Science.gov

Sample records for international trade theory

  1. Inter-Industry Trade and Intra-Industry Trade: Some Recent Developments in International Trade Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, David

    1978-01-01

    Contends that the analysis of intra-industry trade supplements the subject of trade theory in undergraduate economics courses. Intra-industry trade is the situation in which a country both exports and imports the products of a particular industry, e.g. automobiles. Questions for discussion are included. (KC)

  2. Using Nonlinear Programming in International Trade Theory: The Factor-Proportions Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John

    2004-01-01

    Students at all levels benefit from a multi-faceted approach to learning abstract material. The most commonly used technique in teaching the pure theory of international trade is a combination of geometry and algebraic derivations. Numerical simulation can provide a valuable third support to these approaches. The author describes a simple…

  3. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  4. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  5. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  6. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  7. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  8. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  9. Extension Resources for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  10. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  11. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  12. The evolution of communities in the international oil trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weiqiong; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Sun, Xiaoqi

    2014-11-01

    International oil trade is a subset of global trade and there exist oil trade communities. These communities evolve over time and provide clues of international oil trade patterns. A better understanding of the international oil trade patterns is necessary for governments in policy making. To study the evolution of trade communities in the international oil trade network, we set up unweighted and weighted oil trade network models based on complex network theory using data from 2002 to 2011. We detected the communities in the oil trade networks and analyzed their evolutionary properties and stabilities over time. We found that the unweighted and weighted international oil trade networks show many different features in terms of community number, community scale, distribution of countries, quality of partitions, and stability of communities. Two turning points occurred in the evolution of community stability in the international oil trade network. One is the year 2004-2005 which correlates with changes in demand and supply in the world oil market after the Iraq War, and the other is the year 2008-2009 which is connected to the 2008 financial crisis. Different causations of instability show different features and this should be considered by policy makers.

  13. Animal welfare and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards.

  14. Internal loading theory for mantle convection revisited: the trade-off between viscosity and seismic velocity to density conversion factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandan, D.; Peltier, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    The internal loading theory requires information on the radial viscosity profile and the lateral density heterogeneity in the mantle to compute signatures of the dynamical response to convective overturning. Following observations by Masters et al., (1982), that at long wavelengths the geoid is highly correlated with the heterogeneity observed seiemically at the base of the transition region, it has been suggested [Forte and Peltier, 1987, 1991; Pari and Peltier, 1995,1997] that the form of the viscosity profile that best reduces the variance between the observed geoid and the predicted geoid, be such as to include the presence of a low viscosity layer at the base of the transition zone. The geoid kernels computed using the theory will then peak in the transition zone and pick up features of the heterogeneity that provide a good fit to the geoid. However, within the formalism of the internal loading theory, it is possible to vary the amplitude of the seismic conversion factor instead (within the same region), and achieve an equivalent amount of variance reduction. Recent theoretical results based on a self-consistent thermodynamic model [Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2007] suggest that sharp changes in the amplitude of the conversion factor are in fact expected in the transition zone due to the presence of well documented transitions of mineral phase. We explore this tradeoff between variations in the viscosity profile and the body wave to density conversion factor on the variance reduction achievable for the geoid. Since this tradeoff is shown to be extremely important we explore the results achievable by fixing the viscosity profile to that required by the observables related to the global process of glacial isostatic adjustment and optimizing the fit to the data by adjusting the conversion factor. If time allows, we will also present results for the geodynamic observables predicted by the internal loading theory when the density anomaly is generated using the

  15. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  16. Bee health and international trade.

    PubMed

    Shimanuki, H; Knox, D A

    1997-04-01

    The international trade in bee products is a complex issue as a result of the diverse uses of these products. This is especially true with regard to honey. In most cases, honey is imported for human consumption: the high purchase and shipping costs preclude the use of honey as feed for bees. For these reasons, the risk of transmitting disease through honey is minimal. However, this risk should not be ignored, especially in those countries where American foulbrood is not known to occur. The importation of pollen for bee feed poses a definite risk, especially since there are no acceptable procedures for determining whether pollen is free from pathogens, insects and mites. Routine drying of pollen would reduce the survival of mites and insects, but would not have any impact on bacterial spores. Phytosanitary certificates should be required for the importation of honey and pollen when destined for bee feed. The declaration on the phytosanitary certificate should include country of origin, and should state whether the following bee diseases and parasitic mites are present: American foulbrood disease, European foulbrood disease, chalkbrood disease, Varroa jacobsoni and Tropilaelaps clareae.

  17. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  18. Prospect Theory for Online Financial Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C.; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv

    2014-03-01

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people make decisions based on the potential value of losses and gains rather than the final outcome. People are risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, a phenomenon called ``loss aversion''. Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well studied in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few empirical research and most of them has been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze the trading activities of over 1.5 million members of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behaviour of ``winners'' and ``losers'', i.e., traders with positive or negative final net profit, we find clear evidence of the loss aversion phenomenon, an essence in prospect theory. This work demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory. It has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the effect of loss aversion. It also provides opportunity to augment online social trading, where users are allowed to watch and follow the trading activity of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behaviour.

  19. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards.

  20. Prospect theory for online financial trading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.

  1. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area.

  2. Evolution of international trade and investment networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhong; Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhixin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an evolving two-layer international economy network (IEN) consisting of international trade network (ITN) and international investment network (IIN) as layers, is constructed to investigate the world economy from 2001 to 2010. First, the structure analysis shows that the average partner numbers for both trade and investment are increasing year by year, and the average volume has a significant decrease in 2008 for investment and 2009 for trade. The IIN has longer average path length and dramatically lower edge density compared with the ITN, yet its clustering coefficient is larger in all years. Then, the regional relativity indicates that the longer the distance between two countries, the smaller trade and investment volumes they carry in are general, and the impact of the geographical distance gradually reduces as time goes on. Furthermore, the countries and regions are ranked by Pagerank in ITN, IIN and IEN to illustrate the roles they played. And finally, community structures are detected to visualize the global economic landscape, with countries and regions in the same community ranked according to the total volume of trade or investment.

  3. Trade and Development: Proceedings of the Winter 1986 Meeting of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (Texcoco, Mexico, December 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Mathew D., Ed.

    Three levels of papers are contained in this proceedings. The first set contains full research papers presented during the theme day of the meeting. The following papers were given: "International Trade and Factor Movements in Development Theory, Policy, and Experience" (T. N. Srinivasan); "Government in the Process of Trade and…

  4. Trading Population for Productivity: Theory and Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Oded; Mountford, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This research argues that the differential effect of international trade on the demand for human capital across countries has been a major determinant of the distribution of income and population across the globe. In developed countries the gains from trade have been directed towards investment in education and growth in income per capita, whereas a significant portion of these gains in less developed economies have been channeled towards population growth. Cross-country regressions establish that indeed trade has positive effects on fertility and negative effects on education in non-OECD economies, while inducing fertility decline and human capital formation in OECD economies. PMID:25089061

  5. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  6. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48 Section 0.48 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field...

  7. International Trade Seminar (Austin, Texas, December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Selected presentations from a 1988 seminar on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC) are included in this report. Designed to direct west Texas businesses toward diversification and to prepare them for international trade and business opportunities, the seminar featured speakers in the field of international trade, including bank…

  8. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HMS international trade permit. 300.182... FISHERIES REGULATIONS International Trade Documentation and Tracking Programs for Highly Migratory Species § 300.182 HMS international trade permit. (a) General. An importer, entering for consumption fish...

  9. The Application of Simulated Experimental Teaching in International Trade Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2009-01-01

    International Trade Practice is a professional basic course for specialty of International Economy and Trade. As the core of International Trade Practice, it is extremely related to foreign affairs and needs much practical experience. This paper puts forward some suggestions on how to improve the performance of teaching in order to educate the…

  10. 76 FR 10082 - Office of International Trade; State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... translation fees, The design of international marketing products or campaigns, An export trade show exhibit... State's environment/geography/international relationships; projects to develop and use technology...

  11. The Ingenious Theory of Interstellar Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Arun; Ganapathy, Rohan M.

    This paper extends interplanetary trade theory to an interstellar setting. It is chiefly concerned with the following question: How should interest charges on goods in transit be computed when the goods travel at speeds close to the actual speed of light? This is a problem because the time taken in transit will appear less to an observer travelling with the goods than to a stationary observer. An innovative and ingenious solution is derived from the economic theory, and two useless but TRUE theorems are proved. The interstellar trade would happen in such a way that two time frames must be considered namely that of the stationary observer whose time runs faster compared to the time frame of the observer in transit The interest in a given trade is purely based on the time taken for the debtor to pay the amount, once the goods have been delivered by the seller. But, in case of interstellar trade, the interest to be calculated in between two time frames would lead to the question of which time frame to be considered and moreover, the time taken for the goods to reach the destination is signicantly prolonged compared to the interplanetary trade, which means, even the slightest variations in the interest rate would be magnied. Apart from this, various new factors arise while calculating the interest. The factors include the time value of money, and the risk of variation in demand for goods, the risk of interspace accidents causing loss of the goods and the rate of perish-ability in case of organic goods. The first two factors considered, for which the time frame of the stationary observer is considered and the factors such as the risk of accidents and the rate of perish-ability of the goods are considered based on the time frame of the observer in transit's point of view. The reasons for such considerations and various assumptions on these concepts are dealt in this paper. The theorems that are formulated in this paper would provide the interstellar traders a basic

  12. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  13. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  14. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system.

  15. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  16. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  17. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  18. In Defense of Realistic International Economics: Free Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a critique of Culbertson's paper on international trade (see SO516710). Critiques Culbertson's treatment of national sovereignty and the general welfare, international wage differentials, and prices and competition. (JDH)

  19. Motivating the Study of International Trade: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a classroom activity for use in introductory economics courses to motivate the study of international trade. The learning activity highlights the importance of international trade in students' everyday lives by having students inventory their on-hand belongings and identify where the items were manufactured.…

  20. Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Nei, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of networks of alliances in preventing (multilateral) interstate wars. We first show that, in the absence of international trade, no network of alliances is peaceful and stable. We then show that international trade induces peaceful and stable networks: Trade increases the density of alliances so that countries are less vulnerable to attack and also reduces countries’ incentives to attack an ally. We present historical data on wars and trade showing that the dramatic drop in interstate wars since 1950 is paralleled by a densification and stabilization of trading relationships and alliances. Based on the model we also examine some specific relationships, finding that countries with high levels of trade with their allies are less likely to be involved in wars with any other countries (including allies and nonallies), and that an increase in trade between two countries correlates with a lower chance that they will go to war with each other. PMID:26668370

  1. The QAP weighted network analysis method and its application in international services trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Helian; Cheng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Based on QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlation and complex network theory, this paper puts forward a new method named QAP Weighted Network Analysis Method. The core idea of the method is to analyze influences among relations in a social or economic group by building a QAP weighted network of networks of relations. In the QAP weighted network, a node depicts a relation and an undirect edge exists between any pair of nodes if there is significant correlation between relations. As an application of the QAP weighted network, we study international services trade by using the QAP weighted network, in which nodes depict 10 kinds of services trade relations. After the analysis of international services trade by QAP weighted network, and by using distance indicators, hierarchy tree and minimum spanning tree, the conclusion shows that: Firstly, significant correlation exists in all services trade, and the development of any one service trade will stimulate the other nine. Secondly, as the economic globalization goes deeper, correlations in all services trade have been strengthened continually, and clustering effects exist in those services trade. Thirdly, transportation services trade, computer and information services trade and communication services trade have the most influence and are at the core in all services trade.

  2. The role of science in international trade law.

    PubMed

    Lugard, Maurits; Smart, Michael

    2006-02-01

    While the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade addressed overt barriers to international trade, the current focus of international trade rules has shifted to less obvious, but in many cases no less restrictive, barriers to trade, such as protectionist measures adopted under the guise of health and safety standards. The new agreements established under the World Trade Organization ("WTO"), including the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), provide important tools that can be invoked by governments and used by stakeholders to address regulatory barriers that were once thought outside the purview of international trade rules. Non-science based regulations can be and have been successfully challenged under the SPS and TBT Agreements, which prohibit WTO Members from maintaining laws or regulations that adversely affect trade unless such measures are scientifically justified. Stakeholders should use to the fullest extent possible international trade rules to eliminate non-science based regulations that adversely affect trade in the goods that they produce.

  3. International regulation of wildlife trade: relevant legislation and organisations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M E; Rosser, A M

    2002-04-01

    Trade in wildlife brings into play a variety of legislation from several distinct areas of law. Many species of wildlife are subject to restrictions on international movement with the aim of protecting wild populations from over-exploitation. Animal health legislation is strictly applied to the movement of most animals to prevent the spread of infectious diseases between importing and exporting counties. The welfare of animals in the course of trade requires consideration and relevant legislation has been put into place, particularly in respect of transportation. A number of institutions have an impact on the trade itself or on the legislation that regulates wildlife trade on an international basis.

  4. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  5. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-20

    Estimate Methodology, p. v . 33 PhRMA, “Special 301 Submissions for 2008.” and many other developed countries, with relatively strong regulatory systems...U.S. Trade Issues, by Wayne M. Morrison. 35 Liza Porteus Viana , “Industry Losing Faith in WIPO: Debates US WTO Cases Against China,” Intellectual...Factsheet, “Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement,” August 4, 2008. 89 Liza Porteus Viana , “USTR Plans Another Year of Elevating IP Protection With

  6. Turmoil: A Simulation Game Dealing With International Oil Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Robert

    1976-01-01

    This simulation game is intended to help secondary students understand the complexities of the international oil trade. Students represent nations involved in trading oil and other commodities. The game takes about five classroom periods to teach. The article includes all essential materials. (Author/RM)

  7. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  8. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  9. Confluence of climate change policies and international trade

    SciTech Connect

    Vickery, R.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes market information on energy conservation and renewable energy industries in the U.S., and highlights activities of the International Trade Administration. International treaties agreements on environmental issues are examined with respect to their influence on U.S. trade promotion and job creation. A sectoral analysis of the economic impact of greenhouse gas emissions reductions on industries is very briefly summarized. Finally, the need for a climate change treaty in spite of possible adverse impacts is discussed. 1 tab.

  10. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-23

    PhRMA, “Special 301 Submission for 2007,” Appendix: Damage Estimate Methodology, p. v . 33 PhRMA, “Special 301 Submissions for 2008.” and many other...2007, [http://www.ustr.gov]. See also CRS Report RL33536, China-U.S. Trade Issues, by Wayne M. Morrison. 35 Liza Porteus Viana , “Industry Losing Faith...2007. 88 “Peru IPR Text Reflects FTA Template, Shows Reduced PhRMA Sway,” Inside US Trade, July 6, 2007. 89 Liza Porteus Viana , “USTR Plans Another

  11. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  12. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  13. International Trade: Tennessee's Window on the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Miriam; And Others

    The activities and discussion questions in this unit can be used in secondary social studies classes to teach students about world trade and its role in their personal lives. Although designed for Tennessee classrooms, the unit can be easily adapted for use elsewhere. Many of the activities are self-contained. However, some require the use of…

  14. Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-05

    year. Korea and China, along with India, Brazil, South Africa, Turkey, Mexico, and Malaysia , represented the majority of all patent filings from...on counterfeit goods seized by category . Counterfeit footwear ranked as the top commodity seized, representing $102.3 million in domestic value. Other...retaliation. For countries outside the WTO, the possibility of trade sanctions remain. The USTR also has created several administrative categories for

  15. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  16. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.72 How can I trade internationally... CITES species. (2) International trade in salvaged Appendix-I plants, and......

  17. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use

    PubMed Central

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of –1.00 to –1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0–1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition. PMID:26168045

  18. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use.

    PubMed

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of -1.00 to -1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0-1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition.

  19. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Pan, D.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now one of the most polluted regions worldwide. Much attention has been paid to the global impacts of Chinese pollution via atmospheric transport processes. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. International trade allows for separation of regions producing and consuming the products, altering the spatial distribution of associated emissions and leading to substantial changes in regional air pollution and global transport. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Our previous work has shown considerable variability in the contributions of export-related emissions to Chinese total emissions from 2000 to 2009. Here, we attempt to assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and global impacts, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model. Given the distinctive contributions of different economic sectors to pollutant emissions, we also attempt to investigate the sectoral contributions to pollution loadings and transport. Our study will help understand the role of international trade in the trends and variability of Chinese pollution.

  20. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.

  1. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately…

  2. International Trade. U.S. Metric Study Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gerald F.

    In order to evaluate the potential effects of U.S. conversion to SI (Systems International) units on U.S. foreign trade, 188 export product classes and 155 import product classes were selected from 1,166 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) product classes and questionnaires were mailed to a total of 510 firms, utilizing separate forms for…

  3. On Quality Education Reform in International Trade Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing problems of quality education of specialization of international trade in current colleges and universities of China, and then propose several pieces of corresponding suggestion on educational reform. According to the characteristics of college and university education, we shall emphasize on the…

  4. Summarizing the evidence on the international trade in illegal wildlife.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Gail Emilia; Smith, Katherine F

    2010-08-01

    The global trade in illegal wildlife is a multi-billion dollar industry that threatens biodiversity and acts as a potential avenue for invasive species and disease spread. Despite the broad-sweeping implications of illegal wildlife sales, scientists have yet to describe the scope and scale of the trade. Here, we provide the most thorough and current description of the illegal wildlife trade using 12 years of seizure records compiled by TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network. These records comprise 967 seizures including massive quantities of ivory, tiger skins, live reptiles, and other endangered wildlife and wildlife products. Most seizures originate in Southeast Asia, a recently identified hotspot for future emerging infectious diseases. To date, regulation and enforcement have been insufficient to effectively control the global trade in illegal wildlife at national and international scales. Effective control will require a multi-pronged approach including community-scale education and empowering local people to value wildlife, coordinated international regulation, and a greater allocation of national resources to on-the-ground enforcement.

  5. International Trade Network: Fractal Properties and Globalization Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-01

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  6. International trade network: fractal properties and globalization puzzle.

    PubMed

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-12

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  7. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Signal International Texas GP, LLC, in Orange, Texas....

  8. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-06

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling.

  9. Global climate forcing of aerosols embodied in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jintai; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven; Ni, Ruijing; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Da; Zhao, Hongyan; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David; Feng, Tong; Zhang, Qiang; Yan, Yingying; Hu, Yongyun; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhu; Jiang, Xujia; Geng, Guannan; He, Kebin; Huang, Yi; Guan, Dabo

    2016-10-01

    International trade separates regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. Yet the role of trade in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions has never been quantified. Here, we contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers such as Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences between consumption- and production-related radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of aerosols while lowering global emissions.

  10. 77 FR 15019 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES... implement the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)...

  11. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    PubMed

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed.

  12. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  13. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    PubMed

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand.

  14. Asymmetric responses of international stock markets to trading volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Richard; Chen, Cathy W. S.; Lin, Doris S. Y.; Huang, Ming-Hsiang

    2006-02-01

    The major goal of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that stock returns and return volatility are asymmetric, threshold nonlinear, functions of change in trading volume. A minor goal is to examine whether return spillover effects also display such asymmetry. Employing a double-threshold GARCH model with trading volume as a threshold variable, we find strong evidence supporting this hypothesis in five international market return series. Asymmetric causality tests lend further support to our trading volume threshold model and conclusions. Specifically, an increase in volume is positively associated, while decreasing volume is negatively associated, with the major price index in four of the five markets. The volatility of each series also displays an asymmetric reaction, four of the markets display higher volatility following increases in trading volume. Using posterior odds ratio, the proposed threshold model is strongly favored in three of the five markets, compared to a US news double threshold GARCH model and a symmetric GARCH model. We also find significant nonlinear asymmetric return spillover effects from the US market.

  15. Multinetwork of international trade: A commodity-specific analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barigozzi, Matteo; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2010-04-01

    We study the topological properties of the multinetwork of commodity-specific trade relations among world countries over the 1992-2003 period, comparing them with those of the aggregate-trade network, known in the literature as the international-trade network (ITN). We show that link-weight distributions of commodity-specific networks are extremely heterogeneous and (quasi) log normality of aggregate link-weight distribution is generated as a sheer outcome of aggregation. Commodity-specific networks also display average connectivity, clustering, and centrality levels very different from their aggregate counterpart. We also find that ITN complete connectivity is mainly achieved through the presence of many weak links that keep commodity-specific networks together and that the correlation structure existing between topological statistics within each single network is fairly robust and mimics that of the aggregate network. Finally, we employ cross-commodity correlations between link weights to build hierarchies of commodities. Our results suggest that on the top of a relatively time-invariant “intrinsic” taxonomy (based on inherent between-commodity similarities), the roles played by different commodities in the ITN have become more and more dissimilar, possibly as the result of an increased trade specialization. Our approach is general and can be used to characterize any multinetwork emerging as a nontrivial aggregation of several interdependent layers.

  16. International trade and determinants of price differentials of insulin medicine.

    PubMed

    Helble, Matthias; Aizawa, Toshiaki

    2017-02-01

    Empirical studies on pharmaceutical pricing across countries have found evidence that prices vary according to per capita income. These studies are typically based on survey data from a subset of countries and cover only one year. In this paper, we study the international trade and price of insulin by using detailed trade data for 186 importing countries from 1995 to 2013. With almost 12,000 observations, our study constitutes the largest comparative study on pharmaceutical pricing conducted so far. The large dataset allows us to uncover new determinants of price differentials. Our analysis shows that the international trade of insulin increased substantially over this time period, clearly outpacing the increasing prevalence of diabetes. Using the unit values of imports, we also study the determinants of price differentials between countries. Running various panel regressions, we find that the differences in prices across countries can be explained by the following factors: First, corroborating earlier studies, we find that per capita GDP is positively correlated with the unit price of insulin. Second, the price of insulin drugs originating from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries tends to be substantially higher than for those imported from developing countries. Third, more intense competition among suppliers leads to lower insulin prices. Fourth, higher out-of-pocket payments for health care are associated with higher prices. Finally, higher volumes and tariffs seem to result in lower unit prices.

  17. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by…

  18. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    United States and abroad. In 2008, the trade deficit in goods reached $821.2 billion on a balance of payments ( BoP ) basis, up slightly from $819.4...pressures for the government to do more to open foreign markets , to shield U.S. producers from foreign competition, or to assist U.S. industries to...intervened in foreign exchange markets to keep the value of their currencies from rising too fast. The broadest measure of U.S. international economic

  19. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    PubMed

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.

  20. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production);...

  1. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry

  2. The rise of China in the International Trade Network: a community core detection approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995-2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism.

  3. The Rise of China in the International Trade Network: A Community Core Detection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995–2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism. PMID:25136895

  4. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28, 2011; 3 p.m.-4:30 p... trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined that...

  5. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January 12, 2011; 10 a.m.-11... anticipated trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined...

  6. 75 FR 9615 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs: Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March 16, 2010; 10:30 a.m.-11... anticipated trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined...

  7. Risk analysis and the law: international law, the World Trade Organization, Codex Alimentarius and national legislation.

    PubMed

    Horton, L R

    2001-12-01

    This paper discusses the place of risk analysis in international trade from a US perspective, through looking at the activities of the World Trade Organization and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. After examining what the trade agreements say about risk analysis and how international bodies are advancing and using risk analysis, the paper goes on to assess how risk analysis is used at a national level. Finally, recommendations are made for strengthening international food safety initiatives.

  8. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    PubMed

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-25

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade.

  9. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    PubMed Central

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo–Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to “hitchhikers” associated with the ornamental trade. PMID:27221025

  10. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo–Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to “hitchhikers” associated with the ornamental trade.

  11. International trade and waste and fuel managment issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: New plants with high safety and availability, by Bill Poirier, Westinghouse Electric Company; Increased reliability and competitiveness, by Russell E. Stachowski, GE Energy, Nuclear; Fuel for long-term supply of nuclear power, by Kumiaki Moriya, Hitachi, Ltd., Japan; Super high burnup fuel, By Noboru Itagaki and Tamotsu Murata, Nuclear Fuel Industries LTD., Japan; Zero fuel failures by 2010, by Tom Patten, AREVA NP Inc.; Decommissioning opportunities in the UK, by David Brown and William Thorn, US Department of Commerce; Industry's three challenges, by Dale E. Klein, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and, A step ahead of the current ABWR's, compiled by Claire Zurek, GE Energy.

  12. International trade and waste and fuel managment issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A global solution for clients, by Yves Linz, AREVA NP; A safer, secure and economical plant, by Andy White, GE Hitachi Nuclear; Robust global prospects, by Ken Petrunik, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited; Development of NPPs in China, by Chen Changbing and Li Huiqiang, Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Yucca Mountain update; and, A class of its own, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear. The Industry Innovation articles in this issue are: Fuel assembly inspection program, by Jim Lemons, Tennessee Valley Authority; and, Improved in-core fuel shuffle for reduced refueling duration, by James Tusar, Exelon Nuclear.

  13. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer’s market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer’s willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 − DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  14. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  15. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14, 2012; 2 p.m.-4 p.m... negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined that the meeting will...

  16. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    PubMed

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  17. 77 FR 59690 - Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading September 26, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Titan Resources International, Corp. (``Titan''). Titan is a Wyoming corporation... releases and other public statements concerning Titan's business operations and financial condition....

  18. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.71 How can I... are not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. (2) The quotas have been......

