; reduction in lead time; and capacity to make new class of garments. This technology will accommodate a variety of knit, woven and nonwoven materials containing a majority of synthetic fibers. Among the many style of garments that could be manufactured by this process are: work clothing, career apparel, athletic garments, medical disposables, health care products, activewear, haz/mat garments, military clothing, cleanroom clothing, outdoor wear, upholstery, and highly contoured stuffed toy shells. 3 refs.

  19. A self-charging power unit by integration of a textile triboelectric nanogenerator and a flexible lithium-ion battery for wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiong; Li, Linxuan; Song, Huanqiao; Du, Chunhua; Zhao, Zhengfu; Jiang, Chunyan; Cao, Guozhong; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-17

    A novel integrated power unit realizes both energy harvesting and energy storage by a textile triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)-cloth and a flexible lithium-ion battery (LIB) belt, respectively. The mechanical energy of daily human motion is converted into electricity by the TENG-cloth, sustaining the energy of the LIB belt to power wearable smart electronics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Clothing burns in Canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    A Canadian survey of 11 tertiary care pediatric centres with specialized burn facilities revealed that an estimated 37 children up to 9 years of age are admitted annually to such hospitals because of clothing burns. Sleepwear accounts for an estimated 21 such burns per year. Girls were found to suffer the most severe burns and represented eight of the nine children in the series who died. Loose and flowing garments dominated the girls' styles. The results of multiple-regression analysis confirmed that style of clothing (loose and flowing as opposed to snug) was the most significant predictor of burn severity, length of hospital stay, the need for skin grafting and survival. The ignition situation (avoidance of parental supervision at the time of injury) was the only other important predictor. The success of regulatory actions in other countries in reducing the incidence of severe clothing burns is reviewed, and preventive strategies for Canada are explored. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:3995433

  1. Telemonitoring of vital parameters with newly designed biomedical clothing.

    PubMed

    Weber, J-L; Blanc, D; Dittmar, A; Comet, B; Corroy, C; Noury, N; Baghai, R; Vaysse, S; Blinowska, A

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development of biomedical clothing for ambulatory telemonitoring of human vital parameters. VTAM (Vetement de Tele-Assistance Medicale) presents a T-shirt made from textile with woven wires and incorporating four smooth dry ECG electrodes, a breath rate sensor, a shock/fall detector and two temperature sensors. The garment is equipped for the signal pre-computing and transmission through a miniature GSM/GPRS module kept on a belt together with the power supply. Three VTAM prototypes have been tested on persons in a normal state of health using a medical protocol to assess the biomedical data that include an ECG reading, a pneumogram, temperature and fall detection in mobile situations.

  2. Motion aware clothing for the personal health assistant.

    PubMed

    Tröster, Gerhard; Kirstein, Tünde; Lukowicz, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper sketches the vision and first results of a 'Personal Health Assistant' PHA, opening up new vistas in patient centred healthcare. The PHA is comprised of a wearable sensing and communicating system, seamlessly embedded in daily clothing. Several on-body sensors monitor the biometric and contextual status of the wearer continuously. The embedded computer fuses the vital and physiological data with activity patterns of the wearer and with the social environment; based on these data the on-body computer generates the 'Life Balance Factor' LBF as an individual feedback to the user and to the surroundings afford-ing effective disease prevention, management and rehabilitation, the last also involving telemedicine. The state-of-the-art enabling technologies: smart textile technology and miniaturization of electronics combined with wireless communication, along with recent developments in wearable computing are presented and assessed in the context of multiparameter health monitoring.

  3. Cloth-cutting studies using excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, Robert C.; Johnson, Tamara M.; Sanders, Virgil E.

    2000-08-01

    Laser cutting of textiles with excimer lasers was undertaken for the Amtex program at Los Alamos. These studies were carried out in tandem with laser cutting studies at YAG and copper vapor laser (Green) wavelengths at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at CO2 wavelengths at the Argonne National Laboratory. Laser ablation through the process of photo chemical bond breaking at UV (XeCl at 308 nm) wavelengths proved to be at least a factor of 24 more efficient than thermal ablation at the longer YAG wavelength (1.06 (mu) ). We project that a diffraction limited 100 watt XeCl laser is capable of cutting at a rate of 500 cm/sec (200 in/sec) for all cloths tested with the exception of denim and air bag material.

  4. Textile technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Bharat M.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate and select resin systems for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Powder Towpreg Material, to develop and evaluate advanced textile processes by comparing 2-D and 3-D braiding for fuselage frame applications and develop window belt and side panel structural design concepts, to evaluate textile material properties, and to develop low cost manufacturing and tooling processes for the automated manufacturing of fuselage primary structures. This research was in support of the NASA and Langley Research Center (LaRc) Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technologies for Primary Aircraft Structures program.

  5. Safer work clothing for fishermen.

    PubMed

    Geving, Ingunn Holmen; Reitan, Jarl; Sandsund, Mariann; Faerevik, Hilde; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo; Aasjord, Halvard

    2006-01-01

    The fisherman's work environment consists of many potential risks. A study of occupational accidents in the Norwegian fishing industry in the nine-year period from 1998 to 2006 shows that more than 3/4 of the deaths were caused by loss of fishing vessel or man-overboard accidents. Furthermore, the greatest risk of drowning is found in the smallest fleet. The aim of our project was to develop safer work clothing and through this contribute to a reduction in work accidents and injuries in the fishing fleet. We considered that it is possible to produce protective work clothing that satisfies a specification of requirements covering the fishermen's needs for protection and comfort during work. An end user-centred process including twenty-three personal interviews and a questionnaire was used to clarify the fishermen's needs and wishes before detailed design and product development. We identified an overview of all the fishermen's needs for protection during work, and produced a prioritised list of functional requirements for the clothing. The results show that the clothing previously preferred by fishermen does not satisfy all the users' demands for safety, functionality and comfort. These demands have been taken into consideration when designing improved work clothing for the fishing fleet. A selected number of prototypes were developed on the basis of the established specification of requirements. The prototypes were evaluated according to the users' requirements through tests in SINTEF's Work Physiology Laboratory and on board fishing vessels. The results demonstrate that the new protective clothing satisfies the fishermen's requirements.

  6. Contact sensitization in patients with suspected textile allergy. Data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Heratizadeh, Annice; Geier, Johannes; Molin, Sonja; Werfel, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Textile dyes, rubber, elements or textile resins carry the risk of inducing allergic contact sensitization. To assess clinical data and patch test results for dermatitis patients with suspected textile allergy. A retrospective analysis of Information Network of Departments of Dermatology data of the years 2007-2014 of patients patch tested because of suspected textile allergy was performed. Patients of the study group (n = 3207) suffered more frequently from leg, trunk and generalized dermatitis than patients of the control group (n = 95210). Among the allergens of the textile dye series, the highest frequency of positive reactions was observed for p-aminoazobenzene (5.1%) and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) (4.5%), followed by Disperse Orange 3 (3.1%), Disperse Blue 124 (2.3%), Disperse Blue 106 (2.0%), Disperse Red 17 (1.1%), and Disperse Yellow 3 (1.1%), partly with concomitant reactions. Patch testing with the patients' own textiles was performed in 315 patients, with positive reactions in 18 patients. These were mostly elicited by blue or black textiles with tight skin contact. Only 2 of these patients also reacted to textile dyes from the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group series. For the comprehensive diagnosis of contact sensitization in patients with suspected textile dermatitis, combined patch testing is indicated, with (i) PPD and a textile dye series and (ii) patients' own clothing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Measuring skin conductance over clothes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new method that measures skin conductance over clothes to nonintrusively monitor the changes in physiological conditions affecting skin conductance during daily activities. We selected the thigh-to-thigh current path and used an indirectly coupled 5-kHz AC current for the measurement. While varying the skin conductance by the Valsalva maneuver method, the results were compared with the traditional galvanic skin response (GSR) measured directly from the fingers. Skin conductance measured using a 5-kHz current displayed a highly negative correlation with the traditional GSR and the current measured over clothes reflected the rate of change of the conductance of the skin beneath.

  8. Advocating for Normal Birth With Normal Clothes

    PubMed Central

    Waller-Wise, Renece

    2007-01-01

    Childbirth educators need to be aware that the clothes they wear when teaching classes send a nonverbal message to class participants. Regardless of who wears the clothing or what is worn, clothes send a message; thus, both the advantages and disadvantages related to clothing choice should be considered. Ultimately, the message should reflect the values of supporting normal birth. For childbirth educators who are allowed to choose their own apparel to wear in their classes, street clothes may be the benchmark for which to strive. This article discusses the many nonverbal messages that clothes convey and provides support for the choice of street clothes as the dress for the professional childbirth educator; thus, “normal clothes to promote normal birth.” PMID:18408807

  9. Clothing and Human Behavior: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leslie L.

    1984-01-01

    Research developments in the area of clothing and human behavior are reviewed in terms of relevant psychological and sociological theories, including impression formation, clothing's effect on the behavior of others, conformity, personality, and life style. (SK)

  10. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wears or uses certain prosthetic or orthopedic appliances which tend to wear or tear clothing (including... or used which tends to ware or tear the veteran's clothing, or that because of the use of a physician...

  11. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wears or uses certain prosthetic or orthopedic appliances which tend to wear or tear clothing (including... or used which tends to ware or tear the veteran's clothing, or that because of the use of a physician...

  12. Clothing and Human Behavior: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leslie L.

    1984-01-01

    Research developments in the area of clothing and human behavior are reviewed in terms of relevant psychological and sociological theories, including impression formation, clothing's effect on the behavior of others, conformity, personality, and life style. (SK)

  13. Detecting ticks on light versus dark clothing.

    PubMed

    Stjernberg, Louise; Berglund, Johan

    2005-01-01

    It is a common belief that ticks are more visible and easier to detect on light clothing in comparison with dark clothing. We studied which of the clothing, light or dark, had the least attractive effect on Ixodes ricinus, thus minimizing exposure and thereby in theory helping to prevent tick-borne diseases in humans. 10 participants, exposed by walking in tick endemic areas, wore alternately light and dark clothing before every new exposure. Nymphal and adult ticks on the clothing were collected and counted. In total, 886 nymphal ticks were collected. The overall mean in found ticks between both groups differed significantly, with 20.8 more ticks per person on light clothing. All participants had more ticks on light clothing in all periods of exposure. Dark clothing seems to attract fewer ticks.

  14. 46 CFR 154.1840 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1840 Protective clothing... operation, except those assigned to gas-safe cargo control rooms, wears protective clothing. ...

  15. Training in Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training Officer, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The article describes the training program for the Crimpfil company where the majority of the 450 employees had previously no contact with the textile industry. The training department was involved in interviewing and selection and encouraged promotion through technical supervisory, and management grades. The company achieved the Levy Exemption…

  16. Growing Backyard Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  17. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  18. Clothing: An Important Symbol for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernaleguen, Anne

    1980-01-01

    Adolescents need to develop a positive sense of belonging, of competence and of self-worth. Clothing is a silent but powerful language. Adolescents use clothing to help them cope with changes. Clothing functions in a positive way in the transition period from childhood to adulthood. (Author/BEF)

  19. Shopping for clothes: Body satisfaction, appearance investment, and functions of clothing among female shoppers.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lacey, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the link between clothing and body experience in women of different ages. Participants were 162 female clothes shoppers between the ages of 18 and 55 who completed questionnaire measures of body image, functions of clothing, self-esteem, and enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was found that clothing was worn primarily for assurance and fashion by women of all ages. On the other hand, BMI and body dissatisfaction were related to the use of clothing for camouflage purposes and to a more negative clothes shopping experience. Both components of appearance investment were related to choice of clothes for fashion and assurance. However, the self-evaluative salience component was negatively related, while the motivational salience was positively related, to enjoyment of clothes shopping. It was concluded that although clothing is an under-researched aspect of body image, it represents an important part of women's appearance management, whatever their age.

  20. [Modification of DNA typing of blood stains by textile stain carriers].

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, R; Weisser, H J

    1991-01-01

    Samples of 20 microliters blood were applicated von 55 different textiles, containing all usual materials for clothes, straight from the fabric and after thorough washing. DNA profiling was influenced only by blue jeans and blue terry towel straight from the fabric; in some of these samples there was an inhibition of the restriction enzyme digest that could not be prevented by an additional dialysis step.

  1. Torso undergarments: their merit for clothed and armored individuals in hot-dry conditions.

    PubMed

    Van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Kerry, Pete; Van der Velde, Jeroen H P M; Patterson, Mark J; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how the textile composition of torso undergarment fabrics may impact upon thermal strain, moisture transfer, and the thermal and clothing comfort of fully clothed, armored individuals working in a hot-dry environment (41.2 degrees C and 29.8% relative humidity). Five undergarment configurations were assessed using eight men who walked for 120 min (4 km x h(-1)), then alternated running (2 min at 10 km x h(-1)) and walking (2 min at 4 km x h(-1)) for 20 min. Trials differed only in the torso undergarments worn: no t-shirt (Ensemble A); 100% cotton t-shirt (Ensemble B); 100% woolen t-shirt (Ensemble C); synthetic t-shirt (Ensemble D: nylon, polyethylene, elastane); hybrid shirt (Ensemble E). Thermal and cardiovascular strain progressively increased throughout each trial, with the average terminal core temperature being 38.5 degrees C and heart rate peaking at 170 bpm across all trials. However, no significant between-trial separations were evident for core or mean skin temperatures, or for heart rate, sweat production, evaporation, the within-ensemble water vapor pressures, or for thermal or clothing discomfort. Thus, under these conditions, neither the t-shirt textile compositions, nor the presence or absence of an undergarment, offered any significant thermal, central cardiac, or comfort advantages. Furthermore, there was no evidence that any of these fabrics created a significantly drier microclimate next to the skin.

