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Sample records for internationally adopted preschoolers

  1. The Internalization of Values: Adopting Cooperation (Sunao) in Japanese Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Satomi Izumi; And Others

    Japanese children are socialized to internalize parental, group, and institutional norms. Japanese adults believe "good" children to be sunao (cooperative). Sunao is difficult to translate into English, but can be thought of as being gentle and spirited. This paper presents a study that examined and described feelings and thoughts of…

  2. Developmental and Behavioral Performance of Internationally Adopted Preschoolers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Emma; Miller, Laurie C.; Tirella, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    Most international adoptees (IA) have rapid catch-up of the delays common at arrival. However, it is not known whether development at arrival predicts later abilities or school readiness. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated language, fine motor, visual reception (VR), executive function (EF), attention (ATT), and sensory skills (SS) in IA…

  3. Developmental and Behavioral Performance of Internationally Adopted Preschoolers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Emma; Miller, Laurie C.; Tirella, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    Most international adoptees (IA) have rapid catch-up of the delays common at arrival. However, it is not known whether development at arrival predicts later abilities or school readiness. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated language, fine motor, visual reception (VR), executive function (EF), attention (ATT), and sensory skills (SS) in IA…

  4. Language development in preschool-age children adopted from China.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jenny A; Pollock, Karen E; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C; Wang, Paul P

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However, the vast majority scored within or well above the average range on 2 or more measures. Contrary to other reports on the language development of internationally adopted children, the results suggest that "second first language" acquisition proceeds rapidly in the majority of preschool-age children adopted as infants and toddlers. For the children in the sample who scored below average, results indicated that they were among the children who had been exposed to English for the least amount of time. The results of this study demonstrate both the robustness of the language system in the majority of adopted children from China as well as slower growth in a small subset of lower performers in the 1st years after adoption.

  5. Special topics in international adoption.

    PubMed

    Jenista, Jerri Ann

    2005-10-01

    As international adoption has become more "mainstream," the issues recently addressed in domestic adoption have become more important in adoptions involving children originating in other countries. Certain groups of prospective adoptive parents, such as gay or lesbian couples, single parents, and parents with disabilities, have begun to apply to adopt in ever increasing numbers. Children who may have been considered unadoptable in the past are now routinely being offered to prospective adoptive parents. The numbers and ages of the children placed and the spacing between adoptions have come under scrutiny. The rates of adoption dissolutions and disruptions are being examined carefully by the receiving and sending countries. There is a pressing need for research into numerous social aspects of adoption.

  6. Cleft care in international adoption.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jesse A; Brown, Benjamin J; Mason, Patrick; Basci, Deniz; Hindenburg, Lora; Dufresne, Craig R; Baker, Stephen B

    2014-12-01

    Standards of cleft care abroad differ from those in the United States, particularly in less developed countries, where international adoption rates are high. Children adopted from these countries present to plastic surgeons in the United States at various ages and states of repair. The operative and perioperative needs of these children are poorly understood. This study attempts to characterize the preadoption history, the postadoption course, and surgical outcomes of children adopted with cleft deformities. The authors performed a retrospective review of all adopted cleft lip-cleft palate patients presenting to an academic craniofacial referral center and compared outcomes among adopted children who were repaired abroad, adopted children who underwent repair performed by the two senior authors (C.R.D. and S.B.B.), and children born in the United States who underwent repair performed by one of the senior authors (S.B.B.) : Between May of 1993 and August of 2010, 83 adopted children with cleft deformities were evaluated in the authors' craniofacial center. Average age at adoption was 30.5 months (range, 5.0 to 95.0 months). Comparing outcomes among adopted children repaired abroad, adopted children repaired by the senior authors, and children born in the United States who underwent repair in the United States, the authors found no statistically significant differences in lip revision rates, fistula rates, or velopharyngeal insufficiency. Adopted cleft patients constitute a complex and variable population with high rates of revision and delayed presentation. Internationally adopted children with orofacial clefts fared no better or worse after undergoing primary cleft repair abroad or in the United States.

  7. International Adoptions: The Quiet Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines patterns in the international migration of children for adoption since World War II, with emphasis on those going to Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relates findings to political and cultural factors. Observes that Latin America became a major source area for the United States in the 1970s, but that Asia remained…

  8. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  9. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  10. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  11. Facilitating attachment after international adoption.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Natalie L

    2009-01-01

    Americans have increasingly turned to international adoption (IA) as an alternative way to build a family. Unfortunately, IA families are often being developed under conditions of loss, and sometimes these families struggle to form healthy attachments to each other. Disordered attachment (the failure to form a reciprocal, loving bond between parent and child) can occur, and can have devastating consequences. In some instances, IA children have been relinquished into state foster care systems; other families simply struggle for years caring for a developmentally delayed child who appears to have no emotion for his/her adoptive family. Nurses are likely to have contact with IA families and can use their education about attachment and bonding to help facilitate attachment in these developing families. Swanson's caring theory provides a clinically useful guide to meet this need.

  12. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Experiences in Preschool Environments

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families. PMID:25414543

  13. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  14. International Adoption: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Laws regulating adoption are varied and complex in countries that offer children for international adoption (IA), while United States Immigration laws pose additional obstacles to Americans wishing to adopt foreign-born children. Declarations by the United Nations and the development of a convention on IA by the Hague Conference offer some hope…

  15. Una nina adoptada su conducta en el jardin de infantes (An Adopted Girl's Conduct in Preschool).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscello de Mason, Marile

    1994-01-01

    Reports observations made by a preschool teacher in Argentina about a four-year-old adopted girl in her preschool. The teacher noticed problems between the girl and her adoptive mother, who tried to prevent the girl from remembering her past. The teacher particularly noticed changes in the girl's drawings. (AA)

  16. Una nina adoptada su conducta en el jardin de infantes (An Adopted Girl's Conduct in Preschool).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscello de Mason, Marile

    1994-01-01

    Reports observations made by a preschool teacher in Argentina about a four-year-old adopted girl in her preschool. The teacher noticed problems between the girl and her adoptive mother, who tried to prevent the girl from remembering her past. The teacher particularly noticed changes in the girl's drawings. (AA)

  17. The African Orphan Crisis and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; Shaw, Stacey A.

    2006-01-01

    The plight of Africa's AIDS orphans has reached crisis proportions, and the international community is beginning to mobilize at the family, community, national, and international levels. Despite these encouraging efforts, the response is inadequate, and increased attention and action are needed. The authors suggest that international adoption,…

  18. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses

  19. [International adoption: children's health risk evolution].

    PubMed

    Dartiguenave, C

    2012-05-01

    The socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in many countries make it necessary to weigh as precisely as possible the uncertainties which might affect the health of internationally adopted children, which is one of the key drivers to adoption decision. Indeed, health troubles are more and more frequent among children proposed by countries, at a time when there are fewer children to be adopted. Hence the institutions and the actors in the field of international adoption are compelled to frequently update their professional practices, so as to cope both with the declining offer for adoptable children and with the increasing pressure from the birth countries of children to make host countries adopt children with high age or with special needs. It also requires from the administrations the will to provide better initial information and to implement the demand for an agreement. Meanwhile, in spite of those growing constraints, adopting families have been more and more risk adverse during the latest decades, this being a common trend in our developed countries.

  20. Disinhibited social behavior among internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Tarullo, Amanda R; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-01-01

    Postinstitutionalized children frequently demonstrate persistent socioemotional difficulties. For example, some postinstitutionalized children display an unusual lack of social reserve with unfamiliar adults. This behavior, which has been referred to as indiscriminate friendliness, disinhibited attachment behavior, and disinhibited social behavior, was examined by comparing children internationally adopted from institutional care to children internationally adopted from foster care and children raised by their biological families. Etiological factors and behavioral correlates were also investigated. Both groups of adopted children displayed more disinhibited social behavior than the nonadopted children. Of the etiological factors examined, only the length of time in institutional care was related to disinhibited social behavior. Disinhibited social behavior was not significantly correlated with general cognitive ability, attachment-related behaviors, or basic emotion abilities. However, this behavior was negatively associated with inhibitory control abilities even after controlling for the length of time in institutional care. These results suggest that disinhibited social behavior might reflect underlying deficits in inhibitory control.

  1. International Adoption: Benefits, Risks, and Vulnerabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Tamsen; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    International adoption is on the rise in the United States and is not without controversy. Reasons for the increase include higher rates of infertility in couples who have delayed parenthood; increased numbers of children who are relinquished, abandoned, or orphaned around the world; and the influence of third party agencies. Internationally…

  2. International Adoption: Benefits, Risks, and Vulnerabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Tamsen; Richter, Linda

    2007-01-01

    International adoption is on the rise in the United States and is not without controversy. Reasons for the increase include higher rates of infertility in couples who have delayed parenthood; increased numbers of children who are relinquished, abandoned, or orphaned around the world; and the influence of third party agencies. Internationally…

  3. International Adoptions: Implications for Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dana E.; Dole, Kathryn

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the deterioration of the health of international adoptees due to increased placements of children from economically troubled countries and a shift from foster to institutional care prior to adoption. The role of early-intervention programs in identifying problems, rehabilitating the child, and supporting the family is discussed.…

  4. Developmental Outcomes of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.

    2013-01-01

    This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583

  5. The International Adoption Project: Population-based Surveillance of Minnesota Parents Who Adopted Children Internationally

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Nikki J.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Lee, Richard M.; Johnson, Dana E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To conduct the first population-based surveillance in the United States of parents who adopted children from countries outside of the United States. Methods A 556-item survey was mailed to 2,977 parents who finalized an international adoption in Minnesota between January 1990 and December 1998; 1,834 (62%) parents returned a survey. Results Eighty-eight percent of the parents reported transracial adoptions (97% of the parents were white); 57% of the adopted children were Asian; 60% were female; and on average, the children were 18 months-old at the time of placement. Only 15% of the parents reported household annual incomes less than $50,000 and 71% reported they had college educations. Sixty-one percent traveled to their child’s country of birth prior to the adoption. Almost three-quarters involved their children in experiences related to their birth countries and 98% would recommend international adoption. Three-quarters of the parents believe that parental leave was an issue for them as they adopted. Conclusions This is the first population-based survey of U.S. parents who have adopted internationally. The adoptive parents were socioeconomically different than birth parents in Minnesota and their families are most likely to be transracial. Because international adoption has become more prevalent, it is important to understand the strengths and needs of families that are created through this unique form of migration. PMID:17562147

  6. International adoption as a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Dyer, Janyce G

    2006-08-01

    International adoption research has been called a natural experiment by many child development researchers. How do studies of severe early deprivation inform us about risk factors experienced by many of these children and their impact on developmental outcomes? Three longitudinal studies conducted by British and American researchers in the 1990s are reviewed. Each year, over 20,000 children are adopted from overseas, and a significant number are now entering adolescence; the impact of their prenatal risk factors, early institutionalization, and ameliorative postadoptive environments is also reviewed. The feasibility of generalizing findings to other children in foster care is also addressed.

  7. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pace, Cecilia S; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4-9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers' state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents' verbal intelligence was controlled for. Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers' AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure-insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents' verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent states-of-mind of adoptive mothers on the attachment

  8. From Norm Adoption to Norm Internalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Rosaria; Andrighetto, Giulia; Villatoro, Daniel

    In this presentation, advances in modeling the mental dynamics of norms will be presented. In particular, the process from norm-adoption, possibly yielding new normative goals, to different forms of norm compliance will be focused upon, including norm internalization, which is at study in social-behavioral sciences and moral philosophy since long. Of late, the debate was revamped within the rationality approach pointing to the role of norm internalization as a less costly and more reliable enforcement system than social control. So far, poor attention was paid to the mental underpinnings of internalization. In this presentation, a rich cognitive model of different types, degrees and factors of internalization is shown. The initial implementation of this model on EMIL-A, a normative agent architecture developed and applied to the.

  9. Skin diseases in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Émilie; Nourrisson, Céline; Sciauvaud, Julie; Pascal, Julie; Texier, Charlotte; Corbin, Violaine; Poirier, Véronique; Beytout, Jean; Labbe, André; Lesens, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Internationally adopted children often present diseases contracted in the country of origin. Skin diseases are common in new arrivals, and diagnosis may prove challenging for GPs or even dermatologists if they are inexperienced in the extensive geographic and ethnic diversity of international adoptees. To analyse the frequency and characteristics of skin diseases in international adoptees. In total, 142 adoptees were evaluated for a cross-sectional cohort study. The most frequent diseases observed at arrival were dermatological conditions. Of the adoptees, 70% presented at least one skin disease, of which 57.5% were infectious; Tinea capitis being the most frequent (n = 42). The recovery rate of Tinea capitis was 89% (n = 32/36). Ten cases of scabies were diagnosed. Other diseases included viral skin infection (n = 22), with 16 cases of Molluscum contagiosum and bacterial infection. Skin diseases are very common in internationally adopted children. There is a need for close collaboration between dermatologists and paediatricians to diagnose such infections, as well as clear guidelines to treat them.

  10. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations in International Adoption.

    PubMed

    Obringer, Emily; Walsh, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Children who are adopted internationally have an increased risk of infectious diseases due to endemic conditions and variable access to preventive health care, such as vaccines, in their country of origin. Pediatricians and other providers who care for children should be familiar with the recommended screening for newly arrived international adoptees. Testing for gastrointestinal pathogens, tuberculosis, hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV should be routinely performed. Other endemic diseases and common skin infections may need to be assessed. Evaluation of the child's immunization record is also important, as nearly all international adoptees will require catch-up vaccines. The provider may also be asked to review medical records prior to adoption, provide travel advice, and ensure that parents and other close contacts are up-to-date on immunizations prior to the arrival of the newest family member. The pediatrician serves a unique role in facilitating the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in international adoptees. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e56-e60.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange.

  12. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  13. Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

  14. Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

  15. Expanding Downward: Innovation, Diffusion, and State Policy Adoptions of Universal Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, F. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Framed within the theoretical framework of policy innovation and diffusion, this study explores both interstate (diffusion) and intrastate predictors of adoption of state universal preschool policies. Event history analysis methodology is applied to a state level dataset drawn from the Census, the NCES Common Core, the Book of the States, and…

  16. The Stanford Preschool Internal-External Scale: Extension to Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, George M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Stanford Preschool Internal-External Scale (SPIES) was administered to middle class kindergarten children to investigate whether the characteristics of the test would remain stable as it did for the normative sample. (Author/DEP)

  17. Adoptive parenting and attachment: association of the internal working models between adoptive mothers and their late-adopted children during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Cecilia S.; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana; Santona, Alessandra; Terrone, Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent literature has shown that the good outcome of adoption would mostly depend on the quality of adoptive parenting, which is strongly associated with the security of parental internal working models (IWMs) of attachment. Specifically, attachment states-of-mind of adoptive mothers classified as free and autonomous and without lack of resolution of loss or trauma could represent a good protective factor for adopted children, previously maltreated and neglected. While most research on adoptive families focused on pre-school and school-aged children, the aim of this study was to assess the concordance of IWMs of attachment in adoptive dyads during adolescence. Method: Our pilot-study involved 76 participants: 30 adoptive mothers (mean age = 51.5 ± 4.3), and their 46 late-adopted adolescents (mean age = 13.9 ± 1.6), who were all aged 4–9 years old at time of adoption (mean age = 6.3 ± 1.5). Attachment representations of adopted adolescents were assessed by the Friend and Family Interview (FFI), while adoptive mothers’ state-of-mind with respect to attachment was classified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescents’ verbal intelligence was controlled for. Results: Late-adopted adolescents were classified as follows: 67% secure, 26% dismissing, and 7% preoccupied in the FFI, while their adoptive mothers’ AAI classifications were 70% free-autonomous, 7% dismissing, and 23% unresolved. We found a significant concordance of 70% (32 dyads) between the secure–insecure FFI and AAI classifications. Specifically adoptive mothers with high coherence of transcript and low unresolved loss tend to have late-adopted children with high secure attachment, even if the adolescents’ verbal intelligence made a significant contribution to this prediction. Discussion: Our results provides an empirical contribution to the literature concerning the concordance of attachment in adoptive dyads, highlighting the beneficial impact of highly coherent

  18. Starting over: international adoption as a natural experiment in language development.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L

    2007-01-01

    Language development is characterized by predictable shifts in the words children produce and the complexity of their utterances. Because acquisition typically occurs simultaneously with maturation and cognitive development, it is difficult to determine the causes of these shifts. We explored how acquisition proceeds in the absence of possible cognitive or maturational roadblocks, by examining the acquisition of English in internationally adopted preschoolers. Like infants, and unlike other second-language learners, these children acquire language from child-directed speech, without access to bilingual informants. Parental reports and speech samples were collected from 27 preschoolers, 3 to 18 months after they were adopted from China. These children showed the same developmental patterns in language production as monolingual infants (matched for vocabulary size). Early on, their vocabularies were dominated by nouns, their utterances were short, and grammatical morphemes were generally omitted. Children at later stages had more diverse vocabularies and produced longer utterances with more grammatical morphemes.

  19. Sensory Processing in Internationally Adopted, Post-Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbarger, Julia; Gunnar, Megan; Schneider, Mary; Pollak, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Background/Methods: Sensory processing capacities of 8-12-year-old internationally adopted (IA) children who experienced prolonged institutional care (greater than 12 months with 75% of pre-adoption lives in institutional care) prior to adoption into family environments (PI) were compared to a group of IA children who were adopted early (less than…

  20. Sensory Processing in Internationally Adopted, Post-Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbarger, Julia; Gunnar, Megan; Schneider, Mary; Pollak, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Background/Methods: Sensory processing capacities of 8-12-year-old internationally adopted (IA) children who experienced prolonged institutional care (greater than 12 months with 75% of pre-adoption lives in institutional care) prior to adoption into family environments (PI) were compared to a group of IA children who were adopted early (less than…

  1. Internationally Adopted Children: Important Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  2. International adoption families: a unique health care journey.

    PubMed

    Smit, Eileen M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the health care experiences of families with an internationally adopted child. Content analysis of data from 107 adoptive parents was used to identify themes that characterized health care experiences of the families. Four themes were identified: a) Coming home: Like a lobster thrown into a boiling pot; b) Vigilance: Is my child healthy today? Will my child be healthy tomorrow?; c) Unique health care needs of international adoption families: We are different; and d) Importance of support by health care providers: Do they know or care? Health care providers need to be aware of the unique experiences of the increasing number of international adoption families. The themes identified provide insight into the health care experiences of international adoption families and the crucial role of health care providers in helping international adoption families feel supported on their journey.