  19. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in plants... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD... in plants? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions: In addition to the requirements of this...

  20. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  1. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  2. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  3. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in roots... trade internationally in roots of American ginseng? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Whole plants and roots (whole, sliced, and parts, excluding manufactured parts, products, and derivatives,...

  4. Design and Implementation of a Simulation-Based Learning System for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Guo-Heng; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the traditional instructional method used in international trade, teachers provide knowledge to learners by lecturing using slides and setting assignments; however, these methods merely deliver international trade knowledge rather than facilitating student development of relevant skills. To solve these problems, we proposed a simulation-based…

  5. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Harmonized System of the World Customs Organization. (1) Logs means all wood in the rough, whether or not... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  6. Spatial Dynamics of the Communities and the Role of Major Countries in the International Rare Earths Trade: A Complex Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xibo; Ge, Jianping; Wei, Wendong; Li, Hanshi; Wu, Chen; Zhu, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths (RE) are critical materials in many high-technology products. Due to the uneven distribution and important functions for industrial development, most countries import RE from a handful of suppliers that are rich in RE, such as China. However, because of the rapid growth of RE exploitation and pollution of the mining and production process, some of the main suppliers have gradually tended to reduce the RE production and exports. Especially in the last decade, international RE trade has been changing in the trade community and trade volume. Based on complex network theory, we built an unweighted and weighted network to explore the evolution of the communities and identify the role of the major countries in the RE trade. The results show that an international RE trade network was dispersed and unstable because of the existence of five to nine trade communities in the unweighted network and four to eight trade communities in the weighted network in the past 13 years. Moreover, trade groups formed due to the great influence of geopolitical relations. China was often associated with the South America and African countries in the same trade group. In addition, Japan, China, the United States, and Germany had the largest impacts on international RE trade from 2002 to 2014. Last, some policy suggestions were highlighted according to the results. PMID:27137779

  7. Spatial Dynamics of the Communities and the Role of Major Countries in the International Rare Earths Trade: A Complex Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xibo; Ge, Jianping; Wei, Wendong; Li, Hanshi; Wu, Chen; Zhu, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths (RE) are critical materials in many high-technology products. Due to the uneven distribution and important functions for industrial development, most countries import RE from a handful of suppliers that are rich in RE, such as China. However, because of the rapid growth of RE exploitation and pollution of the mining and production process, some of the main suppliers have gradually tended to reduce the RE production and exports. Especially in the last decade, international RE trade has been changing in the trade community and trade volume. Based on complex network theory, we built an unweighted and weighted network to explore the evolution of the communities and identify the role of the major countries in the RE trade. The results show that an international RE trade network was dispersed and unstable because of the existence of five to nine trade communities in the unweighted network and four to eight trade communities in the weighted network in the past 13 years. Moreover, trade groups formed due to the great influence of geopolitical relations. China was often associated with the South America and African countries in the same trade group. In addition, Japan, China, the United States, and Germany had the largest impacts on international RE trade from 2002 to 2014. Last, some policy suggestions were highlighted according to the results.

  8. 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This book is a guide to the 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference. It consists largely of abstracts of the oral and poster presentations that were to be made, and gives some general information about the conference and its schedule.

  9. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-02-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water-scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce nitrogen concentrations from fertilizers and pesticides released into streams and aquifers to allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on international trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries, and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  10. International trade and waste and fuel management issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Innovative financing and workforce planning, by Donna Jacobs, Entergy Nuclear; Nuclear power - a long-term need, by John C. Devine, Gerald Goldsmith and Michael DeLallo, WorleyParsons; Importance of loan guarantee program, by Donald Hintz; EPC contracts for new plants, by Dave Barry, Shaw Power Group; GNEP and fuel recycling, by Alan Hanson, AREVA NC Inc.; Safe and reliable reactor, by Kiyoshi Yamauchi, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.; Safe, small and simple reactors, by Yoshi Sakashita, Toshiba Corporation; Nuclear power in Thailand, by Tatchai Sumitra, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology; and, Nuclear power in Vietnam, by Tran Huu Phat, Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission. The Industry Innovation article this issue is Rectifying axial-offset-anomaly problems, by Don Adams, Tennessee Valley Authority. The Plant Profile article is Star of Stars Excellence, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.

  11. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  12. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  13. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-26

    discussion of particular trends and points of contention related to trade policy. The United States is now running huge deficits in its trade with other...nations. Between 2006 and 2007 the U.S. merchandise trade deficit declined slightly from $838 billion to $819 billion on a balance-of-payments (BoP...basis and from $817 billion to $790 billion on a Census basis. A 2007 surplus in services trade of $119 billion resulted in a deficit of $700 billion on

  14. Support for international trade law: The US and the EU compared

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Elsig, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In this article we compare US and EU support for bilateral and multilateral international trade law. We assess the support for international law of both trading blocs by focusing on the following four dimensions: leadership, consent, compliance and internalization. Although we find strong support for international trade law from both the US and the EU in general, we also witness some variation, most notably in relation to the design of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) law. Turning to explaining these (moderate) differences, we argue that outcomes in US trade policy can best be explained by a domestic political factor, namely the direct influence of interest groups. Although the involvement of societal interests also goes a long way in explaining EU behavior, it does not tell the entire story. We posit that, in EU trade policy, institutions are a particular conditioning factor that needs to be stressed. Moreover, we suggest that foreign policy considerations in managing trade relations have characterized EU’s support for international trade law. PMID:27867316

  15. Support for international trade law: The US and the EU compared.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Elsig, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    In this article we compare US and EU support for bilateral and multilateral international trade law. We assess the support for international law of both trading blocs by focusing on the following four dimensions: leadership, consent, compliance and internalization. Although we find strong support for international trade law from both the US and the EU in general, we also witness some variation, most notably in relation to the design of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) law. Turning to explaining these (moderate) differences, we argue that outcomes in US trade policy can best be explained by a domestic political factor, namely the direct influence of interest groups. Although the involvement of societal interests also goes a long way in explaining EU behavior, it does not tell the entire story. We posit that, in EU trade policy, institutions are a particular conditioning factor that needs to be stressed. Moreover, we suggest that foreign policy considerations in managing trade relations have characterized EU's support for international trade law.

  16. Career Theory from an International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Jean; Lenz, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The Career Theory in an International Perspective group highlighted 7 approaches: action theory, self-construction model, transition model, dynamics of entering the workforce, narrative in career guidance, dilemma approach, and interactive identity construction. Three main characteristics appear to be common to these different contributions: (a)…

  17. International Trade: A Small Business Primer. Growing Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, Roger E.

    The United States' declining share of world trade is connected with the fact that hundreds of thousands of medium- and small-sized businesses are ignoring trade and exports. The cure for their fear of the unknown is information and education. Exports have a number of advantages: increased profits, spread of overhead costs, smooth seasonal…

  18. English for International Trade: China Enters the WTO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Jixian; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Zheng

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey into the impact of China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) on business professionals and college English instruction. Individuals in business and trading companies from the five cities in Ahejiang province were polled on issues related to the learning and teaching of English with reference to China's entry into…

  19. International trade regulation and publicly funded health care in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ostry, A S

    2001-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) creates new challenges for the Canadian health care system, arguably one of the most "socialized" systems in the world today. In particular, the WTO's enhanced trade dispute resolution powers, enforceable with sanctions, may make Canadian health care vulnerable to corporate penetration, particularly in the pharmaceutical and private health services delivery sectors. The Free Trade Agreement and its extension, the North American Free Trade Agreement, gave multinational pharmaceutical companies greater freedom in Canada at the expense of the Canadian generic drug industry. Recent challenges by the WTO have continued this process, which will limit the health care system's ability to control drug costs. And pressure is growing, through WTO's General Agreement on Trade in Services and moves by the Alberta provincial government to privatize health care delivery, to open up the Canadian system to corporate penetration. New WTO agreements will bring increasing pressure to privatize Canada's public health care system and limit government's ability to control pharmaceutical costs.

  20. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  1. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries’ roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading “trophic levels” have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618

  2. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  3. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts.

  4. EPA's Role in International Environment, Trade and Finance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Both domestically and globally, protecting human health and the environment is essential to sustainable economic growth and development. EPA works in trade, environment and finance to protect these goals.

  5. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-03-01

    The flow of pollution through international trade flows has the ability to undermine environmental policies, particularly for global pollutants. In this article we determine the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade among 87 countries for the year 2001. We find that globally there are over 5.3 Gt of CO2 embodied in trade and that Annex B countries are net importers of CO2 emissions. Depending on country characteristics--such as size variables and geographic location--there are considerable variations in the embodied emissions. We argue that emissions embodied in trade may have a significant impact on participation in and effectiveness of global climate policies such as the Kyoto Protocol. We discuss several policy options to reduce the impact of trade in global climate policy. If countries take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual countries, then the impacts of trade can be substantially reduced. Adjusting emission inventories for trade gives a more consistent description of a country's environmental pressures and circumvents many trade related issues. It also gives opportunities to exploit trade as a means of mitigating emissions. Not least, a better understanding of the role that trade plays in a country's economic and environmental development will help design more effective and participatory climate policy post-Kyoto.

  6. International trade in meat: the tip of the pork chop.

    PubMed

    Galloway, James N; Burke, Marshall; Bradford, G Eric; Naylor, Rosamond; Falcon, Walter; Chapagain, Ashok K; Gaskell, Joanne C; McCullough, Ellen; Mooney, Harold A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Steinfeld, Henning; Wassenaar, Tom; Smil, Vaclav

    2007-12-01

    This paper provides an original account of global land, water, and nitrogen use in support of industrialized livestock production and trade, with emphasis on two of the fastest-growing sectors, pork and poultry. Our analysis focuses on trade in feed and animal products, using a new model that calculates the amount of "virtual" nitrogen, water, and land used in production but not embedded in the product. We show how key meat-importing countries, such as Japan, benefit from "virtual" trade in land, water, and nitrogen, and how key meat-exporting countries, such as Brazil, provide these resources without accounting for their true environmental cost. Results show that Japan's pig and chicken meat imports embody the virtual equivalent of 50% of Japan's total arable land, and half of Japan's virtual nitrogen total is lost in the US. Trade links with China are responsible for 15% of the virtual nitrogen left behind in Brazil due to feed and meat exports, and 20% of Brazil's area is used to grow soybean exports. The complexity of trade in meat, feed, water, and nitrogen is illustrated by the dual roles of the US and The Netherlands as both importers and exporters of meat. Mitigation of environmental damage from industrialized livestock production and trade depends on a combination of direct-pricing strategies, regulatory approaches, and use of best management practices. Our analysis indicates that increased water- and nitrogen-use efficiency and land conservation resulting from these measures could significantly reduce resource costs.

  7. 77 FR 72816 - Foreign-Trade Zone 20-Suffolk, VA; Authorization of Production Activity; Usui International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 20--Suffolk, VA; Authorization of Production Activity; Usui International Corporation (Diesel Engine Fuel Lines); Chesapeake, VA On June 28, 2012, the Virginia...

  8. International trade versus public health during the FCTC negotiations, 1999-2003

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine why the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control did not include an explicit trade provision and delineate the central arguments in the debate over trade provision during the negotiations. Methods Triangulate interviews with participants in the FCTC negotiations, the FCTC negotiations documents, and tobacco industry documents. Results An explicit FCTC trade provision on relation between international trade and public health became a contentious issue during the negotiations. As a result, two conflicting positions, health-over-trade and opposition to health-over-trade emerged. Opposition to explicit trade language giving health priority was by both tobacco industry and countries that generally supported strong FCTC provisions because of concerns over ‘disguised protectionism’ and setting a precedent whereby governments could forfeit their obligations under pre-existing treaties. Owing to lack of consensus among political actors involved in the negotiations, a compromise position eliminating any mention of trade emerged, which was predicated on belief among some in the public health community that public health would prevail in future trade versus health conflicts. Conclusion The absence of an explicit FCTC trade provision was due to a political compromise rather than the impact of international trade agreements and decisions on public health and lack of consensus among health advocates. This failure to include an explicit trade provision in the FCTC suggests that the public health community should become more involved in trade and health issues at all levels of governance and press the FCTC Conference of the Parties for clarification of this critical issue. PMID:20943828

  9. 78 FR 8550 - Relocation of Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... correspondence directed to the Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, including mailed comments... correspondence, including ruling requests and mailed comments regarding 19 U.S.C. 1625 modifications...

  10. Methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrave, T.; Helme, E.A.

    1998-12-31

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held in December, 1997, the international community established binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions obligations for industrialized countries. The Parties to the new Kyoto Protocol also agreed on the use of a number of market-based mechanisms, including international GHG emissions trading. These market mechanisms were of critical to the importance because they have the potential to significantly reduce the costs of treaty compliance. In principle, an international cap-and-trade system appears to be one of the most cost-effective means of reducing GHG emissions. Maintaining the integrity of the trading system is of primary importance in ensuring that trading helps countries to meet their GHG commitments. This paper explores methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system, starting with a discussion of preconditions for participation in trading and then moving to features of an international compliance system. Achieving maximum compliance with international requirements may best be accomplished by limiting participation in trading to Annex I countries that maintain strong domestic compliance systems. Prior to the climate negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997, the US Administration proposed a number of preconditions for participation in trading, including the adoption of international measurement standards and the establishment of domestic compliance and enforcement programs. This paper explores these and other preconditions, including the establishment of tough domestic financial penalties on companies that exceed allowed emissions and seller responsibility for the delivery of real reductions. The paper also discusses several necessary features of the international compliance system.

  11. NAFTA literature at the International Trade Commission library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Most of the US official materials regarding NAFTA originate in the Executive Office of the President, especially the Office of the United States Trade Representative. These materials can be purchased from the U.S.G.P.O. There were also numerous Congressional hearings; many of which are probably now out of print, government agencies and the public are welcome to make copies of the ones in the collections of the ITC libraries. One of the most important sources of materials available in electronic format is the National Trade Data Base, produced by the Department of Commerce. This is a collection of at least 120 separate files containing documents relating to trade. It includes several files specifically on NAFTA, including the text of the treaty. It is available as two CD-ROM's, issued monthly, or on Internet.

  12. The relationship between the World Trade Organisation and the Office International des Epizooties.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    1997-04-01

    The provisions of the World Trade Organisation Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures are designed to extend the liberalisation of trade, without increasing the risk to public, animal or plant health. The international standards set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) will be used as a benchmark by World Trade Organisation panels and committees when evaluating national sanitary-based regulations. For a significant liberalisation of trade to be achieved, Member Countries are faced with a dual mandate: a) each country must put these concepts into practice when making import/export decisions; and b) each country must make the commitment to support the OIE in its efforts to develop and review sanitary standards. Of equal importance to the application of standards is the cultural change that trade and regulatory communities must undergo. The author examines the role of Member Countries and the OIE in the implementation of this important agreement.

  13. International Trade and Worker Displacement: Evaluation of the Trade Adjustment Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Paul T.; Corson, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Two samples of Trade Adjustment Assistance Program participants before and after 1988 program changes were studied. The program served workers who were permanently displaced and suffered significant earnings losses, but there was no evidence that training affected earnings three years after initial unemployment. (SK)

  14. The state of the international organ trade: a provisional picture based on integration of available information.

    PubMed

    Shimazono, Yosuke

    2007-12-01

    Organ transplantation is widely practised worldwide. The expansion of organ transplantation has led to a critical shortage of organs and the development of the organ trade. Many patients travel to areas where organs are obtainable through commercial transactions. Although the international organ trade is regarded as an important health policy issue, its current state remains obscure because of scarce data and the lack of efforts to synthesize available data. This paper is an attempt to integrate information about the current international organ trade and create a tentative global picture based on a systematic review of 309 media reports, journal articles and other documents. The international organ trade is described in terms of its forms, the organ-exporting countries, the organ-importing countries and its outcomes and consequences.

  15. Convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. 1987 annual report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-15

    Five tables present all reported 1987 data on international trade, involving the United States, in wildlife and plant species listed on the appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Data on species, quantities, countries involved, purpose of trade, and description of products or specimens are provided.

  16. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-03

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance.

  17. Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Medicines: International Trade Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-28

    for pharmaceutical companies to invest in R&D. • Type III diseases, such as dengue fever and African sleeping sickness, are those that have...customs authorities temporarily halted shipments of generic medicines manufactured in India and in transit to Colombia and Peru via the Netherlands... Peru , Panama, and Colombia. The Obama Administration is reviewing U.S. trade policy, including IPRs and pharmaceuticals

  18. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-05

    declined slightly from $838 billion to $819 billion on a balance-of-payments ( BoP ) basis and from $817 billion to $790 billion on a Census basis. A...the $753 billion deficit in 2006. While U.S. exports are highly competitive in world markets , these sales abroad are overshadowed by the huge demand...they may generate trade friction and pressures for the government to do more to open foreign markets , to shield U.S. producers from foreign

  19. On the theory of internal kink oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Breizman, B.N.; Candy, J.; Berk, H.L.; Porcelli, F. |

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors derive a time evolution equation for internal kink oscillations which is valid for both stable and unstable plasma regimes, and incorporates the nonlinear response of an energetic particle population. A linear analysis reveals a parallel between (i) the time evolution of the spatial derivative of the internal kink radial displacement and (ii) the time evolution of the perturbed particle distribution function in the field of an electrostatic wave (Landau problem). They show that diamagnetic drift effects make the asymptotic decay of internal kink perturbations in a stable plasma algebraic rather than exponential. However, under certain conditions the stable root of the dispersion relation can dominate the response of the on-axis displacement for a significant period of time. The form of the evolution equation naturally allows one to include a nonlinear, fully toroidal treatment of energetic particles into the theory of internal kink oscillations.

  20. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.20 What... the sea under a pre-existing treaty, convention, or international agreement for that species...

  1. Focus on the 1990's: International Trade Opportunities for the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Designed to highlight business opportunities of the 1990s as well as available educational programs relating to international business, this report contains six presentations from a 1990 conference on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC). The first article, "Texas in the Global Economy: Attitude and Opportunity," by John A.…

  2. 76 FR 54520 - Somerset International Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Somerset International Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading August 30, 2011. It appears to... concerning the securities of Somerset International Group, Inc. The Commission is of the opinion that...

  3. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  4. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplement to IUCN Bulletin, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the endangered species of wild animals and plants of the world prompted the drafting of this international convention regulating the import, export, and re-export of such species. Nations signing this document are required to impose strict controls on the international trade of these plants and animals or their recognizable parts. The…

  5. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-16

    declined slightly from $838 billion to $819 billion on a balance-of-payments ( BoP ) basis and from $817 billion to $790 billion on a Census basis. A 2007...753 billion deficit in 2006. While U.S. exports are highly competitive in world markets , these sales abroad are overshadowed by the huge demand by...may generate trade friction and pressures for the government to do more to open foreign markets , to shield U.S. producers from foreign competition, or

  6. U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-04

    billion on a balance-of-payments ( BoP ) basis and $817 billion on a Census basis. A surplus in services trade of $80 billion resulted in a deficit of...competitive in world markets , these sales abroad are overshadowed by the huge demand by Americans for imported products. In 2006, U.S. exports of goods and...pressures for the government to do more to open foreign markets , to shield U.S. producers from foreign competition, or to assist U.S. industries to

  7. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    SciTech Connect

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

  8. Embodied environmental emissions in U.S. international trade, 1997-2004.

    PubMed

    Weber, Christopher L; Matthews, H Scott

    2007-07-15

    Significant recent attention has been given to quantifying the environmental impacts of international trade. However, the United States, despite being the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases and having large recent growth in international trade, has seen little analysis. This work uses a multi-country input-output model of the U.S. and its seven largest trading partners (Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, Germany, the UK, and Korea) to analyze the environmental effects of changes to U.S. trade structure and volume from 1997 to 2004. It is shown that increased import volume and shifting trade patterns during this time period led to a large increase in the U.S.' embodied emissions in trade (EET) for CO2, SO2, and NO(x). Methodological uncertainties, especially related to uncertainties of international currency conversion, lead to large differences in estimation of the total EET, but we estimate that the overall embodied CO2 in U.S. imports has grown from between 0.5 and 0.8 Gt of CO2 in 1997 to between 0.8 and 1.8 Gt of CO2 in 2004, representing between 9-14% and 13-30% of U.S. (2-4% to 3-7% of global) CO2 emissions in 1997 and 2004, respectively.

  9. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Pachanee, Cha-aim; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Hempisut, Pintusorn

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH), using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session. It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period. External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals. After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain. PMID:15225376

  10. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-02

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required.

  11. Will international emissions trading help achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Kubota, Izumi; Dai, Hancheng; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-10-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, parties set and implement their own emissions targets as nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to tackle climate change. International carbon emissions trading is expected to reduce global mitigation costs. Here, we show the benefit of emissions trading under both NDCs and a more ambitious reduction scenario consistent with the 2 °C goal. The results show that the global welfare loss, which was measured based on estimated household consumption change in 2030, decreased by 75% (from 0.47% to 0.16%), as a consequence of achieving NDCs through emissions trading. Furthermore, achieving the 2 °C targets without emissions trading led to a global welfare loss of 1.4%-3.4%, depending on the burden-sharing scheme used, whereas emissions trading reduced the loss to around 1.5% (from 1.4% to 1.7%). These results indicate that emissions trading is a valuable option for the international system, enabling NDCs and more ambitious targets to be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

  12. Insights from life history theory for an explicit treatment of trade-offs in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Anne

    2015-06-01

    As economic and social contexts become more embedded within biodiversity conservation, it becomes obvious that resources are a limiting factor in conservation. This recognition is leading conservation scientists and practitioners to increasingly frame conservation decisions as trade-offs between conflicting societal objectives. However, this framing is all too often done in an intuitive way, rather than by addressing trade-offs explicitly. In contrast, the concept of trade-off is a keystone in evolutionary biology, where it has been investigated extensively. I argue that insights from evolutionary theory can provide methodological and theoretical support to evaluating and quantifying trade-offs in biodiversity conservation. I reviewed the diverse ways in which trade-offs have emerged within the context of conservation and how advances from evolutionary theory can help avoid the main pitfalls of an implicit approach. When studying both evolutionary trade-offs (e.g., reproduction vs. survival) and conservation trade-offs (e.g., biodiversity conservation vs. agriculture), it is crucial to correctly identify the limiting resource, hold constant the amount of this resource when comparing different scenarios, and choose appropriate metrics to quantify the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. Insights from studies in evolutionary theory also reveal how an inadequate selection of conservation solutions may result from considering suboptimal rather than optional solutions when examining whether a trade-off exits between 2 objectives. Furthermore, the shape of a trade-off curve (i.e., whether the relationship between 2 objectives follows a concave, convex, or linear form) is known to affect crucially the definition of optimal solutions in evolutionary biology and very likely affects decisions in biodiversity conservation planning too. This interface between evolutionary biology and biodiversity conservation can therefore provide methodological guidance to

  13. 78 FR 4124 - Foreign-Trade Zone 68-El Paso, TX, Application for Subzone, Expeditors International of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 68--El Paso, TX, Application for Subzone, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc., El Paso, TX An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of El Paso, grantee of FTZ 68, requesting special-purpose subzone...

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis: usefulness in international trade.

    PubMed

    Milian-Suazo, Feliciano; Harris, Beth; Arriaga Díaz, Camila; Romero Torres, Cecilia; Stuber, Tod; Alvarez Ojeda, Genoveva; Morales Loredo, Alberto; Perez Soria, Martina; Payeur, Janet B

    2008-11-17

    Tuberculosis (TB) represents a barrier for free trade of livestock between Mexico and the United States of America (US). In spite of efforts from Mexico to export TB-free animals, some of those found with TB lesions in slaughterhouses in the US are traced back to that country. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine, through molecular epidemiology, the most probable source of infection for cattle found with TB lesions in the US. Ninety M. bovis isolates, 50 from Mexico obtained from cattle in 8 different states, and 40 from the US from cattle, deer, elk and feral pigs from 7 different states were included in the study. All samples were analyzed in both laboratories, Mexico and the US, following the same protocol for molecular analysis by spoligotyping. Twenty-seven clusters, ranging from 1 to 18 genetically similar strains were found. Some clustering by country was observed, strains from cattle and deer in Michigan in the US fell into the same cluster, suggesting transmission between species. These results, combined with epidemiological information suggest that despite of the possibility that some animals with lesions in the US come from Mexico as false negatives, the US has its own source of infection, must probably in dairy cattle and wildlife. Genetic diversity of isolates from Mexico was larger than that in the US, which could be a consequence of the endemic status of the disease and the indiscriminate movement of animals between regions.

  15. Queer theory, late capitalism, and internalized homophobia.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Max

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of queer theory represents a transformation in the approach to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered peoples. It has claimed new ground for treating sexuality and gender as worthy subjects in their own rights, rather than offshoots of gay and lesbian studies or of general cultural theory. The author contends, however, that it is doubtful that this approach can lead to social change. Queer theory has dismissed the usefulness of the disciplines that were the foundation of the social movements that initiated gay and lesbian studies, such as political economy, and in doing so, it has surreptitiously mirrored the social relations of reproduction that constitute late capitalism. This mirroring has had unseen consequences for the individual in society, and with queer theory's insistence on the relativity of experience and the dismissal of identity, has set the stage for a benign reinforcement of internalized homophobia. The author argues that this approach can be mediated by recognizing that identity is fluid, and that by focusing on identifying with social movements rather than centering analyses on the problems associated with identifying as a particular category of status and being, we can refocus our energies on the building and maintenance of mutual support and collective recognition that can lead to resolving the stagnation now dominating attempts to develop coalitions around issues that matter.