  2. Novel antimicrobial textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Unchin

    2003-10-01

    Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer

  3. Investigation of pajama properties on skin under mild cold conditions: the interaction between skin and clothing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lei; Gohel, Mayur D I; Li, Yi; Chung, Waiyee J

    2011-07-01

    Clothing is considered the second skin of the human body. The aim of this study was to determine clothing-wearer interaction on skin physiology under mild cold conditions. Skin physiological parameters, subjective sensory response, stress level, and physical properties of clothing fabric from two longitude parallel-designed wear trials were studied. The wear trials involved four kinds of pajamas made from cotton or polyester material that had hydrophilic or hydrophobic treatment, conducted for three weeks under mild cold conditions. Statistical tools, factor analysis, hierarchical linear regression, and logistic regression were applied to analyze the strong predictors of skin physiological parameters, stress level, and sensory response. A framework was established to illustrate clothing-wearer interactions with clothing fabric properties, skin physiology, stress level, and sensory response under mild cold conditions. Fabric has various effects on the human body under mild cold conditions. A fabric's properties influence skin physiology, sensation, and psychological response. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. 76 FR 70883 - Clothing Allowance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... out or tears a single article of the veteran's clothing and for each physician-prescribed medication... uses more than one qualifying prosthetic or orthopedic appliance, physician- prescribed medication for more than one skin condition, or an appliance and a medication for a service-connected disability...

  5. Clothing Production. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 59 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 59 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in clothing production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 2-5 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  6. Clothing Production. Student Learning Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 59 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 59 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in clothing production. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 2-5 enabling objectives. For each enabling objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps (outline…

  7. Kids, Clothes and Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Ellen

    1989-01-01

    Parents are advised on ways to cope with the peer pressure associated with clothes. Techniques focus on countering and preventing peer pressure or, at least, putting it into healthier perspective. A list of retorts children can make to peer critics is included. (IAH)

  8. From industrially weavable and knittable highly conductive yarns to large wearable energy storage textiles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Hu, Hong; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Minshen; Meng, Wenjun; Liu, Chang; Pei, Zengxia; Hao, Chonglei; Wang, Zuankai; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-05-26

    Wearable electronic textiles that store capacitive energy are a next frontier in personalized electronics. However, the lack of industrially weavable and knittable conductive yarns in conjunction with high capacitance, limits the wide-scale application of such textiles. Here pristine soft conductive yarns are continuously produced by a scalable method with the use of twist-bundle-drawing technique, and are mechanically robust enough to be knitted to a cloth by a commercial cloth knitting machine. Subsequently, the reduced-graphene-oxide-modified conductive yarns covered with a hierarchical structure of MnO2 nanosheets and a polypyrrole thin film were used to fabricate weavable, knittable and wearable yarn supercapacitors. The resultant modified yarns exhibit specific capacitances as high as 36.6 mF cm(-1) and 486 mF cm(-2) in aqueous electrolyte (three-electrode cell) or 31 mF cm(-1) and 411 mF cm(-2) in all solid-state two-electrode cell. The symmetric solid-state supercapacitor has high energy densities of 0.0092 mWh cm(-2) and 1.1 mWh cm(-3) (both normalized to the whole device) with a long cycle life. Large energy storage textiles are fabricated by weaving our flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor yarns to a 15 cm × 10 cm cloth on a loom and knitting in a woollen wrist band to form a pattern, enabling dual functionalities of energy storage capability and wearability.

  9. Textile industry and occupational cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of workers are engaged in textile industry worldwide. Textile industry involves the use of different kinds of dyes which are known to possess carcinogenic properties. Solvents used in these industries are also associated with different health related hazards including cancer. In previous studies on textile and iron industries, the authors have reported genotoxicity among them and observed occurrence of cancer deaths among textile industry workers. Thus, an attempt has been made to compile the studies on the prevalence of different types of cancers among textile industry workers. A wide literature search has been done for compiling the present paper. Papers on cancer occurrence among textile industry workers have been taken from 1976 to 2015. A variety of textile dyes and solvents, many of them being carcinogenic, are being used worldwide in the textile industry. The textile industry workers are therefore, in continuous exposure to these dyes, solvents, fibre dusts and various other toxic chemicals. The present study evaluates the potential of different chemicals and physical factors to be carcinogenic agents among occupationally exposed workers by going through various available reports and researches. Papers were collected using different databases and a number of studies report the association of textile industry and different types of cancer including lung, bladder, colorectal and breast cancer. After going through the available reports, it can be concluded that workers under varied job categories in textile industries are at a higher risk of developing cancer as various chemicals used in the textile industry are toxic and can act as potential health risk in inducing cancer among them. Assessing the cancer risk at different job levels in textile industries may be found useful in assessing the overall risk to the workers and formulating the future cancer preventive strategies.

  10. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2016-01-01

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells—including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles—face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes’ surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research. PMID:27708359

  11. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2016-10-01

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells—including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles—face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes’ surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research.

  12. Sporicidal/bactericidal textiles via the chlorination of silk.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Matthew B; Lyon, Wanda; Gruner, William E; Mirau, Peter A; Slocik, Joseph M; Naik, Rajesh R

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial spores, such as those of the Bacillus genus, are extremely resilient, being able to germinate into metabolically active cells after withstanding harsh environmental conditions or aggressive chemical treatments. The toughness of the bacterial spore in combination with the use of spores, such as those of Bacillus anthracis, as a biological warfare agent necessitates the development of new antimicrobial textiles. In this work, a route to the production of fabrics that kill bacterial spores and cells within minutes of exposure is described. Utilizing this facile process, unmodified silk cloth is reacted with a diluted bleach solution, rinsed with water, and dried. The chlorination of silk was explored under basic (pH 11) and slightly acidic (pH 5) conditions. Chloramine-silk textiles prepared in acidified bleach solutions were found to have superior breaking strength and higher oxidative Cl contents than those prepared under caustic conditions. Silk cloth chlorinated for ≥1 h at pH 5 was determined to induce >99.99996% reduction in the colony forming units of Escherichia coli, as well as Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam (B. anthracis simulant) spores and cells within 10 min of contact. The processing conditions presented for silk fabric in this study are highly expeditionary, allowing for the on-site production of protein-based antimicrobial materials from a variety of agriculturally produced feed-stocks. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Evaluation of cloths for decontamination by wiping

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.; Reiff, D.J.; Fink, S.D. ); Luckenbach, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Treated polyester cloth was evaluated in laboratory-scale and larger-scale tests as an alternative to atomic wipes and cotton cloth for use in decontamination by wiping. The advantages of the treated polyester are as follows: does not react with nitric acid to form unstable product, more fire resistant, less volume of radioactive waste generated (versus atomic wipes), and product can be recovered by soaking the polyester cloths in nitric acid. Results are that even though treated polyester wiping cloths are slightly less effective than atomic wipes and cotton cloth, its many other benefits greatly outweigh this slight disadvantage. 5 figs.

  14. Combining 3D printed forms with textile structures - mechanical and geometrical properties of multi-material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabantina, L.; Kinzel, F.; Ehrmann, A.; Finsterbusch, K.

    2015-07-01

    The 3D printing belongs to the rapidly emerging technologies which have the chance to revolutionize the way products are created. In the textile industry, several designers have already presented creations of shoes, dresses or other garments which could not be produced with common techniques. 3D printing, however, is still far away from being a usual process in textile and clothing production. The main challenge results from the insufficient mechanical properties, especially the low tensile strength, of pure 3D printed products, prohibiting them from replacing common technologies such as weaving or knitting. Thus, one way to the application of 3D printed forms in garments is combining them with textile fabrics, the latter ensuring the necessary tensile strength. This article reports about different approaches to combine 3D printed polymers with different textile materials and fabrics, showing chances and limits of this technique.

  15. Modeling Neanderthal clothing using ethnographic analogues.

    PubMed

    Wales, Nathan

    2012-12-01

    Although direct evidence for Neanderthal clothing is essentially nonexistent, information about Paleolithic clothing could provide insights into the biological, technological, and behavioral capabilities of Neanderthals. This paper takes a new approach to understanding Neanderthal clothing through the collection and analysis of clothing data for 245 recent hunter-gatherer groups. These data are tested against environmental factors to infer what clothing humans tend to wear under different conditions. Beta regression is used to predict the proportion of the body covered by clothing according to a location's mean temperature of the coldest month, average wind speed, and annual rainfall. In addition, logistic regression equations predict clothing use on specific parts of the body. Neanderthal clothing patterns are modeled across Europe and over a range of Pleistocene environmental conditions, thereby providing a new appreciation of Paleolithic behavioral variability. After accounting for higher tolerances to cold temperatures, it is predicted that some Neanderthals would have covered up to 80% of their bodies during the winter, probably with non-tailored clothing. It is also likely that some populations covered the hands and feet. In comparison with Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic modern humans are found to have worn more sophisticated clothing. Importantly, these predictions shed new light on the relationship between Neanderthal extinction and their simple clothing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Visual effects of the first ladies’ Kebaya clothing on the image of Indonesian women’s appearances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suciati

    2016-04-01

    The image of Indonesian women on international level is partly influenced by the appearance of the First Lady. The role and position of the First Lady is the representation of Indonesian women, because basically the First Lady, as the wife who accompanies the President (head of state), has a strong background of cultural grip, high intellectuality and good personality in her daily lifestyle, including in wearing clothes, and as an ambassador of culture and design. Fashion style of the First Lady always draws praise and criticism from the public. The purpose of this study is to reveal the visualization effects of Indonesian First Ladies’ kebaya clothing style in various state occasions on the image of Indonesian women’s appearances. This study is a qualitative research of visual data that emphasizes the discussion of Kebaya Clothing using semiological study (connotation and denotation meaning) that bring out self-image. The results showed that the style the First Ladies’ Kebaya clothing in every presidency period of their husbands had characteristics both in the style of clothing or hairstyle, indicating self-image. The conclusion of this study reveals that the First Ladies’ Kebaya Clothing (National Clothing) is interpreted as having implied messages because clothing can be observed visually. Implication was done on the construction of learning patterns of clothing, national fashion design and Nusantara ethnic clothing design.

  17. Clothing Matching for Visually Impaired Persons

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuai; Tian, YingLi; Arditi, Aries

    2012-01-01

    Matching clothes is a challenging task for many blind people. In this paper, we present a proof of concept system to solve this problem. The system consists of 1) a camera connected to a computer to perform pattern and color matching process; 2) speech commands for system control and configuration; and 3) audio feedback to provide matching results for both color and patterns of clothes. This system can handle clothes in deficient color without any pattern, as well as clothing with multiple colors and complex patterns to aid both blind and color deficient people. Furthermore, our method is robust to variations of illumination, clothing rotation and wrinkling. To evaluate the proposed prototype, we collect two challenging databases including clothes without any pattern, or with multiple colors and different patterns under different conditions of lighting and rotation. Results reported here demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed clothing matching system. PMID:22523465

  18. Clothing Matching for Visually Impaired Persons.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuai; Tian, Yingli; Arditi, Aries

    2011-01-01

    Matching clothes is a challenging task for many blind people. In this paper, we present a proof of concept system to solve this problem. The system consists of 1) a camera connected to a computer to perform pattern and color matching process; 2) speech commands for system control and configuration; and 3) audio feedback to provide matching results for both color and patterns of clothes. This system can handle clothes in deficient color without any pattern, as well as clothing with multiple colors and complex patterns to aid both blind and color deficient people. Furthermore, our method is robust to variations of illumination, clothing rotation and wrinkling. To evaluate the proposed prototype, we collect two challenging databases including clothes without any pattern, or with multiple colors and different patterns under different conditions of lighting and rotation. Results reported here demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed clothing matching system.

  19. Use of textiles in atopic dermatitis: care of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, G; Patrizi, A; Bellini, F; Medri, M

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease which usually starts during the first years of life. In the management of AD, the correct approach requires a combination of multiple treatments to identify and eliminate trigger factors, and to improve the alteration of the skin barrier. In this article we try to explain the importance of skin care in the management of AD in relation to the use of textiles: they may be useful to improve disrupted skin but they are also a possible cause of triggering or worsening the lesions. Garments are in direct contact with the skin all day long, and for this reason it is important to carefully choose suitable fabrics in atopic subjects who have disrupted skin. Owing to their hygienic properties fabrics produced from natural fibres are preferential. Wool fibres are frequently used in human clothes but are irritant in direct contact with the skin. Wool fibre has frequently been shown to be irritant to the skin of atopic patients, and for this reason wool intolerance was included as a minor criterion in the diagnostic criteria of AD by Hanifin and Rajka in 1980. Cotton is the most commonly used textile for patients with AD; it has wide acceptability as clothing material because of its natural abundance and inherent properties like good folding endurance, better conduction of heat, easy dyeability and excellent moisture absorption. Silk fabrics help to maintain the body temperature by reducing the excessive sweating and moisture loss that can worsen xerosis. However, the type of silk fabric generally used for clothes is not particularly useful in the care and dressing of children with AD since it reduces transpiration and may cause discomfort when in direct contact with the skin. A new type of silk fabric made of transpiring and slightly elastic woven silk is now commercially available (Microair Dermasilk) and may be used for the skin care of children with AD. The presence of increased bacterial colonization

  20. Smart Coat with a Fully-Embedded Textile Antenna for IoT Applications

    PubMed Central

    Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Lopes, Catarina; Pinho, Pedro; Salvado, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) scenario is strongly related with the advance of the development of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. Additionally, in the WSN context, for a continuous feed, the integration of textile antennas for energy harvesting into smart clothing is a particularly interesting solution when the replacement of batteries is not easy to practice, such as in wearable devices. This paper presents the E-Caption: Smart and Sustainable Coat. It has an embedded dual-band textile antenna for electromagnetic energy harvesting, operating at global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900 and digital cellular system (DCS) 1800 bands. This printed antenna is fully integrated, as its dielectric is the textile material composing the coat itself. The E-Caption illustrates the innovative concept of textile antennas that can be manipulated as simple emblems. Seven prototypes of these “emblem” antennas, manufactured by lamination and embroidering techniques are also presented. It is shown that the orientation of the conductive fabric does not influence the performance of the antenna. It is also shown that the direction and number of the stitches in the embroidery may influence the performance of the antenna. Moreover, the comparison of results obtained before and after the integration of the antenna into cloth shows the integration does not affect the behavior of the antenna. PMID:27338407

  1. Smart Coat with a Fully-Embedded Textile Antenna for IoT Applications.

    PubMed

    Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Lopes, Catarina; Pinho, Pedro; Salvado, Rita

    2016-06-22

    The Internet of Things (IoT) scenario is strongly related with the advance of the development of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. Additionally, in the WSN context, for a continuous feed, the integration of textile antennas for energy harvesting into smart clothing is a particularly interesting solution when the replacement of batteries is not easy to practice, such as in wearable devices. This paper presents the E-Caption: Smart and Sustainable Coat. It has an embedded dual-band textile antenna for electromagnetic energy harvesting, operating at global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900 and digital cellular system (DCS) 1800 bands. This printed antenna is fully integrated, as its dielectric is the textile material composing the coat itself. The E-Caption illustrates the innovative concept of textile antennas that can be manipulated as simple emblems. Seven prototypes of these "emblem" antennas, manufactured by lamination and embroidering techniques are also presented. It is shown that the orientation of the conductive fabric does not influence the performance of the antenna. It is also shown that the direction and number of the stitches in the embroidery may influence the performance of the antenna. Moreover, the comparison of results obtained before and after the integration of the antenna into cloth shows the integration does not affect the behavior of the antenna.