  3. Geographies of generation: age restrictions in international adoption

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2015-01-01

    International adoption relocates minors, and only minors, from one country to another. The centrality of age to adoptive migration may prevent us from seeing the significance of generation: the prospective parent’s age is also examined and evaluated for its relationship to the child’s age and what this relationship will mean for the creation of a family. Because international adoption results in children crossing borders to enter new kinship formations, the assumptions under which it operate require closer geographical analysis. Generation, or the age range that separates dependents and their caretakers, is a significant but unstated motivator of international adoption policies and practices. This article argues that a normative and biologised sense of intergenerational difference is embedded in international adoption. The presence of generational ideology in national laws and international norms regarding international adoption demonstrate a broader sense in which policies situate more privileged families as acceptable and others as inadequate. I draw material for this analysis from both legal documents and documents which aim to provide interpretation of those laws, with reference to international adoptions from Peru. PMID:26766924

  4. Social Competence in Internationally Adopted and Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Moreno, Carmen; Roman, Maite

    2013-01-01

    A growing, sizable proportion of school children do not live in conventional family environments. Among these, internationally adopted children have gained increasing visibility in recent years. While other areas of their behavior have been widely explored, little is known about adopted children's social competence and their integration into peer…

  5. The Quiet Migration Redux: International Adoption, Race, and Difference

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B.

    2014-01-01

    Demographers frame international adoption primarily as an unusual kind of migration. This insight offers anthropologists new ways to think about kinship. Drawing on demographic scholarship and anthropological kinship and migration studies, this article develops a new and hybrid approach to international adoption as a complex social process that is both migratory and productive of kinship. Viewing international adoption as a form of migration reveals how the stated “push factors” and actual “pull factors” of international adoption do not align perfectly. Using an anthropological life course perspective, the article then explores how the experiences of these “migrants” and those close to them, over time, are better understood as racialization than solely the product of migration. Looking at adoptees’ lives through a migration lens reveals some of the persistent discomforts that prevent open conversations about racial difference and minority status in an adoptive context, that is, one where children have been caused to migrate, recruited into families. This article draws on data from ethnographic fieldwork with Spanish parents who have adopted Peruvian children to argue that international adoption is a unique form of immigration that produces a minority category within a majority population. PMID:25598546

  6. The Quiet Migration Redux: International Adoption, Race, and Difference.

    PubMed

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B

    2014-01-01

    Demographers frame international adoption primarily as an unusual kind of migration. This insight offers anthropologists new ways to think about kinship. Drawing on demographic scholarship and anthropological kinship and migration studies, this article develops a new and hybrid approach to international adoption as a complex social process that is both migratory and productive of kinship. Viewing international adoption as a form of migration reveals how the stated "push factors" and actual "pull factors" of international adoption do not align perfectly. Using an anthropological life course perspective, the article then explores how the experiences of these "migrants" and those close to them, over time, are better understood as racialization than solely the product of migration. Looking at adoptees' lives through a migration lens reveals some of the persistent discomforts that prevent open conversations about racial difference and minority status in an adoptive context, that is, one where children have been caused to migrate, recruited into families. This article draws on data from ethnographic fieldwork with Spanish parents who have adopted Peruvian children to argue that international adoption is a unique form of immigration that produces a minority category within a majority population.

  7. International adoption: assessment of adaptive and maladaptive behavior of adopted minors in Spain.

    PubMed

    Barcons-Castel, Natalia; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Costas-Moragas, Carme

    2011-05-01

    Research on adjustment of internationally adopted children indicates that, although they have adequate development, more emotional and behavioral problems are detected compared with nonadopted children. In this research, emotional and behavioral characteristics of a sample of 52 internationally adopted minors were examined with the BASC (Parent Rating Scales and Self-Report of Personality), comparing the outcomes with 44 nonadopted minors, all of them of ages between 6 and 11 years (mean age = 8.01 years). Results indicate differences between adopted and nonadopted children related to somatization, adopted minors are those that obtain lower scores in the scale, and in the adaptability scale, where nonadopted minors obtain higher scores. Significant differences were found in the adaptive abilities scales, suggesting that nonadopted boys show better abilities than adopted ones, and no differences were found among girls. In general, boys present higher scores in externalizing symptomatology and depression than girls. Among adopted children, time spent in an institution is a variable that has negative impact on the onset of externalizing and internalizing problems. Minors coming from Eastern Europe display more attentional problems, poorer adaptive abilities and poorer interpersonal relations than the rest of the minors. According to the age at placement, attentional problems appear in minors adopted after the age of 3 years.

  8. Cultural socialization in families with internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard M; Grotevant, Harold D; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Gunnar, Megan R

    2006-12-01

    Cultural socialization attitudes, beliefs, and parenting behaviors were examined in families with internationally adopted children. The authors hypothesized that parents with lower color-blind racial attitudes would be more likely to engage in enculturation and racialization parenting behaviors because they hold stronger beliefs in the value and importance of cultural socialization. Using data from the Minnesota International Adoption Project, the results support this mediation model of cultural socialization. Individual variations in cultural socialization also are discussed in terms of child development and shifting adoption attitudes and practices.

  9. [Neuropsychological profile of internationally adopted children in Catalonia].

    PubMed

    Callejón-Póo, L; Boix, C; López-Sala, A; Colomé, R; Fumadó, V; Sans, A

    2012-01-01

    During the last years, International adoption has increased significantly in our country over the last few years. China, Russia, Colombia and Ethiopia represent 77% of international adoptions in Spain. Cognitive and behavioural aspects are very important for an adequate social, family and school integration of these children. To describe the neuropsychological profiles of a group of internationally adopted children in Catalonia from China, Russia, Colombia and Ethiopia. Neuropsychological examination of 49 children from international adoption (6 of Chinese origin, 24 from Russia, 13 from Colombia and 6 of Ethiopian origin). The group of Chinese origin obtained average scores of all functions evaluated. The Russian origin group was below the average for, selective attention, phonetic verbal fluency, control of impulsivity, mechanics and reading comprehension, and spelling. Scores on the impulse control in the Colombian origin group were below average. The group of Ethiopian origin obtained average scores in all functions evaluated except for spelling difficulties. Children adopted from Russia have greater neuropsychological difficulties than the others. Most pre-adoption history is unknown; therefore we are unable to determine the origin of these difficulties. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the institutional environment could be influencing factors in neuropsychological delay. Inclusion of neuropsychological assessment in health protocols for these children is recommended if they develop suggestive signs of cognitive and/or behavioral impairment. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  11. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2014-11-07

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4-15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  12. Emotion identification from facial expressions in children adopted internationally.

    PubMed

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A; Matsuo, Hisako; Becker, Jenna C

    2014-11-01

    Children adopted internationally who are exposed to institutional care receive less social interaction than children reared in families. These children spend their preadoptive life with individuals from their birth country and are adopted into families who may look and interact differently. The presumed patterns of limited social stimulation and transition from ethnically similar to ethnically and culturally different social interactions may affect these children's ability to accurately identify emotions from facial expressions. Thirty-five 4-year-old children adopted from Asia and Eastern Europe by U.S. families were compared with 33 nonadopted peers on the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy, Version 2 (DANVA2) Faces subtests. Correlation and regression analyses were completed with preadoption (adoption age, foster care exposure), postadoption environment (postadoption care duration, number of siblings, socioeconomic status), and individual (chronological age, gender, language competence) variables to determine related and predictive variables. The nonadopted group demonstrated better emotion identification than children internationally adopted, but no region-of-origin differences were found. English language performance was correlated with and predicted 20% of the variance in emotion identification of facial expressions on the DANVA2. Children adopted internationally who have stronger language ability tend to be more accurate in identifying emotions from facial expressions.

  13. Experiences of School Bullying among Internationally Adopted Children: Results from the Finnish Adoption (FINANDO) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Sinkkonen, Jari; Salmivalli, Christina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Elovainio, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with school bullying and victimization among Finnish international adoptees. The Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was sent to all 9-15-year-old children adopted in Finland between 1985 and 2007 through the mediating organizations officially approved by the Ministry of Social Affairs…

  14. Attachment states of mind among internationally adoptive and foster parents

    PubMed Central

    RABY, K. LEE; YARGER, HEATHER A.; LIND, TERESA; FRALEY, R. CHRIS; LEERKES, ESTHER; DOZIER, MARY

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of the current study was to examine the latent structure of attachment states of mind as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) among three groups of parents of children at risk for insecure attachments: parents who adopted internationally (N = 147), foster parents (N = 300), and parents living in poverty and involved with Child Protective Services (CPS; N = 284). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the state of mind rating scales loaded on two factors reflecting adults’ preoccupied and dismissing states of mind. Taxometric analyses indicated the variation in adults’ preoccupied states of mind was more consistent with a dimensional than a categorical model, whereas results for dismissing states of mind were indeterminate. The second aim was to examine the degree to which the attachment states of mind of internationally adoptive and foster parents differ from those of poverty/CPS-referred parents and low-risk parents. After controlling for parental age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, (a) internationally adoptive parents had lower scores on the dismissing dimension than the sample of community parents described by Haltigan, Leerkes, Supple, and Calkins (2014); (b) foster parents did not differ from community parents on either the dismissing or the preoccupied AAI dimension; and (c) both internationally adoptive and foster parents had lower scores on the preoccupied dimension than poverty/CPS-referred parents. Analyses using the traditional AAI categories provided convergent evidence that (a) internationally adoptive parents were more likely to be classified as having an autonomous state of mind than low-risk North American mothers based on Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn’s (2009) meta-analytic estimates, (b) the rates of autonomous states of mind did not differ between foster and low-risk parents, and (c) both internationally adoptive and foster parents were less likely to be classified as having a preoccupied state

  15. Preschool selection considerations and experiences of school mistreatment among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate the school selection considerations and school-related experiences of sexual-minority parents with young children. The sample consisted of 210 parents in 105 couples, including 35 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 40 heterosexual couples, all of whom had adopted a child three years earlier. We found that parents with less income were more likely to consider cost in choosing a preschool, and parents with less education were more likely to consider location. More educated parents tended to emphasize racial diversity and the presence of adoptive families, and, among sexual-minority parents, the presence of other lesbian/gay parents. Sexual-minority parents were more likely to consider racial diversity than heterosexual parents. In reporting on their experiences with schools, heterosexual parents were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their adoptive status than sexual-minority parents, and sexual-minority parents living in less gay-friendly communities were more likely to perceive mistreatment due to their sexual orientation than sexual-minority parents living in more gay-friendly communities. Our findings have implications for early childhood educators and administrators seeking to create an inclusive learning community for all types of families. PMID:27110062

  16. Attachment states of mind among internationally adoptive and foster parents.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Yarger, Heather A; Lind, Teresa; Fraley, R Chris; Leerkes, Esther; Dozier, Mary

    2017-05-01

    The first aim of the current study was to examine the latent structure of attachment states of mind as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) among three groups of parents of children at risk for insecure attachments: parents who adopted internationally (N = 147), foster parents (N = 300), and parents living in poverty and involved with Child Protective Services (CPS; N = 284). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the state of mind rating scales loaded on two factors reflecting adults' preoccupied and dismissing states of mind. Taxometric analyses indicated the variation in adults' preoccupied states of mind was more consistent with a dimensional than a categorical model, whereas results for dismissing states of mind were indeterminate. The second aim was to examine the degree to which the attachment states of mind of internationally adoptive and foster parents differ from those of poverty/CPS-referred parents and low-risk parents. After controlling for parental age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, (a) internationally adoptive parents had lower scores on the dismissing dimension than the sample of community parents described by Haltigan, Leerkes, Supple, and Calkins (2014); (b) foster parents did not differ from community parents on either the dismissing or the preoccupied AAI dimension; and (c) both internationally adoptive and foster parents had lower scores on the preoccupied dimension than poverty/CPS-referred parents. Analyses using the traditional AAI categories provided convergent evidence that (a) internationally adoptive parents were more likely to be classified as having an autonomous state of mind than low-risk North American mothers based on Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn's (2009) meta-analytic estimates, (b) the rates of autonomous states of mind did not differ between foster and low-risk parents, and

  17. Mental Health in Internationally Adopted Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; La Greca, Annette M; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2017-03-01

    To investigate whether mental health problems differ between internationally adopted adolescents and their non-adopted peers and examine design and sample characteristics that might underlie differences among studies. Studies published through August 2015 were collected through Embase, Medline, PsychINFO, Web of Science, ERIC, and Svemed+. Combined effect estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Eleven studies investigating 17,919 adoptees and 1,090,289 non-adopted peers were included in the meta-analysis. Internationally adopted adolescents reported more mental health problems across domains than their peers, with effect estimates (standardized mean differences [SMDs]) of 0.16 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28) for questionnaire-based studies and 0.70 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.90) for register-based studies. They also reported significantly more externalizing difficulties (SMD 0.20, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.38), although the effect estimate for internalizing difficulties was not statistically significant (SMD 0.10, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.24). Studies using categorical measurements of mental health problems, indicating more serious problems, yielded larger effect estimates than continuous measurements (SMD 0.31, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.41; SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.26, respectively). The difference in mental health problems between international adoptees and their peers was somewhat larger when using parent report compared with self-report. More recent studies (conducted in 1995 and later) yielded larger estimates than older studies, although no significant difference was found for this analysis or subgroup analyses investigating sex and age at adoption. Although most internationally adopted adolescents are well adjusted, adoptees as a group report higher levels of mental health problems compared with non-adopted peers. This difference should be acknowledged and adequate support services should be made available. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

  18. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  19. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  20. [International adoption from Ethiopia in a 5-year period].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ortiz, A; Domínguez Pinilla, N; Wudineh, M; González-Granado, L I

    2015-05-01

    An increase in the number of internationally adopted children has been observed in the last few years. The country of origin that has experienced a greater increase is Ethiopia. The health of internationally adopted children from Ethiopia has not been extensively assessed to date. The main objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases in children adopted from Ethiopia, and to assess their nutritional status. A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted using the medical records of 251 children adopted from Ethiopia to Spain in the period from Jan 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010. The mean age of the children was 7 months (range 1-120). Abnormalities were detected on physical examination in 56.6%. In 90% of cases the child was less than 5 years-old. Half of the sample had a weight below the third percentile, with some degree of malnutrition in 65% of the children. HIV exposure was not uncommon (4.8%). Low weight and acute gastroenteritis were the main findings in this cohort. Infectious diseases should be systematically assessed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Imported giardiasis: impact of international travel, immigration, and adoption.

    PubMed

    Ekdahl, Karl; Andersson, Yvonne

    2005-06-01

    From the Swedish national database, regarding notified Giardia cases, we could for the period 1997-2003 identify 3,697 cases of travel-associated giardiasis, 4,151 cases in newly arrived immigrants and refugees, and 455 cases in internationally adopted children. These were compared with data sets on the number of international travelers, immigrants/refugees, and adopted children. The overall risk of being notified with giardiasis in returning travelers was 5.3 of 100,000, with the highest incidences in travelers from the Indian Subcontinent (628 of 100,000), East Africa (358 of 100,000), and West Africa (169 of 100,000). A large proportion of the travel-related cases were seen in persons with family roots in the country of infection-a risk group deserving special attention. The overall risk in immigrants and refugees was 1,180/100,000 with the highest risk in persons from Afghanistan (3,800 of 100,000) and Iraq (2,990 of 100,000). The incidence was highest among internationally adopted children (8,110 of 100,000), with geographical risks not entirely correlating to those in travelers and immigrants.

  2. Maternal Depression, Locus of Control, and Emotion Regulatory Strategy as Predictors of Preschoolers' Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Lisa W.; Thompson, Alysha D.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood internalizing problems may occur as early as preschool, tend to be stable over time, and undermine social and academic functioning. Parent emotion regulatory behaviors may contribute to child internalizing problems and may be especially important during the preschool years when parents model emotion coping and regulation for their…

  3. Maternal Depression, Locus of Control, and Emotion Regulatory Strategy as Predictors of Preschoolers' Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Lisa W.; Thompson, Alysha D.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood internalizing problems may occur as early as preschool, tend to be stable over time, and undermine social and academic functioning. Parent emotion regulatory behaviors may contribute to child internalizing problems and may be especially important during the preschool years when parents model emotion coping and regulation for their…

  4. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  5. Language and cognitive outcomes in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Weitzman, Carol; Schuh, Jillian; de Marchena, Ashley; Casey, B J

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on the association between language skills and core cognitive processes relative to the duration of institutionalization in children adopted from orphanages abroad. Participants in the adoptive group (n = 46) had arrived in the United States between the ages of 2 and 84 months (mean = 24 months), and had been living in the United States for 1-9 years. Drawing on both experimental and standardized assessments, language skills of the international adoptees differed as a function of length of time spent in an institution and from those of 24 nonadopted controls. Top-down cognitive assessments including measures of explicit memory and cognitive control differed between adopted and nonadopted children, yet differences between groups in bottom-up implicit learning processes were unremarkable. Based on the present findings, we propose a speculative model linking language and cognitive changes to underlying neural circuitry alterations that reflect the impact of chronic stress, due to adoptees' experience of noncontingent, nonindividualized caregiving. Thus, the present study provides support for a relationship between domain-general cognitive processes and language acquisition, and describes a potential mechanism by which language skills are affected by institutionalization.

  6. Disentangling the effects of cognitive development and linguistic expertise: a longitudinal study of the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted children.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L

    2012-08-01

    Early language development is characterized by predictable changes in the words children produce and the complexity of their utterances. In infants, these changes could reflect increasing linguistic expertise or cognitive maturation and development. To disentangle these factors, we compared the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted preschoolers and internationally-adopted infants. Parental reports and speech samples were collected for 1 year. Both groups showed the qualitative shifts that characterize first-language acquisition. Initially, they produced single-word utterances consisting mostly of nouns and social words. The appearance of verbs, adjectives and multiword utterances was predicted by vocabulary size in both groups. Preschoolers did learn some words at an earlier stage than infants, specifically words referring to the past or future and adjectives describing behavior and internal states. These findings suggest that cognitive development plays little role in the shift from referential terms to predicates but may constrain children's ability to learn some abstract words.

  7. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Adoption It's natural for any adopted person, child or adult, to have complex feelings about being adopted. It's also natural to feel that "my parents are my parents" and not feel a desire to seek out more information about the identity of the birth family. Most of us (whether ...