  16. Exploring the Security Dimension of Sino-US Trade Asymmetry. Implications for the International Trade System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    realist perspective does not place eco­ nomics and finance in a subordinate role in the field of national security. Nor does it argue for support of an...upon US security, National War College pro­ fessor Bernard Cole states that it is “more difficult for the US to intercede on behalf of Taiwan on...Graduate Institute of International Politics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. [ 90 ] Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Spring 2010 Report

  17. CH4 and N2O emissions embodied in international trade of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Dario; LoPresti, Anna; Davis, Steven J.; Bastianoni, Simone; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-11-01

    Although previous studies have quantified carbon dioxide emissions embodied in products traded internationally, there has been limited attention to other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Following IPCC guidelines, we estimate non-CO2 emissions from beef, pork and chicken produced in 237 countries over the period 1990-2010, and assign these emissions to the country where the meat is ultimately consumed. We find that, between 1990 and 2010, an average of 32.8 Mt CO2-eq emissions (using 100 year global warming potentials) are embodied in beef, pork and chicken traded internationally. Further, over the 20 year period, the quantity of CO2-eq emissions embodied in traded meat increased by 19%. The largest trade flows of emissions embodied in meat were from Brazil and Argentina to Russia (2.8 and 1.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively). Trade flows within the European region are also substantial: beef and pork exported from France embodied 3.3 Mt and 0.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively. Emissions factor of meat production (i.e. CO2-eq emissions per kg of meat) produced depend on ambient temperature, development level, livestock category (e.g. cattle, pork, and chicken) and livestock management practices. Thus, trade may result in an overall increase of GHG emissions when meat-consuming countries import meat from countries with a greater emissions intensity of meat production rather than producing the meat domestically. Comparing the emissions intensity of meat production of trading partners, we assess trade flows according to whether they tend to reduce or increase global emissions from meat production.

  18. Changes in U.S.-International Arms Trade Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    international program managers have used in the recent past. They, of course, would be free to draw parallels between their programs and the programs presented in...equipped with Orpheus Reece Pods, Campal Mission Support, and drag chutes (see F-16 system description for additional details). Deliveries began in...source codes to only those who need it, and 4) assurances of free and automatic flowback of F-16 derived technologies. (24:2-13) In mid-1989, the JDA

  19. International jurisprudence on trade and environmental health: one step forward, two steps back?

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Since the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO), there has been considerable debate regarding the impact of its rules on public health. By contrast, the role of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism has received little attention, even though the bodies responsible for settling disputes are the ultimate interpreters of WTO rules and agreements. To date, three WTO disputes that relate to occupational and/or environmental health have been fully litigated. A review of the decisions and reasoning in these cases indicates that WTO jurisprudence is evolving, as Panels and the Appellate Body try--with varying degrees of success--to balance countries' rights and obligations under international trade agreements with their right to protect occupational and environmental health. Disputes between nations can have an impact beyond the parties concerned, and raise questions about the relationship between trade agreements and other international agreements, especially multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs).

  20. Derivative Trade Optimizing Model Utilizing GP Based on Behavioral Finance Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Koki; Kawamoto, Masaru

    This paper proposed a new technique which makes the strategy trees for the derivative (option) trading investment decision based on the behavioral finance theory and optimizes it using evolutionary computation, in order to achieve high profitability. The strategy tree uses a technical analysis based on a statistical, experienced technique for the investment decision. The trading model is represented by various technical indexes, and the strategy tree is optimized by the genetic programming(GP) which is one of the evolutionary computations. Moreover, this paper proposed a method using the prospect theory based on the behavioral finance theory to set psychological bias for profit and deficit and attempted to select the appropriate strike price of option for the higher investment efficiency. As a result, this technique produced a good result and found the effectiveness of this trading model by the optimized dealings strategy.

  1. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Minx, Jan C; Weber, Christopher L; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-05-24

    Despite the emergence of regional climate policies, growth in global CO(2) emissions has remained strong. From 1990 to 2008 CO(2) emissions in developed countries (defined as countries with emission-reduction commitments in the Kyoto Protocol, Annex B) have stabilized, but emissions in developing countries (non-Annex B) have doubled. Some studies suggest that the stabilization of emissions in developed countries was partially because of growing imports from developing countries. To quantify the growth in emission transfers via international trade, we developed a trade-linked global database for CO(2) emissions covering 113 countries and 57 economic sectors from 1990 to 2008. We find that the emissions from the production of traded goods and services have increased from 4.3 Gt CO(2) in 1990 (20% of global emissions) to 7.8 Gt CO(2) in 2008 (26%). Most developed countries have increased their consumption-based emissions faster than their territorial emissions, and non-energy-intensive manufacturing had a key role in the emission transfers. The net emission transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries increased from 0.4 Gt CO(2) in 1990 to 1.6 Gt CO(2) in 2008, which exceeds the Kyoto Protocol emission reductions. Our results indicate that international trade is a significant factor in explaining the change in emissions in many countries, from both a production and consumption perspective. We suggest that countries monitor emission transfers via international trade, in addition to territorial emissions, to ensure progress toward stabilization of global greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Glen P.; Minx, Jan C.; Weber, Christopher L.; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Despite the emergence of regional climate policies, growth in global CO2 emissions has remained strong. From 1990 to 2008 CO2 emissions in developed countries (defined as countries with emission-reduction commitments in the Kyoto Protocol, Annex B) have stabilized, but emissions in developing countries (non-Annex B) have doubled. Some studies suggest that the stabilization of emissions in developed countries was partially because of growing imports from developing countries. To quantify the growth in emission transfers via international trade, we developed a trade-linked global database for CO2 emissions covering 113 countries and 57 economic sectors from 1990 to 2008. We find that the emissions from the production of traded goods and services have increased from 4.3 Gt CO2 in 1990 (20% of global emissions) to 7.8 Gt CO2 in 2008 (26%). Most developed countries have increased their consumption-based emissions faster than their territorial emissions, and non–energy-intensive manufacturing had a key role in the emission transfers. The net emission transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries increased from 0.4 Gt CO2 in 1990 to 1.6 Gt CO2 in 2008, which exceeds the Kyoto Protocol emission reductions. Our results indicate that international trade is a significant factor in explaining the change in emissions in many countries, from both a production and consumption perspective. We suggest that countries monitor emission transfers via international trade, in addition to territorial emissions, to ensure progress toward stabilization of global greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:21518879

  3. Exploration on the Evaluation Mode of "International Trade Practice" in Higher Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yamin

    2011-01-01

    Considering the employment-oriented positioning of higher vocational education which is put by the education ministry and the features of higher vocational schools students, this paper indicates that the disadvantages in the evaluation mode of higher vocational school international trade course. Therefore, a reformed suggestion is given for the…

  4. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  5. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  6. The Historical Influence of International Trade and Religion on the Arts, Crafts and Architecture of Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brissette, Paul

    This document outlines a slide presentation on Southeast Asia with primary emphasis on Indonesia. How international trade has influenced the design and development of Indonesian arts, crafts, and architecture are main points of interest. A geographical overview of Indonesia is described along with its natural resources, population, and religious…

  7. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  8. International Children's Trade Books: Building Blocks for Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Hadaway, Nancy L.; Ward, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of character education has been emphasized since ancient times across cultures and religions as a way to develop morals and values of the younger generations. In this article, the authors highlight several award-winning international children's trade books that reflect the core values recurring in literature and scriptures…

  9. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD... shipments of seeds of any species listed in Appendix I, except for seeds of certain artificially propagated hybrids (see § 23.92), or seeds of species listed in Appendix II or III with an annotation that...

  10. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD..., the import, export, or re-export of timber species listed under CITES must meet the other requirements... timber species in the CITES Appendices. These definitions are based on the tariff classifications of...

  11. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD..., the import, export, or re-export of timber species listed under CITES must meet the other requirements... timber species in the CITES Appendices. These definitions are based on the tariff classifications of...

  12. Internal density functional theory of molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalewajski, Roman F.

    1984-08-01

    A thermodynamiclike theory of internal equilibrium and constrained equilibrium states of individual molecular systems is formulated, based on the Legendre transformed density functional theory (LT DFT). The molecular system (nonrelativistic, field free, Born-Oppenheimer or non-Born-Oppenheimer) is treated as the closed composite thermodynamic system, consisting of very small, rigid (open) subsystems (simple systems) containing a multi-(m)-component charged fluid in the presence of an external field. The generalized Levy constrained search construction of various ``thermodynamic'' potentials of LT DFT is given and the local Maxwell relations are derived. The reduction of various second-order partial functional derivatives (system sensitivities) in terms of few independent, basic kernels is described, using the Jacobian determinants technique. The qualitative implications for the basic kernels of the theory, from the Maxwell relations and stability criteria (generalized Le Châtelier and Le Châtelier-Braun principles) are systematically examined. Finally, possible applications of the general formalism in the thermodynamic analysis of the chemical bond, molecular stability, and chemical reactivity are identified.

  13. International cooperation in the solution to trade-related invasive species risks.

    PubMed

    Perrings, Charles; Burgiel, Stas; Lonsdale, Mark; Mooney, Harold; Williamson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the factors behind the growth of invasive species as a global problem, and the scope for international cooperation and coordination in addressing that problem. This is limited by the terms of the various international agreements governing trade, health, and biodiversity. The default strategy in most cases has two parts: border protection and the control of or adaptation to introduced species that have escaped detection at the border. Most invasive species policy involves unilateral national defensive action as opposed to coordinated international action. We argue that an important part of the solution to the problem lies in global coordination and cooperation in the management of both pathways and sanitary and phytosanitary risks at all scales. More particularly, because invasive species are an externality of trade, transport, and travel that involve public goods, they require collective regulation of international markets that goes beyond that admitted under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. We argue that it is important to bring that agreement into conformity with the International Health Regulations (IHR), and to develop an international mechanism to generate and disseminate information on invasive species risks and their impacts.

  14. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of Review for Submission 2011-01 AGENCY: Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  15. An Introduction to International Trade: Focus on Japan and the United States. A Secondary Teaching Unit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This five-part unit, intended for secondary students, uses an activity-oriented approach in order to involve students in the workings of international trade. Part 1 introduces students to basic terms. Part 2 explores what would be missing from U.S. lifestyle if there were no international trade. Part 3 introduces students to the reasons why trade…

  16. An evidence base for International Health Regulations: quantitative measurement of the impacts of epidemic disease on international trade.

    PubMed

    Kimball, A M; Wong, K Y; Taneda, K

    2005-12-01

    When cholera broke out in Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda in 1997, an urgent measure was filed with the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Committee of the World Trade Organization, by the European Union, citing the protection of human health, to limit imports of fish products. The authors analysed import data on specified products over time to quantify the trade impact of this measure. Using previous specific trade trends, the authors modelled expected trade flows and compared observed imports with expected imports to calculate the potential cost of lost trade. The conclusion of this analysis was that the impact of European restrictions on fish exports from Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda on the economies of these African countries was at least US dollar 332,217,415 for the years 1998 to 2002. Insights from such quantitative studies will be important in making policy choices under the revised International Health Regulations of the World Health Organization and should inform the discussion about the adoption of these regulations.

  17. Testing the Effectiveness of an International Conservation Agreement: Marketplace Forensics and CITES Caviar Trade Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    Background The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. Methodology/Principal Findings We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006–2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995–1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Conclusions/Significance Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing. PMID:22848410

  18. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  19. Automatic Trading Agent. RMT Based Portfolio Theory and Portfolio Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snarska, M.; Krzych, J.

    2006-11-01

    Portfolio theory is a very powerful tool in the modern investment theory. It is helpful in estimating risk of an investor's portfolio, arosen from lack of information, uncertainty and incomplete knowledge of reality, which forbids a perfect prediction of future price changes. Despite of many advantages this tool is not known and not widely used among investors on Warsaw Stock Exchange. The main reason for abandoning this method is a high level of complexity and immense calculations. The aim of this paper is to introduce an automatic decision-making system, which allows a single investor to use complex methods of Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). The key tool in MPT is an analysis of an empirical covariance matrix. This matrix, obtained from historical data, biased by such a high amount of statistical uncertainty, that it can be seen as random. By bringing into practice the ideas of Random Matrix Theory (RMT), the noise is removed or significantly reduced, so the future risk and return are better estimated and controlled. These concepts are applied to the Warsaw Stock Exchange Simulator {http://gra.onet.pl}. The result of the simulation is 18% level of gains in comparison with respective 10% loss of the Warsaw Stock Exchange main index WIG.

  20. Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the threat to patients: a plea for doctors to respond internationally.

    PubMed

    Faunce, T A; Drahos, P

    1998-01-01

    Many recent international agreements sponsored by bodies such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO), aim to facilitate the global free flow of goods, services and capital, by opening markets under the threat of trade sanctions. Nation States signing such agreements, in particular the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), agree to suffer a sovereignty deficit in order to enhance their trading prospects. In the resulting reorganization of trade, medicine may be marginalised as merely another industry that must open its regional doors in the interests of global corporate productivity. We make a plea for medical organizations to lobby in appropriate international forums to create "hard" norms that ensure such international trade agreements that adequately respect the demands of fundamental ethical principles of the doctor patient relationship, principles such as medical loyalty and beneficence.

  1. Developing a theory of change for a community-based response to illegal wildlife trade.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Duan; Cooney, Rosie; Roe, Dilys; Dublin, Holly T; Allan, James R; Challender, Dan W S; Skinner, Diane

    2017-02-01

    The escalating illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is one of the most high-profile conservation challenges today. The crisis has attracted over US$350 million in donor and government funding in recent years, primarily directed at increased enforcement. There is growing recognition among practitioners and policy makers of the need to engage rural communities that neighbor or live with wildlife as key partners in tackling IWT. However, a framework to guide such community engagement is lacking. We developed a theory of change (ToC) to guide policy makers, donors, and practitioners in partnering with communities to combat IWT. We identified 4 pathways for community-level actions: strengthen disincentives for illegal behavior, increase incentives for wildlife stewardship, decrease costs of living with wildlife, and support livelihoods that are not related to wildlife. To succeed the pathways, all require strengthening of enabling conditions, including capacity building, and of governance. Our ToC serves to guide actions to tackle IWT and to inform the evaluation of policies. Moreover, it can be used to foster dialogue among IWT stakeholders, from local communities to governments and international donors, to develop a more effective, holistic, and sustainable community-based response to the IWT crisis.

  2. Building a Collaborative Network for Education and Training in International Trade Facilitation Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clendenin, John A.; Petrova, Nadya N.; Gill, Joshua K.

    The authors present the benefits of collaboration rather than competition in developing educational and training resources for international trade within a geographic region and explore the challenges for business partners, governments and educational institutions. The paper indicates that flexibility in the 21st Century is critical, particularly when striving for virtual implementations of the solution services. It is essential, say the authors, for educators, governments and business executives to focus on performance and the careful orchestration and integration of business, policy and information technology for “Networking” that successfully stimulates inter-governmental cooperation and innovative policies that foster Regional trade facilitation. An innovative way to enhance 21st Century Trade Facilitation is offered with Supply Chain Centers of Regional Excellence (SCcORE).

  3. Tools of the trade: theory and method in mindfulness neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness neuroscience is an emerging research field that investigates the underlying mechanisms of different mindfulness practices, different stages and different states of practice as well as different effects of practice over the lifespan. Mindfulness neuroscience research integrates theory and methods from eastern contemplative traditions, western psychology and neuroscience, and from neuroimaging techniques, physiological measures and behavioral tests. We here review several key theoretical and methodological challenges in the empirical study of mindfulness neuroscience and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges.

  4. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system.

  5. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  6. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations.

  7. The Politics of Confusion in International Relations Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Bradely C. S.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques Kenneth N. Waltz's "Theory of International Politics," a seminal work of political theory. Waltz argues for the necessity of constructing a system or theory for explaining the actions of nation-states. Watson counters that emphasis on a constructed theory often obscures a realistic examination of events. (MJP)

  8. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  9. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    PubMed

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-04-05

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  10. The relationship between international trade and non-nutritional health outcomes: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Markets throughout the world have been reducing barriers to international trade and investment in recent years. The resulting increases in levels of international trade and investment have subsequently generated research interest into the potential population health impact. We present a systematic review of quantitative studies investigating the relationship between international trade, foreign direct investment and non-nutritional health outcomes. Articles were systematically collected from the SCOPUS, PubMed, EconLit and Web of Science databases. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the evidence considered, the 16 included articles were subdivided into individual level data analyses, selected country analyses and international panel analyses. Articles were then quality assessed using a tool developed as part of the project. Nine of the studies were assessed to be high quality, six as medium quality, and one as low quality. The evidence from the quantitative literature suggests that overall, there appears to be a beneficial association between international trade and population health. There was also evidence of the importance of foreign direct investment, yet a lack of research considering the direction of causality. Taken together, quantitative research into the relationship between trade and non-nutritional health indicates trade to be beneficial, yet this body of research is still in its infancy. Future quantitative studies based on this foundation will provide a stronger basis on which to inform relevant national and international institutions about the health consequences of trade policies.

  11. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues.

  12. The Role of Thailand in the International Trade in CITES-Listed Live Reptiles and Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Nijman, Vincent; Shepherd, Chris R.

    2011-01-01

    Background International wildlife trade is one of the leading threats to biodiversity conservation. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is the most important initiative to monitor and regulate the international trade of wildlife but its credibility is dependent on the quality of the trade data. We report on the performance of CITES reporting by focussing on the commercial trade in non-native reptiles and amphibians into Thailand as to illustrate trends, species composition and numbers of wild-caught vs. captive-bred specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on data in the WCMC-CITES trade database, we establish that a total of 75,594 individuals of 169 species of reptiles and amphibians (including 27 globally threatened species) were imported into Thailand in 1990–2007. The majority of individuals (59,895, 79%) were listed as captive-bred and a smaller number (15,699, 21%) as wild-caught. In the 1990s small numbers of individuals of a few species were imported into Thailand, but in 2003 both volumes and species diversity increased rapidly. The proportion of captive-bred animals differed greatly between years (from 0 to >80%). Wild-caught individuals were mainly sourced from African countries, and captive-bred individuals from Asian countries (including from non-CITES Parties). There were significant discrepancies between exports and imports. Thailand reports the import of >10,000 individuals (51 species) originating from Kazakhstan, but Kazakhstan reports no exports of these species. Similar discrepancies, involving smaller numbers (>100 individuals of 9 species), can be seen in the import of reptiles into Thailand via Macao. Conclusion/Significance While there has been an increase in imports of amphibian and reptiles into Thailand, erratic patterns in proportions of captive-bred specimens and volumes suggests either capricious markets or errors in reporting. Large discrepancies with respect to origin

  13. A geovisual analytic approach to understanding geo-social relationships in the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above.

  14. 50 CFR 23.17 - What are the requirements for CITES specimens traded internationally by diplomatic, consular...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.17...

  15. 76 FR 20713 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Request for Comments on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ....gov/Trade_Agreements/Regional/CAFTA/Section_Index.html , and the International Labour Organization... Council meeting in November 2008, pursuant CAFTA-DR Article 16.4.2. Since the CAFTA-DR came into...

  16. Recent developments in animal identification and the traceability of animal products in international trade.

    PubMed

    Barcos, L O

    2001-08-01

    The author explores the variations in the domestic livestock populations world-wide between 1961 and 1998, and observes a marked increase in the swine population, as compared to other domestic species. Trends in international trade of live animals over the same period are also analysed; international trade involved 1% of livestock world-wide and the international meat market constituted 10% of total meat production. The various stages of the food chain are analysed, from farm to fork, with emphasis on those elements to which the concept of traceability is applicable; from the composition of bovines, to slaughter, and through the various products and sub-products all the way to the final product consumed. Against this background, the characteristics of identification systems for individual animals and animal products is described, as well as applications to traceback and trace forward. To conclude, the author details the factors which influence the various processes of identification and traceability, and thus must be considered when choosing a system. The wide variability amongst systems world-wide is noted and attributed to the differences in sanitary and economic or socio-cultural criteria. The author therefore recommends that work should begin on international harmonisation of such systems.

  17. Impacts of international trade, services and investment treaties on alcohol regulation.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber-Otto, J; Sinclair, S; Schacter, N

    2000-12-01

    There is an underlying incompatibility between government efforts to minimize the harm associated with alcohol, particularly by regulating its supply, and international commercial treaties that promote the freer flow of goods, services and investment. These treaties have already forced changes to many government measures affecting alcohol availability and control, primarily by constraining the activities of government alcohol monopolies and by altering taxation regimes. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization agreements open new avenues for challenges against alcohol control measures. Some of these agreements extend beyond trade, border measures and differential taxation and allow challenges that intrude into areas of non-discriminatory domestic regulation affecting market access, intellectual property, investment and services. Effective protection from these agreements for vital public health measures has rarely been obtained, although it is increasingly essential. The WTO "services" agreement, basically unknown to the public, is currently being re-negotiated and poses the gravest new challenge to policies designed to influence patterns of alcohol use and minimize alcohol-related harm. In future, these international agreements will probably affect adversely those alcohol approaches considered to be the most effective or promising. These include: maintaining effective state monopolies, restricting the number and locations of retail outlets, taxing and regulating beverages according to alcohol strength, restricting commercial advertising, and maintaining and enhancing public alcohol education and treatment programs. These effects can, in turn, be expected to increase the availability and access to alcohol, to lower alcohol taxes, and to increase advertising and promotion, resulting in increased alcohol consumption and associated health problems. Until more balanced international rules are developed, the challenge facing alcohol

  18. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe.

  19. Certification for regional and international trade in livestock commodities: the need to balance credibility and enterprise.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Perry, B D; Catley, A; Leyland, T J; Penrith, M-L; Donaldson, A I

    2006-07-08

    The current system for the certification of internationally traded animal commodities can act as a barrier to developing countries accessing high-value international markets. In this Viewpoint article, Gavin Thomson and colleagues discuss the situation as it stands and identify inconsistencies with respect to the certification process. They suggest ways to address the lack of capacity for credible certification in some developing countries that will encourage market access for livestock commodities. They emphasise the role of mechanisms other than demonstrating that an area of production is free from a range of animal diseases, arguing that this could be of significant benefit to developing regions and countries, but that a reliable and independent system of certification based on international standards is essential.

  20. Animal origins of SARS coronavirus: possible links with the international trade in small carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Diana; Roberton, Scott; Hunter, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    The search for animal host origins of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus has so far remained focused on wildlife markets, restaurants and farms within China. A significant proportion of this wildlife enters China through an expanding regional network of illegal, international wildlife trade. We present the case for extending the search for ancestral coronaviruses and their hosts across international borders into countries such as Vietnam and Lao People's Democratic Republic, where the same guilds of species are found on sale in similar wildlife markets or food outlets. The three species that have so far been implicated, a viverrid, a mustelid and a canid, are part of a large suite of small carnivores distributed across this region currently overexploited by this international wildlife trade. A major lesson from SARS is that the underlying roots of newly emergent zoonotic diseases may lie in the parallel biodiversity crisis of massive species loss as a result of overexploitation of wild animal populations and the destruction of their natural habitats by increasing human populations. To address these dual threats to the long-term future of biodiversity, including man, requires a less anthropocentric and more interdisciplinary approach to problems that require the combined research expertise of ecologists, conservation biologists, veterinarians, epidemiologists, virologists, as well as human health professionals. PMID:15306396

  1. Internality-Norm Theory in Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pansu, Pascal; Dubois, Nicole; Dompnier, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the socionormative approach of internality in the field of education, and more specifically regarding scholastic judgment. It describes the theoretical development and the main procedures used by researchers to show that internal causal explanations have more value than external ones because they…

  2. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards.

  3. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  4. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally.

  5. Pharmaceutical patents and some international trade issues: Canada, the United States, and NAFTA.

    PubMed

    Tancer, R S

    1993-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a more aggressive US policy for the protection of the intellectual property rights of its citizens, individual and corporate, who do business aborad. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and, in particular, the harmonization of conflicting US and Canadian policies. In reconciling these policy differences, the United States unilaterally applied relatively new procedures authorized under section 301 and Special 301 of its trade laws. It also utilized the bilateral dispute mechanism mandating cooperation "in the Uruguay Round ... to improve protection of intellectual property," as provided in the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement. These efforts were successful; Canada amended its patent law in 1993 to conform to current international practices. These changes were incorporated into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), making it a state-of-the-art example of the protection of intellectual property rights. The intellectual property chapter of NAFTA will serve as the model for US intellectual property rights negotiations for the foreseeable future.