  2. Effect of temperature difference between manikin and wet fabric skin surfaces on clothing evaporative resistance: how much error is there?

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Clothing evaporative resistance is one of the inherent factors that impede heat exchange by sweating evaporation. It is widely used as a basic input in physiological heat strain models. Previous studies showed a large variability in clothing evaporative resistance both at intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory testing. The errors in evaporative resistance may cause severe problems in the determination of heat stress level of the wearers. In this paper, the effect of temperature difference between the manikin nude surface and wet textile skin surface on clothing evaporative resistance was investigated by both theoretical analysis and thermal manikin measurements. It was found that the temperature difference between the skin surface and the manikin nude surface could lead to an error of up to 35.9% in evaporative resistance of the boundary air layer. Similarly, this temperature difference could also introduce an error of up to 23.7% in the real clothing total evaporative resistance (R ( et_real ) < 0.1287 kPa m(2)/W). Finally, it is evident that one major error in the calculation of evaporative resistance comes from the use of the manikin surface temperature instead of the wet textile fabric skin temperature.

  3. Effect of temperature difference between manikin and wet fabric skin surfaces on clothing evaporative resistance: how much error is there?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Clothing evaporative resistance is one of the inherent factors that impede heat exchange by sweating evaporation. It is widely used as a basic input in physiological heat strain models. Previous studies showed a large variability in clothing evaporative resistance both at intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory testing. The errors in evaporative resistance may cause severe problems in the determination of heat stress level of the wearers. In this paper, the effect of temperature difference between the manikin nude surface and wet textile skin surface on clothing evaporative resistance was investigated by both theoretical analysis and thermal manikin measurements. It was found that the temperature difference between the skin surface and the manikin nude surface could lead to an error of up to 35.9% in evaporative resistance of the boundary air layer. Similarly, this temperature difference could also introduce an error of up to 23.7% in the real clothing total evaporative resistance ( R et_real < 0.1287 kPa m2/W). Finally, it is evident that one major error in the calculation of evaporative resistance comes from the use of the manikin surface temperature instead of the wet textile fabric skin temperature.

  4. Woven-Yarn Thermoelectric Textiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Ah; Aliev, Ali E; Bykova, Julia S; de Andrade, Mônica Jung; Kim, Daeyoung; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lepró, Xavier; Zakhidov, Anvar A; Lee, Jeong-Bong; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Roth, Siegmar; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication and characterization of highly flexible textiles are reported. These textiles can harvest thermal energy from temperature gradients in the desirable through-thickness direction. The tiger yarns containing n- and p-type segments are woven to provide textiles containing n-p junctions. A high power output of up to 8.6 W m(-2) is obtained for a temperature difference of 200 °C.

  5. Everything clean? Transfer of DNA traces between textiles in the washtub.

    PubMed

    Kamphausen, Thomas; Fandel, Sabine Birgit; Gutmann, Jochen Stefan; Bajanowski, Thomas; Poetsch, Micaela

    2015-07-01

    Forensic genetic analysis of items possibly handled by a suspect or a victim is frequently inquired by the law enforcement authorities, since DNA left on touched objects can often be linked to an individual. Due to technical improvement, even poor traces, which seemed to be unsuitable for DNA analysis a few years ago, may be amplified successfully today. Yet, DNA can be transferred to a crime scene artificially or unintentionally without any primary contact between the individual and the object found at the crime scene, the so-called secondary transfer or indirect transfer in general. In this study, "secondary transfer" scenarios with cells and DNA of different origins under wet conditions were investigated. Transfer was simulated as either "washing by hand" in a washtub or as "machine laundry" in a washing machine. As expected, major differences were seen between blood stains and epithelial abrasions. DNA from blood donors could be detected clearly both on the donor and on the acceptor textile, regardless of washing method. Regarding epithelial abrasions, simulating worn clothes, after washing by hand, only little residual DNA was found, and partial profiles were displayed on the donor textile, while transfer to the acceptor textile occurred even less and not in noteworthy amount and quality. Single alleles could be found both on donor textiles and acceptor textiles after simulated machine wash, but no reliable DNA profile could be verified after laundry in machine. Therefore, a DNA transfer from one worn cloth (without blood stains) to another textile in the washing machine seems to be extremely unlikely.

  6. Analytical assessment of woven fabrics under vertical stabbing - The role of protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Sayyed Mahdi; Kadivar, Nastaran; Sajjadi, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Knives are being used more commonly in street fights and muggings. Therefore, this work presents an analytical model for woven fabrics under vertical stabbing loads. The model is based on energy method and the fabric is assumed to be unidirectional comprised of N layers. Thus, the ultimate stab resistance of fabric was determined based on structural parameters of fabric and geometrical characteristics of blade. Moreover, protective clothing is nowadays considered as a strategic branch in technical textile industry. The main idea of the present work is improving the stab resistance of woven textiles by using metal coating method. In the final, a series of vertical stabbing tests were conducted on cotton, polyester and polyamide fabrics. Consequently, it was found that the model predicts with a good accuracy the ultimate stab resistance of the sample fabrics.

  7. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  8. Localised boundary air layer and clothing evaporative resistances for individual body segments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; del Ferraro, Simona; Lin, Li-Yen; Sotto Mayor, Tiago; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Ribeiro, Miguel; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Evaporative resistance is an important parameter to characterise clothing thermal comfort. However, previous work has focused mainly on either total static or dynamic evaporative resistance. There is a lack of investigation of localised clothing evaporative resistance. The objective of this study was to study localised evaporative resistance using sweating thermal manikins. The individual and interaction effects of air and body movements on localised resultant evaporative resistance were examined in a strict protocol. The boundary air layer's localised evaporative resistance was investigated on nude sweating manikins at three different air velocity levels (0.18, 0.48 and 0.78 m/s) and three different walking speeds (0, 0.96 and 1.17 m/s). Similarly, localised clothing evaporative resistance was measured on sweating manikins at three different air velocities (0.13, 0.48 and 0.70 m/s) and three walking speeds (0, 0.96 and 1.17 m/s). Results showed that the wind speed has distinct effects on local body segments. In contrast, walking speed brought much more effect on the limbs, such as thigh and forearm, than on body torso, such as back and waist. In addition, the combined effect of body and air movement on localised evaporative resistance demonstrated that the walking effect has more influence on the extremities than on the torso. Therefore, localised evaporative resistance values should be provided when reporting test results in order to clearly describe clothing local moisture transfer characteristics. Localised boundary air layer and clothing evaporative resistances are essential data for clothing design and assessment of thermal comfort. A comprehensive understanding of the effects of air and body movement on localised evaporative resistance is also necessary by both textile and apparel researchers and industry.

  9. Blackout cloth for dormancy induction

    Treesearch

    Tom Jopson

    2007-01-01

    The use of blackout cloth to create long night photoperiods for the induction of dormancy in certain conifer species has been an established practice for a long time. Its use was suggested by Tinus and McDonald (1979) as an effective technique, and the practice has been commonly used in Canadian forest nurseries for a number of years. Cal-Forest Nursery installed its...

  10. Stretchable Triboelectric Fiber for Self-powered Kinematic Sensing Textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Hyeon Jun; Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kim, Kang Min; Lee, Chang Jun; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-10-01

    Stretchable fiber and yarn triboelectric nanogenerator are sought for such applications as wearable sensing system such as cloth communication devices, electronic textiles, and robotic sensory skin. Unfortunately, previously reported triboelectric fiber and yarn are difficult to have stretchable property. We introduce here a new type of stretchable and weavable triboelectric fibers with microdiameter dimensions. The stretchable triboelectric fibers can be reversibly stretched up to 50% in tensile direction while generating voltage output proportional to the applied tensile strain. The reversible distance change induced by the Poisson’s ratio difference between the core fiber (silver-coated nylon/polyurethane) and the shell (wrinkled polyvinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene/carbon nanotube layer) during tensile deformation is the key working principle for electrical generation. Owing to exceptional structural stability, the stretchable triboelectric fibers show high performance retention after 10,000 times repeated stretching/releasing cycle. Furthermore, the stretchable triboelectric fibers are mechanically strong to be woven into a commercial textile for textile based sensors, which can detect magnitude as well as direction of the motion.

  11. Stretchable Triboelectric Fiber for Self-powered Kinematic Sensing Textile

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Hyeon Jun; Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kim, Kang Min; Lee, Chang Jun; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable fiber and yarn triboelectric nanogenerator are sought for such applications as wearable sensing system such as cloth communication devices, electronic textiles, and robotic sensory skin. Unfortunately, previously reported triboelectric fiber and yarn are difficult to have stretchable property. We introduce here a new type of stretchable and weavable triboelectric fibers with microdiameter dimensions. The stretchable triboelectric fibers can be reversibly stretched up to 50% in tensile direction while generating voltage output proportional to the applied tensile strain. The reversible distance change induced by the Poisson’s ratio difference between the core fiber (silver-coated nylon/polyurethane) and the shell (wrinkled polyvinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene/carbon nanotube layer) during tensile deformation is the key working principle for electrical generation. Owing to exceptional structural stability, the stretchable triboelectric fibers show high performance retention after 10,000 times repeated stretching/releasing cycle. Furthermore, the stretchable triboelectric fibers are mechanically strong to be woven into a commercial textile for textile based sensors, which can detect magnitude as well as direction of the motion. PMID:27725779

  12. Stretchable Triboelectric Fiber for Self-powered Kinematic Sensing Textile.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hyeon Jun; Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kim, Kang Min; Lee, Chang Jun; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-10-11

    Stretchable fiber and yarn triboelectric nanogenerator are sought for such applications as wearable sensing system such as cloth communication devices, electronic textiles, and robotic sensory skin. Unfortunately, previously reported triboelectric fiber and yarn are difficult to have stretchable property. We introduce here a new type of stretchable and weavable triboelectric fibers with microdiameter dimensions. The stretchable triboelectric fibers can be reversibly stretched up to 50% in tensile direction while generating voltage output proportional to the applied tensile strain. The reversible distance change induced by the Poisson's ratio difference between the core fiber (silver-coated nylon/polyurethane) and the shell (wrinkled polyvinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene/carbon nanotube layer) during tensile deformation is the key working principle for electrical generation. Owing to exceptional structural stability, the stretchable triboelectric fibers show high performance retention after 10,000 times repeated stretching/releasing cycle. Furthermore, the stretchable triboelectric fibers are mechanically strong to be woven into a commercial textile for textile based sensors, which can detect magnitude as well as direction of the motion.

  13. Pre-Flight Advanced Clothing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini; Byme, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The present study was undertaken to find ways further to reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The primary objective of the study is to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment. The secondary objective is to assess the reasons for length of wear from perceptions of clothing characteristics, including nine ordinal scales. Cardiovascular exercise was chosen as the activity in this experiment for its profuse sweating effect and because it is considered a more severe treatment applied to the clothes than every-day usage. Study garments were exercise T-shirts and shorts purchased from various vendors. Fabric construction, fabric composition, and finishing treatment were defined as the key variables. A web-based questionnaire was used for self-reported data collection. The study was divided in three balanced experiments: a cotton-polyester-wool (CPW) T-shirts study with 61 participants, a polyester-modacrylic-polyester/cocona (PMC) T-shirts study with 40 participants, and a shorts study with 70 participants. In the CPW study, the T-shirts were made of 100% cotton, or of 100% polyester or of 100% wool, and categorized into open and tight knit constructions. In the PMC study, the T-shirts were made of 100% polyester, or of 82% modacrylic, or of 95% polyester with 5% cocona fiber, without construction distinction. The shorts were made either of 100% cotton or of 100% polyester, and were knitted or woven. Some garments were treated with Bio-Protect 500 antimicrobial finish according the experimental design

  14. Effects of cigarette smoke residues from textiles on fibroblasts, neurocytes and zebrafish embryos and nicotine permeation through human skin.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Timo R; Fischer, Kirsten; Mueller, Marina; Hoefer, Dirk

    2011-09-01

    Toxic substances from cigarette smoke can attach to carpets, curtains, clothes or other surfaces and thus may pose risks to affected persons. The phenomenon itself and the potential hazards are discussed controversially, but scientific data are rare. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of textile-bound nicotine for permeation through human skin and to assess the effects of cigarette smoke extracts from clothes on fibroblasts, neurocytes and zebrafish embryos. Tritiated nicotine from contaminated cotton textiles penetrated through adult human full-thickness skin as well as through a 3D in vitro skin model in diffusion chambers. We also observed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of textile smoke extracts on fibroblast viability and structure as well as on neurocytes. Early larval tests with zebrafish embryos were used as a valid assay for testing acute vertebrate toxicity. Zebrafish development was delayed and most of the embryos died when exposed to smoke extracts from textiles. Our data show that textiles contaminated with cigarette smoke represent a potential source of nicotine uptake and can provoke adverse health effects.

  15. Exploratory Engine Test of Transpiration-cooled Turbine-rotor Blade with Wire-cloth Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, Patrick L; Diaguila, Anthony J

    1954-01-01

    Engine tests were made on a transpiration-cooled blade that was fabricated from an internal load-carrying member with an external surface of wire cloth. After operation in the engine, some damage was noted at the tip region of the trailing edge of the blades. On other sections of the blade, the wire cloth did not appear greatly overheated, and it appeared that satisfactory chordwise temperature distribution was provided by orifices in the blade base.