  8. Effects of Internal and External Supports on Preschool Children's Event Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Lauren R.; Hudson, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined how internal and external supports affected planning for enabling (logically linked) and conventional (arbitrarily linked) events. In Experiment 1, preschoolers were given either two or four training sessions before planning and enacting invariably sequenced art projects. In Experiment 2, preschoolers were given two…

  9. Internationally Adopted Children from Non-European Countries: General Development during the First Two Years in the Adoptive Family

    PubMed Central

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children are often delayed in their development and demonstrate more behaviour problems than nonadopted children due to adverse preadoption circumstances. This is especially true for children adopted from Eastern European countries. Few studies have focused on children adopted from non-European countries. This paper presents results from an ongoing longitudinal study of 119 internationally adopted children from non-European countries during their first two years in Norway. Several scales measuring different aspects of the children's development are included in the study: communication and gross motor development, temperamental characteristics, and behaviour problems. The results show that internationally adopted children are delayed in their general development when they first arrive in their adoptive families. After two years the children have made significant progress in development. However, they still lag behind in communication and motor skills compared to non-adopted children. The temperamental characteristics seem very stable from time of adoption until two years after adoption. The children demonstrate a low frequency of behaviour problems. However, the behaviour problems have changed during the two years. At time of adoption they show more nonphysically challenging behaviour while after two years their physically challenging behaviour has increased. PMID:22919309

  10. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  11. Pre-Adoption Adversity, Maternal Stress, and Behavior Problems at School-Age in International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Belhumeur, Celine; Jeliu, Gloria; Begin, Jean; Seguin, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children present more behavior problems than non-adopted children and are overrepresented in mental health services. These problems are related to children's pre-adoption environment, but adoptive families' functioning and characteristics may also affect the development of behavior problems in adopted children. The aim of…

  12. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kayla N.; Lee, Richard M.; Rueter, Martha A.; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents’ delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior. PMID:25729119

  13. Associations between Discussions of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families and Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adopted Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kayla N; Lee, Richard M; Rueter, Martha A; Kim, Oh Myo

    2015-04-01

    Internationally adopted adolescents may have more delinquent behavior than non-adopted adolescents. One explanation is these adolescents experience discrimination and loss of culture, and adoptive parents are not adequately addressing these experiences. However, studies have not examined the effects of family discussions of racial and ethnic differences within adoptive families on adopted adolescents' delinquent behavior. To test this relationship, this study utilized data from 111 U.S. internationally adoptive families with 185 South Korean adopted adolescents (55% female, M age = 17.75). During an observational assessment, families discussed the importance of their racial and ethnic differences, and adolescents completed a delinquent behavior questionnaire. Analysis of covariance showed differences in adolescent delinquent behavior across three ways adoptive families discussed racial and ethnic differences; adolescents whose families acknowledged differences had the fewest mean delinquent behaviors. There were no significant differences in delinquent behavior between adolescents whose families acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. However, adopted adolescents whose families held discrepant views of differences had significantly more problem behavior than adolescents whose families either acknowledged or rejected the importance of racial and ethnic differences. Clinicians, adoption professionals, and other parenting specialists should focus on building cohesive family identities about racial and ethnic differences, as discrepant views of differences are associated with the most adoptee delinquent behavior.

  14. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... biological families) and where they came from. This curiosity often becomes more intense as part of the ... adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which can feel quite intense, is a normal ...

  15. Preschoolers' Ability To Adopt Justice and Care Orientations to Moral Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Chu, June Y.; Dahlsgaard, Katherine K.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the reasoning of 31 preschoolers when resolving moral dilemmas. Children's resolutions and justifications were examined with regard to their care orientation or justice orientation. Found that children's answers revealed a care orientation or a justice orientation with equal frequency. At times, children could even accept both…

  16. Preschool Teachers' Views on Children's Learning: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig; Sandberg, Anette; Johansson, Inge; Margetts, Kay; Nyland, Berenice; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Ugaste, Aino; Vrinioti, Kalliope

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study investigated the perspectives of preschool teachers in Australia, Denmark, Estonia, German, Greece and Sweden about learning and participation in preschool. A structured survey questionnaire investigated four main questions: What situations can be characterised as learning? What activities are important for learning? What…

  17. [The international adoption waiting period: waiting experience and coping strategies].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Viejo, Ana Berástegui

    2008-11-01

    The adoption waiting period is a powerful stressor that can affect the well-being and configuration of future family life. Adoption research and practice have not paid enough attention to this phase. The principal aim of this study is to address prospective adoptive parents' experience of and coping with this period. For this purpose, 63 families answered a feelings scale, a coping resources scale and a needs questionnaire, all elaborated for the study. Results show that a shorter length of waiting time, using cognitive and learning coping strategies and associative participation were related to a better general experience of adoption whereas process-centred strategies were related to a worse experience of adoption. Families would like to see more speed in the process, more warmth and humanity in their relation with institutions and better information about their expedients. We conclude by proposing some activities and services during the waiting period that could be useful for post adoption.

  18. How Well Do Children Who Are Internationally Adopted Acquire Language? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathleen A.; Roberts, Jenny A.; Glennen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors present the results of a systematic and meta-analytic examination of the language outcomes of children who are internationally adopted. The study examined the questions of whether the early life experiences of children who are internationally adopted and the language switch that occurs after adoption hinder…

  19. Mother-Daughter Agreement on Adolescent Adopted Chinese Girls' Academic Performance and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marn, Travis

    2014-01-01

    This study reported mother-daughter agreement on adolescent adopted Chinese girls' adjustment. Data on the girls' academic performance and internalizing syndromes were collected from the adopted Chinese girls and their adoptive mothers separately. The adoptive mothers also provided data on mother-daughter relationship quality. There were 219 girls…

  20. Correlates and Predictors of Parenting Stress among Internationally Adopting Mothers: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viana, Andres G.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting (IA) mothers with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on the experiences of adoptive parents. One hundred and forty-three IA mothers completed pre-adoption (Time 0) and six months post-adoption (Time 1) surveys with questions regarding child-,…

  1. Correlates and Predictors of Parenting Stress among Internationally Adopting Mothers: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viana, Andres G.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting (IA) mothers with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on the experiences of adoptive parents. One hundred and forty-three IA mothers completed pre-adoption (Time 0) and six months post-adoption (Time 1) surveys with questions regarding child-,…

  2. International and Transracial Adoptions: A Mental Health Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Christopher; And Others

    The key dependent variable in adoption research is the child's mental health, in the short and the long term. Defining mental health as the development of basic ego strength and a feeling of self-worth, which enable an individual to cope with stresses later in life, this book focuses on how well adolescents and young adults have fared in adoption.…

  3. Attachment and emotional understanding: a study on late-adopted pre-schoolers and their parents.

    PubMed

    Barone, L; Lionetti, F

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the role of attachment in adoption, first by assessing the influence of adoptive parents on their late-adopted children and second by investigating the role of children's attachment on an emotional understanding task. On children's arrival into adoptive families, parents' attachment was evaluated. After 12-18 months, children's attachment towards mothers and fathers was assessed. Twelve months later, children participated in an emotional understanding task. Parents' attachment was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. Children's attachment and emotional understanding were evaluated respectively using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task and the Test of Emotion Comprehension. A correspondence of 80% (security vs. insecurity) and 60% (security vs. avoidant or ambivalent insecurity K= 0.40) between mothers' and children's pattern of attachment was found. A secure state of mind in both adoptive parents was a protective factor towards children's attachment disorganization. Finally, there was a significant association between children's security of attachment and their performance on the emotional understanding task. Adoption appears to be an intervention that assures the adoptive child an opportunity to catch up on emotional development and to partially resolve prior traumatic attachment experiences; adoptive parents play a central role in the emotional adjustment of their children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Maternal stress and internalizing symptoms in preschoolers: the moderating role of narrative coherence.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Otto, Yvonne; Andreas, Anna; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette Maria

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we examined whether maternal psychosocial stress and children's coherence in story-stem narratives are associated with preschool children's internalizing symptoms and disorders, and whether narrative coherence moderates the association between maternal stress and children's internalizing symptoms and disorders. The sample consists of 236 preschool children (129 girls, 107 boys; Mage = 5.15 years) and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires on their psychosocial stress burden and on child symptoms. A diagnostic interview (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment; Egger & Angold, 2004) was conducted with one of the parents to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses. Children completed 8 story stems of the MacArthur Story Stem Battery (Bretherton & Oppenheim, 2003). Story-stem narratives were coded for narrative coherence. Multivariate analyses were controlled for children's age, gender, verbal performance, and externalizing symptoms. Results showed that maternal psychosocial stress was significantly associated with child internalizing symptoms and disorders. Neither maternal stress nor children's internalizing symptoms or disorders were associated with narrative coherence. However, narrative coherence moderated the association between maternal stress and child internalizing symptoms. For children with more incoherent narratives, the association between maternal psychosocial stress and children's internalizing symptoms was significantly stronger than for children with more coherent narratives. The moderation effect of narrative coherence concerning children's internalizing disorders was found not to be significant. Our findings indicate that preschool children's cognitive-emotional organization in dealing with relational conflict themes seems to buffer their mental health when exposed to adverse circumstances in their everyday family life.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Language and Speech in Children Who Were Internationally Adopted at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Language and Speech in Children Who Were Internationally Adopted at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Method:…

  7. 76 FR 39808 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Recommendations Adopted by the Inter-American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Recommendations Adopted by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna...) to conform to recommendations adopted by the Inter- American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). This..., held in September 2010, members of the IATTC adopted three recommendations. This ANPR discusses two of...

  8. International adoption of children with birth defects: current knowledge and areas for further research.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Meagan E; Nelson, Katherine R; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2014-12-01

    To summarize the existing literature on the international adoption of children with birth defects and identify areas for further research. International adoption brings thousands of children to the United States each year, and children with birth defects are overrepresented in this population. Studies have demonstrated disparities in the health of children adopted from different countries as well as the complexity of medical care needed after adoption. Although the health of children involved in international adoption has been well studied, there is a lack of information about the experiences of the adoptive parents of children with birth defects. We discuss a pilot study conducted on adoptive parents of children with a specific birth defect, orofacial clefting, and discuss areas for future research.

  9. Language Outcomes of School-Aged Internationally Adopted Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that, as a group, many internationally adopted children catch up to their peers in terms of their language development by the time they reach their school-age years. Although this appears to be particularly true for children adopted during the first few years of life, it is not true for all internationally adopted…

  10. Children's Drawings: Self-Perception and Family Function in International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Brittany L.; Tirella, Linda G.; Miller, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    No comprehensive studies have examined the utility of family drawings within the context of international adoption. We examined the relationship of Kinetic Family Drawings by 54 internationally adopted children in the USA (65% female; M age = 8.57 years, SD = 2.1) to demographics, child competencies (Child Behavior Checklist: CBCL/6-18) and…

  11. Children's Drawings: Self-Perception and Family Function in International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Brittany L.; Tirella, Linda G.; Miller, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    No comprehensive studies have examined the utility of family drawings within the context of international adoption. We examined the relationship of Kinetic Family Drawings by 54 internationally adopted children in the USA (65% female; M age = 8.57 years, SD = 2.1) to demographics, child competencies (Child Behavior Checklist: CBCL/6-18) and…

  12. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  13. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  14. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  15. Determinants of Effective Information Transfer in International Regulatory Standards Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Denisa

    2010-01-01

    The role of international regulatory standards within the current global environment has become of the most importance. The age of the global system and free market capitalism carried us into the unprecedented age of regulations, and standard setting. Regulations are now becoming the emerging mode of global governance. This study focuses on…

  16. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Fathers' Involvement, Internal Working Models, and Use of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.; Freeman, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, fathers' involvement (i.e. parenting behaviors and consistency) and fathering context (i.e. fathers' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a subsample of 102 fathers, taken from a larger sample of 235 culturally diverse US families. The authors predicted…

  17. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents' Reports from 24 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Goncalves, Miguel; Gudmundsson, Halldor; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Pluck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1 1/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"-oriented scales; a Stress…

  18. Bullying, Empathic Concern, and Internalization of Rules among Preschool Children: The Role of Emotion Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camodeca, Marina; Coppola, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether bullying, defending, and outsider behaviors in preschool children were associated with two conscience aspects (empathic concern and internalization of rules) and with emotion understanding. We also investigated whether emotion understanding moderated the relationship between these dimensions and bullying roles.…

  19. Bullying, Empathic Concern, and Internalization of Rules among Preschool Children: The Role of Emotion Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camodeca, Marina; Coppola, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether bullying, defending, and outsider behaviors in preschool children were associated with two conscience aspects (empathic concern and internalization of rules) and with emotion understanding. We also investigated whether emotion understanding moderated the relationship between these dimensions and bullying roles.…

  20. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Fathers' Involvement, Internal Working Models, and Use of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.; Freeman, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, fathers' involvement (i.e. parenting behaviors and consistency) and fathering context (i.e. fathers' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a subsample of 102 fathers, taken from a larger sample of 235 culturally diverse US families. The authors predicted…

  1. Correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting mothers: A longitudinal investigation

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Andres G.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting (IA) mothers with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on the experiences of adoptive parents. One hundred and forty-three IA mothers completed pre-adoption (Time 0) and six months post-adoption (Time 1) surveys with questions regarding child-, parent-, and family-related characteristics. Mother reports of higher depression symptoms, higher expectations of child developmental and behavioral/emotional problems, and a greater number of children in the family at pre-adoption were significantly related to higher parenting stress six months post-adoption. In contrast, mother reports of higher expectations for child acceptance and higher perceived social support at pre-adoption were significantly related to lower parenting stress six months post-adoption. Higher maternal depression symptoms, higher expectations of child behavior/emotional problems, and a greater number of children in the family at pre-adoption together accounted for 22% of the variance in parenting stress six months post-adoption. Concurrent higher maternal depression symptoms and higher reports of child behavioral/emotional problems predicted higher parenting stress six months post-adoption over and above pre-adoption predictors, and accounted for an additional 33% of the variance. Results and directions for future research are discussed from a transactional perspective, with particular emphasis on the importance of pre-adoptive information for adoption research and practice. PMID:24039321

  2. Acquisition of English Grammatical Morphology by Internationally Adopted Children from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Lara J.; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners. Results…

  3. Acquisition of English Grammatical Morphology by Internationally Adopted Children from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Lara J.; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners. Results…

  4. International adoption: what is fact, what is fiction, and what is the future?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dana E

    2005-10-01

    Despite the popularity of international adoption in North America and Western Europe as a means to build a family, the knowledge of health care professionals is often limited regarding the historical context of this phenomenon as well as the motivations and process experienced by adoptive parents. Although international adoption is viewed as an acceptable if not admirable method of forming kinships in accepting countries, opinions in the international community are mixed. Whether international adoptions increase or are drastically curtailed depends on addressing the misgivings that many countries have about placing their children abroad. Concerns center in two broad areas: sensitivity toward preservation of family and culture and whether the process has sufficient integrity to act in the best interests of children and birth parents.

  5. Current State of Evidence for Medication Treatment of Preschool Internalizing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Barterian, Justin A.; Seif, Erin L.; Watson, Gabriel; Ham, Hannah; Carlson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are being prescribed off-label by psychiatrists to treat preschool children diagnosed with internalizing disorders. In this review, the current state of evidence is presented for medications used to treat preschool children (ages 2–5 year olds) diagnosed with anxiety and/or depressive disorders. Eleven studies were systematically identified for this review based on a priori criteria. Overall, the available literature revealed that studies addressing the medication treatment of internalizing disorders in preschoolers are extremely limited and represent relatively weak research methodologies. Given the increasing prevalence of the use of psychotropic medications to treat preschool children and the unique challenges associated with working with this population, it is imperative that mental health practitioners are aware of the current, albeit limited, research on this practice to help make informed treatment decisions. Suggestions about how to monitor potential costs and benefits in those unique cases in which psychopharmacological treatments might be considered for young children are given. Moreover, areas of additional research for this population are discussed. PMID:24600324

  6. Language development of internationally adopted children: Adverse early experiences outweigh the age of acquisition effect.

    PubMed

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Hein, Sascha; Doyle, Niamh; Hart, Lesley; Macomber, Donna; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Tan, Mei; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    We compared English language and cognitive skills between internationally adopted children (IA; mean age at adoption=2.24, SD=1.8) and their non-adopted peers from the US reared in biological families (BF) at two time points. We also examined the relationships between outcome measures and age at initial institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and age at adoption. On measures of general language, early literacy, and non-verbal IQ, the IA group performed significantly below their age-peers reared in biological families at both time points, but the group differences disappeared on receptive vocabulary and kindergarten concept knowledge at the second time point. Furthermore, the majority of children reached normative age expectations between 1 and 2 years post-adoption on all standardized measures. Although the age at adoption, age of institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and time in the adoptive family all demonstrated significant correlations with one or more outcome measures, the negative relationship between length of institutionalization and child outcomes remained most robust after controlling for the other variables. Results point to much flexibility and resilience in children's capacity for language acquisition as well as the potential primacy of length of institutionalization in explaining individual variation in IA children's outcomes. (1) Readers will be able to understand the importance of pre-adoption environment on language and early literacy development in internationally adopted children. (2) Readers will be able to compare the strength of the association between the length of institutionalization and language outcomes with the strength of the association between the latter and the age at adoption. (3) Readers will be able to understand that internationally adopted children are able to reach age expectations on expressive and receptive language measures despite adverse early experiences and a replacement of their first

  7. Understanding international crime trends: the legacy of preschool lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Nevin, Rick

    2007-07-01

    This study shows a very strong association between preschool blood lead and subsequent crime rate trends over several decades in the USA, Britain, Canada, France, Australia, Finland, Italy, West Germany, and New Zealand. The relationship is characterized by best-fit lags (highest R2 and t-value for blood lead) consistent with neurobehavioral damage in the first year of life and the peak age of offending for index crime, burglary, and violent crime. The impact of blood lead is also evident in age-specific arrest and incarceration trends. Regression analysis of average 1985-1994 murder rates across USA cities suggests that murder could be especially associated with more severe cases of childhood lead poisoning.

  8. A longitudinal study of language and speech in children who were internationally adopted at different ages.

    PubMed

    Glennen, Sharon

    2014-07-01

    The author followed 56 internationally adopted children during the first 3 years after adoption to determine how and when they reached age-expected language proficiency in Standard American English. The influence of age of adoption was measured, along with the relationship between early and later language and speech outcomes. Children adopted from Eastern Europe at ages 12 months to 4 years, 11 months, were assessed 5 times across 3 years. Norm-referenced measures of receptive and expressive language and articulation were compared over time. In addition, mean length of utterance (MLU) was measured. Across all children, receptive language reached age-expected levels more quickly than expressive language. Children adopted at ages 1 and 2 "caught up" more quickly than children adopted at ages 3 and 4. Three years after adoption, there was no difference in test scores across age of adoption groups, and the percentage of children with language or speech delays matched population estimates. MLU was within the average range 3 years after adoption but significantly lower than other language test scores. Three years after adoption, age of adoption did not influence language or speech outcomes, and most children reached age-expected language levels. Expressive syntax as measured by MLU was an area of relative weakness.