  6. Peace through Trade: An Analysis of the Effect of Domestic Trade on International Conflict and Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    the analysis method developed by Granger , see: C.W.J Granger , "Investigating Causal Relations by Economic Models and Cross- Spectral Methods...Journal of Conflict Resolution 26, no. 4 (December 1982). 11 there is less causality from 1976-78.19 While the analysis used COPDAB as the dependent...dependent variable.20 Once a correlation between trade and conflict had been determined, the causality was assessed and found to flow from trade to

  7. International food trade reduces environmental effects of nitrogen pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaxing; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The globalization of agricultural trade has dramatically altered global nitrogen flows by changing the spatial pattern of nitrogen utilization and emissions at a global scale. As a major trading country, China uses a large amount of nitrogen, which has a profound impact on global nitrogen flows. Using data on food production and trade between China and 26 other countries and regions, we calculated nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production ecosystem in each country. We estimated nitrogen flows in international food trade and analyzed their impact on nitrogen pollution in China. We divided nitrogen flows into embodied and virtual nitrogen flows. Embodied nitrogen is taken up by the plant and incorporated into the final food product, whereas virtual nitrogen is lost to the environment throughout the food production process and is not contained in the final food product. Our results show that China mainly imports food products from America and Asia, accounting for 95 % of all imported food. Asia (mainly Japan) and Europe are the main exporters of food from China, with Japan and the EU accounting for 17 and 10 % of all exported food, respectively. Total nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production in China were 55,400 and 61,000 Gg respectively, which were much higher than in other countries. About 1440 and 950 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow into China through the food trade, mainly from food-exporting countries such as the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. Meanwhile, 177 and 160 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow out of China from the export of food products, mainly to Japan. China's net food imports have reduced 720 and 458 Gg for nitrogen utilization and outputs, respectively, which accounted for 1.3 and 0.78 % of total nitrogen inputs and outputs in China. These results suggest that food trade in China has a profound effect on nitrogen flows and has greatly reduced environmental impacts on nitrogen pollution in China.

  8. A GDP-driven model for the binary and weighted structure of the International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almog, Assaf; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Recent events such as the global financial crisis have renewed the interest in the topic of economic networks. One of the main channels of shock propagation among countries is the International Trade Network (ITN). Two important models for the ITN structure, the classical gravity model of trade (more popular among economists) and the fitness model (more popular among networks scientists), are both limited to the characterization of only one representation of the ITN. The gravity model satisfactorily predicts the volume of trade between connected countries, but cannot reproduce the missing links (i.e. the topology). On the other hand, the fitness model can successfully replicate the topology of the ITN, but cannot predict the volumes. This paper tries to make an important step forward in the unification of those two frameworks, by proposing a new gross domestic product (GDP) driven model which can simultaneously reproduce the binary and the weighted properties of the ITN. Specifically, we adopt a maximum-entropy approach where both the degree and the strength of each node are preserved. We then identify strong nonlinear relationships between the GDP and the parameters of the model. This ultimately results in a weighted generalization of the fitness model of trade, where the GDP plays the role of a ‘macroeconomic fitness’ shaping the binary and the weighted structure of the ITN simultaneously. Our model mathematically explains an important asymmetry in the role of binary and weighted network properties, namely the fact that binary properties can be inferred without the knowledge of weighted ones, while the opposite is not true.

  9. [International trade in health services and the medical industrial complex: implications for national health systems].

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2010-08-01

    Health services have increasingly proven to be an innovative sector, gaining prominence in the medical industrial complex through expansion to public and international markets. International trade can foster economic development and redirect the resources and infrastructure available for healthcare in different countries in favorable or unfavorable directions. Wherever private providers play a significant role in government-funded healthcare, GATS commitments may restrict health policy options in subscribing countries. Systematic information on the impacts of electronic health services, medical tourism, health workers' migration, and foreign direct investment is needed on a case-by-case basis to build evidence for informed decision-making, so as to maximize opportunities and minimize risks of GATS commitments.

  10. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529-40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr-1 from 1992-2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  11. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - 35 Years of Global Efforts to Ensure That International Trade in Wild Animals and Plants Is Legal and Sustainable.

    PubMed

    Wijnstekers, W

    2011-01-01

    CITES is a 35-year-old convention with a current total of 175 signatories, or parties. It regulates international trade in live specimens and products of more than 30,000 animal and plant species under three different trade regimes. CITES has clearly proved its importance for nature conservation, but its regulations often are difficult to implement and enforce, leading to unacceptably high levels of unsustainable and illegal trade in many wildlife species. There are ways, however, to improve the situation and to make compliance with CITES regulations both easier and more attractive.

  12. A Businessman's Guide to the Economic Geography and International Trade of the People's Republic of China: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph, Comp.; Madden, Gregory J., Comp.

    Intended to support undergraduate curricula in international business, this annotated listing cites English-language materials dealing mainly with international trade and the economic geography of China. Also included are materials dealing with demography, public health, historical geography, and the geography of cities. All materials included are…

  13. Coastline Community College World Trade Center Institute Business and International Education Program. Final Performance Report: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Chet; Secord, Debra A.

    Under a Title VI-B grant, California's Coastline Community College (CCC) conducted a needs assessment survey establishing a database of international training needs, developed five courses and 10 workshops in international business, and formed the World Trade Center Institute (WTCI). This report provides information on the activities and…

  14. An Update on the E.M.U. Language and International Trade Program: Current Status and Recent Changes in Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, J. Sanford; Chatman, Eleanor

    Eastern Michigan University's (EMU) bachelor's (B.A.) and master's (M.A.) programs in Language and International Trade began in 1978, and have awarded 181 B.A. and 249 M.A. degrees in their first 10 years. Two surveys of program graduates revealed that most are employed in jobs with international concerns. Alumni observations strongly reflected…

  15. Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakur, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…

  16. International Partnerships: A Game Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jie, Yiyun

    2010-01-01

    Institutions of higher education in China and the United States are increasingly seeking international partners to deliver degree programs to the Chinese populace. This article illustrates how shared and divergent partner motivations and outcome expectations in a Chinese cross-border higher education program have created synergy and challenged the…

  17. XX International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Rojo5, M.A. Solis6 and A.A. Valladares4 1 Institute de Fisica Teorica -UNESP, 01405 Säo Paulo, BRAZIL and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade...an elegant functional integral approach which in lowest-order gives a Ginzburg- Landau theory. Following Ref. [30] a generalized coherence length (or...representing Landau damping due to the wave particle interactions [16]. For a nonequilibrium plasma with a two peaked distribution function f0(u) (e.g

  18. Internal states drive nutrient homeostasis by modulating exploration-exploitation trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Corrales-Carvajal, Verónica María; Faisal, Aldo A; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Internal states can profoundly alter the behavior of animals. A quantitative understanding of the behavioral changes upon metabolic challenges is key to a mechanistic dissection of how animals maintain nutritional homeostasis. We used an automated video tracking setup to characterize how amino acid and reproductive states interact to shape exploitation and exploration decisions taken by adult Drosophila melanogaster. We find that these two states have specific effects on the decisions to stop at and leave proteinaceous food patches. Furthermore, the internal nutrient state defines the exploration-exploitation trade-off: nutrient-deprived flies focus on specific patches while satiated flies explore more globally. Finally, we show that olfaction mediates the efficient recognition of yeast as an appropriate protein source in mated females and that octopamine is specifically required to mediate homeostatic postmating responses without affecting internal nutrient sensing. Internal states therefore modulate specific aspects of exploitation and exploration to change nutrient selection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19920.001 PMID:27770569

  19. A prospect theory explanation of the disposition to trade losing investments for less than market price.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, D J

    2002-06-01

    Investors have a proven general reluctance to realize losses. The theory of "mental accounting" suggests that losses are easier to accept when mentally integrated with either preceding losses or with compensatory gains. Mental integration is made easier when a failed asset is exchanged against a new, apparently profitable, acquisition. The alternative is to sell the existing asset on the open market before re-investing the proceeds as desired. This is emotionally less appealing than "rolling over" a losing investment into a new venture by way of an asset trade. The psychological benefits of exchanging rather than selling a failed asset come at a cost. It is typical of trade-in arrangements, e.g., where one trades an old car against a new one, that the effective sale price of the existing asset is less than current market value. Acceptance of this low price adds to the investor's total monetary loss on the existing asset but is essential to an overall package deal apart from which that asset would often remain belatedly unsold.

  20. Movement of pathogens with the international trade of live fish: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, R P

    1996-06-01

    Inter-regional trade in live fish as eggs, larvae or juveniles provides the potential for parallel movements of pathogens. Pathogens that exist in a carrier state and/or can be transmitted by vertical means pose the greatest threat since casual observation, and even periods of quarantine or pathogen inspections, may fail to indicate their presence. Additional complications arise with the movements of non-target species for which health examinations may not be required, or for which criteria for pathogen inspections have not been developed. Although international trade in salmonids has been responsible for most of the disease regulations currently in place, an equal or stronger effort should be expected with other species. At the same time, ensuring equal treatment of all trading partners with respect to the level and sophistication of the health examinations to which the product will be subjected is a major problem. There are several examples of past and potential pathogen movements with fish or fish products. Unfortunately, these are often confused by a poor understanding of the current situation in the region into which the animal or product has been imported. The technology, experience or extent of surveillance in the importing region may be insufficient to assess the situation. Distinguishing between exotic imported pathogens and unknown pathogens which are already present in indigenous fish stocks can therefore often be difficult. The author discusses examples of clearly-documented imports of pathogens, as well as the potential for the spread of agents which pose an equal or greater danger. In addition, the author discusses the confusion which often arises when the background into which these pathogens are to move is poorly understood in the importing region.

  1. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1–3.9 ppm or 3–9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990–2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations. PMID:27329411

  2. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-06-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1–3.9 ppm or 3–9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990–2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations.

  3. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-06-22

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1-3.9 ppm or 3-9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990-2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations.

  4. Measuring the dissimilarity of multiplex networks: An empirical study of international trade networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Cui, Huiyuan; Zhu, Ji; Du, Yu; Wang, Qi; Shi, Wenhua

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, multiplex networks are becoming a research focus in the domain of complex networks. Discovering significant correlations between layers in multiplex networks can provide an insight to their structures. In this study, we propose some methods to measure the dissimilarities of different layers in directed and weighted multiplex networks. The dissimilarity is defined on two levels: node level and layer level. The node dissimilarity is computed based on the distance of the probability distribution of its link weights vectors in different layers; and the layer-level dissimilarity is the weighted sum of the nodes' dissimilarities. Furthermore, the dissimilarity is disintegrated into the connection-based dissimilarity and the weight-based dissimilarity, which represent the topological structure changes and the link weight changes, respectively. The proposed methods are applied to international trade networks.

  5. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    basis of inconclusive or unknown potential hazards of a contaminant which may significantly impact global trade because mycotoxin residues vary widely between countries. This paper describes the current economic and heath impact of these regulations and their impact on international trade.

  6. International trade and air pollution: estimating the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin P

    2005-10-01

    Although there is a burgeoning literature on the effects of international trade on the environment, relatively little work has been done on where trade most directly effects the environment: the transportation sector. This article shows how international trade is affecting air pollution emissions in the United States' shipping sector. Recent work has shown that cargo ships have been long overlooked regarding their contribution to air pollution. Indeed, ship emissions have recently been deemed "the last unregulated source of traditional air pollutants". Air pollution from ships has a number of significant local, national, and global environmental effects. Building on past studies, we examine the economic costs of this increasing and unregulated form of environmental damage. We find that total emissions from ships are largely increasing due to the increase in foreign commerce (or international trade). The economic costs of SO2 pollution range from dollars 697 million to dollars 3.9 billion during the period examined, or dollars 77 to dollars 435 million on an annual basis. The bulk of the cost is from foreign commerce, where the annual costs average to dollars 42 to dollars 241 million. For NOx emissions the costs are dollars 3.7 billion over the entire period or dollars 412 million per year. Because foreign trade is driving the growth in US shipping, we also estimate the effect of the Uruguay Round on emissions. Separating out the effects of global trade agreements reveals that the trade agreement-led emissions amounted to dollars 96 to dollars 542 million for SO2 between 1993 and 2001, or dollars 10 to dollars 60 million per year. For NOx they were dollars 745 million for the whole period or dollars 82 million per year. Without adequate policy responses, we predict that these trends and costs will continue into the future.

  7. A theory of viscoplasticity accounting for internal damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Robinson, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    A constitutive theory for use in structural and durability analyses of high temperature isotropic alloys is presented. Constitutive equations based upon a potential function are determined from conditions of stability and physical considerations. The theory is self-consistent; terms are not added in an ad hoc manner. It extends a proven viscoplastic model by introducing the Kachanov-Rabotnov concept of net stress. Material degradation and inelastic deformation are unified; they evolve simultaneously and interactively. Both isotropic hardening and material degradation evolve with dissipated work which is the sum of inelastic work and internal work. Internal work is a continuum measure of the stored free energy resulting from inelastic deformation.

  8. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land.

  9. Integrating English for Specific Purposes Courseware into Task-Based Learning in a Context of Preparing for International Trade Fairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on integrating courseware for participating in international trade fairs into English for specific purposes (ESP) instruction at a technical university in Taiwan. An Information and Communication Technology (ICT) approach combining courseware integration with Task Based Learning (TBL), was adopted. Evaluation of implementing…

  10. 50 CFR 23.75 - How can I trade internationally in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... international trade in wool sheared from live vicuñas, cloth made from such wool, and products manufactured from such wool or cloth. All other specimens of vicuña are deemed to be specimens of a species included in... means the name of the country where the vicuña wool in the cloth or product originated. (e) Wool...

  11. An Empirical Study on the Curriculum Construction of Business English for International Trade Based on the Case of GDUFS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Cheng, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Business English education concern is of great significance. Business English for International Trade in Guangdong University of Foreign Studies (GDUFS) is widely acclaimed, and it is also a popular major. GDUFS has adopted the slogan "Learn from East and West, moral integrity and direct behavior". It is a famous cradle of learning,…

  12. 77 FR 67390 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... control and regulate international trade in certain animal and plant species that are now or potentially may become threatened with extinction. These species are listed in Appendices to CITES, which are..., consider reports presented by the Secretariat and the permanent CITES committees (Standing, Animals,...

  13. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure.

  14. Democracy of internal symmetries in supersymmetrical quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lopuszanski, J.T.

    1981-12-01

    The freedom of choice of some discrete and internal symmetries in the supersymmetric, massive, interacting quantum field theory is discussed. It is shown that the discrete symmetry consisting of changing the sign of some (not all) scalar fields is incompatible with the supersymmetric structure of the theory. It is further demonstrated that an internal symmetry which transforms only some of the fields of fixed spin leaving the other fields invariant and which acts nontrivially on the supercharges can not be admitted as a symmetry; although it can be a good internal symmetry in absence of supersymmetric covariance. Moreover, in case of a model consisting of scalar, spinor and vector fields even a symmetry which transforms all of the scalar (vector) fields leaving spinor and vector (scalar) fields unaffected is ruled out provided it acts nontrivially on some of the supercharges.

  15. Pakistan's experience with kidney transplantation and trade: a call for international solidarity.

    PubMed

    Moazam, Farhat; Jafarey, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan has taken a long and tortuous road towards curbing the trade in organs within its borders. Yet, despite the phenomenal gains, several challenges remain in this area. For example, robust and sustainable deceased donor programmes must be established to meet the needs of a country which has a high prevalence of kidney disease and failure. Further, it is necessary to offer an alternative source of organs for transplantation to desperate patients who resort to buying these from the "market". Cultural factors and religious beliefs about the sanctity and inviolability of the corpse, as well as the lack of public and professional education regarding the procurement of organs from the deceased, pose considerable barriers that must be surmounted. We believe it is equally important that transplant professionals and the governments of affluent countries consider measures to discourage, if not prevent, their citizens from travelling to impoverished countries such as Pakistan to buy organs. Without a commitment, ethical and legal, to international solidarity in this matter, the goals that are already difficult for developing countries to achieve, ie, establishing deceased donor programmes and bringing an end to organ trafficking, will be even harder to achieve.

  16. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K-I

    2016-05-23

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can contribute to further investigation and design of optimal risk-averse real-world complex systems.

  17. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2016-05-01

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can contribute to further investigation and design of optimal risk-averse real-world complex systems.

  18. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can contribute to further investigation and design of optimal risk-averse real-world complex systems. PMID:27211291

  19. 76 FR 14900 - Foreign-Trade Zone 137-Washington Dulles International Airport, VA Area; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... exempted. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated..., which is accessible via http://www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: March 14, 2011. Andrew McGilvray, Executive...

  20. The Effectiveness of Web-Based Foreign Exchange Trading Simulation in an International Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chen-Huei; Liu, Hao-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study if trading simulation is an effective tool to increase students' knowledge of the foreign exchange market. We developed a real-time multiuser web-based trading system that replicates an electronic brokerage foreign exchange market. To assess the effectiveness of the program, we conducted surveys in three…

  1. A review of trends in the distribution of vector-borne diseases: is international trade contributing to their spread?

    PubMed

    de La Rocque, S; Balenghien, T; Halos, L; Dietze, K; Claes, F; Ferrari, G; Guberti, V; Slingenbergh, J

    2011-04-01

    It is difficult to determine the part that international trade has played in the expansion of vector-borne diseases, because of the multitude of factors that affect the transformation of habitats and the interfaces between vectors and hosts. The introduction of pathogens through trade in live animals or products of animal origin, as well as the arrival of arthropod vectors, is probably quite frequent but the establishment of an efficient transmission system that develops into a disease outbreak remains the exception. In this paper, based on well-documented examples, the authors review the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of vector-borne diseases that may have been affected in their spread and change of distribution by international trade. In addition, they provide a detailed analysis of the risks associated with specific trade routes and recent expansions of vector populations. Finally, the authors highlight the importance, as well as the challenges, of preventive surveillance and regulation. The need for improved monitoring of vector populations and a readiness to face unpredictable epidemiological events are also emphasised, since this will require rapid reaction, not least in the regulatory context.

  2. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989-2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  3. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3–10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5–1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12–24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  4. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette

    2015-02-01

    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita-1 yr-1, or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita-1 yr-1. Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently.

  5. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples.

  6. Organization Theory, Political Theory, and the International Arena: Some Hope But Very Little Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Frederick C.

    This paper presents background on a non-hierarchical organizational perspective. In addition, it presents guidelines for using a non-hierarchical perspective to create generally acceptable forms of international organizations. The theory on which the non-hierarchical perspective is based maintains that a form of comprehensive global planning…

  7. Why are generic drugs being held up in transit? Intellectual property rights, international trade, and the right to health in Brazil and beyond.

    PubMed

    Rosina, Mônica Steffen Guise; Shaver, Lea

    2012-01-01

    Access to medicines faces a new legal threat: "border enforcement" of drug patents. Using Brazil as an example, this article shows how the right to health depends on international trade. Border seizures of generic drugs present human rights and trade institutions with a unique challenge. Can public health advocates rise to meet it?

  8. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    PubMed

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years.

  9. [International trade in living penaeid shrimp between countries in the Pacific and the Atlantic areas and in Europe].

    PubMed

    Michel, A

    1996-06-01

    The tremendous development of penaeid shrimp culture across the world over the past twenty years has led to international trade in eggs, larvae and spawners of the best shrimp species for aquaculture. Trade has involved, in particular, the following species: -Penaeus japonicus from Japan to Europe, the Pacific Islands and South America -P. monodon from South-East Asia to almost all tropical countries -P. vannamei and P. stylirostris from countries along the Pacific coast of South and central America to the United States of America, the islands of the South Pacific, countries along the Atlantic coast of the Americas and certain countries in Africa. In the 1980s, research conducted by American and French teams enabled the breeding of stocks of spawners in captivity. This resulted in the establishment of lines of captive broodstock outside natural areas of distribution, and the development of new breeding farms in previously unproductive regions. Trade related to movements of these species is facilitated by the absence of legislation in most countries; even when such legislation does exist, it is not always applied. These practices have led to the rapid development of world shrimp production, but have also contributed to the dissemination of pathogens. In recent years, the occurrence of serious epizootics - occasioning heavy losses world-wide - has led to a more cautious approach involving trade of post-larvae obtained from captive broodstock in which thorough control measures have been implemented for known diseases. Trade in wild shrimp will probably be abandoned progressively, to avoid the risk of introducing new pathogens. The main challenges for research in the near future are the development of diagnostic tools, to enable continuous control of captive broodstock, and the selection of strains which are resistant to the principal pathogens affecting these species.

  10. Source-structure trade-offs in ambient noise correlations: Theory and numerical examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, A.; Sager, K.; Ermert, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    We analyse the physics and geometry of trade-offs between Earth structure and noise sources in inter-station noise correlations. Our approach is based on the computation of off-diagonal Hessian elements that describe the extent to which variations in noise sources can compensate for variations in Earth structure without changing the misfit beyond the measurement uncertainty. Despite the fact that all ambient noise inverse problems are special in terms of their receiver configuration and data, some general statements concerning source-structure trade-offs can be made: (i) While source-structure trade-offs may be reduced to some extent by clever measurement design, there are inherent trade-offs that can generally not be avoided. These inherent trade-offs may lead to a mispositioning of structural heterogeneities when the noise source distribution is unknown. (ii) When attenuation is weak, source-structure trade-offs in ambient noise correlations are a global phenomenon, meaning that there is no noise source perturbation that does not trade-off with some Earth structure, and vice versa. (iii) The most significant source-structure trade-offs occur within two elliptically shaped regions connecting a potential noise source perturbation to each one of the receivers. (iv) Far from these elliptical regions, only small-scale structure can trade off against changes in the noise source. (v) While source-structure trade-offs mostly decay with increasing attenuation, they are nearly unaffected by attenuation when the noise source perturbation is located near the receiver-receiver line. We complement these theoretical considerations by numerical experiments where we model ambient noise correlations for arbitrary source geometries. The experiments illustrate how and to which extent unknown noise sources may map into spurious Earth structure. This work is intended to contribute to the development of joint source-structure inversions of ambient noise correlations, and in particular

  11. 76 FR 59741 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; National Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... statements in response to this notice to Paula Church Albertson, Office of Trade and Labor Affairs, ILAB, U.S...; fax (202) 693- 4784. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula Church Albertson, Designated Federal... be submitted to Paula Church Albertson at the address listed above. Submissions received by October...

  12. Social Enterprise with International Impact: The Case for Fair Trade Certification of Volunteer Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mdee, Anna; Emmott, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise and fair trade are seen increasingly as redefining capitalist relationships through revaluing social impact and ownership in enterprise activities. One of the dilemmas in such activities is the tension between operating a viable and commercially-sustainable enterprise and maximising social and developmental impacts. This article…

  13. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Westerhaus, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations.

  14. Non-classical continuum theory for solids incorporating internal rotations and rotations of Cosserat theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surana, K. S.; Joy, A. D.; Reddy, J. N.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a non-classical continuum theory in Lagrangian description for solids in which the conservation and the balance laws are derived by incorporating both the internal rotations arising from the Jacobian of deformation and the rotations of Cosserat theories at a material point. In particular, in this non-classical continuum theory, we have (i) the usual displacements ( ±b \\varvec{u}) and (ii) three internal rotations ({}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ}) about the axes of a triad whose axes are parallel to the x-frame arising from the Jacobian of deformation (which are completely defined by the skew-symmetric part of the Jacobian of deformation), and (iii) three additional rotations ({}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ}) about the axes of the same triad located at each material point as additional three degrees of freedom referred to as Cosserat rotations. This gives rise to ±b \\varvec{u} and {}_e ±b \\varvec{{Θ} as six degrees of freedom at a material point. The internal rotations ({}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ}), often neglected in classical continuum mechanics, exist in all deforming solid continua as these are due to Jacobian of deformation. When the internal rotations {}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ} are resisted by the deforming matter, conjugate moment tensor arises that together with {}_i ±b \\varvec{Θ} may result in energy storage and/or dissipation, which must be accounted for in the conservation and the balance laws. The Cosserat rotations {}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ} also result in conjugate moment tensor which, together with {}_e ±b \\varvec{Θ}, may also result in energy storage and/or dissipation. The main focus of the paper is a consistent derivation of conservation and balance laws that incorporate aforementioned physics and associated constitutive theories for thermoelastic solids. The mathematical model derived here has closure, and the constitutive theories derived using two alternate approaches are in agreement with each other as well as with the condition resulting from the

  15. The new World Organisation for Animal Health standards on avian influenza and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Alex B

    2007-03-01

    In 2002, the World Organisation for Animal Health began a review of the chapter on avian influenza by convening a group of experts to revise the most recent scientific literature. The group drafted the initial text that would provide the necessary recommendations on avian influenza control and prevention measures. The main objectives of this draft were to provide clear notification criteria, as well as commodity-specific, risk-based mitigating measures, that would provide safety when trading and encourage transparent reporting.

  16. Modelling the introduction and spread of non-native species: international trade and climate change drive ragweed invasion.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Daniel S; Makra, László; Albertini, Roberto; Bonini, Maira; Páldy, Anna; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šikoparija, Branko; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Bullock, James M

    2016-09-01

    Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, for which models can attribute causes, assess impacts and guide management. However, invasion models typically focus on spread from known introduction points or non-native distributions and ignore the transport processes by which species arrive. Here, we developed a simulation model to understand and describe plant invasion at a continental scale, integrating repeated transport through trade pathways, unintentional release events and the population dynamics and local anthropogenic dispersal that drive subsequent spread. We used the model to simulate the invasion of Europe by common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a globally invasive plant that causes serious harm as an aeroallergen and crop weed. Simulations starting in 1950 accurately reproduced ragweed's current distribution, including the presence of records in climatically unsuitable areas as a result of repeated introduction. Furthermore, the model outputs were strongly correlated with spatial and temporal patterns of ragweed pollen concentrations, which are fully independent of the calibration data. The model suggests that recent trends for warmer summers and increased volumes of international trade have accelerated the ragweed invasion. For the latter, long distance dispersal because of trade within the invaded continent is highlighted as a key invasion process, in addition to import from the native range. Biosecurity simulations, whereby transport through trade pathways is halted, showed that effective control is only achieved by early action targeting all relevant pathways. We conclude that invasion models would benefit from integrating introduction processes (transport and release) with spread dynamics, to better represent propagule pressure from native sources as well as mechanisms for long-distance dispersal within invaded continents. Ultimately, such integration may facilitate better prediction of spatial and temporal variation in invasion

  17. Minimally-invasive internal fixation of extra-articular distal femur fractures using a locking plate: tricks of the trade.