  16. [Clothes of the HOUSE, or Clothes of REASON? Children's clothing during the Age of Enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Kottek, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Children's clothing is a subject that forms part of the history of pediatrics. Many studies focus on the ideas developed by Locke and Rousseau. Here we choose to focus our study on an author who is rarely quoted: Jacques Ballexserd (1726-1774), "citizen of Geneva," who is little known to historians of pediatrics. However, George Frederic Still (1868-1941) devotes two pages to his views in his Histoire de la Pédiatrie.

  17. Physics model for wringing of wet cloth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dany Rahmayanti, Handika; Utami, Fisca Dian; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2016-11-01

    One activity that has been performed by human beings for a long time is washing clothes. Before the invention of the washing machine, clothes were washed by hand and then wrung before drying in the open air. When observed carefully, the wringing of cloth presents some interesting phenomena. However, there are no reports on the physical modelling of this very old activity. This paper reports a simple model to explain the discharge of water from clothes when squeezed. A simple tool was also designed to retrieve data to confirm the theory. We found that the theoretical predictions accurately explained the experimental results. The experiments were conducted on two types of cloth: towels and batik cloth. We also obtained a universal curve to which all the data converged.

  18. Textile dryer heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J. S.

    1985-08-06

    A textile dryer heat recovery system includes a textile dryer and a heat exchanger. A duct is provided for directing dryer exhaust gas to the heat exchanger for preheating dryer input air. A cleaning system within the heat exchanger removes dryer exhaust gas contaminants deposited in the heat exchanger.

  19. Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Toups, Melissa A.; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. PMID:20823373

  20. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa.

    PubMed

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  1. Cloth Ballistic Vest Alters Response to Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701-501 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. jACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) CLOTH BALLSISTIC VEST ALTERS RESPONSE...Suppl. ’rintd in USA Cloth Ballistic Vest Alters Response to Blast YANCY Y. PHILLIPS, M.D., THOMAS G. MUNDIE, PH.D., JOHN T. YELVERTON, M.S., AND DONALD R...RICHMOND, PH.D. Ballistic wounds have been and will remain the principal cause of casualties in combat. Cloth ballistic vests (CBV) play an

  2. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Shull D.J.; Biesel, V.B.; Cunefare, K.A.

    1999-05-13

    'The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing''s noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  3. Awareness of the Social Implications of Clothing in Relation to Fashion Awareness and Clothing Economic Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…

  4. Awareness of the Social Implications of Clothing in Relation to Fashion Awareness and Clothing Economic Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horridge, Patricia; Richards, Mary Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The Sproles Consumer Interests and Priorities questionnaire was administered to 3,036 home economists. Awareness of social implications of clothing, correlated positively with fashion awareness and clothing economic practices. Results suggest that persons exhibiting substantial awareness of social importance of clothing also tend to evidence…

  5. Determination of aniline and quinoline compounds in textiles.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Iadaresta, Francesco; Moccia, Emanuele; Östman, Conny; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2016-11-04

    A simple method for simultaneous determination of twenty-one analytes, belonging to two classes of compounds, aromatic amines and quinolines, is presented. Several of the analytes considered in this study frequently occur in textiles goods on the open market and have been related to allergic contact dermatitis and/or are proven or suspected carcinogens. The method includes an efficient clean-up step using graphitized carbon black (GCB) that simplifies and improves the robustness of the subsequent GC-MS analysis. Briefly, after solvent extraction of the textile sample, the extract is passed through a GCB SPE cartridge that selectively retain dyes and other interfering compounds present in the matrix, producing a clean extract, suitable for GC-MS analysis, is obtained. The method was evaluated by spiking blank textiles with the selected analytes. Method quantification limits (MQL) ranged from 5 to 720ng/g depending on the analyte. The linear range of the calibration curves ranged over two order magnitude with coefficients of determination (R(2)) higher than 0.99. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 92% with RSDs 1.7-14%. The effectiveness of the method was tested on a variety of textile materials samples from different origin. In a pilot explorative survey, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline was detected in all the analysed clothing samples in concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 576μg/g. 2,4-dinitroaniline was detected in four of the seven samples with a highest concentration of 305μg/g. Quinoline was detected in all samples in concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 6.2μg/g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, T. S.; Couto, S.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s-1) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 102-3 × 105). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow patterns and

  7. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection.

    PubMed

    Mayor, T S; Couto, S; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s(-1)) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 10(2)-3 × 10(5)). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow

  8. Improvement in enzymatic desizing of starched cotton cloth using yeast codisplaying glucoamylase and cellulose-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Kato-Murai, Michiko; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Suye, Shin-Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    To utilize glucoamylase-displaying yeast cells for enzymatic desizing of starched cotton cloth, we constructed yeast strains that codisplayed Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and two kinds of Trichoderma reesei cellulose-binding domains (CBD1, CBD of cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI); and CBD2, CBD of cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII)). In this study, we aimed to obtain a high efficiency of enzymatic desizing of starched cotton cloth. Yeast cells that codisplayed glucoamylase and CBD had higher activity on starched cotton cloth than yeast cells that displayed only glucoamylase. Glucoamylase and double CBDs (CBD1 and CBD2) codisplaying yeast cells exhibited the highest activity ratio (4.36-fold), and glucoamylase and single CBD (CBD1 or CBD2) codisplaying yeast cells had higher relative activity ratios (2.78- and 2.99-fold, respectively) than glucoamylase single-displaying cells. These results indicate that the glucoamylase activity of glucoamylase-displaying cells would be affected by the binding ability of CBD codisplayed on the cell surface to starched cotton cloth. These novel strains might play useful roles in the enzymatic desizing of starched cotton cloth in the textile industry.

  9. Applying NISHIJIN historical textile technique for e-Textile.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Hirano, Kikuo; Sugimura, Kazushige; Adachi, Satoshi; Igarashi, Hidetsugu; Ueshima, Kazuo; Nakamura, Hideo; Nambu, Masayuki; Doi, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The e-Textile is the key technology for continuous ambient health monitoring to increase quality of life of patients with chronic diseases. The authors introduce techniques of Japanese historical textile, NISHIJIN, which illustrate almost any pattern from one continuous yarn within the machine weaving process, which is suitable for mixed flow production. Thus, NISHIJIN is suitable for e-Textile production, which requires rapid prototyping and mass production of very complicated patterns. The authors prototyped and evaluated a few vests to take twelve-lead electrocardiogram. The result tells that the prototypes obtains electrocardiogram, which is good enough for diagnosis.

  10. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles of clothing... assistance to students according to rates, criteria, and procedures issued by the Secretary. ...

  11. New textile composite materials development, production, application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, Petr Y.

    1993-01-01

    New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

  12. MSFC Investigations of Beta Cloth Darkening Due to Ultraviolet Radiation Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1999-01-01

    A common component of multi-layer insulation blankets is beta cloth, a woven fiberglass cloth impregnated with Teflon. It is planned for extensive use on the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Effects Group of the Marshall Space Flight Center Materials, Processing and Manufacturing Department has investigated the impact of atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the optical properties of plain and aluminized beta cloth, both in the laboratory and as part of long-duration flight experiments. These investigations indicate that beta cloth was susceptible to darkening in the presence of UV radiation, dependent on the additives used. The presence of AO countered some, if not all, of the UV degradation.

  13. Your Clothing Dollar. [Revised.] Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

    This booklet on clothing, 1 in a series of 12 covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook gives wardrobe planning, buying, and care information. The first three sections consider the functions of clothing, the importance of…

  14. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... section; and (ii) Together tend to wear or tear a single type of article of clothing or irreparably damage...

  15. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... section; and (ii) Together tend to wear or tear a single type of article of clothing or irreparably damage...

  16. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear... appliance (including, but not limited to, a wheelchair) which tends to wear or tear clothing; or (B) A... section; and (ii) Together tend to wear or tear a single type of article of clothing or irreparably damage...

  17. The Role of Clothing in Perpetuating Ageism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.; Johnson, Kim K. P.

    1989-01-01

    A study examined 197 college students' impressions of memory skills and personality of older adults and the relation of these impressions to clothing cleanliness and condition. It found that clothing cleanliness and coordination affected attitudes and also interacted with the gender of the older person to affect those impressions. (JOW)

  18. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Presenting for Redundant Clothing

    PubMed Central

    Uvais, N. A.; Sreeraj, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:27011408

  19. Your Clothing Dollar. [Revised.] Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

    This booklet on clothing, 1 in a series of 12 covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook gives wardrobe planning, buying, and care information. The first three sections consider the functions of clothing, the importance of…

  20. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, Clarence C. (Editor); Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advance Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry.

  1. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, C.C.; Harris, C.E.

    1995-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advance Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry. Separate abstracts were prepared for articles from this document.

  2. Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, C.C. Jr.; Harris, C.E.

    1995-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Mechanics of Textile Composites Conference in Hampton, Virginia, December 6-8, 1994. This conference was the culmination of a 3-year program that was initiated by NASA late in 1990 to develop mechanics of textile composites in support of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology Program (ACT). The goal of the program was to develop mathematical models of textile preform materials and test methods to facilitate structural analysis and design. Participants in the program were from NASA, academia, and industry. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for articles from this conference.

  3. MICROCLIMATE-CONTROLLED (THERMALIBRIUM) CLOTHING SYSTEMS FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES), REVIEWS, AMMUNITION, TOXICITY, VENTILATION, AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT, HEATING, GAS FLOW, CONTROL , AIRCRAFT , TROPICAL REGIONS, THERMAL RADIATION, FLIGHT CLOTHING

  4. Color management in textile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Vannucci, Massimiliano; Buonopane, Massimo; Fabroni, Cosimo; Fabrini, Francesco

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this research was to study a system of acquisition and processing of images capable of confronting colored wool with a reference specimen, in order to define the conformity using objective parameters. The first step of the research was to comprise and to analyze in depth the problem: there has been numerous implications of technical, physical, cultural, biological and also psychological character, that come down from the attempt of giving a quantitative appraisal to the color. In the scene of the national and international scientific and technological research, little has been made as regards measurement of color through digital processing of the images through linear CCD. The reason is fundamentally of technological nature: only during the last years we found the presence on the market of low cost equipment capable of acquiring and processing images with adequate performances and qualities. The job described has permitted to create a first prototype of system for the color measuring with use of CCD linear devices. -Hardware identification to carry out a series of tests and experiments in laboratory. -Verification of such device in a textile facility. -Statistics analysis of the collected data and of the employed models.

  5. Uptake and elimination of permethrin related to the use of permethrin treated clothing for forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Rossbach, Bernd; Niemietz, Adrian; Kegel, Peter; Letzel, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Wearing of permethrin treated clothing usually implicates an uptake of permethrin by the user. Aim of our study was to examine the kinetics of internal permethrin exposure in volunteers during and after a single 8h-use of treated clothing as well as factors potentially influencing permethrin uptake. 28 male volunteers (age: 20-34 years) were equipped with permethrin treated jackets and pants from two different suppliers. The clothing was worn for 8h, simulating differing external conditions, including comfort conditions as well as conditions of increased temperature and humidity without and with additional physical workload. Internal permethrin exposure was monitored by determination of permethrin metabolites (DCCA and 3-PBA) in a set of 12 urine samples, covering a period of 504 h from the beginning of the wearing interval. Time-concentration curves showed an increase of internal exposure associated with wearing of the clothing (individual maximum: 109.5 μg/L) followed by a first-order like decay (mean half-life: 38.5 h). Metabolite excretion was affected by the make of clothing, which could be explained by differing permethrin contents of the garment. Furthermore, internal exposure increased with increasing temperature/humidity and additional physical workload. Assuming dermal uptake of permethrin, this may be ascribed to an alteration of the barrier function of the skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wearable solar cells by stacking textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shaowu; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Peining; Deng, Jue; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-06-10

    A new and general method to produce flexible, wearable dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) textiles by the stacking of two textile electrodes has been developed. A metal-textile electrode that was made from micrometer-sized metal wires was used as a working electrode, while the textile counter electrode was woven from highly aligned carbon nanotube fibers with high mechanical strengths and electrical conductivities. The resulting DSC textile exhibited a high energy conversion efficiency that was well maintained under bending. Compared with the woven DSC textiles that are based on wire-shaped devices, this stacked DSC textile unexpectedly exhibited a unique deformation from a rectangle to a parallelogram, which is highly desired in portable electronics. This lightweight and wearable stacked DSC textile is superior to conventional planar DSCs because the energy conversion efficiency of the stacked DSC textile was independent of the angle of incident light.

  7. Textile Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 313)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the textile and leather manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs for leather tanning and fabric printing, and small business guidance for RCRA hazardous waste requirements.

  8. Tensile properties of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avva, V. Sarma; Sadler, Robert L.; Lyon, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    The importance of textile composite materials in aerospace structural applications has been gaining momentum in recent years. With a view to better understand the suitability of these materials in aerospace applications, an experimental program was undertaken to assess the mechanical properties of these materials. Specifically, the braided textile preforms were infiltrated with suitable polymeric matrices leading to the fabrication of composite test coupons. Evaluation of the tensile properties and the analyses of the results in the form of strength moduli, Poisson's ratio, etc., for the braided composites are presented. Based on our past experience with the textile coupons, the fabrication techniques have been modified (by incorporating glass microballoons in the matrix and/or by stabilizing the braid angle along the length of the specimen with axial fibers) to achieve enhanced mechanical properties of the textile composites. This paper outlines the preliminary experimental results obtained from testing these composites.

  9. Textile wastes. [Processing and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review of process technology applied to secondary effluents of textile plants is presented. Studies of waste heat recovery from dyehouse effluents indicate that energy consumption of dyehouses could be reduced by 50% or more. Included are 25 references.

  10. NICE3 Textile Finishing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This new energy-saving approach to fabric finishing can help our domestic textile industry compete in an increasingly competitive global market. Learn how this new technology can lower your maintenance costs and increase your productivity.

  11. Textiles in dermatology: our experience and literature review.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Lucia; Brena, Michela; Tourlaki, Athanasia

    2016-06-01

    Skin protects its host from its environment and allows their interactions by providing a physical permeability barrier, protection from infectious agents, thermoregulation, and ultraviolet protection. Textiles, in particular clothing, interact with skin functions in a dynamic pattern. For years cotton has been considered as the only comfortable tissue suitable for patients with dermatologic disorders. Nowadays new synthetic fibers with important functions, for example breathability and waterproofing have leaned out and new tissues can be used as a complementary tool in dermatologic treatments. Our purpose is to report the main fibers used for dermatological problems and to review the literature on their use in dermatological field; finally, we also report our personal experience on this topic.