  9. Atypical EEG Power Correlates With Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, post-institutionalized children (n = 37) and comparison groups of non-adopted children (n = 47) and children internationally adopted from foster care (n = 39). For their age, post-institutionalized children had an atypical EEG power distribution, with relative power concentrated in lower frequency bands compared to non-adopted children. Both internationally adopted groups had lower absolute alpha power than non-adopted children. EEG power was not related to growth at adoption or to global cognitive ability. Atypical EEG power distribution at 18 months predicted indiscriminate friendliness and poorer inhibitory control at 36 months. Both post-institutionalized and foster care children were more likely than non-adopted children to exhibit indiscriminate friendliness. Results are consistent with a cortical hypoactivation model of the effects of early deprivation on neural development and provide initial evidence associating this atypical EEG pattern with indiscriminate friendliness. Outcomes observed in the foster care children raise questions about the specificity of institutional rearing as a risk factor and emphasize the need for broader consideration of the effects of early deprivation and disruptions in care. PMID:21171750

  10. Resolutions Adopted by the International Labour Conference; Shelter for the Homeless: Signs of Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Cites the text of resolutions adopted at the International Labour Conference, focusing on (1) homelessness, (2) the anniversary of the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, and (3) measures against substance abuse in working and social life. Outlines the International Labour Office's recent efforts to improve…

  11. Hepatitis a screening for internationally adopted children from hepatitis A endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Vanessa N; Sautter, Casey; Chesney, Mary; Eckerle, Judith K; Howard, Cynthia R; John, Chandy C

    2014-01-01

    Screening for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is not currently routinely recommended in internationally adopted children. International adoptees seen at the University of Minnesota International Adoption Clinic from 2006 to 2010 were assessed for acute HAV infection (positive HAV immunoglobulin M). Thirty of the 656 children screened (4.6%) were acutely HAV infected. HAV-infected children emigrated from Ethiopia (16), Guatemala (4), China (2), Colombia (2), Haiti (2), Philippines (2), Liberia (1), and Nepal (1). Infection was most frequent among children younger than 2 years (6.7%). No symptoms distinguished children with acute HAV infection from uninfected children. HAV infection caused significant social disruption, including separation of children from their ill adoptive parents during the initial weeks postarrival, a period important for postadoption adjustment and attachment. All international adoptees arriving from countries with high or intermediate HAV endemicity should be screened for HAV infection on arrival to the United States.

  12. Alcohol and Drug Use Among Internationally Adopted Adolescents: Results From a Norwegian Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Sivertsen, Børge; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; La Greca, Annette M; Tell, Grethe S; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Hysing, Mari

    2017-03-02

    Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Structural language, pragmatic communication, behavior, and social competence in children adopted internationally: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Petranovich, Christine L; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Staat, Mary Allen; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter; Wade, Shari L

    2016-05-23

    The objectives of this study were to examine the association of structural language and pragmatic communication with behavior problems and social competence in girls adopted internationally. Participants included girls between 6-12 years of age who were internationally adopted from China (n = 32) and Eastern-Europe (n = 25) and a control group of never-adopted girls (n = 25). Children completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Parents completed the Child Communication Checklist- second edition, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales. Compared to the controls, parents in the Eastern European group reported more problems with social competence, externalizing behaviors, structural language, and pragmatic communication. The Chinese group evidenced more internalizing problems. Using generalized linear regression, interaction terms were examined to determine if the associations of pragmatic communication and structural language with behavior problems and social competence varied across groups. Controlling for general intellectual functioning, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more externalizing problems and poorer social competence. In the Chinese group, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more internalizing problems. Post-adoption weaknesses in pragmatic communication are associated with behavior problems and social competence. Internationally adopted children may benefit from interventions that target pragmatic communication.

  14. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding.

  15. Language difficulties in children adopted internationally: neuropsychological and functional neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Helder, E J; Behen, M E; Wilson, B; Muzik, O; Chugani, H T

    2014-01-01

    Children who have experienced deprivation as a result of orphanage care during early development are at increased risk for a number of cognitive, emotional, and social difficulties (MacLean, 2003). This study examined the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of internationally adopted children with language difficulties, one of the most common cognitive challenges (Behen et al., 2008). In addition to neuropsychological testing, fMRI was utilized to examine activation patterns during expressive fluency and receptive language tasks. In comparison to internationally adopted children without language difficulties and nonadopted controls, participants with language difficulty had worse performance on tasks of verbal memory and reasoning, academic skills, and working memory. Behaviorally, all internationally adopted participants, regardless of language ability, had more parent-reported hyperactivity and impulsivity compared with controls. The fMRI tasks revealed reduced activation in traditional language areas in participants with language difficulty. The impact of early adverse experience on later development is discussed.

  16. Cultural Identity and Internationally Adopted Children: Qualitative Approach to Parental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions. PMID:25775255

  17. Cultural identity and internationally adopted children: qualitative approach to parental representations.

    PubMed

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Sibeoni, Jordan; Pontvert, Caroline; Revah-Levy, Anne; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 000 children are adopted across national borders each year. A review of the literature on the cultural belonging of these internationally adopted children shows substantial differences between the literature from English-speaking countries and that from France and Europe in general. The objective of this study is to start from the discourse of French adoptive parents to explore their representations of their child's cultural belonging and their positions (their thoughts and representations) concerning connections with the child's country of birth and its culture. The study includes 51 French parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on the adoption procedure and their current associations with the child's birth country. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from our analysis of the interviews made it possible to classify the parents into three different groups. The first group maintained no association with the child's country of birth and refused any multiplicity of cultural identities. The second group actively maintained regular associations with the child's country of birth and culture and affirmed that their family was multicultural. Finally, the third group adapted their associations with the child's birth country and its culture according to the child's questions and interests. Exploring parental representations of the adopted child enables professionals involved in adoption to provide better support to these families and to do preventive work at the level of family interactions.

  18. IL1B Gene Variation and Internalizing Symptoms in Maltreated Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ridout, Kathryn K.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Seifer, Ronald; Price, Lawrence H.; Gelernter, Joel; Feliz, Paloma; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence now implicates inflammatory proteins in the neurobiology of internalizing disorders. Genetic factors may influence individual responses to maltreatment; however, little work has examined inflammatory genetic variants in adults and none in children. The present study examined the role of an IL1B variant in preschoolers exposed to maltreatment and other forms of adversity in internalizing symptom development. One hundred ninety-eight families were enrolled, with one child (age 3-5 years) from each family. Adversity measures included child protective service documentation of moderate-severe maltreatment in the last 6 months and interview-assessed contextual stressors. Internalizing symptoms were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Diagnostic Infant and Preschool Assessment (DIPA). Maltreated children had higher MDD and PTSD symptoms and marginally higher internalizing symptoms on the CBCL. Controlling for age, sex and race, IL1B genotype was associated with MDD symptoms (p = .002). Contextual stressors were significantly associated with MDD and PTSD and marginally with internalizing symptoms. The IL1B genotype interacted with contextual stress such that children homozygous for the minor allele had more MDD symptoms (p = .045). These results suggest that genetic variants of IL1B may modulate the development of internalizing symptoms in the face of childhood adversity. PMID:25422961

  19. Preadoption adversity, MAOA, and behavioral adjustment in internationally adopted Chinese girls.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A; Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert K

    2014-10-01

    We studied postinstitutionalized adopted Chinese girls to determine whether those with different variants of the MAOA gene promoter region (MAOA-VNTR) differed in their internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and whether the MAOA genotype moderated the relation between preadoption adversity and current behavior problems. MAOA genotyping was obtained for 94 girls (mean age: 9.2 years) and the number of 4-repeat (4R) alleles was determined (zero, one, or two). The adoptive mothers rated several indicators of preadoption adversity shortly after adoption (mean age at adoption 15.8 months) and completed the Child Behavior Checklist when the children were 8.1 years on average. No main effects were found for preadoption adversity. However, the MAOA genotype had a nominally significant effect (P<0.05) on internalizing problems. Regression analyses controlling for age, household income, authoritarian parenting, and family problems showed that among children with no physical signs of preadoption adversity, those carrying a greater number of 4R alleles scored significantly lower (P<0.01) on internalizing problems than those with fewer 4R alleles. Differences in internalizing scores related to the MAOA genotype were not observed for children who showed one or more physical signs of adversity at the time of adoption. A similar pattern was found for externalizing problems, although the results did not reach conventional levels of significance. Our results suggest that higher MAOA activity may be protective with respect to internalizing problems in internationally adopted Chinese girls, but that this protective effect decreases at higher levels of preadoption adversity. A similar pattern may exist for externalizing problems.

  20. International Preschool Inclusion: Bridging the Gap between Vision and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Elaine B.; Gold, Susan; Ajodhia-Andrews, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion, promoted internationally by both legislative mandate and societal values, is a practice in which early childhood educators are encouraged to explore new methods for serving children with disabilities and developmental delays in typical early childhood programs. The belief that children with disabilities should participate within natural…

  1. Feasibility of piezoelectric tiles adoption: A case study at Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Bohari, Izyan Adilah; Hamid, Syaiful Rizal; Sukri, Fatin Hafizah; Kusumarwadani, Rini

    2017-03-01

    The basic function of an international airport is an aerodrome, provides not only the facilities for flights management, but also for customs and passport control. Nowadays, most of the international airports have established commercial outlets for food, products and services. As such, these airports are built with larger scale and more sophisticated on both infrastructure and infostructure which aim to be the most extensive air-travel service providers that connect the nations to the international gateways. Looking at the daily operations of an international airport, the energy consumption is apprehended to be enormous. Besides, knowing the fact that reliance on fossil fuels to power the airport buildings and to run the operations daily, this has led to many negative socioenvironmental implications. To date, some of the world major international airports have begun in renewable energy adoption-which mainly focused on solar energy as a way to reduce fossil energy consumption and towards greenhouse gases reduction. Inspired by thinking differently since solar energy has been adopted in Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) in 2014, through this study we proposed another form of renewable energy-piezoelectric technology adoption into our KLIA as a feasibility study. We believe that piezoelectric technology could complement the renewable energy mix, by tapping the crowd kinetic energy gathered internally in the airport buildings particularly at a few main entrances. Hence, the objectives of this study are (a) to examine the potential factors that will foster piezoelectric tiles adoption at KLIA and (b) to propose the ways for KLIA in speeding up piezoelectric tiles adoption within the airport terminals. The case study on the Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad (MAHB which manages the KLIA) was based on primary data collected through a series of qualitative focus group conducted on 14 (8 senior managers and 6 technical professionals) who were interested and supportive

  2. Discussions about Racial and Ethnic Differences in Internationally Adoptive Families: Links with Family Engagement, Warmth, & Control

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kayla N.; Rueter, Martha A.; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Discussions about racial and ethnic differences may allow international, transracial adoptive families to construct multiracial and/or multiethnic family identities. However, little is known about the ways family communication influences how discussions about racial and ethnic differences occur. This study examined associations between observed family communication constructs, including engagement, warmth, and control, and how adoptive families discuss racial and ethnic differences using a sample of families with adolescent-aged children adopted internationally from South Korea (N = 111 families, 222 adolescents). Using data collected during mid-adolescence and again during late adolescence, higher levels of maternal control and positive adolescent engagement were independently associated with a greater likelihood that family members acknowledged the importance of racial and ethnic differences and constructed a multiracial and/or multiethnic family identity. Adolescent engagement was also related to a greater likelihood that family members disagreed about the importance of racial and ethnic differences, and did not build a cohesive identity about differences. PMID:26648791

  3. Internationally adopted children with cleft lip and/or palate: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Werker, C L; de Wilde, H; Mink van der Molen, A B; Breugem, C C

    2017-04-23

    The treatment approach for internationally adopted children with cleft lip and/or palate differs from locally born children with cleft lip and/or palate. They are older at initial presentation, may have had treatment abroad of different quality, and are establishing new and still fragile relationships with their adoptive parents. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and initial care and treatment of this group. A retrospective cohort study was performed including all internationally adopted children with cleft lip and/or palate presenting to the cleft team outpatient clinic in the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital between January 1994 and December 2014. Medical records of all patients were reviewed; information concerning demographic characteristics, characteristics at initial presentation, and treatment were obtained. A total number of 132 adopted patients were included: 15% had cleft lip, 7% had cleft palate, and 78% had cleft lip and palate. The average age at the time of adoption was 26.5 months. In most cases, China was the country of origin. Seventy-eight percent had surgery in their country of origin, primarily lip repair. Fistulae in need of revision surgery were found in 8% of the patients. Pharyngoplasty was needed in 48% of the patients. No significant differences were found for mean age at adoption, gender, cleft type, and one- or two-stage palatal closure. Internationally adopted children with cleft lip and/or palate are a very diverse group of patients with challenging treatment. These children undergo surgery late and frequently need additional surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Behavioral Development of Korean Children in Institutional Care and International Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.; Seol, Kyoung Ok; Sung, Miyoung; Miller, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the behavioral development of 4- to 8-year-old South Korean children placed in institutional care (n = 230) or adopted internationally (n = 382), with age of entry, parental status, reason for institutionalization, and postinstitutionalization parental contact as risk factors for institutionalized children.…

  5. Far Away from the Tigers: A Year in the Classroom with Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, more than a quarter of a million children have become citizens of the United States through international adoption. Kindergarten teacher Jane Katch recently found herself with three such children in her class: Katya, born in Russia, Jasper, from Cambodia, and Caleb, from Romania. Each child had spent early years in an…

  6. Medical Issues in International Adoption and Their Influence on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladage, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    As the number of international adoptions has increased over the past 2 decades, so has awareness and understanding of the risks associated with the conditions to which these children have been exposed. Prenatal alcohol and/or drug exposure, infectious diseases, malnutrition, and psychosocial deprivation all contribute to the profound growth and…

  7. New Trends and Directions in Ethnic Identity among Internationally Transracially Adopted Persons: Summary of Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosnati, Rosa; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Baden, Amanda L.; Grotevant, Harold D.; Lee, Richard M.; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host…

  8. Assessment of Impacts from Adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    The state of Wyoming currently does not have a statewide building energy efficiency code for residential buildings. The U.S. Department of Energy has requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  9. Introduction to the Special Issue: Children in Foster Care and International Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowska, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Children in the foster care system and those experiencing international adoption face a host of risk factors that result in academic, behavioral, and emotional challenges. The purpose of this special issue is to provide school psychologists with the knowledge regarding current intervention strategies and programming to provide effective supports…

  10. Communication Patterns between Internationally Adopted Children and Their Mothers: Implications for Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Dubois, M. E.; Kasparian K.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents findings on patterns of communication between internationally adopted children and their mothers in order to better understand the nature of these interactions and their influence on language learning. We examined maternal language use and joint attention behaviors of mothers and their children in 21 mother-child pairs: 10…

  11. Communication Patterns between Internationally Adopted Children and Their Mothers: Implications for Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Dubois, M. E.; Kasparian K.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents findings on patterns of communication between internationally adopted children and their mothers in order to better understand the nature of these interactions and their influence on language learning. We examined maternal language use and joint attention behaviors of mothers and their children in 21 mother-child pairs: 10…

  12. Atypical EEG Power Correlates with Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2011-01-01

    While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children (n = 37)…

  13. Far Away from the Tigers: A Year in the Classroom with Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, more than a quarter of a million children have become citizens of the United States through international adoption. Kindergarten teacher Jane Katch recently found herself with three such children in her class: Katya, born in Russia, Jasper, from Cambodia, and Caleb, from Romania. Each child had spent early years in an…

  14. Medical Issues in International Adoption and Their Influence on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladage, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    As the number of international adoptions has increased over the past 2 decades, so has awareness and understanding of the risks associated with the conditions to which these children have been exposed. Prenatal alcohol and/or drug exposure, infectious diseases, malnutrition, and psychosocial deprivation all contribute to the profound growth and…

  15. Atypical EEG Power Correlates with Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2011-01-01

    While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children (n = 37)…

  16. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Vitamin D Status and Predictors of Hypovitaminosis D in Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Vierucci, Francesco; Ghetti, Francesca; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate vitamin D status in internationally adopted children at first medical evaluation in Italy and to identify possible risk factors for hypovitaminosis D in this population. Methods 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were analyzed in internationally adopted children consecutively recruited at one Italian Center between 2010 and 2014 as part of the first screening protocol. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected. Serum 25(OH)D levels <10 ng/mL, <20 ng/mL, and <30 ng/mL were used to define severe vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D deficiency and hypovitaminosis D, respectively. Results 962 internationally adopted children (median age: 5.47 years; IQR:3.14–7.93) were included in the study. Median 25(OH)D level was 22.0 ng/mL (IQR:15.0–30.0 ng/mL); 710/962 (73.8%) children showed hypovitaminosis D (<30 ng/mL), 388/962 (40.3%) had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/dL), and 92/962 (9.6%) had severe vitamin D deficiency (<10ng/mL). No case of clinical rickets was observed. Hypovitaminosis D was particularly frequent (>90%) in children adopted from Ethiopia, Peru, India, Bulgaria and Lithuania. At multivariate analysis an increased risk of hypovitaminosis D was found to be associated with: age ≥ 6 years, time spent in Italy ≥ 3 months, blood sample taken in winter, spring or fall, compared to summer. Gender, ethnicity/continent of origin, tubercular infection, intestinal parassitosis and BMI-z-score < -2 were not associated with vitamin D status. Conclusion Hypovitaminosis D is common in internationally adopted children, from all ethnic group. The evaluation of serum 25(OH)D level could be useful early after the adoption to promptly start vitamin D supplementation/treatment if needed. PMID:27685941

  18. Bidirectional Effects of Parenting and Child Behavior in Internationally Adopting Families.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Jamie M; Koss, Kalsea J; Gunnar, Megan R

    2017-03-06

    Adoption marks a radical transition in caregiving for thousands of children adopted internationally from institutional care; however, very little is known about the quality of this parenting compared with other populations or the transactional effects of parent and child characteristics in postadoption families during the transition to family care. The current study examined parental sensitivity/responsiveness and structure/limit-setting in a group of 68 children adopted internationally from institutions (41 girls, 27 boys; M age = 26.13 months, SD = 4.99) and their parents over the first year after adoption and compared them to a sample of nonadoptive families (26 girls, 26 boys; M age = 27.65 months, SD = 5.71). Results indicated no mean-level differences in parenting quality on either dimension between adoptive and nonadoptive parents. For postinstitutionalized youth, higher quality parental structure and limit-setting soon after adoption predicted reduced child regulation difficulties 8 months later; however, initial child regulation did not predict later parenting. There were no cross-lagged relations for parental sensitivity/responsiveness. Higher quality preadoptive care for children was associated with higher scores on both sensitivity/responsiveness and structure and limit-setting among adoptive parents. Less growth stunting, indicative of less preadoptive adversity, was associated with parents' use of more effective structure and limit-setting behaviors. Policies should promote better preadoptive care abroad, such as lower caregiver-child ratios, as well as early adoption. At least in families exhibiting generally high sensitivity/responsiveness, interventions should target parental structure and limit-setting to have the greatest effect on child behavioral regulation in the immediate years postadoption. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Internationally adopted children in the early school years: relative strengths and weaknesses in language abilities.