    PubMed

    Ehlinger, M; Adam, P; Abane, L; Arlettaz, Y; Bonnomet, F

    2011-04-01

    Fractures of the distal femur are rare and occur in two distinct population categories: young patients after high energy traumas and elderly patients who fall from their full height, and often carry severe co-morbidities making especially difficult to manage theses complex injuries. In elderly patients the potential complications are numerous including infection, non-union and frequent function deterioration. We present a technique of minimally invasive internal fixation of the distal extra-articular femur using a locking plate and present the tricks of the trade to obtain successful reduction and achieve union. The hardware used includes plate fixation with a large fragment locking screw. This minimally invasive surgery combines stability of the internal fixation device with the principles of closed surgery, allowing early mobilization and immediate weight bearing to warrant good functional recovery.

  18. Risk analysis and international trade principles applied to the importation into Canada of caprine embryos from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Evans, B; Faul, A; Bielanski, A; Renwick, S; Van Derlinden, I

    1997-04-01

    Between November 1994 and February 1995 over nine thousand Boer goat embryos were imported into Canada from the Republic of South Africa. This substantial international movement of animal genetics via embryos was achieved through the application of the risk analysis principles prescribed in Section 1.4. of the International Animal Health Code of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Integral to the development of the health certification procedures was the application of the fundamental principles of non-discrimination, harmonisation, equivalence and transparency defined in the World Trade Organisation Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures. Risk mitigation interventions were founded upon full consideration of the potential for disease transmission by animal embryos as espoused by the International Embryo Transfer Society and the relevant standards contained in Appendix 4.2.3.3. of the OIE International Animal Health Code. All the embryos imported into Canada were implanted into synchronised recipients on arrival. Twenty months later there has been no evidence of disease in either the recipient animals or the resulting animals born in Canada.

  19. The Factor Content of Bilateral Trade: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Krishna, Pravin

    2004-01-01

    The factor proportions model of international trade is one of the most influential theories in international economics. Its central standing in this field has appropriately prompted, particularly recently, intense empirical scrutiny. A substantial and growing body of empirical work has tested the predictions of the theory on the net factor content…

  20. The Impact of International Trade and Investment on Employment. A Conference on the Department of Labor Research Results (Washington, D.C., December 2-3, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewald, William G., Ed.; And Others

    Taken from a December 1976, conference sponsored by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs, these proceedings present research reports on the impact of international trade and investment on U.S. employment. The research, produced or in some instances contracted and monitored by the Department of Labor, is intended to be of use to economists and…

  1. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    PubMed

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species.

  2. [Trade policy and international migration in the short and medium term].

    PubMed

    Schiff, M

    1995-01-01

    "In this paper, the author presents three scenarios and related models to explain the complementarity between migration and trade in a South-North context. The first one incorporates migration costs as a constraint, the second one considers factor specificity, and the third one examines the fact that the most protected sectors in a number of reforming LDCs are labor intensive. The results, especially those of the first scenario, suggest that the impact of NAFTA may very well be to increase migration rather than to reduce it." (EXCERPT)

  3. Ensuring safe international trade: how are the roles and responsibilities evolving and what will the situation be in ten years' time?

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2011-04-01

    The roles of the international standard-setting bodies that are mandated to facilitate safe trade, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Plant Protection Convention and the World Trade Organization, are well documented, as are the roles of the international organisations responsible for global health issues: the OIE, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, developments in international trade, such as accelerating globalisation and the frequent emergence and re-emergence of diseases affecting both humans and animals, have brought new challenges and the need to reconsider the future roles of such organisations. New participants and new demands have also emerged to challenge these mandates, leading to potential areas of conflict. The need for countries to establish themselves as new trade partners, or to strengthen their positions while still maintaining safe trade, poses a challenge to standard-setting organisations, which must meet these demands while still remaining sensitive to the needs of developing countries. In this paper, the author describes and discusses some of these challenges and suggests how international organisations could evolve to confront such issues.

  4. Global trade and assisted reproductive technologies: regulatory challenges in international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    International surrogacy is an increasingly common phenomenon and an important global health challenge. Legal rules are a key consideration for the participants in international surrogacy arrangements. In some cases the law can help to resolve the complex issues that arise in this context, but it is important to consider the role played by law in contributing to the complex conflicts that such arrangements can generate.

  5. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000.

  6. Proposal of Classification Method of Time Series Data in International Emissions Trading Market Using Agent-based Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Tomohiro; Takadama, Keiki; Watanabe, Shigeyoshi

    This paper proposes the classification method using Bayesian analytical method to classify the time series data in the international emissions trading market depend on the agent-based simulation and compares the case with Discrete Fourier transform analytical method. The purpose demonstrates the analytical methods mapping time series data such as market price. These analytical methods have revealed the following results: (1) the classification methods indicate the distance of mapping from the time series data, it is easier the understanding and inference than time series data; (2) these methods can analyze the uncertain time series data using the distance via agent-based simulation including stationary process and non-stationary process; and (3) Bayesian analytical method can show the 1% difference description of the emission reduction targets of agent.

  7. Evaluation of commonly used methods for the analysis of acid-soluble phosphate in internationally traded inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Hall, William L; Siegel, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Several methodologies are used throughout the world to determine phosphate concentration (measured as PO4 and expressed as % P2O5) in fertilizers. Concentrated phosphate materials, including diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP), are traded in large volumes (millions of metric tons) internationally. The International Fertilizer Association (IFA) identified a need to assess the methods currently being used to measure the phosphate content for suitability (scope), accuracy, and repeatability. Even small discrepancies in the expressed P2O5 content can have a major financial impact on buyers and sellers as contracts are settled and import regulations are imposed. The IFA's Technical Committee selected a working group to address issues dealing with harmonization of fertilizer sampling and analytical methodologies. The working group identified phosphate content in DAP and MAP fertilizers as a major concern for commerce. The working group initiated a method screening and comparison project to assess method performance and to determine which methods, if any, could be considered best practice methods and, therefore, be deemed acceptable for use by the industry. In order to systematically review the acceptability of methods for consideration, the task force developed an assessment protocol outlined in a white paper involving three steps: (1) compile all known relevant methods practiced in global fertilizer trade, (2) review and evaluate methods based upon specific evaluation criteria, and (3) compare the methods that most closely fit the evaluation criteria by multilaboratory analysis of unknown materials for accuracy and repeatability. Six methods were evaluated for analysis of total phosphate in concentrated phosphate products. From these methods, four were determined to be acceptable as best practice methods. The study members proposed three of the methods, while a fourth method was commonly used among the participating laboratories. This publication

  8. Trading Places: The Role of Agents in International Student Recruitment from Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Moira; Thomson, Alex; Hulme, Rob; Doughty, Guy

    2014-01-01

    As state subsidies to higher education contract, the recruitment of international students is becoming a strategic priority for many UK universities. Academic roles are reconfigured as the commercialisation of higher education and the commodification of education services re-position the student as consumer, academic as entrepreneur, and…

  9. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.20 What... species II CITES document indicating that the specimen was taken in accordance with provisions of the... the sea under a pre-existing treaty, convention, or international agreement for that species...

  10. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.20 What... species II CITES document indicating that the specimen was taken in accordance with provisions of the... the sea under a pre-existing treaty, convention, or international agreement for that species...

  11. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.20 What... species II CITES document indicating that the specimen was taken in accordance with provisions of the... the sea under a pre-existing treaty, convention, or international agreement for that species...

  12. Beta agonists in livestock feed: status, health concerns, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Centner, T J; Alvey, J C; Stelzleni, A M

    2014-09-01

    Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride in animal feeds, usage of those compounds has been a topic of worldwide debate. Ractopamine and zilpaterol are β-adrenergic agonists used as veterinary drugs to increase weight gain in certain animals raised for food. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established maximum residue limits for ractopamine, which were adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex). No maximum residue limits for zilpaterol have been adopted by JECFA, and new reports of animal mobility issues confront the use of this feed additive. However, many countries disagree with the Codex standards and are restricting or banning meat products containing β agonists. The bans by major importers of U.S. meat products have prompted some to advocate that the United States use the World Trade Organization dispute settlement body. This paper looks at the developments to provide a fuller accounting of what the issues may mean to U.S. firms selling meat products containing residues of β agonists.

  13. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  14. APPLICATIONS OF MATHEMATICAL CONTROL THEORY TO ACCOUNTING AND BUDGETING: II. THE CONTINUOUS JOINT TRADING MADEL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper applies the mathematical control theory to the accounting network flows, where the flow rates are constrained by linear inequalities. The...cross section phase of the problem, which is characterized by linear programming, and the dynamic phase of the problem, which is characterized by control theory . (Author)

  15. Internal rotations of aromatic polyamides: a density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Joe; Imase, Tatsuya; Koike, Masao; Fukuda, Kaoru; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji; Kawauchi, Susumu

    2005-05-01

    Internal rotations of benzanilide ( BA) and 4-(4'-aminobenzamido)benzoic acid ( AA) were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. B3LYP/6-31G* optimization for both BA and AA structures gives non-planar trans structures as the most stable conformers with lower energy of 4.60 and 5.08 kcal/mol than cis ones, respectively. The amide bond and aniline moiety are found to be coplanar in transBA, while in trans phenyl benzoate ( PB) the ester bond and benzoyl moiety are coplanar. The relaxed potential energy surface (PES) scans were then carried out with rotations of three single bonds, i.e. amide bond and both adjacent bonds. The discontinuous point is found on the relaxed PES for the amide bond rotation. This indicates that inversion of a pyramidal amino group is involved with the amide bond rotation. Therefore, two transition states (TSs) arise for rotation around the amide bond. Two TS structures ( TS-1 and TS-2) were optimized for both BA and AA, and their activation energies were estimated as 14.34 kcal/mol ( TS-1) and 16.27 kcal/mol ( TS-2) for BA, and 12.20 kcal/mol ( TS-1) for AA, respectively. The TS-2 structure for AA failed to be optimized. The activation energy for the amide bond rotation, which is larger than that of 7.90 kcal/mol for PB, as well as the coplanarity in aromatic amide is ascribed to the partial double bond character of amide bond. This is also confirmed by the Wiberg bond index (bond order). The chain persistence length for poly(4-benzamide) was estimated by the rotation matrix formalism using the calculated structural parameters of transAA. The estimated value of 1131 Å is longer than our previously calculated value of corresponding aromatic polyester, 364 Å for poly( p-hydroxybenzoic acid) [T. Imase, S. Kawauchi, J. Watanabe, Macromol. Theory Simul. 10 (2001) 434].

  16. Internationalizing Curriculum: Framing Theory and Practice in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article defines how the message systems of international schools and the mechanisms of learning and control can be located in a trajectory from colonialism to global civil society. A discussion of Bernstein's message systems introduces how practice in international schools can be defined. The practice of international schools is framed…

  17. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear harvested in... trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf... of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx rufus), river otter (Lontra canadensis),...

  18. Survey for the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Hong Kong in native amphibians and in the international amphibian trade.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Chan, Simon Kin Fung; Tang, Wing Sze; Speare, Richard; Skerratt, Lee F; Alford, Ross A; Cheung, Ka Shing; Ho, Ching Yee; Campbell, Ruth

    2007-12-13

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is responsible for many amphibian declines and has been identified in wild amphibian populations on all continents where they exist, except for Asia. In order to assess whether B. dendrobatidis is present on the native amphibians of Hong Kong, we sampled wild populations of Amolops hongkongensis, Paa exilispinosa, P. spinosa and Rana chloronota during 2005-2006. Amphibians infected with B. dendrobatidis have been found in the international trade, so we also examined the extent and nature of the amphibian trade in Hong Kong during 2005-2006, and assessed whether B. dendrobatidis was present in imported amphibians. All 274 individuals of 4 native amphibian species sampled tested negative for B. dendrobatidis, giving an upper 95% confidence limit for prevalence of 1.3%. Approximately 4.3 million amphibians of 45 species from 11 countries were imported into Hong Kong via air over 12 mo; we did not detect B. dendrobatidis on any of 137 imported amphibians sampled. As B. dendrobatidis generally occurs at greater than 5% prevalence in infected populations during favorable environmental conditions, native amphibians in Hong Kong appear free of B. dendrobatidis, and may be at severe risk of impact if it is introduced. Until it is established that the pathogen is present in Hong Kong, management strategies should focus on preventing it from being imported and decreasing the risk of it escaping into the wild amphibian populations if imported. Further research is needed to determine the status of B. dendrobatidis in Hong Kong with greater certainty.

  19. Application of risk assessment to international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, H E; Blackwell, J H; Acree, J A

    1996-07-23

    NAFTA and GATT have specified that we must base import decisions on sound scientific information. This includes the use of risk assessment procedures to justify excluding or restricting the international movement of either live animals or products from animals. Procedures and techniques have been described for calculating the risk of almost any hazard that one can imagine. Of particular concern to animal health professionals are the risks associated with introducing known or unknown disease agents into a population of animals that has been previously free of a specific disease. Traditional risk assessment procedures calculate the probability that a disease agent transmission will occur and the cost of such an event. The responsible manager must decide on an acceptable threshold of risk. A set of criteria for determining what risk is acceptable has been developed that categorizes risks for importing animals or animal products from any region of the world based on classification of the region as negligible, slight, low, moderate, high, or unknown risk.

  20. 75 FR 43939 - The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., and/or business partners, as well as counseling from Commercial Service trade specialists. In both... to introduce participants to distributors and prospective partners. The Americas Business Trade... International Trade Administration The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico AGENCY: International...

  1. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    PubMed

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  2. An International Collaboration in Nursing Education Viewed through the Lens of Critical Social Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, David N.; Sigurdsson, Hrafn Oli

    2002-01-01

    An international educational exchange program involving nursing students was examined using Habermas' theory of communicative action. Politics and economics were found to inhibit active communication and the potential benefits of shared understanding through interaction. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  3. Trends in International Trade in Higher Education: Implications and Options for Developing Countries. Education Working Paper Series, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Sajitha

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trends, underlying factors and implications of the trade in higher education services. The term "trade in higher education" refers to the purchase of higher education services from a foreign country using domestic resources. The objectives of this paper are to provide policy makers in developing countries, World Bank staff,…

  4. International Cooperation in Higher Education: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wendy W. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The massification of higher education beginning in the 1960s and increasing marketisation of education have quickened the pace and, in some cases, changed the nature of international university cooperation. Today, universities form linkages with each other for one reason or another, but most important, they strike alliance in order to be able to…

  5. Toward a Hermeneutical Theory of International Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Daraweesh, Fuad; Snauwaert, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to articulate and defend the epistemological foundations of international human rights education from the perspective of a hermeneutical interpretive methodology. Fuad Al-Daraweesh and Dale Snauwaert argue here that this methodology potentially alleviates the challenges that face the cross-cultural implementation of…

  6. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action.

  7. A Facet Theory Model for Integrating Contextual and Personal Experiences of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to use a facet theory research approach to provide a clear, coherent, and integrated model of international students' experiences based upon the findings of psychological research into students when studying abroad. In research that employs a facet theory approach events are classified in terms of their constituent…

  8. A Multilevel Bayesian Item Response Theory Method for Scaling Socioeconomic Status in International Studies of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a new method is presented and implemented for deriving a scale of socioeconomic status (SES) from international survey data using a multilevel Bayesian item response theory (IRT) model. The proposed model incorporates both international anchor items and nation-specific items and is able to (a) produce student family SES scores…

  9. The Generalized Internal/External Frame of Reference Model: An Extension to Dimensional Comparison Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möller, Jens; Müller-Kalthoff, Hanno; Helm, Friederike; Nagy, Nicole; Marsh, Herb W.

    2016-01-01

    The dimensional comparison theory (DCT) focuses on the effects of internal, dimensional comparisons (e.g., "How good am I in math compared to English?") on academic self-concepts with widespread consequences for students' self-evaluation, motivation, and behavioral choices. DCT is based on the internal/external frame of reference model…

  10. Threat and Guilt Aspects of Internalized Antilesbian and Gay Prejudice: An Application of Personal Construct Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Bonnie; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Epting, Franz R.

    2009-01-01

    Building on G. A. Kelly's (1991a, 1991b) personal construct theory, this study introduced concepts of threat and guilt as different manifestations of internalized antilesbian and gay prejudice. Results with 102 lesbian and gay participants indicated that internalized threat and guilt each accounted for unique variance in global internalized…

  11. Harnessing International Relations Theory to Security Cooperation Program Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    behavior. One of the most famous Liberal theorists is the philosopher Immanuel Kant , whose theory of “Perpetual Peace” centered on a vision where “free...democratic states would retain their sovereignty while working together to avoid war.”17 Kant ‟s vision has repeatedly been channeled into a desire...Interdependence and Liberal Institutionalist thinkers share roots with Grotius and Kant , and believe that there is a larger civil society where interstate

  12. International trades, local spread and viral evolution: the case of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains heterogeneity in Italy.

    PubMed

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia M; Dotto, Giorgia; Gigli, Alessandra; Ceglie, Letizia; Drigo, Michele

    2015-06-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 is one of the most widespread and economically relevant infections of swine. Four genotypes have been recognized, but currently, only three (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) are effectively circulating. The widespread livestock trade and rapid viral evolution have contributed to determining the high heterogeneity of PCV2 and the dispersal of potentially more virulent strains. Italian swine farming and the related processing industry are relevant in the national economy. Despite the noteworthy losses associated with direct and control measure costs, no data are currently available on the molecular epidemiology of PCV2 in Italy. Our study, which was intended to fill this gap, considered 75 completed genome PCV2 sequences, which were obtained from samples collected from the highly densely populated area of Northern Italy between 2007 and 2014. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison with reference sequences demonstrated the co-circulation, with different prevalences, of PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d within the national borders, with PCV2b being the most prevalent. Recombination between different genotypes was also proven to be frequent. Phylogeographic analysis demonstrated that the marked variability of Italian PCV2 strains can be attributable to multiple introduction events. The comparison of the phylogenetic analysis results, the location of different haplotypes and the international commercial routs of live pigs allow the speculation of several links as well as the role of Italy as both an importer and exporter of PCV2 haplotypes, mainly from and to European and Asian countries. A similarly intricate contact network was demonstrated within national borders, with different haplotypes being detected in the same province and different provinces harbouring the same haplotype. Overall, this paper represents the first description of PCV2 in Italy and demonstrates that the high variability of circulating Italian strains is due to multiple introduction events, wide

  13. Demystifying internalization and socialization: linking conceptions of how development happens to organismic-developmental theory.

    PubMed

    Raeff, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Internalization and socialization are central constructs in developmental psychology for explaining and investigating how development happens through social interaction. There has been and continues to be much debate about how to conceptualize and investigate these processes. The ways in which internalization and socialization promote development have also been difficult to identify. The goal of this chapter is to offer a way of clarifying what happens during internalization and socialization by linking them to a clear conceptualization of development. The chapter first provides an overview of internalization and socialization theory and research. This review indicates that the focus on how development happens through social interaction has taken attention away from specifying the developmental changes that occur through social interaction. It is argued that understanding internalization and socialization can be enhanced by linking them to a clear definition of development, such as the one provided by organismic-developmental theory. According to organismic-developmental theory, developmental change is distinguished from any change that may occur over time. Rather, development is defined in terms of the differentiation and integration of action components in relation to cultural values and expectations for development. After explicating organismic-developmental theory's key claims, some implications of utilizing it for advancing an understanding of internalization and socialization are discussed. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research on internalization, socialization, and development.

  14. Fifth international conference on hyperbolic problems -- theory, numerics, applications: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The conference demonstrated that hyperbolic problems and conservation laws play an important role in many areas including industrial applications and the studying of elasto-plastic materials. Among the various topics covered in the conference, the authors mention: the big bang theory, general relativity, critical phenomena, deformation and fracture of solids, shock wave interactions, numerical simulation in three dimensions, the level set method, multidimensional Riemann problem, application of the front tracking in petroleum reservoir simulations, global solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in high dimensions, recent progress in granular flow, and the study of elastic plastic materials. The authors believe that the new ideas, tools, methods, problems, theoretical results, numerical solutions and computational algorithms presented or discussed at the conference will benefit the participants in their current and future research.

  15. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... Winds--Asia business forum (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia...

  16. Game theory, international law, and future environmental cooperation in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.

    1998-12-31

    Through the use of game theory, this article explores some of the principal factors influencing the emergence and maintenance of international cooperation in order to develop legal guidelines for establishing an effective environmental mechanism in the Middle East. As this article shows, game theory concepts and models provide a valuable tool for analyzing the phenomenon of cooperation, enabling international lawyers to shape legal norms which will enhance the prospects for environmental cooperation in the Middle East. Part 2 of this article sets for the basic concepts and models of game theory and its relationship to modern international relations theory. Part 3 presents a game theoretical analysis of two major environmental settings in the Middle East: marine pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba and water contamination of the Mountain Aquifer. It then suggests some legal mechanisms to enhance the likelihood of cooperation in these settings. Part 4 concludes the article by exploring the options nd limits of combining game theory and international law as an instrument to improve the prospects of cooperation. The article ultimately states that this combination offers scholars and policy-makers important insights into better legal mechanisms for long-term international cooperation.

  17. Unification Theory of Optimal Life Histories and Linear Demographic Models in Internal Stochasticity

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Life history of organisms is exposed to uncertainty generated by internal and external stochasticities. Internal stochasticity is generated by the randomness in each individual life history, such as randomness in food intake, genetic character and size growth rate, whereas external stochasticity is due to the environment. For instance, it is known that the external stochasticity tends to affect population growth rate negatively. It has been shown in a recent theoretical study using path-integral formulation in structured linear demographic models that internal stochasticity can affect population growth rate positively or negatively. However, internal stochasticity has not been the main subject of researches. Taking account of effect of internal stochasticity on the population growth rate, the fittest organism has the optimal control of life history affected by the stochasticity in the habitat. The study of this control is known as the optimal life schedule problems. In order to analyze the optimal control under internal stochasticity, we need to make use of “Stochastic Control Theory” in the optimal life schedule problem. There is, however, no such kind of theory unifying optimal life history and internal stochasticity. This study focuses on an extension of optimal life schedule problems to unify control theory of internal stochasticity into linear demographic models. First, we show the relationship between the general age-states linear demographic models and the stochastic control theory via several mathematical formulations, such as path–integral, integral equation, and transition matrix. Secondly, we apply our theory to a two-resource utilization model for two different breeding systems: semelparity and iteroparity. Finally, we show that the diversity of resources is important for species in a case. Our study shows that this unification theory can address risk hedges of life history in general age-states linear demographic models. PMID:24945258

  18. Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  19. Essential veterinary education in the cultural, political and biological complexities of international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brown, C C

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation has changed the veterinary profession in many ways and academic institutes may need to re-tool to help future professionals deal with the changes in a successful and productive way. The remarkably expanded and expanding volume of trade and traffic in animals and animal products means that to be effective veterinarians must grasp some of the complexities inherent in this trade. Being able to engage productively in cross-cultural dialogue will be important in negotiations over livestock shipments and also within the context of the delivery of medical services to companion animals in societies that are becoming increasingly diverse. Understanding the political landscapes that influence trade decisions will help to expedite agreements and facilitate the transfer of goods and materials that involve animal health. Disease emergence will continue to occur, and an awareness of the factors responsible and the response measures to undertake will help to contain any damage.

  20. History of Virtual Water , International Trade and Economic Metabolism at the Time Colonialism and a First Attempt to Assess Their Impact on Hydrologic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, F.

    2008-12-01

    This research considers the historical impact of virtual water into the geophysical arena by considering it as a human-led phenomenon that impacts the hydrologic system and, consequently, the environment as a whole. This paper is in line with the idea of including the humans into the water-balance model, and it is deepening the idea that this has to be done not only at the light of each watershed, but globally, looking at the role of water-trade embedded in food and tradable goods. Starting from a definition of what virtual water is, this research explores the role of crops export in the early U.S. Colonial time. As early as 1630 a huge biomass from here was already exported to the UK (the fur trade). In 1700 the tobacco export started, along with cereals exports and timber. An entire ecosystem has been "exported" in terms of water-embedded-in-goods. This was the beginning of a massive depletion of bio-mass stocks and flows, a raise in nitrogen discharge into the environment and its impact on the hydrological systems ( CUAHSI Summer Institute findings). Immigration and its effects on the water balance is also considered in this work. The experiment of interdisciplinary work of CUAHSI Summer Institute 2008 has proven that there is space for a historical reconstruction of evidence of human-led changes to the hydrological systems. This has been possible through the analysis of material stocks and flows, water-balance analysis of these stocks and flows, including human-led changes like international trade and population growth. This proposal will argue that these changes can also be identified by the term of 'socio- economic metabolism', in which societies are trading their goods internationally but taking the primary resources, including water, locally. This work will put the basis for the history of virtual water and its implications on both socio-economic metabolism and local geophysical changes.