  12. An Ontological Solution to Support Interoperability in the Textile Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, Arantxa; Campos, Cristina; Jiménez-Ruiz, Ernesto; Chalmeta, Ricardo

    Significant developments in information and communication technologies and challenging market conditions have forced enterprises to adapt their way of doing business. In this context, providing mechanisms to guarantee interoperability among heterogeneous organisations has become a critical issue. Even though prolific research has already been conducted in the area of enterprise interoperability, we have found that enterprises still struggle to introduce fully interoperable solutions, especially, in terms of the development and application of ontologies. Thus, the aim of this paper is to introduce basic ontology concepts in a simple manner and to explain the advantages of the use of ontologies to improve interoperability. We will also present a case study showing the implementation of an application ontology for an enterprise in the textile/clothing sector.

  13. Common Threads - Mathematics and Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Describes an exhibition of "mathematically rich" cloths. The themes chosen to be included were symmetry, number, creativity, information handling, and problem solving. The project was an outgrowth of work to take ordinary daily situations and analyze them mathematically. (PK)

  14. Self-powered textile for wearable electronics by hybridizing fiber-shaped nanogenerators, solar cells, and supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhen; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Jie; Zi, Yunlong; Xu, Weidong; Deng, Jianan; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Chenguo; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Xuhui; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wearable electronics fabricated on lightweight and flexible substrate are believed to have great potential for portable devices, but their applications are limited by the life span of their batteries. We propose a hybridized self-charging power textile system with the aim of simultaneously collecting outdoor sunshine and random body motion energies and then storing them in an energy storage unit. Both of the harvested energies can be easily converted into electricity by using fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (for solar energy) and fiber-shaped triboelectric nanogenerators (for random body motion energy) and then further stored as chemical energy in fiber-shaped supercapacitors. Because of the all–fiber-shaped structure of the entire system, our proposed hybridized self-charging textile system can be easily woven into electronic textiles to fabricate smart clothes to sustainably operate mobile or wearable electronics. PMID:27819039

  15. Comparison of gravimetric and gas chromatographic methods for assessing performance of textile materials against liquid pesticide penetration.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Anugrah; Abbi, Ruchika

    2004-01-01

    Penetration of liquid pesticides through textile materials is a criterion for determining the performance of protective clothing used by pesticide handlers. The pipette method is frequently used to apply liquid pesticides onto textile materials to measure penetration. Typically, analytical techniques such as Gas Chromatography (GC) are used to measure percentage penetration. These techniques are labor intensive and costly. A simpler gravimetric method was developed, and tests were conducted to compare the gravimetric and GC methods of analysis. Three types of pesticide formulations and 4 fabrics were used for the study. Diluted pesticide formulations were pipetted onto the test specimens and percentage penetration was measured using the 2 methods. For homogeneous formulation, the results of the two methods were fairly comparable. However, due to the filtering action of the textile materials, there were differences in the percentage penetration between the 2 methods for formulations that were not homogeneous.

  16. Self-powered textile for wearable electronics by hybridizing fiber-shaped nanogenerators, solar cells, and supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhen; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Jie; Zi, Yunlong; Xu, Weidong; Deng, Jianan; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Chenguo; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Xuhui; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-10-01

    Wearable electronics fabricated on lightweight and flexible substrate are believed to have great potential for portable devices, but their applications are limited by the life span of their batteries. We propose a hybridized self-charging power textile system with the aim of simultaneously collecting outdoor sunshine and random body motion energies and then storing them in an energy storage unit. Both of the harvested energies can be easily converted into electricity by using fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (for solar energy) and fiber-shaped triboelectric nanogenerators (for random body motion energy) and then further stored as chemical energy in fiber-shaped supercapacitors. Because of the all-fiber-shaped structure of the entire system, our proposed hybridized self-charging textile system can be easily woven into electronic textiles to fabricate smart clothes to sustainably operate mobile or wearable electronics.

  17. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing

    PubMed Central

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34–37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes. PMID:25776252

  18. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    PubMed

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-03-17

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes.

  19. An investigation of cotton for parachute cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, Wm D; Worner, R K

    1931-01-01

    This is a resume of the work of the Bureau of Standards on a cotton parachute cloth for use as a substitute for silk in the event of an emergency curtailing the supply. Cotton yarn of high strength in proportion to its weight and otherwise specially suitable for parachute cloth was developed. Cloth woven from this yarn in the bureau mill was equal or superior to parachute silk in strength and tear resistance, met the requirements with respect to air permeability, and weighed only a few tenths of an ounce per square yard more than the silk cloth. Practical trials of cotton parachutes carried out by the Navy Department clearly indicate that the cotton parachute closely approaches the silk parachute in performance as to rate of descent, opening time, strength and ability to function when stored in the pack for sixty days. The increase in weight of the equipment resulting from the use of cotton cloth instead of silk is considered to be well within practicable limits. A specification for cotton parachute cloth and the way in which the requirements of the specification have been met are given. Cotton yarns suitable for parachute cloth are now being woven commercially in the United States.

  20. Mite control with low temperature washing-II. Elimination of living mites on clothing.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, E R; Fischer, A; Liebenberg, B; Kniest, F M

    1998-01-01

    Allergens produced by mites are one of the principal causes of allergic disease. House dust mites can be found in significant numbers living in textile garments, and therefore development of optimal washing conditions for delicate textiles represents an important aim for domestic mite control. Investigation of methods to eliminate house dust mites from clothing under low temperature washing conditions. Domestic house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae were cultured on garments under favourable conditions. The breeding success was monitored in terms of population and distribution using the free-mite Mobility Test. The mite containing garments were washed at low temperature with different commercial detergents in the presence or absence of a mite control additive containing 0.03% benzyl benzoate, and the numbers of mites surviving the washing process were assessed using the Heat Escape Method. The successful culture of mites in textile garments led to mite numbers of a total of at least 9000 to 10000 mites in 10 garments (Mobility Test). After washing in a domestic washing machine with detergents alone approximately 6000 remaining mites were detected in 10 garment halfs (Heat Escape Method). In contrast, mite control by the application of the same detergents together with an additive achieved a reduction to almost 50 mites. This is an additional reduction in mite numbers of 99.2%. It is possible to achieve mite control in delicate garments by washing at low temperature in the presence of a mite control additive providing a final concentration of 0.03% benzyl benzoate.

  1. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Wijmans; J.O. Stull

    2001-11-07

    The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment

  2. Prediction of clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the clothed body walking in wind.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoming; Fan, Jintu

    2006-11-01

    Clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance are the two most important parameters in thermal environmental engineering, functional clothing design and end use of clothing ensembles. In this study, clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of various types of clothing ensembles were measured using the walking-able sweating manikin, Walter, under various environmental conditions and walking speeds. Based on an extensive experimental investigation and an improved understanding of the effects of body activities and environmental conditions, a simple but effective direct regression model has been established, for predicting the clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance under wind and walking motion, from those when the manikin was standing in still air. The model has been validated by using experimental data reported in the previous literature. It has shown that the new models have advantages and provide very accurate prediction.

  3. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  4. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  5. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1720 - Protective clothing; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing; requirements. 75.1720... clothing; requirements. On and after the effective date of this § 75.1720 each miner regularly employed in... clothing and devices: (a) Protective clothing or equipment and face-shields or goggles when...

  7. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling... expressly for milling purposes” in block letters 7.62 centimeters in height. Bolting cloths composed of silk imported expressly for milling purposes shall be considered only such cloths as are suitable for and...

  8. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling... expressly for milling purposes” in block letters 7.62 centimeters in height. Bolting cloths composed of silk imported expressly for milling purposes shall be considered only such cloths as are suitable for and...

  9. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling... expressly for milling purposes” in block letters 7.62 centimeters in height. Bolting cloths composed of silk imported expressly for milling purposes shall be considered only such cloths as are suitable for and...

  10. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling... expressly for milling purposes” in block letters 7.62 centimeters in height. Bolting cloths composed of silk imported expressly for milling purposes shall be considered only such cloths as are suitable for and...

  11. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  12. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year and...

  13. Highly Sensitive Wearable Textile-Based Humidity Sensor Made of High-Strength, Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Filaments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gengheng; Byun, Joon-Hyung; Oh, Youngseok; Jung, Byung-Mun; Cha, Hwa-Jin; Seong, Dong-Gi; Um, Moon-Kwang; Hyun, Sangil; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2017-02-08

    Textile-based humidity sensors can be an important component of smart wearable electronic-textiles and have potential applications in the management of wounds, bed-wetting, and skin pathologies or for microclimate control in clothing. Here, we report a wearable textile-based humidity sensor for the first time using high strength (∼750 MPa) and ultratough (energy-to-break, 4300 J g(-1)) SWCNT/PVA filaments via a wet-spinning process. The conductive SWCNT networks in the filaments can be modulated by adjusting the intertube distance by swelling the PVA molecular chains via the absorption of water molecules. The diameter of a SWCNT/PVA filament under wet conditions can be as much as 2 times that under dry conditions. The electrical resistance of a fiber sensor stitched onto a hydrophobic textile increases significantly (by more than 220 times) after water sprayed. Textile-based humidity sensors using a 1:5 weight ratio of SWCNT/PVA filaments showed high sensitivity in high relative humidity. The electrical resistance increases by more than 24 times in a short response time of 40 s. We also demonstrated that our sensor can be used to monitor water leakage on a high hydrophobic textile (contact angle of 115.5°). These smart textiles will pave a new way for the design of novel wearable sensors for monitoring blood leakage, sweat, and underwear wetting.

  14. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  15. Illustrated glossary of textile terms for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    A glossary was developed to define textile terminology applicable to the manufacture of composites. Terms describing fabric structure were illustrated for clarity. Descriptive terms for defects from both textile and composites industry were included.

  16. FLUORESCENT TRACER EVALUATION OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies evaluating chemical protective clothing (CPC), which is often employed as a primary control option to reduce occupational exposures during pesticide applications, are limited. This study, supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was designed to...

  17. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.36 Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy,...

  18. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.36 Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy,...

  19. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.36 Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy,...

  20. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective Equipment § 142.36 Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy,...

  1. FLUORESCENT TRACER EVALUATION OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies evaluating chemical protective clothing (CPC), which is often employed as a primary control option to reduce occupational exposures during pesticide applications, are limited. This study, supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was designed to...

  2. Intelligent RF-Based Gesture Input Devices Implemented Using e-Textiles.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Dana; Profita, Halley; Radzihovsky, Sarah; Correll, Nikolaus

    2017-01-24

    We present an radio-frequency (RF)-based approach to gesture detection and recognition, using e-textile versions of common transmission lines used in microwave circuits. This approach allows for easy fabrication of input swatches that can detect a continuum of finger positions and similarly basic gestures, using a single measurement line. We demonstrate that the swatches can perform gesture detection when under thin layers of cloth or when weatherproofed, providing a high level of versatility not present with other types of approaches. Additionally, using small convolutional neural networks, low-level gestures can be identified with a high level of accuracy using a small, inexpensive microcontroller, allowing for an intelligent fabric that reports only gestures of interest, rather than a simple sensor requiring constant surveillance from an external computing device. The resulting e-textile smart composite has applications in controlling wearable devices by providing a simple, eyes-free mechanism to input simple gestures.

  3. Intelligent RF-Based Gesture Input Devices Implemented Using e-Textiles

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Dana; Profita, Halley; Radzihovsky, Sarah; Correll, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    We present an radio-frequency (RF)-based approach to gesture detection and recognition, using e-textile versions of common transmission lines used in microwave circuits. This approach allows for easy fabrication of input swatches that can detect a continuum of finger positions and similarly basic gestures, using a single measurement line. We demonstrate that the swatches can perform gesture detection when under thin layers of cloth or when weatherproofed, providing a high level of versatility not present with other types of approaches. Additionally, using small convolutional neural networks, low-level gestures can be identified with a high level of accuracy using a small, inexpensive microcontroller, allowing for an intelligent fabric that reports only gestures of interest, rather than a simple sensor requiring constant surveillance from an external computing device. The resulting e-textile smart composite has applications in controlling wearable devices by providing a simple, eyes-free mechanism to input simple gestures. PMID:28125010

  4. All-textile flexible supercapacitors using electrospun poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforgue, Alexis

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers were obtained by the combination of electrospinning and vapor-phase polymerization. The fibers had diameters around 350 nm, and were soldered at most intersections, providing a strong dimensional stability to the mats. The nanofiber mats demonstrated very high conductivity (60 ± 10 S cm -1, the highest value reported so far for polymer nanofibers) as well as improved electrochemical properties, due to the ultraporous nature of the electrospun mats. The mats were incorporated into all-textile flexible supercapacitors, using carbon cloths as the current collectors and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes as the separator. The textile layers were stacked and embedded in a solid electrolyte containing an ionic liquid and PVDF-co-HFP as the host polymer. The resulting supercapacitors were totally flexible and demonstrated interesting and stable performances in ambient conditions.

  5. The influence of a possible contamination of the victim's clothing by gunpowder residue on the estimation of shooting distance.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Asya; Zelkowicz, Avraham; Wolf, Ehud Udi; Zeichner, Arie

    2010-01-30

    A study was conducted to assess the influence of a possible contamination of the victim's clothing by gunpowder residue on the estimation of shooting distance. The study was focused on the scenario in which the contamination might be caused by the surface on which the shot victim could fall. Contamination of two types of textile was examined after contact with two types of surfaces. One round was fired above those surfaces (the line of firing parallel to the surface) prior to the contact. It was found that few gunpowder residue particles could be transferred to the clothing. These findings should be taken into account when interpreting results for shooting distance estimation in cases when a minute quantity of gunpowder residue particles is found around the bullet entrance hole. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of textile-based high-tech products: the new challenge.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Ana Maria M F

    2004-01-01

    The new generation of smart textiles is represented by fibers, yarns, fabrics and other resulting products that have special properties, regarding mechanical, chemical, electrical and thermal performances. These high-tech products, being able to respond to external stimuli through the integration of electronic components, phase change materials, shape memory materials or nano materials, enabled the development of different active and functional products. These products when combining the functions of medium, carrier and interface for micro-systems applications represent the ideal connecting channel between humans and the environment. This is a field of innovation that broadened the scope of the traditional textile and apparel products to high-tech textiles, designed to meet specific needs, involving different technologies and produced according to required properties, like personal protection, safety, leisure or health wear. The development of smart wear is a new challenge for the textile and clothing industry: it has to develop products based not only on design, fashion and comfort concepts but also in terms of functions. Moreover these products must be easy to care and durable.