    PubMed

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-4) at age 5 and ages 6-7. Language composites and subtests were compared across time. All CELF-P2 and CELF-4 mean scores fell in the average range. Receptive composites were 102.74 and 103.86, and expressive composites were 100.58 and 98.42, at age 5 and ages 6-7, respectively. Age of adoption did not correlate to test scores. At ages 6-7, receptive language, sentence formulation, and vocabulary were areas of strength, with subtest scores significantly better than test norms. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar subtest scores were within the average range but significantly worse than test norms. A high percentage of children scored 1 standard deviation below the mean on these 2 subtests (27.3%-34.1%). Eastern European adoptees had average scores on a variety of language tests. Vocabulary was a relative strength; enriching the environment substantially improved this language area. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar were relative weaknesses. Children learning a language later in life may have difficulty with verbal short-term memory, which leads to weaknesses in expressive syntax and grammar.

  20. [Attachment and Cognitive and Motor Development in the First Years after Adoption: A Review of Studies on Internationally Adopted Children from China].

    PubMed

    Juffer, Femmie; Finet, Chloe; Vermeer, Harriet; van den Dries, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Due to early-childhood adversity, adopted children often display delays in their cognitive and motor development and have problems developing secure attachment relationships with their adoptive parents. In this review we present the results of all available studies on the attachment and the cognitive and motor development of internationally adopted children from China in the first years after arriving in the adoptive family. Seven pertinent studies were found, based on five samples examined in the USA, Canada, and the Netherlands. Regarding cognitive and motor development (five studies) the adoptees showed a delayed development at arrival in the adoptive family. As soon as six months after arrival the adoptees were, on average, functioning within normal ranges, although their catch-up to non-adopted children was not yet complete. Two years after arrival the catch-up to non-adopted peers appeared to be complete. Regarding attachment (two studies) observations of attachment six and twelve months after adoption showed less secure and more disorganized attachment for the adopted children compared to the normative distribution of non-adopted children. Two years after adoption, observations of attachment confirmed a catch-up in secure attachment, but the adoptees still displayed more insecure disorganized attachment than children in the norm group.

  1. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1, which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of NR3C1 to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in childhood. The current study examined links between methylation of NR3C1 and behavior problems in preschoolers. Data were drawn from a sample of preschoolers with early adversity (n=171). Children ranged in age from 3 to 5 years, were racially and ethnically diverse, and nearly all qualified for public assistance. Seventy-one children had child welfare documentation of moderate-severe maltreatment in the past six months. Structured record review and interviews in the home were used to assess early adversity. Parents reported on child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Methylation of NR3C1 at exons 1D, 1F, and 1H were measured via sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing from saliva DNA. Methylation of NR3C1 at exons 1D and 1F was positively associated with internalizing (r = .21, p < .01 and r = .23, p < .01 respectively), but not externalizing, behavior problems. Furthermore, NR3C1 methylation mediated effects of early adversity on internalizing behavior problems. These results suggest that methylation of NR3C1 contributes to psychopathology in young children, and NR3C1 methylation from saliva DNA is salient to behavioral outcomes. PMID:26822445

  2. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in international adoptees within the first 6 months after adoption.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Kimara L; Eckerle, Judith K; Howard, Cynthia R; Andrews, Beth; Polgreen, Lynda E

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and development. To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in pediatric international adoptees. A prospective cohort (N = 189) study from a single international adoption clinic was conducted. Total 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level was measured at the initial clinical assessment (within 6 months of adoption). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL (<8 nmol/L) and insufficiency as 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL (<12 nmol/L). Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 8% and insufficiency in 27% of the cohort. Lower body mass index and longer time in an institution were associated with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency independent of age. Vitamin D insufficiency was common in our cohort of international adoptees. The significance of vitamin D insufficiency on bone development during the typical "catch-up" growth following international adoption needs to be determined.

  3. Vitamin D status in internationally adopted children: the experience in Northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Raffaldi, Irene; Garazzino, Silvia; Ballardini, Giuseppina; Zaffaroni, Mauro; Grasso, Nicolino; Bona, Gianni; Tovo, Pier-Angelo; Guala, Andrea

    2017-09-15

    The majority of internationally adopted children, before adoption, might have experienced malnutrition, exposure to infectious diseases, environmental deprivation and neglect; they could also develop medical problems such as vitamin D deficiency. Scantly data are available about vitamin D status in internationally adopted children and, to our knowledge, no report exists on Italian adoptees. We carried out a prospective multicenter study, involving three Pediatric Centers in Piedmont, Italy, in order to collect information about 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] profile in adoptees, shortly after their arrival in Italy. In 142/158 internationally adopted children 25(OH)D was measured: 75 males and 67 females, with a mean age of 4.22 ± 2.2 years (range 0.7-14.6 years). Fifty-three (37.3%) of them came from Asia, 48 (33.8%) from Africa, 24 (16.9%) from Eastern Europe, and 17 (12%) from Latin America. The median level of 25(OH)D in serum was 21.5 ng/mL (IQR range 14.3-29.7 ng/mL): 26 (18.2%) of the examined children had an insufficiency of 25-OHD, whereas 36 (25.2%) had a deficiency. Adoptees with longer time of institution stay had a significant risk to develop 25(OH)D deficiency. The Asian origin proved to be a risk factor to develop 25(OH)D deficiency, whereas the age >1 year was significantly associated with 25(OH)D insufficiency. Our survey showed that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, in internationally adoptees, are frequent and relevant health problems.

  4. [Eye disease in international adoption: Importance of the region of origin].

    PubMed

    Cavero-Roig, L; Díaz-Conradi, Á; Negre-Loscertales, A; Ferrero-Rosanas, A; Salvador-Valle, A; Burch-Piñol, S; Urraca-Martínez, O; Massaguer-Cabrera, J

    2015-05-01

    To describe the ophthalmological conditions seen in children adopted internationally by Spanish families, and to assess the influence of the world region of origin and the preadoption period of institutional care on these conditions. A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 232 children divided into 4 groups according to world region of origin: Group 1, eastern Europe (n=95); Group 2, Asia (n=95); Group 3, Central and South America (n=26); and Group 4, Africa (n=16). A complete ophthalmological study was carried out and the groups were compared for the prevalence of ophthalmological conditions. Among the total, 57.8% (134) of children presented ophthalmological abnormalities. The prevalence of ametropia was strongly correlated with the world region of origin, and was significantly higher in Group 3 (65.4%) compared to the remaining groups. Strabismus and optic nerve hypoplasia (15.8% and 3.2%, respectively) were more prevalent in Group 1. The preadoption institutional care period was longer in children in Groups 1 and 3 (24.5 and 27.7 months, respectively). Children adopted from Central and South America had the highest prevalence of ametropia. Adopted children from eastern Europe showed a weak tendency to present strabismus and optic nerve hypoplasia. Adoptive parents, pediatricians and ophthalmologists should be aware of the high prevalence of ophthalmologic conditions in internationally adopted children and provide the means for a prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-Adoption Adversity and Self-Reported Behavior Problems in 7 Year-Old International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Jeliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Celine; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…

  6. Pre-Adoption Adversity and Self-Reported Behavior Problems in 7 Year-Old International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon-Oosterwaal, Noemi; Cossette, Louise; Smolla, Nicole; Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Jeliu, Gloria; Belhumeur, Celine; Berthiaume, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To further investigate the long-term impact of pre-adoption adversity on international adoptees, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a self-report measure at school-age in addition to mothers' reports. The sample consisted of 95 adopted children and their mothers. Children's health and developmental status were assessed…

  7. Early deprivation and home basal cortisol levels: a study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Kertes, Darlene A; Gunnar, Megan R; Madsen, Nicole J; Long, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that early deprivation impairs regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, potentially increasing vulnerability to stressors throughout life. To examine early deprivation effects on basal HPA axis activity in humans, basal cortisol levels were examined in 164 internationally adopted children who had experienced varying degrees of preadoption deprivation. Duration of institutional care, age at adoption, and parent ratings of preadoption neglect indexed a latent factor of Deprived Care. Adoption measures of height and weight standardized to World Health Organisation norms indexed a latent factor of Growth Delay that was viewed as another reflection of deprivation. Cortisol samples were collected 3.3-11.6 years postadoption (Md = 7.3 years) at home on 3 days approximately 30 min after wakeup and before bedtime. Both early a.m. levels and the decrease in cortisol across the day were examined. A structural equation model revealed that preadoption Deprived Care predicted Growth Delay at adoption and Growth Delay predicted higher morning cortisol levels and a larger diurnal cortisol decrease.

  8. Linguistic interference between L1 and L2 in internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Glennen, Sharon; Rosinsky-Grunhut, Ariella; Tracy, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    Bilingual children learning two languages either simultaneously or successively experience patterns of cross-language interference or facilitation due to similarities and differences between the languages. Internationally adopted toddlers are only truly bilingual for a short period of time because the first language disappears quickly after adoption. Yet residual effects of the disappearing first language might impact patterns of learning the new language. To determine if cross-language patterns affected language learning in very young children, language samples were collected from 23 children adopted from Eastern Europe between 11 and 23 months of age. Samples were collected at 6-month intervals during the first year after adoption, then annually up through age 4. Age and order of acquisition of several grammatical morphemes including V + ing, articles, contracted and uncontracted copulas, and contracted and uncontracted auxiliary were explored. These morphological structures developed in the same sequence observed in monolingual children speaking English and were not notably impacted by cross-linguistic factors from language 1. Guidelines for professionals and parents are discussed.

  9. Factors Affecting Attachment in International Adoptees at 6 Months Post Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effect of five child and maternal factors on the attachment security of international adoptees at six months post adoption. Results from the sample of 22 adoptive mother-infant dyads showed that age at adoption, developmental status, length and quality of preadoption care, and maternal attachment representations were not significant predictors of child attachment status. The number of preadoption placements and the child's stress level did significantly predict attachment status, accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in attachment security. Number of preadoption placements uniquely contributed 14% of that variance (p=.007) while stress level uniquely contributed 12% (p=.01). Children who had fewer preadoption placements had higher attachment security; similarly, children who had lower stress levels had higher attachment security. Results suggest that consistency of preadoption care was more important than its length or quality. Further, the relationship between stress level and attachment security raises the possibility that a lower stress level functions as a protective factor for the developing attachment with the adoptive mother. PMID:22267885

  10. Maternal abuse history, postpartum depression, and parenting: links with preschoolers' internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a temporal cascade linking mothers' history of abuse with their children's internalizing difficulties through proximal processes such as maternal postnatal depressive symptoms and responsive parenting. Participants consisted of 490 mother-child dyads assessed at three time points when children were, on average, 2 months old at Time 1 (T1), 18 months at Time 2 (T2), and 36 months at Time 3 (T3). Maternal abuse history and depressive symptoms were assessed via questionnaires at T1. Observations of responsive parenting were collected at T2 and were coded using a validated coding scheme. Children's internalizing difficulties were assessed in the preschool period using averaged parental reports. Path analysis revealed that maternal physical abuse was associated with depressive symptoms postnatally, which were in turn associated with children's internalizing behavior at 36 months of age. We also found that the association between physical abuse history and responsive parenting operated indirectly through maternal depressive symptoms. These findings remained after controlling for covariates including socioeconomic status, child gender, and age. After accounting for physical abuse history, sexual abuse history was not associated with child internalizing problems either directly or indirectly through maternal depressive symptoms and/or parenting behavior. Thus, mothers' physical abuse history is a risk factor for relatively poor mental health, which is itself predictive of both later parenting behavior and children's internalizing problems. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Acquisition of English grammatical morphology by internationally adopted children from China.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Lara J; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-11-01

    Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners. Results from spontaneous and elicited speech showed that IA children acquired grammatical morphemes similarly to L1 learners; namely, (1) non-tense-marking morphemes were acquired earlier than tense-marking morphemes; (2) BE was acquired in synchrony with other tense-marking morphemes; and (3) a high percentage of omission errors and a low percentage of commission errors were observed.

  12. First Parent-Child Meetings in International Adoptions: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sara; Radjack, Rahmeth; Sibeoni, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    International adoptions involve approximately 30000 children worldwide each year. Nearly all of the adoptive parents travel to the child's country of birth to meet them and bring them home. The objective of this study is to analyze the adoptive parents' account of their first meetings with their child. The study includes 46 parents who adopted one or more children internationally. Each parent participated in a semi-structured interview, focused on these first parent-child meetings. The interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative phenomenological method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The principal themes that emerged from the analysis of the interviews were: the scene when the child is entrusted to the parents, the discovery of the child's body, and the first parent-child interaction. Within these three principal themes, several subthemes dealt with difficult experiences: moments of solitude and anxiety, shocking images of the children's living conditions, lack of preparation and of information about the child, poor health, parental reactions of rejection, worry about the child's body, aggressive reactions by the child, worry about the child's reactions, and contrast with the expected interaction. Thirty-two interviews included at least one of these subthemes. At the structural level of the discourse; the characteristics of 33 interviews are those described in the literature as significantly more frequent in traumatized than in non-traumatized subjects. These results raise questions about the consequences of difficult, possibly traumatic experiences, at the moment of meeting the child, and they underline the need for work on preparation and prevention before the parents leave on their journey. PMID:24086500

  13. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents’ Reports From 24 Societies

    PubMed Central

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Döpfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Gonçalves, Miguel; Guđmundsson, Halldór; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiené, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Bárbara César; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Plück, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, José; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children’s behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½–5 by parents in 24 societies (N =19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3–12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total Problems scores for 18 of the 24 societies were within 7.1 points of the omnicultural mean of 33.3 (on a scale of 0–198). Gender and age differences, as well as gender and age interactions with society, were all very small (effect sizes <1%). Across all pairs of societies, correlations between mean item ratings averaged .78, and correlations between internal consistency alphas for the scales averaged .92, indicating that the rank orders of mean item ratings and internal consistencies of scales were very similar across diverse societies. PMID:21534056

  14. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  15. Early experience shapes amygdala sensitivity to race: an international adoption design.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Flannery, Jessica; Shapiro, Mor; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durman, Laurel; Gee, Dylan D; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-08-14

    In the current study, we investigated how complete infant deprivation to out-group race impacts behavioral and neural sensitivity to race. Although monkey models have successfully achieved complete face deprivation in early life, this is typically impossible in human studies. We overcame this barrier by examining youths with exclusively homogenous racial experience in early postnatal development. These were youths raised in orphanage care in either East Asia or Eastern Europe as infants and later adopted by American families. The use of international adoption bolsters confidence of infant exposure to race (e.g., to solely Asian faces or European faces). Participants completed an emotional matching task during functional MRI. Our findings show that deprivation to other-race faces in infancy disrupts recognition of emotion and results in heightened amygdala response to out-group faces. Greater early deprivation (i.e., later age of adoption) is associated with greater biases to race. These data demonstrate how early social deprivation to race shapes amygdala function later in life and provides support that early postnatal development may represent a sensitive period for race perception.

  16. Language and memory abilities of internationally adopted children from China: evidence for early age effects.

    PubMed

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if internationally adopted (IA) children from China (M = 10;8) adopted by French-speaking families exhibit lags in verbal memory in addition to lags in verbal abilities documented in previous studies (Gauthier & Genesee, 2011). Tests assessing verbal and non-verbal memory, language, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development were administered to thirty adoptees. Their results were compared to those of thirty non-adopted monolingual French-speaking children matched on age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The IA children scored significantly lower than the controls on language, verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory, and verbal long-term memory. No group differences were found on non-verbal memory, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development, suggesting language-specific difficulties. Despite extended exposure to French, adoptees may experience language difficulties due to limitations in verbal memory, possibly as a result of their delayed exposure to that language and/or attrition of the birth language.

  17. Language Abilities of Internationally Adopted Children from China during the Early School Years: Evidence for Early Age Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred; Gauthier, Karine

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the language, cognitive, and socioemotional abilities of 27 internationally adopted children from China, adopted by French-speaking parents, 12 of whom had been assessed previously by Gauthier and Genesee. The children were on average 7 years, 10 months old and were matched to nonadopted monolingual French-speaking children on age,…

  18. Health Care Support Issues for Internationally Adopted Children: A Qualitative Approach to the Needs and Expectations of Families

    PubMed Central

    Lesens, Olivier; Schmidt, Anna; De Rancourt, Florence; Poirier, Véronique; Labbe, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Marty, Laurent; Beytout, Jean; Vorilhon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Families of internationally adopted children may face specific problems with which general practitioners (GPs) may not be familiar. The aim of the study was to explore problems faced by families before, during and after the arrival of their internationally adopted child and to assess the usefulness of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the GP. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a qualitative study using individual semistructured guided conversations and interviewed 21 families that had adopted a total of 26 children internationally in the Puy de Dome department, France, in 2003. Quantitative data were used to describe the pathologies diagnosed and the investigations performed.Our study showed that the history of these families, from the start of the adoption project to its achievement, is complex and warrants careful analysis. Health-care providers should not only consider the medical aspects of adoption, but should also be interested in the histories of these families, which may play a role in the forming of attachments between the adoptee and their adoptive parents and prevent further trouble during the development of the child. We also showed that adoptive parents have similar fears or transient difficulties that may be resolved quickly by listening and reassurance. Most such families would support the existence of a specific medical structure for internationally adopted children, which could be a resource for the general practitioner. However, the health-care providers interviewed were divided on the subject and expressed their fear that a special consultation could be stigmatizing to children and families. Conclusions/Significance A specific consultation with well-trained and experienced practitioners acting in close collaboration with GPs and paediatricians may be of help in better understanding and supporting adopted children and their families. PMID:22363614

  19. Special Report on Electrical Standards: New Internationally Adopted Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, B. N.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the background for and summarizes the main results of the 18th meeting of the Consultative Committee on Electricity (CCE) of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) held in September 1988. Also included are the most important implications of these results. The principal recommendations originating from the meeting, which were subsequently adopted by the CIPM, establish new international reference standards of voltage and resistance based on the Josephson effect and the quantum Hall effect, respectively. The new standards, which are to come into effect starting January 1, 1990, will result in improved uniformity of electrical measurements worldwide and their consistency with the International System of Units or SI. To implement the CIPM recommendations in the U.S. requires that, on January 1, 1990, the value of the U.S. representation of the volt be increased by about 9.26 parts per million (ppm) and the value of the U.S. representation of the ohm be increased by about 1.69 ppm. The resulting increases in the U.S. representations of the ampere and watt will be about 7.57 ppm and 16.84 ppm, respectively. The CCE also recommended a particular method, affirmed by the CIPM, of reporting calibration results obtained with the new reference standards that is to be used by all national standards laboratories. PMID:28053403

  20. Special Report on Electrical Standards: New Internationally Adopted Reference Standards of Voltage and Resistance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B N

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the background for and summarizes the main results of the 18th meeting of the Consultative Committee on Electricity (CCE) of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) held in September 1988. Also included are the most important implications of these results. The principal recommendations originating from the meeting, which were subsequently adopted by the CIPM, establish new international reference standards of voltage and resistance based on the Josephson effect and the quantum Hall effect, respectively. The new standards, which are to come into effect starting January 1, 1990, will result in improved uniformity of electrical measurements worldwide and their consistency with the International System of Units or SI. To implement the CIPM recommendations in the U.S. requires that, on January 1, 1990, the value of the U.S. representation of the volt be increased by about 9.26 parts per million (ppm) and the value of the U.S. representation of the ohm be increased by about 1.69 ppm. The resulting increases in the U.S. representations of the ampere and watt will be about 7.57 ppm and 16.84 ppm, respectively. The CCE also recommended a particular method, affirmed by the CIPM, of reporting calibration results obtained with the new reference standards that is to be used by all national standards laboratories.