  1. 75 FR 1590 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies Trade... technologies trade liberalization, industry competitiveness issues, and general Committee administrative...

  2. 78 FR 13897 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Labor Affairs Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Affairs Council of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Public Session Meeting AGENCY.... Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S-5303, Washington, DC 20210; phone (202) 693-4811.... ADDRESSES: The LAC will meet at the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,...

  3. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  4. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date.

  5. Implementing a probabilistic definition of freedom from infection to facilitate trade of livestock: putting theory into praxis for the example of bovine herpes virus-1.

    PubMed

    Schuppers, M E; Stegeman, J A; Kramps, J A; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    International trade of livestock and livestock products poses a significant potential threat for spread of diseases, and importing countries therefore often require that imported animals and products are free from certain pathogens. However, absolute freedom from infection cannot be documented, since all test protocols are imperfect and can lead to false-negative results. It is possible instead to estimate the "probability of freedom from infection" and its opposite, the probability of infection despite having a negative test result. These probabilities can be estimated based on a pre-defined target prevalence, known surveillance efforts in the target population and known test characteristics of any pre-export test. Here, calculations are demonstrated using the example of bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1). In a population that recently became free of BoHV-1 without using vaccination, the probability of being infected of an animal randomly selected for trade is 800 per 1 million and this probability is reduced to 64 (95% probability interval PI 6-161) per 1 million when this animal is tested negatively prior to export with a gB-ELISA. In a population that recently became free of BoHV-1 using vaccination, the probability of being infected of an animal randomly selected for trade is 200 per 1 million, and this probability can be reduced to 63 (95% PI 42-87) when this animal is tested negatively prior to export with a gE-ELISA. Similar estimations can be made on a herd level when assumptions are made about the herd size and the intensity of the surveillance efforts. Subsequently, the overall probability for an importing country of importing at least 1 infected animal can be assessed by taking into account the trade volume. Definition of the acceptable level of risk, including the probability of false-negative results to occur, is part of risk management. Internationally harmonized target prevalence levels for the declaration of freedom from infection from selected

  6. Theory and Text: How Textual Analysis Can Help Build International Relations Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Gavan

    This paper assesses the relative merits of numerical and textual approaches to the study of international events. While enjoying a much longer history, numerical approaches have certain representational drawbacks that do not apply to textual approaches. Textual models provide a more adequate descriptive foundation for the study of international…

  7. 76 FR 14904 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce's International Trade Administration is organizing a business development trade mission to Kabul... to port cities such as Karachi. After 30 years of war reconstruction and development efforts...

  8. De-boned beef - an example of a commodity for which specific standards could be developed to ensure an appropriate level of protection for international trade.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Leyland, T J; Donaldson, A I

    2009-03-01

    De-boned beef from which lymph nodes and risk material associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy have been removed, is a product which can be produced for safe international trade irrespective of whether the locality of production is recognized as free from so-called transboundary diseases or not. Further processing of such beef provides an additional safety factor. However, this approach requires specific control measures being in place, supported by appropriate auditing and certification procedures. This document presents the arguments supporting this concept and details how safety in respect of both animal diseases and human food safety can be achieved using an integrated hazard analysis and critical control points approach.

  9. A theory of international bioethics: multiculturalism, postmodernism, and the bankruptcy of fundamentalism.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    1998-09-01

    The first of two articles analyzing the justifiability of international bioethical codes and of cross-cultural moral judgments reviews "moral fundamentalism," the theory that cross-cultural moral judgments and international bioethical codes are justified by certain "basic" or "fundamental" moral priniciples that are universally accepted in all cultures and eras. Initially propounded by the judges at the 1947 Nuremberg Tribunal, moral fundamentalism has become the received justification of international bioethics, and of cross-temporal and cross-cultural moral judgments. Yet today we are said to live in a multicultural and postmodern world. This article assesses the challenges that multiculturalism and postmodernism pose to fundamentalism and concludes that these challenges render the position philosophically untenable, thereby undermining the received conception of the foundations of international bioethics. The second article, which follows, offers an alternative model -- a model of negotiated moral order -- as a viable justification for international bioethics and for transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments.

  10. Through the Lens of Theory: Perspectives on an International Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study of the International Association of School Librarianship (IASL) with the goal of offering an alternative model for studying associations that combines a theoretical framework with a case study design. Theories of organization, convergence, and global integrity ethics are discussed, and a survey of IASL membership is appended.…

  11. Systems-theory of psychosis--the relevance of "internal censorship".

    PubMed

    Emrich, H M; Leweke, F M; Schneider, U

    2006-02-01

    The different aspects of the neurobiology of psychotic disorders are presently discussed under the perspective of Arvid Calssons neurochemical theory of mesolimbic/cortico-thalamic loops. In this regard the question as to whether--neuropsychologically--a "filter-defect" or a disturbance of "internal censorship" is causative for psychoses. This topic is discussed in the present paper.

  12. Conflicting Agendas: Critical Thinking versus Science Education in the International Baccalaureate "Theory of Knowledge" Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemplen, Gabor A.

    2007-01-01

    The article investigates the "Theory of Knowledge" course of the "International Baccalaureate Organization." After a short overview of the aims and objectives of the course, the assessment criteria and a popular textbook are investigated. Shortcomings concerning the treatment of the natural sciences are highlighted and the problem is generalised…

  13. Constructing International Relations Simulations: Examining the Pedagogy of IR Simulations through a Constructivist Learning Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asal, Victor; Kratoville, Jayson

    2013-01-01

    Simulations are being used more and more in political science generally and in international relations specifically. While there is a growing body of literature describing different simulations and a small amount of literature that empirically tests the impact of simulations, scholars have written very little linking the pedagogic theory behind…

  14. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

  15. 77 FR 21798 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Association; Animal Welfare Institute; Bush Warriors; Center for Biological Diversity; International Fund for... Specialist Group; Oceana; Pew Environment Group; Shark Advocates International; Species Survival Network... and biological information on all of these taxa. Based on these assessments, we made...

  16. Urbanization and international trade and investment policies as determinants of noncommunicable diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Schram, Ashley; Labonté, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2013-01-01

    There are three dominant globalization pathways affecting noncommunicable diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): urbanization, trade liberalization, and investment liberalization. Urbanization carries potential health benefits due to improved access to an increased variety of food imports, although for the growing number of urban poor, this has often meant increased reliance on cheap, highly processed food commodities. Reduced barriers to trade have eased the importation of such commodities, while investment liberalization has increased corporate consolidation over global and domestic food chains. Higher profit margins on processed foods have promoted the creation of 'obesogenic' environments, which through progressively integrated global food systems have been increasingly 'exported' to developing nations. This article explores globalization processes, the food environment, and dietary health outcomes in SSA through the use of trend analyses and structural equation modelling. The findings are considered in the context of global barriers and facilitators for healthy public policy.

  17. 76 FR 26247 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  18. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  19. Daisyworld inhabited with daisies incorporating a seed size/number trade-off: the mechanism of negative feedback on selection from a standpoint of the competition theory.

    PubMed

    Seto, Mayumi; Akagi, Tasuku

    2005-05-21

    We reexamined a Daisyworld model from the traditional view of competition theory. Unlike the original model, white and black daisies in our model incorporate a seeding/germination trade-off against bare ground area without assuming the local temperature reward. As a result, the planetary temperature is automatically regulated by two species if the following conditions are met: (i) the species react equally to an environmental condition, but one can alter the environmental condition in the opposite direction to the other. (ii) that one of the two cannot have both a higher maximal growth rate (mu(max)) and lower half-saturation constant (K) than those of the other. In other words, a pair of phenotypes incorporates a trade-off between quality and number of seeds. We found that the homeostatic regulation can also be reconciled with the adaptive evolution of optimal temperature. The results of simulation imply that biotic environmental feedback can also be maintained when the emergence of polymorphisms (black and white daisies) is closely linked to such a trade-off.

  20. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    PubMed

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  1. Risk assessments of lumpy skin diseases in Borena bull market chain and its implication for livelihoods and international trade.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Zewde, Girma; Admassu, Berhanu

    2013-06-01

    Risks of introduction of lumpy skin disease (LSD) through traded Borena bulls to market chain and its consequences were assessed. The assessment used the framework that has been recommended by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) for risk analysis. Likelihoods for release and exposure were estimated by a qualitative scale ranging from negligible to very high, whereas the consequences which resulted from disease occurrences were assessed quantitatively. The likelihood of the introduction of LSD to the market chain through traded Borena bulls is found to be high (medium uncertainty), whereas the probability of exposure is very high (medium uncertainty). From the total of 11,189 bulls observed during outbreak investigation of LSD in six sites of feedlot operation in and around Adama, 681(6.1 %) and 204 (1.8 %) bulls were found to be affected and dead with LSD, respectively. The total economic loss due to LSD was estimated to be 667,785.6 USD. The risk estimates for LSD are greater than negligible; therefore, disease prevention and control strategy along the chain should be carefully considered by the Ethiopian veterinary services.

  2. Biological trade and markets.

    PubMed

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  3. Biological trade and markets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  4. Further test of internal-conversion theory with a measurement in {sup 197}Pt

    SciTech Connect

    Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Goodwin, J.; Balonek, C.; Hernberg, M.; Nolan, J.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2009-12-15

    We have measured the K-shell internal conversion coefficient, {alpha}{sub K}, for the 346.5-keV M4 transition in {sup 197}Pt to be 4.23(7). This result differs from a previous value, which disagreed significantly from theory. Our new value agrees well with Dirac-Fock calculations and removes the earlier discrepancy as a source of concern.

  5. 75 FR 60736 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. ] Water Technology Trade Mission to India; February 28... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS), is organizing a Water Technology Trade Mission to...

  6. 78 FR 78818 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC on December 16... etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15...

  7. Appearance and spread of diseases among bivalve molluscs in the northern hemisphere in relation to international trade.

    PubMed

    Renault, T

    1996-06-01

    Bivalve mollusc culture is a well-developed marine aquaculture activity in many countries around the world, notably in the northern hemisphere. During the development of this activity, numerous countries have been confronted with infectious diseases of varying severity and duration. Research has been conducted to determine the aetiology, epidemiology and control measures for these epizootics. Major epizootics in bivalve molluscs have been caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoan parasites. Moreover important commercial relations exist in marine mollusc culture between different geographical areas. This must be taken into account in explaining the appearance and the spread of some infectious diseases in several countries around the world. The author concentrates on some viral and protozoan diseases of bivalve molluscs reported in the northern hemisphere, in view of their economic impact and their spread related to movement of molluscs through trade.

  8. Highlights from the 2013 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference, Santa Fe, NM

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-15

    The 2013 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference was held in Santa Fe, NM from April 15-17. There were 15 invited talks spanning the field of fusion theory on topics such as stellerator theory, intrinsic rotation in tokamaks, transport in the plasma edge, and plasma-wall interactions. Author-provided summaries of several of the invited talks are included on pages 5 to 10 of this document. Plenary talks were given by Per Helander (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald, Germany) on “Overview of recent developments in stellerator theory”, Amit Misra (Los Alamos National Laboratory) on “Stable storage of Helium at interfaces in nanocomposites”, Sergei Krasheninnikov (UC San Diego) on “On the physics of the first wall in fusion devices”, and Stuart Bale (UC Berkeley) on “Solar wind thermodynamics and turbulence: collisional – collisionless transitions”.

  9. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  10. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories (MBT17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Heidi; Boronat, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    These are the proceedings of the XVII International Conference on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories, which was held from 8-13 September 2013 in Rostock, Germany. The conference continued the triennial series initiated in Trieste in 1978 and was devoted to new developments in the field of many-body theories. The conference series encourages the exchange of ideas between physicists working in such diverse areas as nuclear physics, quantum chemistry, lattice Hamiltonians or quantum uids. Many-body theories are an integral part in different fields of theoretical physics such as condensed matter, nuclear matter and field theory. Phase transitions and macroscopic quantum effects such as magnetism, Bose-Einstein condensation, super uidity or superconductivity have been investigated within ultra-cold gases, finite systems or various nanomaterials. The conference series on Recent Progress in Many-Body Theories is devoted to foster the interaction and to cross-fertilize between different fields and to discuss future lines of research. The topics of the 17th meeting were Cluster Physics Cold Gases High Energy Density Matter and Intense Lasers Magnetism New Developments in Many-Body Techniques Nuclear Many-Body and Relativistic Theories Quantum Fluids and Solids Quantum Phase Transitions Topological Insulators and Low Dimensional Systems. 109 participants from 20 countries participated. 44 talks and 61 posters werde presented. As a particular highlight of the conference, The Eugene Feenberg Memorial Medal for outstanding results in the field of many-body theory and The Hermann Kümmel Early Achievement Award in Many-Body Physics for young scientists in that field were awarded. The Feenberg Medal went jointly to Patrick Lee (MIT, USA) for his fundamental contributions to condensed-matter theory, especially in regard to the quantum Hall effect, to universal conductance uctuations, and to the Kondo effect in quantum dots, and Douglas Scalapino (UC Santa Barbara, USA) for his

  11. The Role of Theory and Modeling in the International Living with a Star Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.

    2004-01-01

    Today, theory and modeling play a critical role in our quest to understand the connection between solar eruptive phenomena, and their impacts in interplanetary space and in the near-Earth space environment. This new role is based on two developments, one related to the goal of basic physical understanding, and the other to space weather-related applications. When targeting physical our focus is shifting away from investigations aiming at basic discoveries, to missions and studies that address our basic understanding of processes we know to be important. For these studies, theory and models provide physical explanations that need to be verified or falsified by empirical evidence. Within this paradigm, a much more tight integration between theory modeling, and space flight mission design and execution is not only beneficial, but essential. One of the prime objectives of space weather research, on the other hand, is the prediction of space environmental conditions for the benefit of humans and their assets in near-Earth space and on the ground, as well as on solar system bodies like Mars that are of interest to exploration by humans. By its very nature, prediction requires modeling, which, in turn, requires understanding. We will present an overview of the role of theory and modeling within the International Living With a Star program. Specifically, we will focus on an assessment of present-day and future capabilities, as well as on strategies for tight integration of theory and modeling in space science investigations.

  12. Educational Change and International Trade in Teacher Development: Achieving Local Goals within/despite a Transnational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Janinka; Alam, Safayet; Kabir, Ariful Haq

    2014-01-01

    The study in one country to support the development of education in another is a regular event in the field of contemporary tertiary education, and it is likely to grow as developing countries accelerate their educational development projects and as Western universities seek international student funding. This article reports the case study of a…

  13. 75 FR 11556 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... this information is on our website at http://www.fws.gov/international/newspubs/fedregnot_list.html and... by other countries and the CITES Secretariat for consideration at CoP15 posted on our website should... Secretariat's website at http://www.cites.org ; or upon request from the Division of Management Authority;...

  14. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  15. Excited states with internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster linear response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis; Hanauer, Matthias; Köhn, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the linear response (LR) theory for the variant of internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) theory described by Hanauer and Köhn [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 204211 (2011)] has been formulated and implemented for the computation of the excitation energies relative to a ground state of pronounced multireference character. We find that straightforward application of the linear-response formalism to the time-averaged ic-MRCC Lagrangian leads to unphysical second-order poles. However, the coupling matrix elements that cause this behavior are shown to be negligible whenever the internally contracted approximation as such is justified. Hence, for the numerical implementation of the method, we adopt a Tamm-Dancoff-type approximation and neglect these couplings. This approximation is also consistent with an equation-of-motion based derivation, which neglects these couplings right from the start. We have implemented the linear-response approach in the ic-MRCC singles-and-doubles framework and applied our method to calculate excitation energies for a number of molecules ranging from CH2 to p-benzyne and conjugated polyenes (up to octatetraene). The computed excitation energies are found to be very accurate, even for the notoriously difficult case of doubly excited states. The ic-MRCC-LR theory is also applicable to systems with open-shell ground-state wavefunctions and is by construction not biased towards a particular reference determinant. We have also compared the linear-response approach to the computation of energy differences by direct state-specific ic-MRCC calculations. We finally compare to Mk-MRCC-LR theory for which spurious roots have been reported [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044116 (2012)], being due to the use of sufficiency conditions to solve the Mk-MRCC equations. No such problem is present in ic-MRCC-LR theory.

  16. Excited states with internally contracted multireference coupled-cluster linear response theory.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis; Hanauer, Matthias; Köhn, Andreas

    2014-04-07

    In this paper, the linear response (LR) theory for the variant of internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) theory described by Hanauer and Köhn [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 204211 (2011)] has been formulated and implemented for the computation of the excitation energies relative to a ground state of pronounced multireference character. We find that straightforward application of the linear-response formalism to the time-averaged ic-MRCC Lagrangian leads to unphysical second-order poles. However, the coupling matrix elements that cause this behavior are shown to be negligible whenever the internally contracted approximation as such is justified. Hence, for the numerical implementation of the method, we adopt a Tamm-Dancoff-type approximation and neglect these couplings. This approximation is also consistent with an equation-of-motion based derivation, which neglects these couplings right from the start. We have implemented the linear-response approach in the ic-MRCC singles-and-doubles framework and applied our method to calculate excitation energies for a number of molecules ranging from CH2 to p-benzyne and conjugated polyenes (up to octatetraene). The computed excitation energies are found to be very accurate, even for the notoriously difficult case of doubly excited states. The ic-MRCC-LR theory is also applicable to systems with open-shell ground-state wavefunctions and is by construction not biased towards a particular reference determinant. We have also compared the linear-response approach to the computation of energy differences by direct state-specific ic-MRCC calculations. We finally compare to Mk-MRCC-LR theory for which spurious roots have been reported [T.-C. Jagau and J. Gauss, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044116 (2012)], being due to the use of sufficiency conditions to solve the Mk-MRCC equations. No such problem is present in ic-MRCC-LR theory.

  17. A theory of international bioethics: the negotiable and the non-negotiable.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    1998-09-01

    The preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal presents the argument that "moral fundamentalism," the position that international bioethics rests on "basic" or "fundamental" moral prinicples that are universally accepted in all eras and cultures, collapses under a variety of multicultural and postmodern critiques. The present article looks to the contractarian tradition of Hobbes and Locke -- as reinterpreted by David Gauthier, Robert Nozick, and John Rawls -- for an alternative justification for international bioethics. Drawing on the central themes of this tradition, it is argued that international bioethics can be rationally reconstructed as a negotiated moral order that respects culturally and individually defined areas of nonnegotiability. Further, the theory of a negotiated moral order is consistent with traditional ideals about human rights, is flexible enough to absorb the genuine insights of multiculturalism and postmodernism, and yet is strong enough to justify transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments, including the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg. This theory also is consistent with the history of the ethics of human subjects experimentation and offers insights into current controversies such as the controversy over changing the consent rule for experiments in emergency medicine and the controversy over exempting certain clinical trials of inexpensive treatments for preventing the perinatal transmission of AIDS from the ethical standards of the sponsoring country.

  18. The instability theory of drumlin formation and its explanation of their varied composition and internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Fowler, Andrew C.; Clark, Chris D.; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    Despite their importance in understanding glaciological processes and constraining large-scale flow patterns in palaeo-glaciology, there is little consensus as to how drumlins are formed. Attempts to solve the 'drumlin problem' often fail to address how they are created from an initially flat surface in the absence of obvious cores or obstacles. This is a key strength of the instability theory, which has been described in a suite of physically-based mathematical models and proposes that the coupled flow of ice and till causes spontaneous formation of relief in the till surface. Encouragingly, model predictions of bedform height and length are consistent with observations and, furthermore, the theory has been applied to a range of subglacial bedforms and not just drumlins. However, it has yet to confront the myriad observations relating to the composition and internal structure of drumlins and this could be seen as a major deficiency. This paper is a first attempt to assess whether the instability theory is compatible with the incredible diversity of sediments and structures found within drumlins. We summarise the underlying principles of the theory and then describe and attempt to explain the main types of drumlin composition (e.g. bedrock, till, glaciofluvial sediments, and combinations thereof). Contrary to a view which suggests that the presence of some sedimentary sequences (e.g. horizontally stratified cores) is inconsistent with the theory, we suggest that one would actually expect a diverse range of constituents depending on the inheritance of sediments that pre-date drumlin formation, the duration and variability of ice flow, and the balance between erosion and deposition (till continuity) at the ice-bed interface. We conclude that the instability theory is compatible with (and potentially strengthened by) what is known about drumlin composition and, as such, offers the most complete and promising solution to the drumlin problem to date.

  19. Building clinical and organizational resilience to reconcile safety threats, tensions and trade-offs: insights from theory and evidence.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne; Tregunno, Deborah; MacMillan, Kathleen; Espin, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare delivery settings are complex adaptive and tightly coupled, interrelated systems. Within the larger healthcare system, a key subsystem is the "clinical microsystem" level. It is at this level that clinicians are faced with high levels of uncertainty in their daily work - uncertainty that impacts the quality and safety of care that patients receive. The first aim of this paper is to enhance healthcare leaders' understanding of what is currently known about safety threats and strategies to manage the inherent tensions and trade-offs that occur in everyday practice. The second aim is to inform strategies that build clinical and organizational resilience through a multi-level framework derived from the collective theoretical and empirical work. Together, this information can strengthen safety practices throughout healthcare organizations.

  20. International Symposium on Computational Electronics—Physical Modeling, Mathematical Theory, and Numerical Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming

    2007-12-01

    This symposium is an open forum for discussion on the current trends and future directions of physical modeling, mathematical theory, and numerical algorithm in electrical and electronic engineering. The goal is for computational scientists and engineers, computer scientists, applied mathematicians, physicists, and researchers to present their recent advances and exchange experience. We welcome contributions from researchers of academia and industry. All papers to be presented in this symposium have carefully been reviewed and selected. They include semiconductor devices, circuit theory, statistical signal processing, design optimization, network design, intelligent transportation system, and wireless communication. Welcome to this interdisciplinary symposium in International Conference of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering (ICCMSE 2007). Look forward to seeing you in Corfu, Greece!

  1. Communication: Automatic code generation enables nuclear gradient computations for fully internally contracted multireference theory

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, Matthew K.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2015-02-07

    Analytical nuclear gradients for fully internally contracted complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) are reported. This implementation has been realized by an automated code generator that can handle spin-free formulas for the CASPT2 energy and its derivatives with respect to variations of molecular orbitals and reference coefficients. The underlying complete active space self-consistent field and the so-called Z-vector equations are solved using density fitting. The implementation has been applied to the vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials of the porphin molecule to illustrate its capability.

  2. Semantic modeling for theory clarification: The realist vs liberal international relations perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H. |

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a natural language based, semantic information modeling methodology and explores its use and value in clarifying and comparing political science theories and frameworks. As an example, the paper uses this methodology to clarify and compare some of the basic concepts and relationships in the realist (e.g. Waltz) and the liberal (e.g. Rosenau) paradigms for international relations. The methodology can provide three types of benefits: (1) it can clarify and make explicit exactly what is meant by a concept; (2) it can often identify unanticipated implications and consequence of concepts and relationships; and (3) it can help in identifying and operationalizing testable hypotheses.

  3. REVIEW: Internal models in sensorimotor integration: perspectives from adaptive control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, Chung; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2005-09-01

    Internal models and adaptive controls are empirical and mathematical paradigms that have evolved separately to describe learning control processes in brain systems and engineering systems, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive appraisal of the correlation between these paradigms with a view to forging a unified theoretical framework that may benefit both disciplines. It is suggested that the classic equilibrium-point theory of impedance control of arm movement is analogous to continuous gain-scheduling or high-gain adaptive control within or across movement trials, respectively, and that the recently proposed inverse internal model is akin to adaptive sliding control originally for robotic manipulator applications. Modular internal models' architecture for multiple motor tasks is a form of multi-model adaptive control. Stochastic methods, such as generalized predictive control, reinforcement learning, Bayesian learning and Hebbian feedback covariance learning, are reviewed and their possible relevance to motor control is discussed. Possible applicability of a Luenberger observer and an extended Kalman filter to state estimation problems—such as sensorimotor prediction or the resolution of vestibular sensory ambiguity—is also discussed. The important role played by vestibular system identification in postural control suggests an indirect adaptive control scheme whereby system states or parameters are explicitly estimated prior to the implementation of control. This interdisciplinary framework should facilitate the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms of internal models in sensorimotor systems and the reverse engineering of such neural mechanisms into novel brain-inspired adaptive control paradigms in future.

  4. 77 FR 6064 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries,...

  5. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  6. 76 FR 16728 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade... the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement....

  7. The Impact of Comparative Education Research on Institutional Theory. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David, Ed.; Wiseman, Alex, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of International Perspectives on Education and Society explores how educational research from a comparative perspective has been instrumental in broadening and testing hypotheses from institutional theory. Institutional theory has also played an increasingly influential role in developing an understanding of education in society. This…

  8. A Study of K-12 Teacher Interns' Incorporation of Multicultural Content and Theory into Their Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzoole, Edith Mechelle

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined 394 K-12 teacher interns' incorporation of multicultural content and theory into their teaching practices during a 16-week internship in schools, mostly located within a 30-mile radius of Mississippi State University. The teacher interns had completed all coursework and practicum hours required by their teacher…

  9. Combining Vision with Voice: A Learning and Implementation Structure Promoting Teachers' Internalization of Practices Based on Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assor, Avi; Kaplan, Haya; Feinberg, Ofra; Tal, Karen

    2009-01-01

    We propose that self-determination theory's conceptualization of internalization may help school reformers overcome the recurrent problem of "the predictable failure of educational reform" (Sarason, 1993). Accordingly, we present a detailed learning and implementation structure to promote teachers' internalization and application of ideas and…

  10. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-09

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.