  7. Portable Bioimpedance Spectroscopy device and textile electrodes for mobile monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, L.; Jacob, M.; Hoog Antink, C.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Jungbecker, N.; Gries, T.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    A balanced body composition is necessary for a person's health and performance. Therefore, it is important to control the body composition continuously since complications and diseases due to dehydration often appear gradually. Based on these facts a miniaturized mobile Bioimpedance Spectroscopy device was developed that can be integrated into clothing and allows the continuous monitoring of a person's body water. The implemented system has been tested using different body models. The first measurements showed very precise and stable results. Besides the portable measurement system, textile electrodes are needed for continuous long term monitoring. Therefore, special textile electrodes were developed, tested and evaluated. The electrodes are structured in a specific way leading to a rougher surface. Such a surface improves the interface impedance and therefore optimizes the connection between electronic hardware and body. For comparison, five different structured electrodes were manufactured and tested on a special test setup that allows reproducible interface-impedance measurements using a dummy made of agar-agar to simulate the skin. It could be shown that the surface structure significantly influences the interface impedance in a positive way as compared to standard plane textile electrodes. In the future, a combination of the miniaturized BIS electronic and the structured textile electrodes could allow reproducible long term monitoring of a person's body composition.

  8. Integral Textile Ceramic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, David B.; Cox, Brian N.

    2008-08-01

    A new paradigm for ceramic composite structural components enables functionality in heat exchange, transpiration, detailed shape, and thermal strain management that significantly exceeds the prior art. The paradigm is based on the use of three-dimensional fiber reinforcement that is tailored to the specific shape, stress, and thermal requirements of a structural application and therefore generally requires innovative textile methods for each realization. Key features include the attainment of thin skins (less than 1 mm) that are nevertheless structurally robust, transpiration holes formed without cutting fibers, double curvature, compliant integral attachment to other structures that avoids thermal stress buildup, and microcomposite ceramic matrices that minimize spalling and allow the formation of smooth surfaces. All these features can be combined into structures of very varied gross shape and function, using a wide range of materials such as all-oxide systems and SiC and carbon fibers in SiC matrices. Illustrations are drawn from rocket nozzles, thermal protection systems, and gas turbine engines. The new design challenges that arise for such material/structure systems are being met by specialized computational modeling that departs significantly in the representation of materials behavior from that used in conventional finite element methods.

  9. Electrostatic power generation using carbon-activated cotton thread on textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Baek Hyun; Barnhart, Benjamin S.; Kwon, Jae W.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a novel thread-shaped power generator which can be incorporated into cloth. A carbon-activated cotton thread is utilized for harvesting electrostatic energy from environment using contact and friction electrifications. A core of cotton thread was treated with carbon black nano particles to provide conductivity, and then encapsulated with a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane for stability and protection. Electrostatic charges have been collected from carbon-activated threads stitched on pieces of textiles by repeated rubbing and tapping with a ploytetrafluoethylene sheet. An average open-circuit voltage of approximately -60.9 V has been generated from the thread-shaped generator with rubbing mode.

  10. Smart and hybrid materials: perspectives for their use in textile structures for better health care.

    PubMed

    Carosio, Stefano; Monero, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    High tech materials such as Shape Memory Alloys can be effectively integrated in textiles, thus providing multifunctional garments with potential application to the health care industry or for simply improving the quality of life. The objective of the present paper is to describe the development of a novel hybrid fabric with embedded shape memory (Nitinol) wires, and the related clothing application with the capability of recovering any shape depending upon the environment and becoming superelastic. The use of these smart garments for biomedical applications will be illustrated, thus opening new perspectives for enhanced health care provision.

  11. Thermal response properties of protective clothing fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Baitinger, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    In the industrial workplace, it becomes increasingly incumbent upon employers to require employees to use suitable protective equipment and to wear protective apparel. When workers may be subjected to accidental radiant, flame, or electric arc heat sources, work clothing should be used that does not become involved in burning. It is axiomatic that work clothing should not become a primary fuel source, adding to the level of heat exposure, since clothing is usually in intimate contact with the skin. Further, clothing should provide sufficient insulation to protect the skin from severe burn injury. If the worker receives such protection from clothing, action then may be taken to escape the confronted thermal hazard. Published laboratory test methods are used to measure flame resistance and thermal responses of flame resistant fabrics in protective clothing. The purpose of this article is to review these test methods, to discuss certain limitations in application, and to suggest how flame resistant cotton fabrics may be used to enhance worker safety.

  12. Cloth colorization caused by microbial biofilm.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Ohta, Jun; Ishida, Yoshiki; Morisaki, Hisao

    2008-07-15

    In this study, cloth disfeaturement was investigated biologically. To clarify whether or not microbes can cause cloth disfeaturement, and to identify the microbes causing the disfeaturement, worn cloth samples were incubated on sweat-ingredient agar medium. Non-sterilized cloth samples became yellow-colored during incubation, and bacterial strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Micrococcus and Staphylococcus were isolated from the yellow-colored parts. Two major isolates close to the genera Bacillus and Micrococcus were inoculated separately or together on cloth samples to examine whether or not these isolates can cause colorization. When the isolate close to Micrococcus was inoculated on its own or mixed with the isolate close to Bacillus, the samples turned yellow to a greater extent and a biofilm-like structure was observed by SEM on the colored areas. In contrast, the isolate close to Bacillus alone barely caused any colorization, and no biofilm-like structure was observed. From the yellow-colored samples, bacterial strains with the same 16S rRNA gene sequences as those of the inoculated strains were re-isolated. These results strongly suggest that the bacterial strain belonging to genus Micrococcus causes cloth colorization by forming a biofilm structure.

  13. Shooting through clothing in firearm suicides.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr; Safr, Miroslav

    2010-05-01

    There is a longstanding empirical rule that people who commit suicide rarely shoot through their clothing, but rather put it aside to expose the nude skin. Signs of shots through clothing have always been considered suspicious, raising presumptions of the presence of an abettor. Our report, based on a retrospective study of fatal suicidal firearm injuries from the years 1980 to 2007, points out that suicide victims only rarely remove clothing from the site of the future entry wound. The report covered 43 cases with fatal gunshot wounds in the area of the thorax, with only four persons (9%) removing the clothing present in the area of the subsequent self-inflicted wound. Defects present on the clothing of a victim cannot, therefore, be understood as an absolute criterion for disproving the possibility of suicide, and nor do they necessarily indicate an unfortunate accident or homicide. If, however, the suicide victim removes the clothing from the area of the future wound, then this is almost always an indication of suicide.

  14. Importance of clothing removal in scalds.

    PubMed

    Lau, Edgar Y K; Tam, Yvonne Y W; Chiu, T W

    2016-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that prompt removal of clothing after scalds lessens the severity of injury. This experimental study and case series was carried out in the Burn Centre of a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. An experimental burn model using Allevyn (Smith & Nephew Medical Limited, Hull, England) as a skin substitute was designed to test the effect of delayed clothing removal on skin temperature using hot water and congee. Data of patients admitted with scalding by congee over a 10-year period (January 2005 to December 2014) were also studied. A significant reduction in the temperature of the skin model following a hot water scald was detected only if clothing was removed within the first 10 seconds of injury. With congee scalds, the temperature of the skin model progressively increased with further delay in clothing removal. During the study period, 35 patients were admitted with congee scalds to our unit via the emergency department. The majority were children. Definite conclusions supporting the importance of clothing removal could not be drawn due to our small sample size. Nonetheless, our data suggest that appropriate prehospital burn management can reduce patient morbidity. Prompt removal of clothing after scalding by congee may reduce post-burn morbidity.

  15. Transmission of lung sounds through light clothing.

    PubMed

    Kraman, Steve S

    2008-01-01

    Doctors are exhorted to always place the stethoscope directly on the skin and never to auscultate through clothing. Nevertheless, casual observation reveals that doctors and even pulmonologists often violate this principle. This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of two common stethoscopes when used through clothing. Littmann Classic and Littmann Master Cardiology stethoscopes were studied under conditions of light (60-100 g), medium (240 g) and heavy (555 g) force when placed on a lung sound test platform with one or two layers of cloth (T-shirt material and flannel) interposed between the stethoscope and the test surface. The test platform was designed to mimic the acoustic and mechanical properties of the chest wall and was driven by amplified white noise. The recorded amplitude spectra were compared over a range of 150-1,000 Hz. Compared to the sensitivity on a bare test platform surface, either fabric in single or double layers attenuated the sounds by a mean of 5-18 dB under light pressure. This attenuation was nearly abolished by the addition of either medium or heavy force on the stethoscope head. The deleterious effect of one or two layers of indoor clothing on lung sounds acquired through a stethoscope can be negated by force on the stethoscope head making effective auscultation possible. Nevertheless, auscultation through clothing remains problematic due to the hindrance to inspection and percussion and the risk of acoustic artifacts caused by clothing. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Photonic textiles for pulse oximetry.

    PubMed

    Rothmaier, Markus; Selm, Bärbel; Spichtig, Sonja; Haensse, Daniel; Wolf, Martin

    2008-08-18

    Biomedical sensors, integrated into textiles would enable monitoring of many vitally important physiological parameters during our daily life. In this paper we demonstrate the design and performance of a textile based pulse oximeter, operating on the forefinger tip in transmission mode. The sensors consisted of plastic optical fibers integrated into common fabrics. To emit light to the human tissue and to collect transmitted light the fibers were either integrated into a textile substrate by embroidery (producing microbends with a nominal diameter of 0.5 to 2 mm) or the fibers inside woven patterns have been altered mechanically after fabric production. In our experiments we used a two-wavelength approach (690 and 830 nm) for pulse wave acquisition and arterial oxygen saturation calculation. We have fabricated different specimens to study signal yield and quality, and a cotton glove, equipped with textile based light emitter and detector, has been used to examine movement artifacts. Our results show that textile-based oximetry is feasible with sufficient data quality and its potential as a wearable health monitoring device is promising.

  17. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  18. Textile Design for the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    Textile design is a multimillion-dollar business that affects all of us. However, the idea of textile design is often ignored in art classes. This paper describes a project that challenges students to identify functional art in their everyday lives. In this project, students analyze textile designs, then create their own motifs and repeat them to…

  19. Textile Design for the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    Textile design is a multimillion-dollar business that affects all of us. However, the idea of textile design is often ignored in art classes. This paper describes a project that challenges students to identify functional art in their everyday lives. In this project, students analyze textile designs, then create their own motifs and repeat them to…

  20. Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiang; Yang, Haijing; Li, Enbang; Liu, Zhihui; Wei, Kejia

    2012-05-21

    Measuring body temperature is considerably important to physiological studies as well as clinical investigations. In recent years, numerous observations have been reported and various methods of measurement have been employed. The present paper introduces a novel wearable sensor in intelligent clothing for human body temperature measurement. The objective is the integration of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors into functional textiles to extend the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. In addition, the temperature sensitivity is 150 pm/°C, which is almost 15 times higher than that of a bare FBG. This study combines large and small pipes during fabrication to implant FBG sensors into the fabric. The law of energy conservation of the human body is considered in determining heat transfer between the body and its clothing. The mathematical model of heat transmission between the body and clothed FBG sensors is studied, and the steady-state thermal analysis is presented. The simulation results show the capability of the material to correct the actual body temperature. Based on the skin temperature obtained by the weighted average method, this paper presents the five points weighted coefficients model using both sides of the chest, armpits, and the upper back for the intelligent clothing. The weighted coefficients of 0.0826 for the left chest, 0.3706 for the left armpit, 0.3706 for the right armpit, 0.0936 for the upper back, and 0.0826 for the right chest were obtained using Cramer's Rule. Using the weighting coefficient, the deviation of the experimental result was ± 0.18 °C, which favors the use for clinical armpit temperature monitoring. Moreover, in special cases when several FBG sensors are broken, the weighted coefficients of the other sensors could be changed to obtain accurate body temperature.

  1. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, A. I. S.; Bointon, T. H.; Melo, L. V.; Russo, S.; de Schrijver, I.; Craciun, M. F.; Alves, H.

    2015-05-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn.

  2. Transparent conductive graphene textile fibers

    PubMed Central

    Neves, A. I. S.; Bointon, T. H.; Melo, L. V.; Russo, S.; de Schrijver, I.; Craciun, M. F.; Alves, H.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent and flexible electrodes are widely used on a variety of substrates such as plastics and glass. Yet, to date, transparent electrodes on a textile substrate have not been explored. The exceptional electrical, mechanical and optical properties of monolayer graphene make it highly attractive as a transparent electrode for applications in wearable electronics. Here, we report the transfer of monolayer graphene, grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil, to fibers commonly used by the textile industry. The graphene-coated fibers have a sheet resistance as low as ~1 kΩ per square, an equivalent value to the one obtained by the same transfer process onto a Si substrate, with a reduction of only 2.3 per cent in optical transparency while keeping high stability under mechanical stress. With this approach, we successfully achieved the first example of a textile electrode, flexible and truly embedded in a yarn. PMID:25952133

  3. Relationship between clothing ventilation and thermal insulation.

    PubMed

    Bouskill, L M; Havenith, G; Kuklane, K; Parsons, K C; Withey, W R

    2002-01-01

    Air layers trapped within a clothing microenvironment contribute to the thermal insulation afforded by the ensemble. Any exchange of air between the external environment and these trapped air layers results in a change in the ensemble's thermal insulation and water vapor resistance characteristics. These effects are seldom taken into account when considering the effects of clothing on human heat balance, the thermal characteristics usually being restricted to intrinsic insulation and intrinsic evaporative resistance measurements on static manikins. Environmental assessments based on these measurements alone may therefore lead to under-(or over-) estimation of thermal stress of the worker. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between clothing ventilation and thermal insulation properties. A one-layer, air-impermeable ensemble and a three-layer, air-permeable ensemble were tested using an articulated, thermal manikin in a controlled climate chamber (ta = tr = 10 degrees C, PaH2O = 0.73 kPa). The manikin, which was designed for thermal insulation measurements, was also equipped with a system to determine clothing ventilation. Baseline measurements of clothing ventilation (VT) and thermal insulation (total clothing insulation: I(T)--measured, intrinsic insulation: Icl--calculated) were made of the clothing with the manikin standing stationary in still air conditions. Increased clothing ventilation was induced when the manikin "walked" (walking speeds of 0.37 m/sec and 0.77 m/sec) and by increasing the environmental air speed (Va = 1.0 m/sec). These increases in VT reduced Icl, this being ascribed to the increased heat transfer from the manikin skin surface to the cooler external environment due to the exchange of air between the clothing microenvironment and the external environment. Measured air exchanges were shown to have a potential heat exchange capacity of up to 17 and 161 W/m2 for the one- and three-layer ensembles, respectively, emphasizing

  4. Textile composite fuselage structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Chu, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Phase 2 of the NASA ACT Contract (NAS1-18888), Advanced Composite Structural Concepts and Materials Technology for Transport Aircraft Structures, focuses on textile technology, with resin transfer molding or powder coated tows. The use of textiles has the potential for improving damage tolerance, reducing cost and saving weight. This program investigates resin transfer molding (RTM), as a maturing technology for high fiber volume primary structures and powder coated tows as an emerging technology with a high potential for significant cost savings and superior structural properties. Powder coated tow technology has promise for significantly improving the processibility of high temperature resins such as polyimides.