  1. Early puberty in internationally adopted girls: hormonal and clinical markers of puberty in 276 girls examined biannually over two years.

    PubMed

    Teilmann, Grete; Petersen, Jørgen H; Gormsen, Magdalena; Damgaard, Karen; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective studies have indicated that internationally adopted girls are at high risk of developing precocious puberty. Hypothetically, this could be due to selection bias. The aim of this study was to determine age at reaching pubertal milestones in healthy internationally adopted girls in a prospective, clinical study. A longitudinal cohort study including 276 randomly recruited internationally adopted girls. At baseline, age ranged from 4 to 13 years. Participants were followed with biannual examinations over a period of 2 years. Examinations included height, weight, Tanner staging, blood sampling and bone age assessment. Age distribution at entering pubertal stages B2-B5 (breast development), PH1-PH5 (pubic hair development) and menarche was estimated by probit analysis. Data were compared to a reference population of Danish-born girls, studied cross-sectionally. Mean age at B2+ was 9.5 years (95% prediction interval 7.1-12.0 years) and mean age at menarche was 12.1 (10.2-14.0) years in adopted girls, which was significantly lower compared to the reference group (p < 0.0003). 16% of adopted girls entered stage B2 before 8 years of age. The puberty-related rise in LH, FSH and estradiol was detected at earlier ages in adopted girls compared to the reference group. Internationally adopted girls have a significantly higher risk of precocious pubertal maturation compared to Danish-born girls.

  2. Similarities and differences between internationally adopted and nonadopted children in their toddler years: Outcomes from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we compare internationally adopted children's communication, gross motor development, temperament, and challenging behavior with the same characteristics in nonadopted children at age 24 and 36 months. At 24 months, adopted children lag behind in communication and in gross motor development. The adopted children are less active and show less physically challenging behavior. At age 36 months, most of these differences have diminished, but the adopted children still lag behind in communication. This is an important finding because communication skills in the toddler years are a crucial factor in children's attachment, social development, and later language and cognitive development. Looking at the overall outcomes during early toddler years, internationally adopted children are developing very well considering the preadoption adversity to which many of them have been exposed.

  3. Adoptive parenting.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth and Adoptive Parent Anxiety Symptoms Moderate the Link Between Infant Attention Control and Internalizing Problems in Toddlerhood

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Attention control plays an important role in the development of internalizing symptoms in children. We explored the degree to which infants' genetic- and environmentally-based risk moderated the link between attention control and internalizing problems during toddlerhood. These associations were examined within a prospective adoption design, enabling the disentanglement of genetic and environmental risk for internalizing problems. Attention control in adopted infants was observed during periods of distress at age 9 months. Birth parents' anxiety symptoms were used as an index of genetic risk, while adoptive parents' anxiety symptoms were used as an index of environmental risk. Adoptive mothers and fathers reported on children's internalizing problems when children were 18- and 27-months old. Greater attention control in infancy appeared to mitigate genetically-based risk for internalizing problems during toddlerhood when children were raised by adoptive parents who were low in anxiety. Findings suggest that for genetically-susceptible children who are raised in low-risk environments, attention control may provide a protective factor against developing internalizing problems across early life. PMID:24472311

  5. Birth and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms moderate the link between infant attention control and internalizing problems in toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2014-05-01

    Attention control plays an important role in the development of internalizing symptoms in children. We explored the degree to which infants' genetic and environmentally based risk moderated the link between attention control and internalizing problems during toddlerhood. These associations were examined within a prospective adoption design, enabling the disentanglement of genetic and environmental risk for internalizing problems. Attention control in adopted infants was observed during periods of distress at age 9 months. Birth parents' anxiety symptoms were used as an index of genetic risk, while adoptive parents' anxiety symptoms were used as an index of environmental risk. Adoptive mothers and fathers reported on children's internalizing problems when children were 18 and 27 months old. Greater attention control in infancy appeared to mitigate genetically based risk for internalizing problems during toddlerhood when children were raised by adoptive parents who were low in anxiety. Findings suggest that for genetically susceptible children who are raised in low-risk environments, attention control may provide a protective factor against developing internalizing problems across early life.

  6. Adoption and Effectiveness of Internal Mammary Artery Grafting in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Among Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Hlatky, Mark A; Boothroyd, Derek B; Reitz, Bruce A; Shilane, David A; Baker, Laurence C; Go, Alan S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the pattern of the adoption of internal mammary artery (IMA) grafting in the United States, test its association with clinical outcomes, and assess whether its effectiveness differs in key clinical subgroups. Background The effect of IMA grafting on major clinical outcomes has never been tested in a large randomized trial, yet it is now a quality standard for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods We identified Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥66 years who underwent isolated multivessel CABG between 1988 and 2008, and documented patterns of IMA use over time. We used a multivariable propensity score to match patients with and without an IMA, and compared rates of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and repeat revascularization. We tested for variations in IMA effectiveness using treatment by covariate interaction tests. Results IMA use in CABG rose slowly from 31% in 1988 to 91% in 2008, with persistent wide geographic variations. Among 60,896 propensity score matched patients over a median 6.8 year follow-up, IMA use was associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.77, p<0.001), lower death or MI (adjusted hazard ratio 0.77, p<0.001), and fewer repeat revascularization over five years (8% vs. 9%, p<0.001). The association between IMA use and lower mortality was significantly weaker (p≤0.008) for older patients, women, and for patients with diabetes or peripheral arterial disease. Conclusions IMA grafting was adopted slowly and still shows substantial geographic variation. IMA use is associated with lower rates of death, MI and repeat coronary revascularization. PMID:24080110

  7. Preschoolers' genetic, physiological, and behavioral sensitivity factors moderate links between parenting stress and child internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R H

    2017-03-14

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage  = 30.68 years, SDage  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (Mage  = 3.50 years, SDage  = 0.51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed.

  8. New Trends and Directions in Ethnic Identity Among Internationally Transracially Adopted Persons: Summary of Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Rosnati, Rosa; Pinderhughes, Ellen E; Baden, Amanda L; Grotevant, Harold D; Lee, Richard M; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-12-01

    The collective findings of the six articles in this special issue highlight the importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs). A multidimensional developmental phenomenon, ethnic identity intersects with other identities, notably adoptive identity. Family, peers, community, and host culture are important socialization contexts that engage transracial adoptees in transactional processes that promote ethnic identity development. New directions in research were identified, including developmental processes in navigating ethnic and other identities, similarities and differences in ethnic identity between ITRAs and immigrants, the effectiveness of interventions targeting ethnic identity in ITRAs, and the impact of discrimination on ethnic identity construction and the role of social and national contexts. Implications for policies and practices were discussed, such as pre- and postadoption supports for adoptees and parents that provide developmentally appropriate support for positive ethnic identity; training for professionals working with ITRAs and their families; and intercountry practices that promote connection with cultures of origin. Lessons about ITRAs and their ethnic identity in transaction with multiple social contexts enhance understanding of how all individuals navigate multiple identities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Developmental delays at arrival, early intervention enrollment, and adopted Chinese girls' academic performance and internalizing problems in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2014-01-01

    The author investigated the extent of developmental delays in girls adopted from China, their subsequent early intervention (EI) enrollment, and how the delays and EI were related to their academic performance and internalizing problems in adolescence. The sample included 180 adolescent girls (M = 13.4 years, SD = 2.0 years) who were adopted at 3-23.5 months (M = 11.5 months, SD = 3.7 months). Data on the adopted Chinese girls' delays at arrival and EI enrollment in physical therapy (PT) and speech-language therapy (SLT) were collected from the adoptive mothers at the Baseline; data on the adopted Chinese girls' present academic performance and internalizing problems were collected from the adoptive mothers and adopted girls at Wave 4 six years later. Data analyses revealed that 55% of the adoptees had moderate-to-severe delays when first arrived at the adoptive homes. Motor delays significantly increased the odds for PT (odds ratio [OR] = 3.98, 95% CI [2.18, 7.82], p <.001) and SLT (OR = 2.36, 95% CI [1.50-3.72, p <.001). Social-cognitive delays also significantly increased the odds for PT (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.36, 2.63], p <.001) and SLT (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.22, 2.17], p <.001). Motor delays were negatively associated with academic performance but positively associated with internalizing problems. General linear modeling showed that the adoptees who had developmental delays at arrival and subsequently enrolled in EI scored significantly lower on academic performance than their peers who had delays but did not enroll in EI, as well their peers who had no delays and did not enroll in EI. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Revisiting Vertical Models To Simulate the Line Shape of Electronic Spectra Adopting Cartesian and Internal Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Javier; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2016-10-11

    Vertical models for the simulation of spectroscopic line shapes expand the potential energy surface (PES) of the final state around the equilibrium geometry of the initial state. These models provide, in principle, a better approximation of the region of the band maximum. At variance, adiabatic models expand each PES around its own minimum. In the harmonic approximation, when the minimum energy structures of the two electronic states are connected by large structural displacements, adiabatic models can breakdown and are outperformed by vertical models. However, the practical application of vertical models faces the issues related to the necessity to perform a frequency analysis at a nonstationary point. In this contribution we revisit vertical models in harmonic approximation adopting both Cartesian (x) and valence internal curvilinear coordinates (s). We show that when x coordinates are used, the vibrational analysis at nonstationary points leads to a deficient description of low-frequency modes, for which spurious imaginary frequencies may even appear. This issue is solved when s coordinates are adopted. It is however necessary to account for the second derivative of s with respect to x, which here we compute analytically. We compare the performance of the vertical model in the s-frame with respect to adiabatic models and previously proposed vertical models in x- or Q1-frame, where Q1 are the normal coordinates of the initial state computed as combination of Cartesian coordinates. We show that for rigid molecules the vertical approach in the s-frame provides a description of the final state very close to the adiabatic picture. For sizable displacements it is a solid alternative to adiabatic models, and it is not affected by the issues of vertical models in x- and Q1-frames, which mainly arise when temperature effects are included. In principle the G matrix depends on s, and this creates nonorthogonality problems of the Duschinsky matrix connecting the normal

  11. Frequency and characteristics of infectious diseases in internationally adopted children: a retrospective study in Nantes from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Hénaff, Fanny; Hazart, Isabelle; Picherot, Georges; Baqué, Françoise; Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Internationally adopted children are more susceptible to developing and carrying acute or chronic infectious diseases. Specialized consultations exist in the main French cities; however, specialized consultation with a pediatrician is not mandatory. The main objective of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of infections (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) among a group of international adoptees in Nantes over a 3-year period. A retrospective chart review was conducted of internationally adopted children who went through the Medical Guidance for Adopted Children Consultation between 2010 and 2012. A total of 133 children were included in the study. Of these, 55% had an infectious disease; 8% were severe infections. We found a frequency of 38% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 30-46] for parasitic intestinal and 35% (CI 95% 27-43) for dermatologic infections. African children were more likely to have infections that required hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) = 12, p = 0.004, CI 95% 1.3-113.7] and more likely to carry extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria. The frequency of infectious diseases, and sometimes severe diseases, found among our cohort of internationally adopted children highlights the need for systematic, specialized medical care. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. "We-Research": Adopting a Wiki to Support the Processes of Collaborative Research among a Team of International Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Perez, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the adoption of a wiki to support the processes of collaborative research between members of an international team involved in the project MyPlace: MyMusic. The focus is on how new technological communications, here specifically the wiki, can enable and transform the methods and processes of research. We propose two main…

  13. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  14. The Adoption of Internal Audit as a Governance Control Mechanism in Australian Public Universities--Views from the CEOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the multi-theoretical approach to governance and the views of university chief executive officers (CEOs) to examine the extent to which internal auditing as a control mechanism is adopted in Australian public universities under an environment of change management. The findings highlight negative consequences of change and their…

  15. Is There "Space" for International Baccalaureate? A Case Study Exploring Space and the Adoption of the IB Middle Year Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Henri Lefebvre (1991) wrote, "[representational] space is alive: it speaks" (p. 42). This article explores how we might "listen" to space in education by examining the role of space in one school's decision to adopt the International Baccalaureate's Middle Years Programme [IB MYP]. It builds upon recent scholarship that applies…

  16. "We-Research": Adopting a Wiki to Support the Processes of Collaborative Research among a Team of International Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan; Perez, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the adoption of a wiki to support the processes of collaborative research between members of an international team involved in the project MyPlace: MyMusic. The focus is on how new technological communications, here specifically the wiki, can enable and transform the methods and processes of research. We propose two main…

  17. A Proposed Framework between Internal, External and Pedagogy Dimensions in Adoption of Interactive Multimedia e-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahwal, Fathia; Al-Ajlan, Ajlan S.; Amain, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on interactive multimedia e-learning aims to improve our understanding about the dynamics of e-learning. The objective is to critical evaluate and better understand the interrelationships in the proposed framework between internal, external and the pedagogy dimensions in adoption of interactive multimedia and e-learning. It…

  18. Language development in internationally adopted children: a special case of early second language learning.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Karine; Genesee, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The French language development of children adopted (n=24) from China was compared with that of control children matched for socioeconomic status, sex, and age. The children were assessed at 50 months of age, on average, and 16 months later. The initial assessment revealed that the 2 groups did not differ with respect to socioemotional adjustment or intellectual abilities. However, the adopted children's expressive language skills were significantly lower than those of the nonadopted children at both assessments. The receptive language skills were also significantly weaker for the adopted children at the second assessment. The results are discussed in terms of possible early age-of-acquisition effects that might affect adopted children's ability to acquire a second first language. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. The Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation: Internal Consistency and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Mary; King, Gillian; Petrenchik, Theresa; Kertoy, Marilyn; Anaby, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Participation in activities provides the means for young children to learn, play, develop skills, and develop a sense of personal identity. The Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) is a newly developed measure to capture the participation of children aged 2 to 5 years and 11 months in the areas of play, skill development, active…

  20. The Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation: Internal Consistency and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Mary; King, Gillian; Petrenchik, Theresa; Kertoy, Marilyn; Anaby, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Participation in activities provides the means for young children to learn, play, develop skills, and develop a sense of personal identity. The Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP) is a newly developed measure to capture the participation of children aged 2 to 5 years and 11 months in the areas of play, skill development, active…

  1. Early Adversity, Hypocortisolism, and Behavior Problems at School Entry: A Study of Internationally Adopted Children

    PubMed Central

    Mliner, Shanna B.; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children’s cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  2. Early adversity, hypocortisolism, and behavior problems at school entry: A study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Koss, Kalsea J; Mliner, Shanna B; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children's cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Speech Production in 3-Year-Old Internationally Adopted Children with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, AnnaKarin; Schölin, Johnna; Mark, Hans; Jönsson, Radi; Persson, Christina

    Background: In the last decade, a large number of children with cleft lip and palate have been adopted to Sweden. A majority of the children were born in China and they usually arrive in Sweden with an unoperated palate. There is currently a lack of knowledge regarding speech and articulation development in this group of children, who also have to…

  4. Acquisition of Complement Clitics and Tense Morphology in Internationally Adopted Children Acquiring French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Kasparian, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the language development of children adopted from China to examine possible early age effects with respect to their use of complement clitics, lexical diversity and verb morphology. We focused on these aspects of French because they distinguish second language learners of French and native French-speaking children with…

  5. Report on the Desirability of Adopting an International Instrument for the Protection of Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report contains the formal documents leading to the inclusion on the provisional agenda of UNESCO's 1972 General Conference of a discussion considering the desirability of adopting an instrument for the protection of translators. Included in the document is the "Preliminary Study of the Technical and Legal Aspects of Copyright Protection for…

  6. Acquisition of Complement Clitics and Tense Morphology in Internationally Adopted Children Acquiring French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Kasparian, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the language development of children adopted from China to examine possible early age effects with respect to their use of complement clitics, lexical diversity and verb morphology. We focused on these aspects of French because they distinguish second language learners of French and native French-speaking children with…

  7. Language Development in Internationally Adopted Children: A Special Case of Early Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Karine; Genesee, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The French language development of children adopted (n = 24) from China was compared with that of control children matched for socioeconomic status, sex, and age. The children were assessed at 50 months of age, on average, and 16 months later. The initial assessment revealed that the 2 groups did not differ with respect to socioemotional…

  8. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions.

    PubMed

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3-10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively.

  9. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3–10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively. PMID:26388799

  10. Adopting, manipulating, transforming: tactics used by gender practitioners in South African NGOs to translate international gender policies into local practice.

    PubMed

    Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-11-01

    This paper looks at what is lost and gained through the process of translating international policy from a global to a local space. It does this by sharing results from a multisite ethnographic study of gender practices in foreign-funded South African health organisations. This study identifies a number of tactics used by practitioners to deal with the funding constraints and unique knowledge systems that characterise local spaces, including: using policy to appeal to donors; merging gender with better resourced programmes; and redirecting funding allocations. These tactics point to how practitioners are adopting, manipulating and transforming international policies in order to suit their everyday working realities.

  11. The discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales to identify disruptive and internalizing disorders in preschool children.

    PubMed

    de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Trepat, Esther; Domenech, Josep Maria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the discriminative capacity of CBCL/1½-5 (Manual for the ASEBA Preschool-Age Forms & Profiles, University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, Burlington, 2000) DSM5 scales attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety and depressive problems for detecting the presence of DSM5 (DSM5 diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, APA, Arlington, 2013) disorders, ADHD, ODD, Anxiety and Mood disorders, assessed through diagnostic interview, in children aged 3-5. Additionally, we compare the clinical utility of the CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales with respect to analogous CBCL/1½-5 syndrome scales. A large community sample of 616 preschool children was longitudinally assessed for the stated age group. Statistical analysis was based on ROC procedures and binary logistic regressions. ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales achieved good discriminative ability to identify ADHD and ODD interview's diagnoses, at any age. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 Anxiety scale discriminative capacity was fair for unspecific anxiety disorders in all age groups. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 depressive problems' scale showed the poorest discriminative capacity for mood disorders (including depressive episode with insufficient symptoms), oscillating into the poor-to-fair range. As a whole, DSM5-oriented scales generally did not provide evidence better for discriminative capacity than syndrome scales in identifying DSM5 diagnoses. CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales discriminate externalizing disorders better than internalizing disorders for ages 3-5. Scores on the ADHD and ODD CBCL/1½-5-DSM5 scales can be used to screen for DSM5 ADHD and ODD disorders in general populations of preschool children.