  11. Thermo-Elastic Analysis of Internally Cooled Structures Using a Higher Order Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the thermomechanical behavior of internally cooled silicon nitride structures. Silicon nitride is under consideration for elevated temperature aerospace engine applications. and techniques for lowering the operating temperature of structures composed of this material are under development. Lowering the operating temperature provides a large payoff in terms of fatigue life and may be accomplished through the use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) and the novel concept of included cooling channels. Herein, an in-depth study is performed on the behavior of a flame-impinged silicon nitride plate with a TBC and internal channels cooled by forced air. The analysis is performed using the higher order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM), which has been developed through NASA Glenn Research Center funding over the past several years. HOTFGM was chosen over the traditional finite element approach as a prelude to an examination of functionally graded silicon nitride structures for which HOTFGM is ideally suited. To accommodate the analysis requirement% of the internally cooled plate problem, two crucial enhancements were made to the two-dimensional Cartesian-based version of HOTFGM. namely, incorporation of internal boundary capabilities and incorporation of convective boundary conditions. Results indicate the viability and large benefits of cooling the plate via forced air through cooling channels. Furthermore, cooling can positively impact the stress and displacement fields present in the plate, yielding an additional payoff in terms of fatigue life. Finally, a spin-off capability resulted from inclusion of internal boundaries within HOTFGM; the ability to simulate the thermo-elastic response of structures with curved surfaces. This new capability is demonstrated, and through comparison with an analytical solution, shown to be viable and accurate.

  12. Workplace Innovation and Local Unions in the Building Trades: Theory, Application and Membership Reactions. Working Paper Series WP-014.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandver, Marcus Hart; Miles, Jeffrey A.

    In the spring of 1990, a study was conducted of local unions in the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) Region 9 with market recovery programs (MRPs) designed to reverse declines in union membership. Three locals were chosen for in-depth study in Las Vegas, Nevada; Oakland, California; and Portland, Oregon. The locals reflected…

  13. Evaluation of a rabies ELISA as an alternative method to seroneutralisation tests in the context of international trade of domestic carnivores.

    PubMed

    Wasniewski, M; Labbe, A; Tribout, L; Rieder, J; Labadie, A; Schereffer, J L; Cliquet, F

    2014-01-01

    For several years, international movements with pets have greatly increased. Most countries have relaxed their quarantine measures and adopted a scheme combining vaccination of pets against rabies followed by a serological test to check the efficacy of vaccination. This new scheme has been strongly supported by the OIE, WHO and the European Commission to facilitate the free movement of people and pets around the world. Currently, only two reference methods are recognised and prescribed (the FAVN test and the RFFIT) to measure rabies antibody levels in serum samples for international trade. They are reliable and valuable methods of assessing the efficacy of rabies vaccination but they are time-consuming and require well-trained people and specialised laboratory facilities. A few years ago, an ELISA (Platelia™ Rabies II kit ad usum Veterinarium) was developed for domestic carnivores and wildlife. To our knowledge, this ELISA is the only one certified and prescribed by the OIE. Following its marketing, one task of the EURL for rabies serology was to evaluate the performance of laboratories using this new kit. The results revealed that 26% of the participants, which were already approved laboratories for rabies serology, failed the inter-laboratory trial. Such unsatisfactory results have never been observed during any of the previous proficiency tests organised annually since 2000 by the EURL for rabies serology using reference methods. More investigations were undertaken through internal and collaborative studies to assess the performance of this newly marketed ELISA kit. The results of the internal study revealed that even with a specificity of 100%, the sensitivity evaluated on 593 samples of domestic carnivores came to 78.2%. An issue regarding the underestimation of serum titres was also revealed during the study. The results of a collaborative study involving 23 international laboratories reinforced the preliminary conclusions regarding lack of sensitivity

  14. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  15. Pupil diameter predicts changes in the exploration-exploitation trade-off: evidence for the adaptive gain theory.

    PubMed

    Jepma, Marieke; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2011-07-01

    The adaptive regulation of the balance between exploitation and exploration is critical for the optimization of behavioral performance. Animal research and computational modeling have suggested that changes in exploitative versus exploratory control state in response to changes in task utility are mediated by the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Recent studies have suggested that utility-driven changes in control state correlate with pupil diameter, and that pupil diameter can be used as an indirect marker of LC activity. We measured participants' pupil diameter while they performed a gambling task with a gradually changing payoff structure. Each choice in this task can be classified as exploitative or exploratory using a computational model of reinforcement learning. We examined the relationship between pupil diameter, task utility, and choice strategy (exploitation vs. exploration), and found that (i) exploratory choices were preceded by a larger baseline pupil diameter than exploitative choices; (ii) individual differences in baseline pupil diameter were predictive of an individual's tendency to explore; and (iii) changes in pupil diameter surrounding the transition between exploitative and exploratory choices correlated with changes in task utility. These findings provide novel evidence that pupil diameter correlates closely with control state, and are consistent with a role for the LC-NE system in the regulation of the exploration-exploitation trade-off in humans.

  16. CONFERENCE DESCRIPTION Theory of Fusion Plasmas: Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, X.; Sauter, O.

    2010-12-01

    The Joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas takes place every other year in a place particularly favourable for informal and in-depth discussions. Invited and contributed papers present state-of-the-art research in theoretical plasma physics, covering all domains relevant to fusion plasmas. This workshop always welcomes a fruitful mix of experienced researchers and students, to allow a better understanding of the key theoretical physics models and applications. Theoretical issues related to burning plasmas Anomalous Transport (Turbulence, Coherent Structures, Microinstabilities) RF Heating and Current Drive Macroinstabilities Plasma-Edge Physics and Divertors Fast particles instabilities Further details: http://Varenna-Lausanne.epfl.ch The conference is organized by: Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Association EURATOM - Confédération Suisse 'Piero Caldirola' International Centre for the Promotion of Science and International School of Plasma Physics Istituto di Fisica del Plasma del CNR, Milano Editors: X Garbet (CEA, Cadarache, France) and O Sauter (CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland)

  17. 77 FR 59591 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export..., the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to SunWest Foods, Inc...@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15...

  18. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The Export... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of...

  19. 76 FR 55010 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... number) or e- mail at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading...

  20. 76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export..., 2011, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate of Review to ARC Industries... at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of...

  1. 77 FR 28853 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export....S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review Alaska Longline Cod... number) or email at etca@trade.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading...

  2. The 1992 conference on Latin America`s Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year`s Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America`s energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America`s need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important ``pull`` factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico`s plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  3. The 1992 conference on Latin America's Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year's Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America's energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America's need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important pull'' factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico's plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  4. IEA Bioenergy Task 40Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade:Securing Supply and Demand Country Report 2014—United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J. Richard; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Heath, Brendi

    2015-01-01

    -distance international transport by ship is feasible in terms of energy use and transportation costs, but availability of suitable vessels and meteorological conditions (e.g., winter time in Scandinavia and Russia) need to be considered. However, local transportation by truck (both in biomass exporting and importing countries) may be a high-cost factor, which can influence the overall energy balance and total biomass costs.

  5. Improving U.S. Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  6. Geologic report and recommendations for the cobalt mission to Morocco sponsored by The Trade and Development Program of the International Development Cooperation Agency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Rossman, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    A mission sponsored by the Trade and Development Program (TDP) of the International Development Cooperation Agency (IDCA) went to Morocco to evaluate the possibility of finding additional sources of cobalt in that country, as well as other types of mineralization. Information obtained during this trip shows Morocco to be a country for which much geologic information is available and in which there are many favorable target areas for future exploration. Work in the Bou Azzer district (Morocco's principal cobalt district) shows that much excellent geologic work has been done in searching for additional deposits. However, a number of useful approaches to locate cobalt have not been tried, and their use might be successful. The potential for undiscovered deposits in the Bou Azzer region seems very high. The cobalt mineralization in the Siroua uplift is different from that in the Bou Azzer district. However, geologic similarities between the two areas suggest that a genetic link may exist between the two types of mineralization. This further indicates that cobalt deposits of the Bou Azzer types might be present in the Siroua region. Examination of the Bleida copper mine shows it to be a well-exposed volcanic hosted stratabound copper deposit. Large unexplored areas containing similar rocks occur near this deposit and may contain as yet undiscovered copper mineralization.

  7. 78 FR 59005 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: International Trade... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda for a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws...

  8. 78 FR 57619 - Legal Services Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Legal Services Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... FR 20893, April 8, 2013, regarding the Executive-Led Legal Services Trade Mission to China...

  9. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Biotechnology Life Sciences trade mission to China on October 17-20, 2011. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission to China is intended to include representatives from a variety of...

  10. 78 FR 22237 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade... executive led education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from... the Philippines and Malaysia. The mission will include one-on-one appointments with potential...

  11. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from EFS International Corporation/DBA: EFS Global Trade and... International Corporation/DBA: EFS Global Trade and Export (``EFS''), 102 E 3rd Avenue, Newark, NJ 07104-2706... on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management;...

  12. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Trade Certificate of Review to EFS International Corporation/DBA: EFS Global Trade and Export Sales... Certificate of Review to EFS International Corporation/ DBA: EFS Global Trade and Export Services (``EFS...; market research and analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing;...

  13. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to...

  14. 75 FR 44762 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (94-4A007) To Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Florida Citrus Exports, L.C. (``FCE... International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an...

  15. 78 FR 13861 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (99-5A002) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to California Almond Export Association... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  16. 75 FR 25207 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 88-12A16) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Wood Machinery Manufacturers of America, Application no. 88-00016. SUMMARY: Export Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') of the International...

  17. 76 FR 39846 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (10-1A001) to Amend the export trade certificate of review issued to alaska longline cod commission, application... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  18. 76 FR 23788 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (88-13A16) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review issued to Wood Machinery Manufacturers of America... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  19. 77 FR 12562 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (10-2A001) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC... International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  20. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission will assist U.S. beauty and...

  1. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led by a Department of Commerce official, the mission will assist U.S. beauty and cosmetics companies...

  2. 76 FR 11203 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Water Technology Trade Mission to India from February 28 to March 4, 2011. The purpose of the mission is to expose U.S. firms to India's rapidly expanding water and waste water market and to assist...

  3. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Navrátil, Ondřej; Pošta, Severin; Schnabl, Martin; Šnobl, Libor

    2012-02-01

    The Seventh International Conference Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS7), organized by the Departments of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering at the Czech Technical University in Prague, the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and the Institute of Physics at the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, belongs to a successful series of conferences which began at Goslar, Germany in 1999. More recent QTS conferences were held in Poland, Bulgaria, USA and Spain. QTS7 gathered around 300 scientists from all over the world. 136 of the plenary lectures and contributions presented at QTS7 are published in this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We acknowledge support from the Commission for co-operation with JINR Dubna and grant LA-08002 from the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic. Čestmír Burdík Chairman Local Organizing Committee

  4. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  5. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    PubMed

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V

    2015-01-01

    Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990-2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector's role individually, (cross-)clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network's substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength) in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies superimposed to

  6. International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET 2000), Volume 2 Held in Kharkov, Ukraine on September 12-15, 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET F61775-00-WF084 2000) Held in Kharkov...Proceedings of the International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET 2000) held in Kharkov, Ukraine on September 12-15...2000. Topics covered include theoretical and applied aspects of: antenna theory, asymptotic methods , particle beams, complex media, computational

  7. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) final injury determination in Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Mexico (NAFTA...

  8. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department...) final injury determination in Large Diameter Line Pipe and Tube from Mexico (NAFTA Secretariat...

  9. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Secretary, NAFTA Secretariat, Suite 2061, 14th and Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20230, (202)...

  10. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  11. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  12. Soviet oil trade from 1950 to 1976 in the context of the regime perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Application of insights from international political economy (IPE) to the study of the Soviet Union and other communist countries should be useful both to students of IPE and to students of those countries. This study applies an IPE perspective, regime theory, to the Soviet oil trade. The subject area was chosen both because it is an area important to the Soviet Union and because a strong regime has been identified in this area by theorists. The focus is the interaction of the Soviet Union with a regime which had been established, and was controlled by, Western actors. The study asks how the Soviet Union related to the regime and how, if at all, it attempted to pursue its alternative vision of trade, as well as at how the regime, in turn, affected the Soviet Union in its day-to-day trading relations and in its trade policy. The study concludes that application of regime theory to the examination of the Soviet oil trade is valuable both to IPE and to Soviet studies. Viewing Soviet activities in the regime context helped explain both overall Soviet trade policy and day-to-day Soviet trade decisions such as pricing and choice of trade partners.

  13. Trade and the environment: Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, E.

    1992-12-01

    The author presents a synopsis of several papers on the issue of international trade and the environment. The papers address the following topics: the complex interrelationships of international trade, environment, and poverty in developing countries; environmental aspects of economic relations between nations; and the debate between environmentalists and free trade advocates. The author also adds comments about the US embargo on Mexican yellow-fin tuna imports, concluding that this unilateral embargo action, while initially creating tentions, may have provided a useful impetus to working out a multinational environmental standard.

  14. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  15. Is Free Trade Out of Date?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dwight R.

    2009-01-01

    During the recent presidential campaign, some prominent politicians called for a "time out" in negotiating new agreements to expand international trade, and others wanted to reduce it by canceling existing trade agreements. The stated concern is that trade with countries with low labor costs forces American workers to either accept lower…

  16. An evolutionarily stable strategy and the critical point of hog futures trading entities based on replicator dynamic theory: 2006–2015 data for China’s 22 provinces

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jinbo; Deng, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the steady state between the two trading entities. The results show that the steady state is one in which hedgers adopt a “buy” strategy and speculators adopt a “do not speculate” strategy, but this type of extreme steady state is not easily realized. Thus, to explore the rational proportion of hedgers and speculators in the evolutionary stabilization strategy, bidding processes were simulated using weekly average hog prices from 2006 to 2015, such that the conditions under which hedgers and speculators achieve a steady state could be analyzed. This task was performed to achieve the stability critical point, and we show that only when the value of λ is satisfied and the conditions of hog futures price changes and futures price are satisfied can hedgers and speculators achieve a rational proportion and a stable hog futures market. This market can thus provide a valuable reference for the development of the Chinese hog futures market and the formulation and guidance of relevant departmental policies. PMID:28241024

  17. An evolutionarily stable strategy and the critical point of hog futures trading entities based on replicator dynamic theory: 2006-2015 data for China's 22 provinces.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jinbo; Deng, Lingfei; Wang, Gangyi

    2017-01-01

    Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the steady state between the two trading entities. The results show that the steady state is one in which hedgers adopt a "buy" strategy and speculators adopt a "do not speculate" strategy, but this type of extreme steady state is not easily realized. Thus, to explore the rational proportion of hedgers and speculators in the evolutionary stabilization strategy, bidding processes were simulated using weekly average hog prices from 2006 to 2015, such that the conditions under which hedgers and speculators achieve a steady state could be analyzed. This task was performed to achieve the stability critical point, and we show that only when the value of λ is satisfied and the conditions of hog futures price changes and futures price are satisfied can hedgers and speculators achieve a rational proportion and a stable hog futures market. This market can thus provide a valuable reference for the development of the Chinese hog futures market and the formulation and guidance of relevant departmental policies.

  18. International Trade: Rules of Origin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-10

    bills include language to block the import of products made using precious gemstones mined and lumber harvested in Burma. Such legislation was deemed...the direct importation of Burmese products into the United States, still allows Burmese raw materials such as gemstones and lumber to enter the United

  19. International Trade: Rules of Origin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-22

    bills include language to block the import of products made using precious gemstones mined and lumber harvested in Burma. Such legislation was deemed...United States, still allows Burmese raw materials such as gemstones and lumber to enter the United States provided that they are cut, polished or

  20. International Trade: Rules of Origin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    on the military junta in power.65 These bills include language to block the import of products made using precious gemstones mined and lumber...importation of Burmese products into the United States, still allows Burmese raw materials such as gemstones and lumber to enter the United States

  1. International Education for Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moebius, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Describes an international trade education program offered by Waukesha (WI) County Technical College. The program includes international business principles, international marketing, cultural awareness, business Spanish, international documentation, transportation, and finance. (JOW)

  2. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, 22-28 July 2007. This is the fifth of a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3, and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields on Theoretical Physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in Theoretical Physics, as a way to make accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: Symmetries in String Theory, Quantum Gravity and related Symmetries in Quantum Field Theories, Conformal and Related Field Theories, Lattice and Noncommutative Theories, Gauge Theories Quantum Computing, Information and Control Foundations of Quantum Theory Quantum Optics, Coherent States, Wigner Functions Dynamical and Integrable Systems Symmetries in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Symmetries in Particle Physics, Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics SUSY Quantum Mechanics, PT symmetries and pseudo-Hamiltonians Mathematical Methods for Symmetries and Quantum Theories Symmetries in Chemistry Biology and other Sciences Papers accepted for publication in the present issue are based on the contributions from the participants in the QTS5 conference after a peer review process. In addition, a special issue of Journal Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical contains contributions from plenary speakers, some participants as well as contributions from other authors whose works fit into the topics of the conference. The organization of the conference had the following pattern. In the morning there were five plenary or general sessions for all the participants, which aimed to

  3. PREFACE: Theory of Fusion Plasmas, 13th Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop (2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, Xavier; Sauter, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    The 2012 joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas has been very fruitful. A broad variety of topics were addressed, as usual covering turbulence, MHD, edge physic, RF wave heating and a taste of astrophysics. Moreover the scope of the meeting was extended this year to include the physics of materials and diagnostics for burning plasmas. This evolution reflects the complexity of problems at hand in fusion, in particular in the context of ITER construction. Long-standing problems without immediate consequences have sometimes become an urgent matter in that context. One may quote for instance the choice of plasma facing components or the design of control systems. Another characteristic of the meeting is the interplay between various domains of plasma physics. For instance MHD modes are now currently investigated with gyrokinetic codes, kinetic effects are more and more included in MHD stability analysis, and turbulence is now accounted for in wave propagation problems. This is the proof of cross-fertilization and it is certainly a healthy sign in our community. Finally introducing some novelty in the programme does not prevent us from respecting the traditions of the meeting. As usual a good deal of the presentations were dedicated to numerical simulations. Combining advanced numerical techniques with elaborated analytical theory is certainly a trademark of the Varenna-Lausanne conference, which was respected again this year. The quality and size of the scientific production is illustrated by the 26 papers which appear in the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, all refereed. We would also like to mention another set of 20 papers to be published in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. We hope the readers will enjoy this special issue of JPCS and the one to come in PPCF. Xavier Garbet and Olivier Sauter October 26, 2012

  4. Global trade in satellites and launch services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearing before the Subcommittee on Space of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives is presented. Written testimony, submittals for the record, and responses to written questions are included. Topics concerning the global trade in satellites and launch services include foreign competition, the China and Russia trade agreements, Commerce licensing on international sales and export, trade control, technology transfer, satellite communications and the economy, satellites and the global information infrastructure, commercial space revenues, and enforcement of trade policies.

  5. An Examination of Hegelian and Spinozian Philosophy and Their Relationships with the International Baccalaureate Subject, Theory of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David R.

    2005-01-01

    One concern for teachers of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme is how to balance academic study with a need for the development of the imagination. This article examines the subject at the heart of the IB Diploma, Theory of Knowledge, and looks at the contrasting philosophies of Spinoza and Hegel and their relationship with this…

  6. Educational Management and Policy: Research, Theory and Practice in South Africa. Bristol Papers in Education. Comparative and International Studies: 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers written by students involved in the Educational Management Project for South Africa. The project was established to introduce selected South Africans to theories and practices in educational management in an international comparative context. The papers focus on priorities for educational change and…

  7. Bargaining over an international water resource based on cooperative game theory concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Gholizadeh, S.

    2011-12-01

    Prior the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Caspian Sea was peacefully shared by Iran and the USSR, based on the two historic treaties between Iran (Persia) and Russia. Collapse of the USSR gave birth to one of the world's serious conflicts over international water resources. Since then, the five littoral states of the Caspian Sea, namely Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have been negotiating over finding an appropriate allocation scheme for sharing the sea and its valuable energy and environmental resources. Although several solution methods have been proposed, the negotiating parties have been unsuccessful in developing a compromise solution. A range of bargaining solutions are used here to show how cooperative game theory can be used to develop fair and efficient allocation schemes to resolve the Caspian Sea conflict. It is also examined how the negotiators may use their powers to change their shares from the Caspian Sea resources. Finally, the stability of the suggested game theoretic solutions are tested to find the solution which is more acceptable by the negotiating parties.

  8. A Theory for Rapid Charging Events on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Craven, Paul D.; Minow, Joseph I.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) has detected high negative amplitude rapid charging events (RCEs) on the International Space Station (ISS) at the morning terminator. These events are larger and more rapid than the ISS morning charging events first seen by the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) on ISS in 2001. In this paper, we describe a theory for the RCEs that further elucidates the nature of spacecraft charging in low Earth orbit (LEO) in a non-equilibrium situation. The model accounts for all essential aspects of the newly discovered phenomenon, and is amenable to testing on-orbit. Predictions of the model for the amplitude of the ISS RCEs for the full set of ISS solar arrays and for the coming solar cycle are given, and the results of modeling by the Environments WorkBench (EWB) are compared to the observed events to show that the phenomenon can be explained by solar array driven charging. The situation is unique because the coverglasses have not yet reached equilibrium with the surrounding plasma during the RCEs. Finally, a prescription for further use of the ISS for investigating fundamental plasma physics in LEO is given. Already, plasma and charging monitoring instruments on ISS have taught us much about spacecraft interactions with the dense LEO plasma, and we expect they will continue to yield more valuable science when the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) is in place.

  9. Dynamics of the global virtual water trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Konar, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and climate change. Since agriculture is by far the most freshwater-consuming process, the international food trade may be a way of transferring water resources to water-scarce countries, and of saving water globally by encouraging trade from water-efficient countries to less water-efficient countries. We applied complex network theory to analyze the dynamics of the global virtual water trade network. Our goal was to assess how the properties of the virtual water trade network changed in time, and how these changes are related to national policies, economic and weather conditions or events. We found that, on average, the number of trade partners of each country in the network doubled from 1986 to 2007, while the volume of water associated with food trade tripled. Despite this growth of the network, we found that the shape of the network properties distributions remained similar: for all years studied, the degree distribution is well fitted by an exponential distribution and the strength distribution compares well with a stretched exponential distribution, indicating high heterogeneity of flows between nations. Other global network structure characteristics, such as the power law relationship between node strength and node degree, dissasortative behavior and weighted rich club phenomenon were also stable through the 22 year-period. However, there are significant changes at the country and link scale of analysis. The USA has remained the world's top exporter of virtual water, while, since 2001, China has been the world's largest virtual water importer, a position formerly occupied by Russia and Japan. The sharp increase in China's virtual water imports is mostly due to its increased soybean imports, following a domestic policy shift regarding the soy trade in 2000 and 2001. Importantly, the food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over the last few

  10. PREFACE: Sixth International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Andreas; Lammich, Lutz; Schmelcher, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Dissociative recombination between electrons and molecular ions is an elementary reaction in electron-induced chemistry attracting strong attention across discipline boundaries, from fundamental questions of intramolecular dynamics to astrophysics, plasma science, as well as atmospheric and planetary physics. The process is explored on the level of atomic quantum dynamics both experimentally and theoretically, employing cold collisions at temperatures down to 10 Kelvin involving small molecules or also very large systems ranging up to biomolecules. Dissociative recombination (DR) and related processes, such as dissociative excitation, collisional cooling of vibrations and rotations, photodissociation via high-lying electronic states, resonant electron attachment, and electron-induced processes in large molecules and clusters, are studied by a variety of experimental methods, including stored and trapped molecular ions, plasma techniques such as stationary and flowing afterglow, and laser spectroscopic diagnostic of molecular excitations. The Sixth International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications (DR2004) was organized by the Research Group on Atomic and Molecular Physics with Stored Ions at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany, and held near Heidelberg in the town of Mosbach in July 2004. It was attended by about 90 scientists working in atomic and molecular physics, astrophysics, plasma- and biophysics. International Conferences on Dissociative Recombination and related processes were held before at Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada (1988), Saint Jacut, Brittany, France (1992), Ein Gedi, Israel (1995), Nässlingen, Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden (1999), and last within a symposium at the American Chemical Society meeting in Chicago, USA (2001). The presentations of this conference document a strong development of theoretical ideas towards the understanding of DR in particular in polyatomic

  11. The Changing Landscape of International Schooling: Implications for Theory and Practice. Routledge Research in International and Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    The number of English-medium international schools that deliver their curriculum wholly or partly in the English language reportedly reached 6,000 in January 2012. It is anticipated this number will rise to over 11,000 schools by 2022, employing over 500,000 English-speaking teachers. The number of children being taught in these schools reportedly…

  12. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadella, M.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical appears on the occasion of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, from 22-28 July 2007. This is the fith in a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3; and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields of theoretical physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in theoretical physics, as a way of making accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. This is based on the feeling that it is good for a physicist to have a general overview as well as expertise in his/her own field. There are many other conferences devoted to specific topics, which are of interest to gain deeper insight in many technical aspects and that are quite suitable for discussions due to their small size. However, we believe that general conferences like this are interesting and worth keeping. We like the talks, in both plenary and parallel sessions, which are devoted to specific topics, to be prepared so as to be accessible to any researcher in any branch of theoretical physics. We think that this objective is compatible with rigour and high standards. As is well known, similar methods and techniques can be useful for many problems in different fields. We hope that this has been appreciated during the sessions of the QTS5 conference. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: 1. Symmetries in string theory, quantum gravity and related topics 2. Symmetries in quantum field theories, conformal and related field theories, lattice and noncommutative theories, gauge theories 3.Quantum computing, information and control 4. Foundations of quantum theory 5. Quantum optics, coherent states, Wigner functions 6. Dynamical and

  13. Quantum (not frustrated) theory of the total internal reflection as the source of the Goos-Hänchen shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakiel, Jacek; Kantor, Wiesław

    2014-10-01

    The frustrated total internal reflection theories (FTIR) from previous century are thoroughly recalculated from the, so called, monodromy operator's point of view - a theory lunched by Born and Wolf [Principles of Optics (Pergamon Press, 1975), Chap. 1.6] and Arnold [Geometric Methods in the Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations (Springer, 1987)]. Monodromy is a theory of simultaneous solution (for both reflection and transmission amplitudes) of one dimensional Schrödinger equation (for the wavefunction and its derivative) and the Maxwell equation (for electric and magnetic fields). Introducing new quantities: the dwell distance and the phase distance, we get general Goos-Hänchen (G-H) shift formula for optical tunneling for three layer system with refraction indexes n0, n1, n2. This formula reduces itself to expressions known from the scientific literature for infinite air gap (infinite width of second layer). Extension to many layers is possible.