  5. Electrical properties of textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rattfalt, Linda; Chedid, Michel; Hult, Peter; Lindén, Maria; Ask, Per

    2007-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the behavior of textile electrodes due to their construction techniques. Three textile electrodes were tested for electrode impedance and polarization potentials. The multifilament yarn (A) is favorable for its low thread resistance. Although, when knitted into electrodes, the staple fiber yarn (B) showed a comparable and satisfiable electrode impedance. The multifilament yarn had however a lower polarization potential drift then the other specimens. The monofilament yarn (C) had high electrode impedance and varying mean polarization potentials due to its conductive material and small contact area with the skin.

  6. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  7. European Cloth and “Tropical” Skin:

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    As Britain’s imperial and colonial ambitions intensified toward the end of the nineteenth century, the preservation of white European health in tropical climates became an increasingly important concern. Since at least the seventeenth century, the “tropics” had been seen as spaces holding vast potential wealth but also death and disease. To combat these deadly but desirable landscapes, the British built a considerable commodity culture around the preservation of white European health, and for many, tropical clothing was one of the most important and essential items in their “kits.” This article investigates the composition and use of such clothing in relation to British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates. First, it considers debates that ensued over the best material—wool, cotton, linen, silk, or a combination of these materials—and the role of “black” skin and local practice in the development of tropical clothing. Second, it demonstrates the importance of location in any discussion of tropical medicine and hygiene, and the tension and ambiguity that still surrounded British ideas of health and hygiene in the tropical colonies. Third, it argues that tropical clothing was important in the maintenance of climatic etiologies despite advances in parasitology and sanitary science. Finally, it considers the relationship of tropical clothing to the formation of a unique colonial identity. To British men and women embarking for any number of tropical destinations, proper clothing was not a banal and mundane component of their outfitting. For many, the clothing signified a departure from the safe and “civil” climes of Britain for adventure in the expanding tropical empire. PMID:19801795

  8. Textile Science Leader's Guide. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This instructor's guide provides an overview of 4-H student project modules in the textile sciences area. The guide includes short notes explaining how to use the project modules, a flowchart chart showing how the project areas are sequenced, a synopsis of the design and content of the modules, and some program planning tips. For each of the…

  9. Application of Heat-Transfer Calculations and Computational Fluid Mechanics to the Design of Protective Clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherunova, I.; Kornev, N.; Jacobi, G.; Treshchun, I.; Gross, A.; Turnow, J.; Schreier, S.; Paschen, M.

    2014-07-01

    Three examples of use of computational fluid dynamics for designing clothing protecting a human body from high and low temperatures with an incident air fl ow and without it are presented. The internal thermodynamics of a human body and the interaction of it with the surroundings were investigated. The inner and outer problems were considered separately with their own boundary conditions.

  10. Procedures to evaluate the efficiency of protective clothing worn by operators applying pesticide.

    PubMed

    Espanhol-Soares, Melina; Nociti, Leticia A S; Machado-Neto, Joaquim Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    The evaluation of the efficiency of whole-body protective clothing against pesticides has already been carried out through field tests and procedures defined by international standards, but there is a need to determine the useful life of these garments to ensure worker safety. The aim of this article is to compare the procedures for evaluating efficiency of two whole-body protective garments, both new and previously used by applicators of herbicides, using a laboratory test with a mannequin and in the field with the operator. The evaluation of the efficiency of protective clothing used both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, leading to a proposal for classification according to efficiency, and determination of the useful life of protective clothing for use against pesticides, based on a quantitative assessment. The procedures used were in accordance with the standards of the modified American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F 1359:2007 and International Organization for Standardization 17491-4. The protocol used in the field was World Health Organization Vector Biology and Control (VBC)/82.1. Clothing tested was personal water repellent and pesticide protective. Two varieties of fabric were tested: Beige (100% cotton) and Camouflaged (31% polyester and 69% cotton). The efficiency in exposure control of the personal protective clothing was measured before use and after 5, 10, 20, and 30 uses and washes under field conditions. Personal protective clothing was worn by workers in the field during the application of the herbicide glyphosate on weed species in mature sugar cane plantations using a knapsack sprayer. The modified ASTM 1359:2007 procedure was chosen as the most appropriate due to its greater repeatability (lower coefficient of variation). This procedure provides quantitative evaluation needed to determine the efficiency and useful life of individual protective clothing, not just at specific points of failure, but according to dermal

  11. Clothing choices, weight, and trait self-objectification.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Andrew, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    The present study aimed to assess the link between clothing choice and aspects of body image. Participants were 112 female undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire containing a measure of clothing functions, as well as BMI, self-classified weight, and trait self-objectification. Results indicated that BMI and self-classified weight were positively correlated with the choice of clothes for camouflage. Self-objectification was positively correlated with choice of clothes for fashion, and negatively correlated with choosing clothes for comfort. It was concluded that clothing represents an important but neglected aspect of contemporary women's management of their body's appearance.

  12. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  13. Polyester textile functionalization through incorporation of pH/thermo-responsive microgels. Part II: polyester functionalization and characterization.

    PubMed

    Glampedaki, Pelagia; Calvimontes, Alfredo; Dutschk, Victoria; Warmoeskerken, Marijn M C G

    A new approach to functionalize the surface of polyester textiles is described in this study. Functionalization was achieved by incorporating pH/temperature-responsive polyelectrolyte microgels into the textile surface layer using UV irradiation. The aim of functionalization was to regulate polyester wettability according to ambient conditions by imparting stimuli-responsiveness from the microgel to the textile itself. Microgels consisted of pH/thermo-responsive microparticles of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) either alone or complexed with the pH-responsive natural polysaccharide chitosan. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and topographical analysis were used for surface characterization. Wettability of polyester textiles was assessed by dynamic wetting, water vapor transfer, and moisture regain measurements. One of the main findings showed that the polyester surface was rendered pH-responsive, both in acidic and alkaline pH region, owing to the microgel incorporation. With a marked relaxation in their structure and an increase in their microporosity, the functionalized textiles exhibited higher water vapor transfer rates both at 20 and 40 °C, and 65% relative humidity compared with the reference polyester. Also, at 40 °C, i.e., above the microgel Lower Critical Solution Temperature, the functionalized polyester textiles had lower moisture regains than the reference. Finally, the type of the incorporated microgel affected significantly the polyester total absorption times, with an up to 300% increase in one case and an up to 80% decrease in another case. These findings are promising for the development of functional textile materials with possible applications in biotechnology, technical, and protective clothing.

  14. NICE3: Textile Brine Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the significant energy and waste savings that can be realized by using nanofiltration technology to reuse textile dyebath brines. Read this new fact sheet to learn how this new membrane technology can benefit your business.

  15. Micromechanical models for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Bhavani V.; Marrey, Ramesh V.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical and analytical micromechanical models are presented to predict the thermoelastic behavior of a textile composite. In the numerical model, the unit-cell is discretized with finite elements, and periodic boundary conditions are imposed between opposite faces of the unit-cell. For a thin textile composite, stress gradients effects through the thickness are demonstrated. The consequent difference in the stiffness and strength behavior of thick and thin composites are discussed. The numerical model is implemented to predict 3-D thermo-elastic constants for a thick textile composite, and the plate thermo-mechanical properties for a thin textile composite. The numerical model is extended to compute the thermal residual microstresses due to processing to predict the composite failure envelopes. An analytical model - Selective Averaging Method (SAM) - is proposed, which is based on a judicious combination of stiffness and compliance averaging to estimate the 3-D elastic constants. Both the models are tested and verified for several examples by comparing the stiffness properties with elasticity solutions and available results.

  16. Systematic development of technical textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, M.; Schrank, V.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2016-07-01

    Technical textiles are used in various fields of applications, ranging from small scale (e.g. medical applications) to large scale products (e.g. aerospace applications). The development of new products is often complex and time consuming, due to multiple interacting parameters. These interacting parameters are production process related and also a result of the textile structure and used material. A huge number of iteration steps are necessary to adjust the process parameter to finalize the new fabric structure. A design method is developed to support the systematic development of technical textiles and to reduce iteration steps. The design method is subdivided into six steps, starting from the identification of the requirements. The fabric characteristics vary depending on the field of application. If possible, benchmarks are tested. A suitable fabric production technology needs to be selected. The aim of the method is to support a development team within the technology selection without restricting the textile developer. After a suitable technology is selected, the transformation and correlation between input and output parameters follows. This generates the information for the production of the structure. Afterwards, the first prototype can be produced and tested. The resulting characteristics are compared with the initial product requirements.

  17. Integrated microelectronics for smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Christl; Glaser, Rupert; Savio, Domnic; Schnell, Markus; Weber, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The combination of textile fabrics with microelectronics will lead to completely new applications, thus achieving elements of ambient intelligence. The integration of sensor or actuator networks, using fabrics with conductive fibres as a textile motherboard enable the fabrication of large active areas. In this paper we describe an integration technology for the fabrication of a "smart textile" based on a wired peer-to-peer network of microcontrollers with integrated sensors or actuators. A self-organizing and fault-tolerant architecture is accomplished which detects the physical shape of the network. Routing paths are formed for data transmission, automatically circumventing defective or missing areas. The network architecture allows the smart textiles to be produced by reel-to-reel processes, cut into arbitrary shapes subsequently and implemented in systems at low installation costs. The possible applications are manifold, ranging from alarm systems to intelligent guidance systems, passenger recognition in car seats, air conditioning control in interior lining and smart wallpaper with software-defined light switches.

  18. Stalled ERP at Random Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumberg, Robert; Kops, Eric; Little, Elizabeth; Gamble, George; Underbakke, Jesse; Havelka, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Andre Raymond, Executive Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Random Textiles Co. Inc. (RTC), stood in front of the podium to address his team of 70 sales consultants in Las Vegas, NV. The organization had increased market share and achieved record sales over the past three years; however, in the shadow of this success lurked an obstacle that…

  19. Ergonomics principles to design clothing work for electrical workers in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan; Cubillos, A

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of the Colombian legislation, have been identified the need to develop protective clothing to work according to specifications from the work done and in compliance with international standards. These involve the development and design of new strategies and measures for work clothing design. In this study we analyzes the activities of the workers in the electrical sector, the method analyzes the risks activity data in various activities, that activities include power generation plants, local facilities, industrial facilities and maintenance of urban and rural networks. The analyses method is focused on ergonomic approach, risk analysis is done, we evaluate the role of security expert and we use a design algorithm developed for this purpose. The result of this study is the identification of constraints and variables that contribute to the development of a model of analysis that leads to the development the work protective clothes.

  20. Intelligent Medical Garments with Graphene-Functionalized Smart-Cloth ECG Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yapici, Murat Kaya; Alkhidir, Tamador Elboshra

    2017-01-01

    Biopotential signals are recorded mostly by using sticky, pre-gelled electrodes, which are not ideal for wearable, point-of-care monitoring where the usability of the personalized medical device depends critically on the level of comfort and wearability of the electrodes. We report a fully-wearable medical garment for mobile monitoring of cardiac biopotentials from the wrists or the neck with minimum restriction to regular clothing habits. The wearable prototype is based on elastic bands with graphene functionalized, textile electrodes and battery-powered, low-cost electronics for signal acquisition and wireless transmission. Comparison of the electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings obtained from the wearable prototype against conventional wet electrodes indicate excellent conformity and spectral coherence among the two signals. PMID:28420158

  1. 2010 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Clothing and Textile Services. (Program CIP-19.0905)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Verlene

    2010-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  2. Simulating Clothing and Textile Operations at the Defense Logistics Agency. Volume 2. SIMSCRIPT Source Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    transient effects have apparently been washed out of simulation. This is so the final statistics at end of simulation are not effected by warmup 2-7...the initial warmup period is over and the transient effects ’’ have apparently been washed out of simulation. This is so the ’’ final statistics at end...of simulation are not effected by warmup of period. WAIT WARMUP.PERIOD DAYS of CALL PRINT.ATEND PRINT 5 LINES WITH TIME.V, AT.MONTH THUS END OF

  3. Development of Standards for Textiles and Clothing Postsecondary Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    A project was conducted to validate program standards and performance standards for four postsecondary occupational areas--fashion merchandising, fashion design, apparel, and window treatment services. Returns from 117 questionnaires from postsecondary institutions in fifty states were used to develop program standards statements and to provide…

  4. Development of Standards for Textiles and Clothing Postsecondary Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    A project was conducted to validate program standards and performance standards for four postsecondary occupational areas--fashion merchandising, fashion design, apparel, and window treatment services. Returns from 117 questionnaires from postsecondary institutions in fifty states were used to develop program standards statements and to provide…

  5. 75 FR 51016 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... requirements of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 laboratory accreditation standard is provided in the CPSC staff briefing... to ISO Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ``General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and... conformity assessment body that was ISO/IEC 17025 accredited by an ILAC-MRA member at the time of the test...