  12. [About international adoption: the double strangeness of the child from abroad].

    PubMed

    Golse, B

    2011-06-01

    The foster child through an intercountry adoption is a "foreigner" in two ways: as a support for parental unconscious projections (as any child, including biological children) on the one hand, and because of the strangeness ethnic often involved in this framework in the other hand. After recalling the main parental representations concerning the unborn child, the author then proposes to think the approval procedure as a kind of imaginary and symbolic equivalent of the usual psychic pregnancy.

  13. Preparing to meet foreign bugs. Travel, immigration, and international adoptions require special precautions.

    PubMed

    Petersen, K

    2001-07-01

    As the world's population becomes increasingly mobile, children are more likely to be exposed to exotic and troublesome pathogens. These exposures raise concerns about protecting not only kids but the general population as well. In this article, Dr Petersen presents ways to avoid illness in children who travel to other parts of the world. She also discusses concerns about communicable disease as it relates to immigration or adoption of foreign-born children, especially those from developing nations.

  14. Call for the international adoption of microbiological breakpoints for fluoroquinolones and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Schurek, Kristen N; Adam, Heather J; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G

    2006-09-01

    The use of current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute levofloxacin breakpoints for assessing fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is inadequate for detecting isolates possessing first-step parC mutations. Consequently, the risk for development of fluoroquinolone resistance is greatly underestimated. Adopting microbiological breakpoints for fluoroquinolones and S. pneumoniae, where parC mutations are rare in susceptible isolates, more accurately describes the emergence of resistance and may help to prevent a number of future fluoroquinolone treatment failures. Additionally, we propose that the use of a second fluoroquinolone marker, such as ciprofloxacin, offers the best prediction for detecting an isolate possessing a first-step parC mutation.

  15. International attitudes of early adopters to current and future robotic technologies in pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Cundy, Thomas P; Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Najmaldin, Azad S; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara

    2014-10-01

    Perceptions toward surgical innovations are critical to the social processes that drive technology adoption. This study aims to capture attitudes of early adopter pediatric surgeons toward robotic technologies in order to clarify 1) specific features that are driving appeal, 2) limiting factors that are acting as diffusion barriers, and 3) future needs. Electronic surveys were distributed to pediatric surgeons with personal experience or exposure in robotic surgery. Participants were classified as experts or nonexperts for subgroup analysis. Coded Likert scale responses were analyzed using the Friedman or Mann-Whitney test. A total of 48 responses were received (22 experts, 26 nonexperts), with 14 countries represented. The most highly rated benefits of robot assistance were wristed instruments, stereoscopic vision, and magnified view. The most highly rated limitations were capital outlay expense, instrument size, and consumables/maintenance expenses. Future technologies of greatest interest were microbots, image guidance, and flexible snake robots. Putative benefits and limitations of robotic surgery are perceived with widely varied weightings. Insight provided by these responses will inform relevant clinical, engineering, and industry groups such that unambiguous goals and priorities may be assigned for the future. Pediatric surgeons seem most receptive toward technology that is smaller, less expensive, more intelligent and flexible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Pathway for Advanced Learning: A Bilingual School Adopts the Advanced International Certificate of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvie, Martin A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of St. Hilda's College, a bilingual school in Buenos Aires, in introducing the new set of pre-university examinations offered by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate to replace the outmoded "A" level examination scheme. The Advanced International Certificate of Education curriculum should…

  17. India Needs International Standards in Accreditation Problems in Adoption and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper outlines in brief, need and importance of introducing global quality standards in accreditation, prescribed by the international agreement "Washington Accord". This agreement is initially provisional and after scrutiny, if found fit, it is upgraded to Signatory status. It is this status which empowers students of engineering,…

  18. The role of hospital payments in the adoption of new medical technologies: an international survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Corinna; Drummond, Michael; Torbica, Aleksandra; Callea, Giuditta; Mateus, Ceu

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of prospective payment systems in the adoption of new medical technologies across different countries. A literature review was conducted to provide background for the study and guide development of a survey instrument. The survey was disseminated to hospital payment systems experts in 15 jurisdictions. Fifty-one surveys were disseminated, with 34 returned. The surveys returned covered 14 of the 15 jurisdictions invited to participate. The majority (71%) of countries update the patient classification system and/or payment tariffs on an annual basis to try to account for new technologies. Use of short-term separate or supplementary payments for new technologies occurs in 79% of countries to ensure adequate funding and facilitate adoption. A minority (43%) of countries use evidence of therapeutic benefit and/or costs to determine or update payment tariffs, although it is somewhat more common in establishing short-term payments. The main barrier to using evidence is uncertain or unavailable clinical evidence. Almost three-fourths of respondents believed diagnosis-related group systems incentivize or deter technology adoption, depending on the particular circumstances. Improvements are needed, such as enhanced strategies for evidence generation and linking evidence of value to payments, national and international collaboration and training to improve existing practice, and flexible timelines for short-term payments. Importantly, additional research is needed to understand how different payment policies impact technology uptake as well as quality of care and costs.

  19. Correction of distortion in distressed mothers' ratings of their preschool-aged children's Internalizing and Externalizing scale score.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jörg Michael; Romer, Georg; Achtergarde, Sandra

    2014-01-30

    Increased maternal psychopathology may bias mothers' ratings about child psychopathology. In this study we examined whether internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in young children were biased through maternal psychopathology. The clinical sample comprised 247 preschool-age patients who attended the Family Day Hospital in Münster, Germany. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed by the CBCL/1.5-5, and maternal psychopathology was assessed by the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI). Three theoretical perspectives were tested by comparing the model fit of three structural equation models, namely the accuracy, distortion, and combinatory model. All of the models aimed to integrate multi-informant ratings from mother, therapists, and kindergarten teachers, but differed in the question which paths had to be significant. The distortion model fit the data best and supported the notion that there was a psychopathology-related bias in mothers' ratings. On the basis of this finding, we developed correction formulas comparable to Müller and Furniss (2013), in order to statistically control for this distortion. We discussed post-hoc explanations about why mothers with increased psychopathology gave higher ratings on the CBCL/1.5-5, including a better recall of internalizing symptoms, less flexible and effective parenting, and more perceived distress by child externalizing behavior. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. New Observations Testing the Adopted HIPPARCOS Link to the International Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Ronald C.

    1998-10-01

    This paper tests the Hipparcos link to the extragalactic reference frame by using new data obtained after the release of the catalog, thereby providing an external check on the accuracy of the established link process. The new data consist of 689 positions of Hipparcos stars determined in the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) from CCD observations taken with the Flagstaff Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope (FASTT). A comparison of the FASTT and Hipparcos catalog star positions observed in common finds that the axial rotations between the Hipparcos and ICRF reference frames are, respectively, (εx, εy, εz) = (-2.2+/-3.3, -2.2+/-3.3, 3.3+/-2.9) (s.e.) mas at epoch 1996.5. All of these rotations are small and insignificant with respect to their errors (εx and εy are less than 1 σ detections whereas εz is only a 1.1 σ detection). Hence, this paper finds that the Hipparcos link to the ICRF was well determined and is not seriously degrading with time.

  1. DEVELOPING THE NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM ADOPTION OF CKAN FOR DOMESTIC & INTERNATIONAL DATA DEPLOYMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Ryan J.; Kuhmuench, Christoph; Richard, Stephen M.

    2013-03-01

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) De- sign and Testing Team is developing NGDS software currently referred to as the “NGDS Node-In-A-Box”. The software targets organizations or individuals who wish to host at least one of the following: • an online repository containing resources for the NGDS; • an online site for creating metadata to register re- sources with the NGDS • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that enable access to NGDS data (e.g., WMS, WFS, WCS); • NDGS-conformant Web APIs that support dis- covery of NGDS resources via catalog service (e.g. CSW) • a web site that supports discovery and under- standing of NGDS resources A number of different frameworks for development of this online application were reviewed. The NGDS Design and Testing Team determined to use CKAN (http://ckan.org/), because it provides the closest match between out of the box functionality and NGDS node-in-a-box requirements. To achieve the NGDS vision and goals, this software development project has been inititated to provide NGDS data consumers with a highly functional inter- face to access the system, and to ease the burden on data providers who wish to publish data in the sys- tem. It is important to note that this software package constitutes a reference implementation. The NGDS software is based on open standards, which means other server software can make resources available, and other client applications can utilize NGDS data. A number of international organizations have ex- pressed interest in the NGDS approach to data access. The CKAN node implementation can provide a sim- ple path for deploying this technology in other set- tings.

  2. A clinical audit programme for diagnostic radiology: the approach adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K; Järvinen, H; Butler, P; McLean, I D; Pentecost, M; Rickard, M; Abdullah, B

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a mandate to assist member states in areas of human health and particularly in the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment. Clinical audit is seen as an essential tool to assist in assuring the quality of radiation medicine, particularly in the instance of multidisciplinary audit of diagnostic radiology. Consequently, an external clinical audit programme has been developed by the IAEA to examine the structure and processes existent at a clinical site, with the basic objectives of: (1) improvement in the quality of patient care; (2) promotion of the effective use of resources; (3) enhancement of the provision and organisation of clinical services; (4) further professional education and training. These objectives apply in four general areas of service delivery, namely quality management and infrastructure, patient procedures, technical procedures and education, training and research. In the IAEA approach, the audit process is initiated by a request from the centre seeking the audit. A three-member team, comprising a radiologist, medical physicist and radiographer, subsequently undertakes a 5-d audit visit to the clinical site to perform the audit and write the formal audit report. Preparation for the audit visit is crucial and involves the local clinical centre completing a form, which provides the audit team with information on the clinical centre. While all main aspects of clinical structure and process are examined, particular attention is paid to radiation-related activities as described in the relevant documents such as the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, the Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and related equipment and quality assurance documentation. It should be stressed, however, that the clinical audit does not have any regulatory function. The main purpose of the IAEA approach to clinical audit is one of promoting quality improvement and learning. This paper describes the background to

  3. Post-international adoption medical follow-up at the Angers university hospital between 2009 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Blanchi, S; Chabasse, D; Pichard, E; Darviot, E; de Gentile, L

    2014-02-01

    The authors had for aim to describe infectious diseases in internationally adopted child at arrival in France. We made a retrospective descriptive study of the children's files having undergone medical check-ups between 2009 and 2012. One hundred and eighty-two files were included: 80% of the children came from Africa, 15% from South America and the Caribbean, 3% from Asia, and 2% from Europe. Forty-three percent were diagnosed with tinea. HIV, hepatitis C, and syphilis blood tests were all negative. Six children presented with acute or chronic hepatitis B, another 5 children with acute hepatitis A. One blood test for cysticercosis was positive. Two children presented with malaria. 58% of the children carried an intestinal parasite; the most prevalent was Giardia duodenalis. Bacteriological stool culture was positive for 17 children, for 9 with an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Twenty-seven children had a positive virological stool culture, 2 for a poliovirus. A systematic infectious check-up should be performed for a child adopted internationally when he/she arrives in France. This allows diagnosing diseases requiring an emergency treatment, or asymptomatic but severe diseases when chronic. Some blood tests must be double-checked when the child arrives, because of possible false negative initial tests results in the country of origin. Screening, early treatment, and implementing prophylaxis can decrease the risk of transmission to relatives. It also allows monitoring the antimicrobial resistance of some pathogens and the reintroduction of the poliovirus in France. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... and condition) Neck: thyroid (enlargement secondary to hypothyroidism, iodine deficiency), lymph nodes Heart: murmurs Chest: symmetry, Tanner stage ... on the child’s country of origin or specific risk factors. These screens may include Chagas disease serologic tests, ...

  5. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 7 Traveling Safely with Infants & Children ...

  6. Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans with Immigrant/U.S.-Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.; Yun, Andrea Bora; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Nelson, Kim Park

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred and seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two groups. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans also had higher positive affect scores than international students. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with positive affect for all three groups (r’s = .27 – .34), but was negatively correlated with negative affect for international students (r = −.44). Overall, the results suggest that ethnic identity, although slightly lower than non-adopted peers, is relevant to the well-being of adopted Korean American college students. PMID:20694190

  7. An Analysis of the External Environmental and Internal Organizational Factors Associated with Adoption of the Electronic Health Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2013-01-01

    Despite a Presidential Order in 2004 that launched national incentives for the use of health information technology, specifically the Electronic Health Record (EHR), adoption of the EHR has been slow. This study attempts to quantify factors associated with adoption of the EHR and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) by combining multiple…

  8. An Analysis of the External Environmental and Internal Organizational Factors Associated with Adoption of the Electronic Health Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2013-01-01

    Despite a Presidential Order in 2004 that launched national incentives for the use of health information technology, specifically the Electronic Health Record (EHR), adoption of the EHR has been slow. This study attempts to quantify factors associated with adoption of the EHR and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) by combining multiple…

  9. Parents Making a Difference: International Research on the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Miriam, Ed.

    Begun in Israel in 1960, the HIPPY (Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters) program is a family support, parent-focused, early childhood literacy program. This book compiles 17 evaluation studies of the program, from researchers and practitioners in 7 countries. The studies are organized around five themes: exploring theoretical…

  10. Parents Making a Difference: International Research on the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westheimer, Miriam, Ed.

    Begun in Israel in 1960, the HIPPY (Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters) program is a family support, parent-focused, early childhood literacy program. This book compiles 17 evaluation studies of the program, from researchers and practitioners in 7 countries. The studies are organized around five themes: exploring theoretical…

  11. Technological Adoption and Organizational Adaptation: Developing a Model for Human Resource Management in an International Business Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.

    A model of technological training has two dimensions: level of cultural stability and employee's level of cognitive ability. Each dimension has two variables. The variables of cultural stability are (1) technological adoption and organizational adaptation and (2) structure of work and work processes. For cognitive ability, the variables are…

  12. Longitudinal Comparison of the Speech and Language Performance of United States-Born and Internationally Adopted Toddlers With Cleft Lip and Palate: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Nancy J; Baker, Shauna; Kaiser, Ann; Frey, Jennifer R

    2016-10-10

      This study compares the early speech and language development of children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with children born in the United States.   Prospective longitudinal description of early speech and language development between 18 and 36 months of age.   This study compares four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were adopted internationally with four children (age range = 19 to 38 months) with cleft palate with or without cleft lip who were born in the United States, matched for age, gender, and cleft type across three time points over 10 to 12 months.   Children's speech-language skills were analyzed using standardized tests, parent surveys, language samples, and single-word phonological assessments to determine differences between the groups.   The mean scores for the children in the internationally adopted group were lower than the group born in the United States at all three time points for expressive language and speech sound production measures. Examination of matched pairs demonstrated observable differences for two of the four pairs. No differences were observed in cognitive performance and receptive language measures.   The results suggest a cumulative effect of later palate repair and/or a variety of health and environmental factors associated with their early circumstances that persist to age 3 years. Early intervention to address the trajectory of speech and language is warranted. Given the findings from this small pilot study, a larger study of the long-term speech and language development of children who are internationally adopted and have cleft palate with or without cleft lip is recommended.

  13. Post-adoption depression among adoptive mothers.

    PubMed

    Senecky, Yehuda; Agassi, Hanoch; Inbar, Dov; Horesh, Netta; Diamond, Gary; Bergman, Yoav S; Apter, Alan

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the rate of depressive symptomatology and possible underlying factors in adoptive mothers during the transition to motherhood. Cohort survey. General Community. Thirty-nine adoptive mothers of reproductive age registered with international adoption agencies. All women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) before and 6 weeks after the adoption. Responses were compared between the study group and published findings for biological mothers in the general population, and within the study group, before and after adoption. Symptoms of depression were found in 15.4% of the study group. This rate was similar to that for postpartum depression in the general population, and lower than the rate recorded in the study group before adoption (25.6%). All women with symptoms of depression after the adoption had also shown evidence of depressive features before the adoption. Similar findings were noted for other psychopathologies as well. Adopting a child does not cause new-onset, reactive depression among adoptive mothers. It may even lead to a decrease in depressive features, perhaps in response to relief from other adjustment difficulties.

  14. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  15. Balancing personal and family trajectories: an international study of dual-earner couples with pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wendy A; Callery, Peter

    2003-05-01

    In general, the nursing literature neglects healthy families and depictions of families are dominated by systems and developmental theory. The preponderance of dual-earner families has changed the meaning of family, however, nurses have given minimal attention to how women and men attend to work and home. Balancing personal and family trajectories is a substantive theory that accounts for how Canadian and English couples with pre-school children managed work and family life. The theory describes their efforts to maximize personal and family development, by using processes that attempted to support and sustain individual and family health, happiness, and fulfillment.

  16. Adopting an International Innovation for Teacher Professional Development: State and District Approaches to Lesson Study in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Wilkinson, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The state of Florida has taken an unprecedented approach to teacher professional development in its Race to the Top (RTTT) Program application by proposing to promote an international innovation that originates in Japan, "lesson study," as a statewide teacher professional development model. Since winning the US$700 million RTTT funding…

  17. Adopting an International Innovation for Teacher Professional Development: State and District Approaches to Lesson Study in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Wilkinson, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The state of Florida has taken an unprecedented approach to teacher professional development in its Race to the Top (RTTT) Program application by proposing to promote an international innovation that originates in Japan, "lesson study," as a statewide teacher professional development model. Since winning the US$700 million RTTT funding…

  18. Transdiagnostic Factors and Pathways to Multifinality: The Error-Related Negativity Predicts Whether Preschool Irritability is Associated with Internalizing Versus Externalizing Symptoms at Age 9

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, Ellen M.; Meyer, Alexandria; Hajcak, Greg; Dougherty, Lea R.; Torpey-Newman, Dana C.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest among developmental psychopathologists in broad transdiagnostic factors that give rise to a wide array of clinical presentations (multifinality), but little is known about how these processes lead to particular psychopathological manifestations over the course of development. We examined whether individual differences in the error related negativity (ΔERN), a neural indicator of error monitoring, predicts whether early persistent irritability—a prototypical transdiagnostic construct— is associated with later internalizing versus externalizing outcomes. When children were 3 years old, mothers were interviewed about children’s persistent irritability and completed questionnaires about their children’s psychopathology. Three years later, EEG was recorded while children performed a go/no-go task to measure the ΔERN. When children were approximately 9 years old, mothers again completed questionnaires about their children’s psychopathology. Results indicated that among children who were persistently irritable at age 3, an enhanced or more negative ΔERN at age 6 predicted the development of internalizing symptoms at age 9, whereas a blunted or smaller ΔERN at age 6 predicted the development of externalizing symptoms. Our results suggest that variation in error monitoring predicts, and may even shape, the expression of persistent irritability and differentiates developmental trajectories from preschool persistent irritability to internalizing versus externalizing outcomes in middle-late childhood. PMID:27739383

  19. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  20. Continuous Improvement in State Funded Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    State funded preschool programs were constantly faced with the need to change in order to address internal and external demands. As programs engaged in efforts towards change, minimal research was available on how to support continuous improvement efforts within the context unique to state funded preschool programs. Guidance available had…

  1. The Universal and the National in Preschool Education. Papers from the OMEP International Seminar (Moscow, Russia, December 4-7, 1991). YCF Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation Mondiale Pour l'Education Prescolaire, Warsaw (Poland).