  14. Coal trade means shipbuilders' goldmine

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgeway, J.

    1980-03-01

    Nowhere is the advent of a new international trade in coal more important than in the shipping industry. Since the middle of the last decade the world shipping industry has been in the doldrums. As the world switches slowly away from oil, the trade in coal probably will increase dramatically. As it does, the structure of the trade will change. Much of the coal will be shipped by water. During the past decade, US influence declined as the energy crisis changed the nature of the trade away from metallurgical coals to thermal coals. Shipping experts predict the dry bulk carriers that are used for coal, grain, and iron ore (a commodity whose trade is expected to increase) will replace the oil tankers as the most-important class of ships on the high seas by the year 2000.

  15. Gains from Trade for Nonmaterialists, Environmentalists, and the Overworked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Christian E.

    2007-01-01

    The author proposes an alternative to the traditional definition of the gains from international trade and, hence, an alternative defense of free trade. Rather than showing that free trade allows a country to consume more of all final goods, the author's approach shows that free trade allows a country to consume the same basket of final goods that…

  16. 76 FR 1101 - Property Traded on an Established Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ71 Property Traded on an Established Market AGENCY... traded on an established market (that is, publicly traded) for purposes of determining the issue price of... and that is part of an issue some or all of which is traded on an established securities market...

  17. TILMA: The Impact of Domestic Trade Pacts on Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frampton, Caelie

    2008-01-01

    When U.S. presidential hopeful Barack Obama suggested he would reopen the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for negotiation, the ensuing debate demonstrated that international trade agreements are controversial. A new interprovincial trade agreement between British Columbia and Alberta, the Trade, Investment and Labour Mobility Agreement…

  18. 75 FR 1335 - Export Trade Certificate Of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate Of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance ( 88-11A16) of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Wood Machinery Manufacturers of America. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Wood...

  19. 77 FR 35355 - User Fee Schedule for Trade Promotion Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration RIN 0625-XA17 User Fee Schedule for Trade Promotion Services AGENCY: U.S... Trade Administration (ITA) publishes this notice to announce its intent to adjust user fees in light of... its costs for providing trade promotion services under the current fee structure. ITA provides a...

  20. 78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Outdoor Power Equipment Institute, Inc., Application no. 89... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  1. 75 FR 11118 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 99-4A005) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to California Almond Export Association, LLC, Application no. 99-00005. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs unit, Office of Competition and...

  2. 78 FR 53727 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. Sections...

  3. 77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export... September 27, 2012, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to... INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the...

  4. 77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No. 84-23A12. SUMMARY..., Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of...

  5. 78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to California Almond Export Association, Application no. 99... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  6. 75 FR 50747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S. Shippers Association (Application 85-16A18). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S. Shippers...

  7. 75 FR 8040 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from Alaska Longline Cod Commission (``ALCC'') SUMMARY: The Export... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of...

  8. 75 FR 55739 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 92-9A001) to amend an export trade certificate of review previously issued to Aerospace Industries Association... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  9. 78 FR 62585 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Outdoor Power Equipment Institute, Inc. (Application No. 89... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  10. 78 FR 1837 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export.... Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters on... Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001-21) authorizes the Secretary of Commerce to...

  11. 75 FR 75963 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries Association of America (``AIA'') (Application 92-9A001). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate...

  12. 75 FR 51980 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Northwest Fruit Exporters (``NFE'') (Application 84- 21A12). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to...

  13. 76 FR 10885 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 11-00001) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review for the Latin American ] Multichannel Advertising Council..., U.S. Department of Commerce, received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of...

  14. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (Application 10-0005) for an Export Trade Certificate of Review from ARC Industries LTD (``ARC''). SUMMARY: The... Commerce, has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate'')....

  15. 78 FR 25060 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to Aerospace Industries Association of America (``AIA'') (Application 92-11A001). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate...

  16. 76 FR 47148 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export...- 13A16). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to... published in the Federal Register on August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51439). The original Export Trade Certificate...

  17. 75 FR 65449 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an amended export trade certificate of review to Florida Citrus Exports L.C. (``FCE'') (Application 94-4A007). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to...

  18. 78 FR 36745 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to the Independent Film & Television Alliance, Application no... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  19. 78 FR 13861 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to U.S. Shippers Association. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Commerce... issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate'') to the U.S. Shippers...

  20. 76 FR 27994 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (84-22A12) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application No... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export...

  1. 75 FR 31423 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 84-21A12) To Amend an Export Trade Certificate of Review Previously Issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters (``NFE... Administration, Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate...

  2. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to U.S. Shippers Association No. 85-17A18. SUMMARY: The Office... of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export ] Trade Certificate of...

  3. 78 FR 5778 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (92-11A01) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Aerospace Industries Association of America... an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This notice summarizes the...

  4. 76 FR 55010 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export...-00001). SUMMARY: On August 18, 2011, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an Export Trade Certificate... INFORMATION: Title III of the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. Sections 4001-21) authorizes...

  5. 78 FR 30273 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Northwest Fruit Exporters, Application no. 84-24A12. SUMMARY..., Department of Commerce, has received an application to amend an Export Trade Certificate of...

  6. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review From Canned Wild Salmon Export Council, LLC (``CWSEC''). SUMMARY: The..., has received an application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review (``Certificate''). This...

  7. 75 FR 28235 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 85-16A18) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to U.S. Shippers Association, Application No. 85-00018. SUMMARY: The Export Trading Company Affairs unit, Office of Competition and...

  8. 75 FR 35441 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance ( 99-4A005) of an Amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to the California Almond Export Association, LLC. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to...

  9. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  10. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  11. The Bayesian approach to an internally consistent thermodynamic database: theory, database, and generation of phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Niranjan D.; Krüger, Ralf; Haller, Gerd; Olbricht, Walter

    An internally consistent thermodynamic dataset has been derived for 148 endmember phases (145 solids and 3 fluids) comprising the elements Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Si, C, H, and O. This has been achieved by simultaneous treatment of phase property (like standard enthalpy of formation, standard entropy, molar heat capacity, molar volume, thermal expansivity, bulk modulus etc.) and reaction reversal data by the Bayesian method. The theory underlying the approach, and the computational methods involved, are briefly outlined. (For the benefit of readers unfamiliar with inference statistics, the basic concepts of the Bayes method are also presented in such a way that they can be grasped intuitively.) Although not yet addressed, this method can be extended to refine the thermodynamic mixing properties of crystalline solutions. The sources of the input data, culled from the literature, are summarized in the Appendix. The resulting database is succinctly documented in this paper. It includes the enthalpies of formation and entropies, their uncertainties, and the correlation among them. The database allows calculation of P-T, T-XCO2, P-XCO2, and T-fO2 sections, with error propagation into the computed phase diagrams on a routine basis. A user-friendly computer program has been written to generate such phase diagrams. It is public domain software. The software and the thermodynamic database (which includes a complete documentation of the thermodynamic data above and beyond those listed (Table 2, here) may be downloaded from the web site http://homepage.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/niranjan.chatterjee/Index.htm. Examples of computed phase diagrams are given to illustrate the quality of the data and the capabilities of the software.

  12. PREFACE: Seventh International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zande, Wim J.

    2009-09-01

    Dissociative Recombination is one of the outcomes of collisions between electrons and molecular ions. This reaction dominates many plasmas, dense as well as dilute. Therefore, knowledge about this reaction is highly relevant for astrophysics, atmospheric sciences, (non-)reactive plasmas, and fusion plasmas. A theoretical description of this process requires intensive ab initio quantum chemistry calculations as well as a detailed description of the electron collision process. The high density of states near the ionization energy of molecules renders calculations extremely difficult and complex. In experiments, both discharge and flowing afterglow experiments and fast beam and ion storage ring experiments, a steady development can be seen towards more detailed studies often at the quantum state resolved level including product internal state identification and very recently detailed vector properties such as fragment angular distributions. Thanks to an efficient interplay between experiment and theory dissociative recombination has progressed significantly over the last few years. The Seventh International Conference on Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiments, and Applications (DR2007) was organized by the Institute of Molecules and Materials at the Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands and was held on the Wadden Island of Ameland. Earlier conferences in this series were held at Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada (1988), Saint Jacut, Bretagne, France (1992), Ein Gedi, Israel (1995), Nässlingen, Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden (1999), Chicago, USA, as part of the American Chemical Society meeting (2001), and in Mosbach, Germany (2004). Ameland and the Resort d'Amelander Kaap was chosen in the spirit of previous dissociative recombination conferences. It turned out to be a venue where discussions about dissociative recombination could take place around the clock both inside and outside while walking through dunes and on the beach. The conference was made

  13. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  14. International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET 2000), Volume 1 Held in Kharkov, Ukraine on September 12-15, 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Conference Proceedings 2000 International Conference on MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY MMkT 2000 Volume 1 Kharkov. Ukraine September...Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS International Conference on Mathematical Methods In Electromagnetic Theory F61775-00-WF084 (MMET 2000...Maximum 200 words) This is Volume I of the final Conference Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic

  15. Quantifying immediate price impact of trades based on the k-shell decomposition of stock trading networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Xu, Hai-Chuan; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-10-01

    Traders in a stock market exchange stock shares and form a stock trading network. Trades at different positions of the stock trading network may contain different information. We construct stock trading networks based on the limit order book data and classify traders into k classes using the k-shell decomposition method. We investigate the influences of trading behaviors on the price impact by comparing a closed national market (A-shares) with an international market (B-shares), individuals and institutions, partially filled and filled trades, buyer-initiated and seller-initiated trades, and trades at different positions of a trading network. Institutional traders professionally use some trading strategies to reduce the price impact and individuals at the same positions in the trading network have a higher price impact than institutions. We also find that trades in the core have higher price impacts than those in the peripheral shell.

  16. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  17. 75 FR 16077 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the ] next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... development and administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and...

  18. 75 FR 42690 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United States regulations, including advice...

  19. 76 FR 35405 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  20. 75 FR 8922 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the first meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance...

  1. 75 FR 29988 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... administration of ] programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in...

  2. 75 FR 36634 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... development and administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and...

  3. 77 FR 12008 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International.... SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws...

  4. 76 FR 61669 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United States laws and regulations,...

  5. 75 FR 48643 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  6. 76 FR 7816 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  7. 76 FR 23568 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  8. International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 427

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from rich data, "International Struggles for Critical Democratic Education" profiles teachers, students, and schools struggling to interrupt the reproduction of social inequalities from one generation to the next. International in its nature, the work collected here illustrates how forces of globalization create greater inequalities, and…

  9. The Development of an International Student Advisor: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparaco, Kathleen Keenan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the professional experience of international student advisors. The statement of problem for this research was that the professional role of international student advisors has not been clearly defined or understood within U.S. higher education. The research questions asked (1) what encompassed the lived experience of…

  10. Enhancing Excellence and Equity in Schooling: Modality Theory, an International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Tzu; Ansalone, George

    2008-01-01

    This international research examines the learning style preferences of Taiwanese students by gender and age in an attempt to determine which of the five learning style stimuli (environmental, emotional, sociological, physiological and psychological) are more likely to be a factor in student academic success. Utilizing an international perspective,…

  11. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  12. 78 FR 63963 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a ] meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  13. 78 FR 4834 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY...: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental...

  14. 76 FR 51001 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  15. Qualitative assessment of the commodity risk for spread of foot-and-mouth disease associated with international trade in deboned beef.

    PubMed

    Paton, D J; Sinclair, M; Rodríguez, R

    2010-06-01

    The risk of importing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) restricts trade in livestock and their products from parts of the world where the virus is present. This reduces trade opportunities and investment in the livestock sector of many developing countries and constrains global food supply. This review focuses on the risks associated with trade in deboned beef (DB) from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-infected cattle, countries or zones. A definition of DB is provided along with a description of the procedures for its preparation within beef slaughtering operations. Evidence is reviewed for circumstances under which DB can be contaminated with FMDV, and a commodity risk factor approach is used to consider the mitigating efficacy of slaughterhouse procedures. A combination of pre-slaughter and slaughterhouse measures has enabled DB to be safely imported into FMD-free countries from countries that were not nationally or zonally FMD-free. Nevertheless, current evidence does not provide absolute assurance that abattoir procedures for producing DB can result, by themselves, in a commodity with a negligible risk of transmitting FMDV without complementary measures to reduce the likelihood of slaughtering infected cattle. The main areas of uncertainty are the amounts of residual FMDV-harbouring tissues within DB, and our understanding of what constitutes a safe level of contamination. More detailed guidance should be developed to specify the mitigating measures needed in support of the export of DB from regions that are not officially FMD-free. This will help to avoid differences in interpretation of what is needed that give rise to obstacles to trade.

  16. 75 FR 28555 - Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City, Mexico... Commercial Service are organizing an Executive Green ICT & Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Mexico City... ``Green Information & Communication Technology (ICT)'' solutions, as well as energy...

  17. Teaching International Political Economy: The Role of Values, History, and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Pat; Harmer, Felicia

    1979-01-01

    Examines normative and methodological foundations of teaching international political economy. Stresses the need for a critical value perspective, an historical approach, and a holistic and historically grounded theoretical framework. (Author/DB)

  18. Ada (Trade Name) Compiler Validation Summary Report: International Business Machines Corporation. IBM Development System for the Ada Language System, Version 1.1.0, IBM 4381 under MVS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-22

    TITLE (andSubtile) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Ada Compler Validation Summary Report: 22 May 1987 to 22 May 1988 International Business Machines...IBM Development System for the Ada Language System, Version 1.1.0, International Business Machines Corporation, Wright-Patterson AFB. IBM 4381 under...SUMMARY REPORT: International Business Machines Corporation IBM Development System f’or the Ada Language System, Version 1.1.0 IBM 4381 under MVS

  19. The economics of parallel trade.

    PubMed

    Danzon, P M

    1998-03-01

    The potential for parallel trade in the European Union (EU) has grown with the accession of low price countries and the harmonisation of registration requirements. Parallel trade implies a conflict between the principle of autonomy of member states to set their own pharmaceutical prices, the principle of free trade and the industrial policy goal of promoting innovative research and development (R&D). Parallel trade in pharmaceuticals does not yield the normal efficiency gains from trade because countries achieve low pharmaceutical prices by aggressive regulation, not through superior efficiency. In fact, parallel trade reduces economic welfare by undermining price differentials between markets. Pharmaceutical R&D is a global joint cost of serving all consumers worldwide; it accounts for roughly 30% of total costs. Optimal (welfare maximising) pricing to cover joint costs (Ramsey pricing) requires setting different prices in different markets, based on inverse demand elasticities. By contrast, parallel trade and regulation based on international price comparisons tend to force price convergence across markets. In response, manufacturers attempt to set a uniform 'euro' price. The primary losers from 'euro' pricing will be consumers in low income countries who will face higher prices or loss of access to new drugs. In the long run, even higher income countries are likely to be worse off with uniform prices, because fewer drugs will be developed. One policy option to preserve price differentials is to exempt on-patent products from parallel trade. An alternative is confidential contracting between individual manufacturers and governments to provide country-specific ex post discounts from the single 'euro' wholesale price, similar to rebates used by managed care in the US. This would preserve differentials in transactions prices even if parallel trade forces convergence of wholesale prices.

  20. International Organizations, Changing Governance and China's Policy Making in Higher Education: An Analysis of the World Bank and the World Trade Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Rui

    2010-01-01

    In a context of intensified globalization, the importance of international governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations as influencers and shapers of the global environment is becoming prominent. Participation in international organizations leads to active incorporation of nation-states with worldwide connotations. In higher…

  1. Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry 2014: Celebrating the International Year of Light 2015, commemorating the Old Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yu

    2015-01-01

    2015 is the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies (IYL), while the physics and chemistry Nobel Prizes 2014 are both about light. The work leading to the two prizes share the same basic theoretical foundation: when an electron jumps from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, the energy difference is transformed into a photon. This basic way of light generation is a key part of the Old Quantum Theory. Interestingly, the date of announcing the 2014 Nobel Prize for physics coincided with the birthdays of Niels Bohr and, especially, of Planck's blackbody radiation formula. In connection with the two 2014 Nobel Prizes, we recall the development of the Old Quantum Theory by Planck, Einstein and Bohr.

  2. Training for Trade: A Partnership Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wismer, Jack N.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the role of community colleges in providing international trade education and training, highlighting the importance of building partnerships. Describes methods for building partnerships, eight current community college training-for-trade (TFT) programs, and training services and resources. Suggests that TFT programs must become a…

  3. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  4. Teaching through Trade Books: Teaming Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column includes activities inspired by children's literature. This month's trade books teach students about external and internal structures that allow animals and humans to survive. This months trade books are: (1) "Creature Features" (Steve Jenkins and Robin Page); and (2) "Body Actions" (Shelley Rotner and David A.…

  5. Amplified total internal reflection: theory, analysis, and demonstration of existence via FDTD.

    PubMed

    Willis, Keely J; Schneider, John B; Hagness, Susan C

    2008-02-04

    The explanation of wave behavior upon total internal reflection from a gainy medium has defied consensus for 40 years. We examine this question using both the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and theoretical analyses. FDTD simulations of a localized wave impinging on a gainy half space are based directly on Maxwell's equations and make no underlying assumptions. They reveal that amplification occurs upon total internal reflection from a gainy medium; conversely, amplification does not occur for incidence below the critical angle. Excellent agreement is obtained between the FDTD results and an analytical formulation that employs a new branch cut in the complex "propagation-constant" plane.

  6. Test of internal-conversion theory with measurements in {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Ba

    SciTech Connect

    Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Rockwell, W. E.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2007-02-15

    We have measured the ratio of K-shell internal conversion coefficients, {alpha}{sub K}, for the 127.5-keV E3 transition in {sup 134}Cs and the 661.7-keV M4 transition in {sup 137}Ba. Previous measurements of these {alpha}{sub K} values led to a ratio that differed from calculated internal conversion coefficients. Our measured result, 30.01(15), disagrees with, but is a factor of three more precise than, the previous average of all experimental results. Our new result is consistent with calculations.

  7. A small-displacement sensor using total internal reflection theory and surface plasmon resonance technology for heterodyne interferometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shinn-Fwu

    2009-01-01

    A small-displacement sensor based on total-internal reflection theory and surface plasmon resonance technology is proposed for use in heterodyne interferometry. A small displacement can be obtained simply by measuring the variation in phase difference between s- and p-polarization states with the small-displacement sensor. The theoretical displacement resolution of the small-displacement sensor can reach 0.45 nm. The sensor has some additional advantages, e.g., a simple optical setup, high resolution, high sensitivity and rapid measurement. Its feasibility is also demonstrated.

  8. 78 FR 18317 - U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia- Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia-- Amendment AGENCY: International... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia published at 77 FR...), interested U.S. healthcare firms and trade organizations which have not already submitted an application...

  9. Cigarette company trade secrets are not secret: an analysis of reverse engineering reports in internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation

    PubMed Central

    Velicer, Clayton; Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Use previously secret tobacco industry documents to assess tobacco companies’ routine claims of trade secret protection for information on cigarette ingredients, additives and construction made to regulatory agencies, as well as the companies’ refusal to publicly disclose this information. Methods We analysed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) to identify 100 examples of seven major tobacco companies’ reverse engineering of their competitors’ brands between 1937 and 2001. Results These reverse engineering reports contain detailed data for 142 different measurements for at least two companies, including physical parameters of the cigarettes, tobacco types, humectants, additives, flavourings, and smoke constituents of competitors’ cigarettes. These 100 documents were distributed to 564 employees, including top managers in domestic and foreign offices across multiple departments, including executive leadership, research and design, product development, marketing and legal. These documents reported new competitors’ products, measured ingredient changes over time, and informed companies’ decisions regarding ingredients in their own products. Conclusions Because cigarette companies routinely analyse their competitors’ cigarettes in great detail, this information is neither secret nor commercially valuable and, thus, does not meet the legal definition of a ‘trade secret.’ This information is only being kept ‘secret’ from the people consuming cigarettes and the scientific community. Public agencies should release this detailed information because it would provide valuable information about how ingredients affect addictiveness and toxicity, and would help the public health community and consumers better understand the impact of cigarette design on human health. PMID:24920577

  10. Book Trade Research and Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Stephen; Ink, Gary; Lofquist, William S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides data on prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices, 1996 final and 1997 preliminary figures; book sales statistics, 1997--AAP preliminary estimates; U.S. trade in books, 1997; international book title output, 1990-95; book review media statistics; and number of book outlets in the U.S. and Canada. (PEN)

  11. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  12. Resilience and Risk Competence in Schools: Theory/Knowledge and International Application in Project REBOUND

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joel H.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Beck, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Despite a 50-year interdisciplinary and longitudinal research legacy--showing that nearly 80% of young people considered most "at risk" thrive by midlife--only recently have practitioners/researchers engaged in the explicit, prospective facilitation of "resilience" in educational settings. Here, theory/knowledge distinguishing…

  13. Intercultural Communication Theory: Current Perspectives. International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Volume VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudykunst, William B., Ed.

    The seventh in a series dealing with intercultural communication, this volume is organized around the theme of theorizing in intercultural communication. Papers in the introductory section of the book discuss theory building, cultural assumptions of East and West, and an overview of theorizing in intercultural communication. The second section…

  14. An Activity Theory Perspective on Student-Reported Contradictions in International Telecollaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basharina, Olga K.

    2007-01-01

    This process-oriented study focuses on contradictions that emerged in a WebCT bulletin board collaboration among English learners from Japan, Mexico and Russia, and explains them from the perspective of activity theory (Leont'ev, 1978, 1981; Engestrom, 1987, 1999). The study identified a) two "intra-cultural" contradictions--to post or…

  15. The Internalization Theory of Emotions: A Cultural Historical Approach to the Development of Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holodynski, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Starting with an overview of theoretical approaches to emotion from an activity-oriented stance, this article applies Vygotsky's three general principles of development, sign mediation, and internalization to the development of emotional expressions as a culturally evolved sign system. The possible twofold function of expression signs as a means…

  16. Teacher Education: The Challenge of the Seventies. International Perspectives on Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council on Education for Teaching, Washington, DC.

    This annual report contains five speeches presented at the International Council on Education for Teaching Conference in Sydney, Australia in August, 1970. Titles and authors of the speeches are 1) "New Developments in Education for the Seventies" by Seth Spaulding, 2) "The Uses and Abuses of Diversity in Teacher Education" by…

  17. Using Principal-Agent Theory as a Framework for Analysis in Evaluating the Multiple Stakeholders Involved in the Accreditation and Quality Assurance of International Medical Branch Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgos, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the theoretical framework of principal-agent theory in order to better understand the complex organisational relationships emerging between entities invested in the establishment and monitoring of cross-border international branch campus medical schools. Using the key constructs of principal-agent theory, information asymmetry…

  18. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade

    PubMed Central

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V.

    2015-01-01

    Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990–2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector’s role individually, (cross-)clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network’s substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength) in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies superimposed

  19. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Conflict: Relative Status-Field Theory, TT Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents the computer printout of an analysis of data on international conflict over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of discriminant function analysis to 'topdog'…

  20. Attributes and National Behavior, Part 2: Modern International Relations Monograph Series. Patterns of Cooperation: Relative Status-Field Theory, TU Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jack E.

    This monograph presents the computer printout of an analysis of data on international cooperation over a three-year period. Part of a large scale research project to test various theories with regard to their power in analyzing international relations, this monograph presents data on the application of discriminant function analysis to combined…