  6. 76 FR 22608 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... tested by a third party conformity assessment body that was ISO/IEC 17025 accredited by an ILAC-MRA..., the product was tested by a third party conformity assessment body that was ISO/IEC 17025 accredited...

  7. Clothing and exercise. II. Influence of clothing during exercise/work in environmental extremes.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, D D; Bellingar, T A; McCluskey, B S

    1994-08-01

    Thermoregulatory studies often investigate thermal responses without considering the influences of clothing. These studies have expanded our understanding of basic human responses to various environmental conditions. However, human thermoregulation is variable and modified by heat transfer interactions between skin surface area, clothing and environment. Much of the original work on the influence of clothing on work performance was the result of ergonomic concerns. Currently, the importance of clothing and the influence of new clothing technology aimed at minimising thermal stress has spawned a new interest. For hot climates, new fabrics have been developed with improved wicking properties to keep the wearer cooler and drier, and to enhance heat transfer from the body while providing greater comfort. In contrast, the challenge of cold environments requires a different approach to clothing, which tries to minimise the free movement of air and water along the skin surface of the body. The materials used should also be able to absorb radiant heat from the environment and be nonconductive. In a cold climate, the wearer needs to balance the need for a clothing barrier for warmth with the potential for accumulating too much heat as the result of metabolic heat production from exercise. To counteract this potential problem, it is suggested that cold-weather clothing be worn in layers that can be removed during exercise and replaced during less active periods. Protective clothing for firefighters, hazardous waste workers and astronauts, and athletic protective gear, have specialised design requirements which may be influenced by considerations, for example, of environmental conditions, garment weight, the need for durability, impact forces.

  8. Numerical modelling of transient heat and moisture transport in protective clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łapka, P.; Furmański, P.; Wisniewski, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a complex model of heat and mass transfer in a multi-layer protective clothing exposed to a flash fire and interacting with the human skin. The clothing was made of porous fabric layers separated by air gaps. The fabrics contained bound water in the fibres and moist air in the pores. The moist air was also present in the gaps between fabric layers or internal fabric layer and the skin. Three skin sublayers were considered. The model accounted for coupled heat transfer by conduction, thermal radiation and associated with diffusion of water vapour in the clothing layers and air gaps. Heat exchange due to phase transition of the bound water were also included in the model. Complex thermal and mass transfer conditions at internal or external boundaries between fabric layers and air gaps as well as air gap and skin were assumed. Special attention was paid to modelling of thermal radiation which was coming from the fire, penetrated through protective clothing and absorbed by the skin. For the first time non-grey properties as well as optical phenomena at internal or external boundaries between fabric layers and air gaps as well as air gap and skin were accounted for. A series of numerical simulations were carried out and the risk of heat injures was estimated.

  9. Smart fabrics and interactive textile enabling wearable personal applications: R&D state of the art and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Lymberis, A; Paradiso, R

    2008-01-01

    Smart fabrics and interactive textiles (SFIT) are fibrous structures that are capable of sensing, actuating, generating/storing power and/or communicating. Research and development towards wearable textile-based personal systems allowing e.g. health monitoring, protection & safety, and healthy lifestyle gained strong interest during the last 10 years. Under the Information and Communication Programme of the European Commission, a cluster of R&D projects dealing with smart fabrics and interactive textile wearable systems regroup activities along two different and complementary approaches i.e. 'application pull' and 'technology push'. This includes projects aiming at personal health management through integration, validation, and use of smart clothing and other networked mobile devices as well as projects targeting the full integration of sensors/actuators, energy sources, processing and communication within the clothes to enable personal applications such as protection/safety, emergency and healthcare. The integration part of the technologies into a real SFIT product is at present stage on the threshold of prototyping and testing. Several issues, technical as well user-centred, societal and business, remain to be solved. The paper presents on going major R&D activities, identifies gaps and discuss key challenges for the future.

  10. Chemical scavenging of post-consumed clothes.

    PubMed

    Barot, Amit A; Sinha, Vijay Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Aiming toward the rectification of fiber grade PET waste accumulation as well as recycling and providing a technically viable route leading to preservation of the natural resources and environment, the post consumed polyester clothes were chemically recycled. Post consumed polyester clothes were recycled into bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) monomer in the presence of ethylene glycol as depolymerising agent and zinc acetate as catalyst. Depolymerized product was characterized by chemical as well as analytical techniques. The fiber grade PET was eventually converted into BHET monomer with nearly 90% yield by employing 1% catalyst concentration and at optimum temperature of 180°C without mechanical input of stirring condition.

  11. Otzi, the iceman and his leather clothes.

    PubMed

    Püntener, Alois G; Moss, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Over 5000 years ago, a man climbed up to the icy heights of the glacier in South Tyrol, Italy and died. He was found by accident in 1991, with his clothes and equipment, mummified and frozen: an archaeological sensation and a unique snapshot of a Copper Age man. For several years highly specialised research teams have examined the mummy and all accompanying items. This paper describes how fur and leather clothes of the iceman could have been tanned. Details of the analytical tests undertaken on the 5000 year old leather samples and what they revealed are presented.

  12. Self-contained clothing system provides protection against hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Self-contained clothing system protects personnel against hazardous environments. The clothing has an environmental control system and a complete protection envelope consisting of an outer garment, inner garment, underwear, boots, gloves, and helmet.

  13. Survival of influenza A virus on contaminated student clothing.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Keiko; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Suzuki, Yukiko; Koyama, Augustine Hajime

    2015-04-01

    The role of contaminated clothing in the transmission of influenza A virus during an epidemic period was investigated by examining the recovery of infectious influenza virus from experimentally virus-contaminated clothing, which had been subejected to routine wearing and washing for several months or years. The amount of infectious virus recovered from the nine types of clothing decreased with time and was shown to differ widely between clothing samples, when the contaminated clothing samples were maintained in uncovered glass Petri dishes in a safety cabinet under air blowing. These results indicate a dependence of virus transmissibility on the nature of the contaminated clothes. The difference in recovery was shown to have no significant correlation with the thickness or the materials of the clothing; however, a correlation was observed with the residual amount of water in the deposited virus preparation on the test clothing.

  14. Adaptive spatio-temporal filtering of disturbed ECGs: a multi-channel approach to heartbeat detection in smart clothing.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Urban; Karlsson, Marcus; Ostlund, Nils; Berglin, Lena; Lindecrantz, Kaj; Karlsson, Stefan; Sandsjö, Leif

    2007-06-01

    Intermittent disturbances are common in ECG signals recorded with smart clothing: this is mainly because of displacement of the electrodes over the skin. We evaluated a novel adaptive method for spatio-temporal filtering for heartbeat detection in noisy multi-channel ECGs including short signal interruptions in single channels. Using multi-channel database recordings (12-channel ECGs from 10 healthy subjects), the results showed that multi-channel spatio-temporal filtering outperformed regular independent component analysis. We also recorded seven channels of ECG using a T-shirt with textile electrodes. Ten healthy subjects performed different sequences during a 10-min recording: resting, standing, flexing breast muscles, walking and pushups. Using adaptive multi-channel filtering, the sensitivity and precision was above 97% in nine subjects. Adaptive multi-channel spatio-temporal filtering can be used to detect heartbeats in ECGs with high noise levels. One application is heartbeat detection in noisy ECG recordings obtained by integrated textile electrodes in smart clothing.

  15. 46 CFR 153.933 - Chemical protective clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical protective clothing. 153.933 Section 153.933... § 153.933 Chemical protective clothing. When table 1 refers to this section, the following apply: (a) The master shall ensure that the following chemical protective clothing constructed of...

  16. Profiles of adolescents' clothing practices: purchase, daily selection, and care.

    PubMed

    Koester, A W; May, J K

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clothing practices in the daily selection, care, and purchase of clothing by adolescents in order to determine the extent these practices are performed independently or influenced by others, and to identify the factors involved in the activities. Clothing Practice Profiles were developed for both sexes in the three age groups corresponding to divisions in the Oregon 4-H program. The age group comparison revealed increasing frequency of independent activity in all three clothing practice areas (selection, care, and purchase) as age increased. Parental influence appeared to decrease with increasing age. Siblings' influence was minimal. Peer influence on selection and purchase practices increased. Media influence on daily clothing selection practices and clothing purchase practices in terms of wearing or buying identical or similar clothing was minimal. Media influence in advertisements increased with age, but purchases of advertised clothing items remained about the same. Age group comparisons were also made for selection factors and other care and purchase practices, including responsibilities for care of the member's and family's clothing, planning clothing purchases, sources of funds and methods of paying for clothing, use of clothing label information, and purchase factors.

  17. [Resources on Clothing for Persons with Special Needs].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    P.R.I.D.E. Foundation, Inc., Groton, CT.

    The resource guide to the modification of clothing for disabled individuals suggests solutions to clothing, grooming, and home management problems for a variety of handicapping conditions. Services of PRIDE (Promote Real Independence for the Disabled and Elderly) are noted, including manuals on clothing for the disabled, a workshop, a curriculum…

  18. Clothing Deprivation Feelings of Three Adolescent Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kness, Darlene

    1983-01-01

    Investigated clothing deprivation/satisfaction feelings of 301 Afro-, Anglo-, and Mexican-American adolescents and reported the development of a clothing satisfaction instrument. Clothing satisfaction was associated with social security and number of dresses for Anglo-Americans, with socioeconomic status and number of shoes for Mexican-Americans.…

  19. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.21 Residential clothes dryers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to clothes dryers; and...

  20. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.21 Residential clothes dryers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to clothes dryers; and...

  1. 10 CFR 429.21 - Residential clothes dryers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential clothes dryers. 429.21 Section 429.21 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.21 Residential clothes dryers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to clothes dryers; and...

  2. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as required by standards of § 551.1....

  3. 33 CFR 150.614 - When is protective clothing required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is protective clothing... SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Workplace Safety and Health Clothing § 150.614 When is protective clothing required? The deepwater port operator must ensure that...

  4. Alcohol Promotional Clothing Items and Alcohol Use by Underage Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.

    2003-01-01

    Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…

  5. [Resources on Clothing for Persons with Special Needs].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    P.R.I.D.E. Foundation, Inc., Groton, CT.

    The resource guide to the modification of clothing for disabled individuals suggests solutions to clothing, grooming, and home management problems for a variety of handicapping conditions. Services of PRIDE (Promote Real Independence for the Disabled and Elderly) are noted, including manuals on clothing for the disabled, a workshop, a curriculum…

  6. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640...) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Student Support § 670.640 Are students provided with clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles...

  7. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640...) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Student Support § 670.640 Are students provided with clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles...

  8. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640...) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Student Support § 670.640 Are students provided with clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles...

  9. 20 CFR 670.640 - Are students provided with clothing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are students provided with clothing? 670.640... CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Student Support § 670.640 Are students provided with clothing? Yes, Job Corps students are provided cash clothing allowances and/or articles of...

  10. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  11. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  12. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  13. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  14. 7 CFR 58.225 - Clothing and shoe covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clothing and shoe covers. 58.225 Section 58.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....225 Clothing and shoe covers. Clean clothing and shoe covers shall be provided exclusively for...

  15. American standards for UV-protective textiles.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Kathryn L

    2002-01-01

    During the last 3 years, three standard documents that pertain to the testing and labeling of UV-protective textile products have been published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC). The titles of these documents, which are available for purchase at www.astm.org and www.aatcc.org are: ASTM D 6544 "Standard Practice for the Preparation of Textiles Prior to UV Transmission Testing", AATCC 183 "Test Method for Transmittance or Blocking of Erythemally Weighted Ultraviolet Radiation Through Fabrics", and ASTM 6603 "Standard Guide to Labeling of UV-protective Textiles". This chapter summarizes the content of each document and shows how the documents are linked together to make a comprehensive plan for the testing and labeling of UV-protective textile products to be sold in the United States. It also describes the intended future work in the United States on UV-protective textile standards.

  16. Clothing and exercise. I: Biophysics of heat transfer between the individual, clothing and environment.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, D D; Shanley, L A; Smith, E W

    1994-07-01

    Despite large environmental variations, the human body maintains a tightly regulated core temperature. Effective thermoregulation must balance the interaction between skin surface, clothing and ambient air. Indices of thermal stress (wet bulb globe temperature, heat stress index, maximum evaporation rate, required evaporative rate and wind chill) provide valuable information concerning the heat exchange between the individual and the environment, and serve as protective guidelines while working in environmental extremes. The role of clothing, as an interactive barrier, greatly affects thermal balance. Clothing is varied according to prevailing environmental conditions, metabolic heat production, gender and age differences, fabric thermal properties, garment design and intended use. Models (static, dynamic and human) have investigated the biophysical transfer of heat between the skin surface area, clothing and ambient air. Additionally, the role of metabolic heat production during exercise can greatly influence tolerance to thermal stress during a variety of environmental conditions.

  17. Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark G M; Rossi, René; Meinander, Harriet; Broede, Peter; Candas, Victor; den Hartog, Emiel; Holmér, Ingvar; Nocker, Wolfgang; Havenith, George

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT project. Thermal manikin results of dry and wet heat loss are presented from different laboratories for a range of 2-layer clothing with similar dry insulations but different water vapour permeabilities and absorptive properties. The results obtained from the different manikins are generally consistent with each other. For each climate, total wet heat loss is predominately dependent on the permeability of the outer layer. At 10 degrees C, the apparent evaporative heat loss is markedly higher than expected from evaporation alone (measured at 34 degrees C), which is attributed to condensation within the clothing and to increased conductivity of the wet clothing layers.

  18. The Art of African Senufo Cloth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The Senufo people create paintings on hand-woven fabric using natural fibers, natural dyes made from leaves, and mud dug from the roots of trees. The fabric of the Senufo is woven in strips approximately six-to-eight inches wide, and sewn together to make a larger fabric for painting. The stylized drawings painted on the cloth are of masked…

  19. Clothing Construction Performance Assessment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Betty A.

    The goal of the project was to validate, refine, and develop plans for implementation of a performance-based challenge test in the cognitive and psychomotor aspects of basic clothing construction skills that could be utilized for grades 7-14. An advisory board and a jury panel representing the three instructional levels provided assistance in…

  20. Clothing Services and Machine Repair Helper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Era; Morgan, Samuel D.

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program in clothing services and machine repair, this curriculum guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines presented on fourteen topics: fashion, characteristics of fibers and fabrics, custom…