    This collection of 27 brief essays focuses on universal aspects of childhood and early childhood education, education for peace, model early childhood programs, and the development of children's thinking and creativity skills. The essays are: (1) "The Universal and the National in Preschool Education (Goutard); (2) "Preschool Childhood:…

  2. How Taiwanese Preschool Educators View Play and Apply It in Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Yen

    2017-01-01

    In this research I investigated the views preschool educators in Taiwan on play and the role of play in the curriculum. Adopting a qualitative methodology, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 educators at preschools affiliated with elementary schools. The results indicate that preschool educators generally agree that, in addition to…

  3. Sustainability of a Preschool Curriculum: What Encourages Continued Use among Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Joan; Butera, Gretchen; Hanson, Marci; Palmer, Susan; Horn, Eva; Czaja, Carol

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has defined the characteristics of a quality preschool curriculum. However, less is understood about the sustainability of implementation once a preschool curriculum has been adopted. Using a qualitative methodology, we focused on factors associated with preschool teachers' continuing use of a research-based curriculum…

  4. A "Globalised" Curriculum--International Comparative Practices and the Preschool Child as a Site of Economic Optimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation is often referred to as being external to education--a state of affairs presenting the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this article, "globalisation" is examined as something that is internal to curriculum and analysed as a "problematisation" in a Foucaultian sense, that is, as a complex of…

  5. A "Globalised" Curriculum--International Comparative Practices and the Preschool Child as a Site of Economic Optimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation is often referred to as being external to education--a state of affairs presenting the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this article, "globalisation" is examined as something that is internal to curriculum and analysed as a "problematisation" in a Foucaultian sense, that is, as a complex of…

  6. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population.

    PubMed

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R A

    2016-01-01

    New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21-74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values.

  7. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values. PMID:27608270

  8. Empirically evaluating the WHO global code of practice on the international recruitment of health personnel's impact on four high-income countries four years after adoption.

    PubMed

    Tam, Vivian; Edge, Jennifer S; Hoffman, Steven J

    2016-10-12

    Shortages of health workers in low-income countries are exacerbated by the international migration of health workers to more affluent countries. This problem is compounded by the active recruitment of health workers by destination countries, particularly Australia, Canada, UK and USA. The World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a voluntary Code of Practice in May 2010 to mitigate tensions between health workers' right to migrate and the shortage of health workers in source countries. The first empirical impact evaluation of this Code was conducted 11-months after its adoption and demonstrated a lack of impact on health workforce recruitment policy and practice in the short-term. This second empirical impact evaluation was conducted 4-years post-adoption using the same methodology to determine whether there have been any changes in the perceived utility, applicability, and implementation of the Code in the medium-term. Forty-four respondents representing government, civil society and the private sector from Australia, Canada, UK and USA completed an email-based survey evaluating their awareness of the Code, perceived impact, changes to policy or recruitment practices resulting from the Code, and the effectiveness of non-binding Codes generally. The same survey instrument from the original study was used to facilitate direct comparability of responses. Key lessons were identified through thematic analysis. The main findings between the initial impact evaluation and the current one are unchanged. Both sets of key informants reported no significant policy or regulatory changes to health worker recruitment in their countries as a direct result of the Code due to its lack of incentives, institutional mechanisms and interest mobilizers. Participants emphasized the existence of previous bilateral and regional Codes, the WHO Code's non-binding nature, and the primacy of competing domestic healthcare priorities in explaining this perceived lack of impact. The Code has

  9. PRESCHOOL GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURTIS, MYRTLE; AND OTHERS

    THE CURRICULUM AND MATERIALS DESIRED IN A PRESCHOOL ARE PRESENTED IN THIS GUIDEBOOK, AS WELL AS A DISCUSSION OF THE EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES WHICH SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN PROGRAMS FOR 2-, 3-, 4-, OR 5-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN. THE AUTHORS PROVIDE SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS OF LEARNING EQUIPMENT, INCLUDING THE NECESSARY BUILDING, HOUSEKEEPING, AND TRANSPORTATION.…

  10. The Elevation of Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine to the Status of an International Journal After Adopting an English-Only Policy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To use bibliometric analyses to determine whether Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine (hereafter also referred to as Annals) became an international journal after adopting an English-only policy in 2011. Methods Articles from the third issue of 2011 to the third issue of 2015 were analyzed according to the following parameters: whether the research was supported by funding, country of authorship, impact factor, total citations, the countries of researchers who cited Annals; the journals that cited Annals; and the Hirsch index. Results One hundred twenty-eight (34.2%) of the 374 original articles were supported by research funds. The main authors were from Korea (550/556, 98.9%), the USA (3), Iran (2), Japan (1), Turkey (1), and the United Kingdom (1). The manually calculated impact factors in 2013 and 2014 were 0.582 and 0.667, respectively. The total annual citations from years 2012 to 2015 were 15, 130, 252, and 189, respectively. The countries of residence of the main authors who cited Annals were the USA (146), Korea (89), and China (49). The journals that cited Annals most frequently were the Journal of Physical Therapy (34), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (15), and Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (13). The Hirsch index was 9. Conclusion The above results demonstrate that the change of the language policy of Annals to English-only was successful in elevating the journal to the international level. The journal's aim of sharing up-to-date knowledge dedicated to advancing the care of the disabled and enhancing their everyday abilities and quality of life has been satisfactorily realized. PMID:26605163

  11. The Elevation of Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine to the Status of an International Journal After Adopting an English-Only Policy.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2015-10-01

    To use bibliometric analyses to determine whether Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine (hereafter also referred to as Annals) became an international journal after adopting an English-only policy in 2011. Articles from the third issue of 2011 to the third issue of 2015 were analyzed according to the following parameters: whether the research was supported by funding, country of authorship, impact factor, total citations, the countries of researchers who cited Annals; the journals that cited Annals; and the Hirsch index. One hundred twenty-eight (34.2%) of the 374 original articles were supported by research funds. The main authors were from Korea (550/556, 98.9%), the USA (3), Iran (2), Japan (1), Turkey (1), and the United Kingdom (1). The manually calculated impact factors in 2013 and 2014 were 0.582 and 0.667, respectively. The total annual citations from years 2012 to 2015 were 15, 130, 252, and 189, respectively. The countries of residence of the main authors who cited Annals were the USA (146), Korea (89), and China (49). The journals that cited Annals most frequently were the Journal of Physical Therapy (34), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (15), and Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (13). The Hirsch index was 9. The above results demonstrate that the change of the language policy of Annals to English-only was successful in elevating the journal to the international level. The journal's aim of sharing up-to-date knowledge dedicated to advancing the care of the disabled and enhancing their everyday abilities and quality of life has been satisfactorily realized.

  12. Embracing Languages and Cultures in the Magic Preschool, Moscow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsi, Tunde

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the approaches and strategies for culturally and linguistically responsive early education in an international preschool in Moscow, Russia. This international preschool, enrolling children from Russia, the United States, Germany, Italy, Israel, Argentina, Brazil, Sweden, and Japan, provides a multilingual and…

  13. Antibody responses to allergen Lol pIV are suppressed following adoptive transfer of B lymphocytes from the internal image anti-idiotypic antibody-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-10-01

    An internal image anti-idiotypic antibody, designated B1/1, was generated against an idiotope (Id91) of the monoclonal antibody (mAb91) specific for Lol pIV. The administration of B1/1 in PBS, at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms/mouse, to syngeneic Balb/c mice resulted in the suppression of the formation of anti-Lol pIV antibodies that possessed the Id91. Spleen cells obtained from the mice 2 weeks after the treatment with B1/1 (25 micrograms/mouse) were adoptively transferred intravenously into the syngeneic recipients which were challenged intraperitoneally with Lol pIV in alum 2 hr after the transfer. The recipients were boosted with Lol pIV 14 days later. It was demonstrated that the transfer of splenic B cells (but not of T cells) from B1/1-treated donors induced a significant suppression of not only the level of IgE and IgG antibodies to Lol pIV, but also the level of antibodies possessing the Id91. Treatment of the B cells with mAb91 plus complement abrogated their ability to transfer the suppression. This study indicates that the treatment with the anti-Id B1/1 generated B cells that were characterized, serologically, as possessing the anti-Id-like antibodies on their surface and were responsible for transferring the suppression of the formation of antibodies to allergen Lol pIV and the expression of Id91.

  14. International Conference of States with a View to Adoption of the Regional Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok, Thailand, December 12-16, 1983). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).

    Proceedings of a 1983 International Conference of states sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) are presented. The focus was the adoption of the Regional Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas, and Degrees in Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific. Emphasis was placed on the…

  15. It's never too early - planetary and space science for preschoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnabend, G.; Bergatt-Ast, C.

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, public outreach has become an integral part of scientific work. Inspired by the 2009 International Year of Astronomy I introduced a yearly "week of planets" in my kids' preschool. Based on some existing material and together with one of the preschool teachers we developed a two hour program for the 5-6 year old preschoolers including an informational part and hands-on activities.

  16. Physical activity in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; O’Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children’s physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. METHODS We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School) and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. RESULTS Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr), MVPA (7.7 vs. 6.5 min/hr) and total PA (15.4 vs. 13.0 min/hr) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 vs. 6.2 min/hr) and All Day (8.5 vs. 7.6 min/hr), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 vs. 7.0 min/hr; 8.1 vs. 6.7 min/hr; 16.1 vs. 13.6 min/hr, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children. PMID:25274171

  17. Physical activity in preschool children: comparison between Montessori and traditional preschools.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by accelerometry on weekdays during preschool (In-School), non-school (Non-School), and all day (All Day). Minutes/hour of light, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), and total PA (light + MVPA) were calculated. Children attending Montessori preschools accumulated more In-School light (7.7 vs. 6.5 minute/hour), MVPA (7.7 versus 6.5 minute/hour), and total PA (15.4 versus 13.0 minute/hour) than children attending traditional preschools, after adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parent education and neighborhood poverty index. For Non-School (8.5 versus 6.2 minute/hour) and All Day (8.5 versus 7.6 minute/hour), children in Montessori preschools accumulated more MVPA than children in traditional preschools. In-School PA was higher for children in private Montessori than public Montessori preschools (8.1 versus 7.0 minute/hour; 8.1 versus 6.7 minute/hour; 16.1 versus 13.6 minute/hour, for light, MVPA, and total PA, respectively). Children attending Montessori preschools were more active than children attending traditional preschools. Adopting the Montessori system may be an important strategy for promoting PA in children. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  18. 76 FR 68613 - National Adoption Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8744 of November 1, 2011 National Adoption Month, 2011 By the President of... basic support, and still more children abroad live without families. During National Adoption Month, we... National Adoption Month, I signed the International Adoption Simplification Act, which removed...

  19. Infectious diseases prevalence, vaccination coverage, and diagnostic challenges in a population of internationally adopted children referred to a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Sollai, Sara; Ghetti, Francesca; Bianchi, Leila; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa; Chiappini, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases are common in internationally adopted children (IAC).With the objective to evaluate infectious diseases prevalence in a large cohort of IAC and to explore possible risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and parasitic infections, clinical and laboratory data at first screening visit of all IAC (<18 years) consecutively referred to our Center in 2009 to 2015 were collected and analyzed.In total, 1612 children (median age: 5.40 years; interquartile range: 3.00-7.90) were enrolled, 123/1612 (7.60%) having medical conditions included in the special needs definition. The most frequent cutaneous infections were Molluscum contagiosum (42/1612; 2.60%) and Tinea capitis (37/1612; 2.30%). Viral hepatitis prevalence was <1% (hepatitis B virus [HBV]: 13 children, 0.80%; hepatitis C virus: 1 child, 0.10%; hepatitis A virus: 6 children, 0.40%). A parasitic infection was diagnosed in 372/1612 (23.10%) children. No risk factors for parasitosis were evidenced. Active TB was diagnosed in 4/1355 (0.3%) children, latent TB in 222/1355 (16.40%). Only 3.7% (51/1355) children had concordant positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) results. Risk factors for TST+/QFT-G-IT- results were previous Bacille de Calmette-Guérin vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.18; 96% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-3.79; P = 0.006), and age ≥5 years (aOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.06-2.11; P = 0.02). The proportion of children with nonprotective titers for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) ranged from 15.70% (208/1323) for tetanus to 35.10% (469/1337) for HBV.Infectious diseases were commonly observed in our cohort. The high rate of discordant TST/QFT-G results brings up questions regarding the optimal management of these children, and suggests that, at least in children older than 5 years, only QFT-G-IT results may be reliable. The low proportion of children protected for VPD, confirms importance of a timely screening.

  20. Infectious diseases prevalence, vaccination coverage, and diagnostic challenges in a population of internationally adopted children referred to a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Sollai, Sara; Ghetti, Francesca; Bianchi, Leila; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa; Chiappini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Infectious diseases are common in internationally adopted children (IAC). With the objective to evaluate infectious diseases prevalence in a large cohort of IAC and to explore possible risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and parasitic infections, clinical and laboratory data at first screening visit of all IAC (<18 years) consecutively referred to our Center in 2009 to 2015 were collected and analyzed. In total, 1612 children (median age: 5.40 years; interquartile range: 3.00–7.90) were enrolled, 123/1612 (7.60%) having medical conditions included in the special needs definition. The most frequent cutaneous infections were Molluscum contagiosum (42/1612; 2.60%) and Tinea capitis (37/1612; 2.30%). Viral hepatitis prevalence was <1% (hepatitis B virus [HBV]: 13 children, 0.80%; hepatitis C virus: 1 child, 0.10%; hepatitis A virus: 6 children, 0.40%). A parasitic infection was diagnosed in 372/1612 (23.10%) children. No risk factors for parasitosis were evidenced. Active TB was diagnosed in 4/1355 (0.3%) children, latent TB in 222/1355 (16.40%). Only 3.7% (51/1355) children had concordant positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) results. Risk factors for TST+/QFT-G-IT− results were previous Bacille de Calmette-Guérin vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.18; 96% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26–3.79; P = 0.006), and age ≥5 years (aOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.06–2.11; P = 0.02). The proportion of children with nonprotective titers for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) ranged from 15.70% (208/1323) for tetanus to 35.10% (469/1337) for HBV. Infectious diseases were commonly observed in our cohort. The high rate of discordant TST/QFT-G results brings up questions regarding the optimal management of these children, and suggests that, at least in children older than 5 years, only QFT-G-IT results may be reliable. The low proportion of children protected for VPD, confirms importance of a timely screening. PMID

  1. Effects of Type of Preschool Experience and Socioeconomic Class on Academic Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mark W.

    Four experiments were designed to identify socioeconomic differences in preschool locus of control, develop a measurement technique for differentiating between internal and external locus of control in preschoolers, and study the effect of four kinds of preschool programs on locus of control. During the first experiment, the Stephens-Delys…

  2. Preschool as an Arena for Developing Teacher Knowledge Concerning Children's Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Sonja; Gjems, Liv

    2017-01-01

    The most important benefits of international comparisons are the indications that make hidden national characteristics visible and shed new light on the system in each country. From a comparative perspective, this article explores what Swedish and Norwegian preschool teachers emphasise as important to preschool student teachers about preschool as…

  3. Trends in Pre-School Enrolment in Turkey: Unequal Access and Differential Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agirdag, Orhan; Yazici, Zeliha; Sierens, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a historical and international analysis of early childhood education in Turkey is made. More specifically, we explore the trend in pre-school enrolment, compare Turkey's enrolment rate with other countries, study whether access to pre-school is related to social class and gender, and investigate the impact of pre-school attendance…

  4. Trends in Pre-School Enrolment in Turkey: Unequal Access and Differential Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agirdag, Orhan; Yazici, Zeliha; Sierens, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a historical and international analysis of early childhood education in Turkey is made. More specifically, we explore the trend in pre-school enrolment, compare Turkey's enrolment rate with other countries, study whether access to pre-school is related to social class and gender, and investigate the impact of pre-school attendance…

  5. Pre-School Education: Report from Five Research Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This booklet, presenting a discussion of five experimental preschool programs, resulted from an international forum sponsored by the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) for the leaders of these programs. The forum developed from a concern for the long range effectiveness of preschool education or intervention. The five programs…

  6. Pittsburgh Area Preschool Association Publication: Selected Articles (Volume 8, No. 1-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.

    This compilation of short reports distributed to preschool teachers in the Pittsburgh area covers four main topics: (1) Adoption (2) Expressive Art Therapy, (3) The Infant, and (4) Learning Disorders in Young Children. The adoption section includes reports pertaining to the adoption process in Pennsylvania, adoptive parents' legal rights, medical…

  7. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  8. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  9. Preschool Behavioral Classification Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Robert P.

    Children who are referred to mental health clinics in the preschool years pose problems for diagnosticians because of the lack of standardized instruments for assessing personality and measuring behavior of preschoolers. In response to this problem, the Children's Behavioral Classification Project has been extended into the preschool years and the…

  10. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler Print A A A What's ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  11. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleep and Your Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Your Preschooler A A A What's in ... Preschoolers need about 11 to 12 hours of sleep each day, which can include a nap. There's ...

  12. Preschool Staff's View of Emergent Literacy Approaches in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norling, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate preschool staff's view of emergent literacy approaches in Swedish preschools with the following research question: How do preschool staff describe and explain the approaches they use in the emergent literacy environment of preschool? Focus-group interviews were conducted with 52 participating preschool units.…

  13. Preschool Science Environment: What Is Available in a Preschool Classroom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Tsunghui

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated preschool science environments in 20 preschool classrooms (N=20) in 13 midwestern child care centers. By operationalizing Neuman's concept of "sciencing," this study used The Preschool Classroom Science Materials/Equipment Checklist, the Preschool Classroom Science Activities Checklist, and the Preschool Teacher…

  14. Adoption Activities on the Internet: A Call for Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; White, Holly

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents,…

  15. Adoption Activities on the Internet: A Call for Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Jini L.; White, Holly

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents,…

  16. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  17. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  18. Parents’ Feelings Towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent–child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child of the couple, and tested whether the links between parent feelings and child maladjustment included effects of passive gene–environment correlation. Parents reported more negativity and less positivity as well as higher levels of externalizing behaviour for the adopted child compared to the non-adopted child, although effect sizes were small and no longer statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Fathers and mothers did not differ significantly in their reports of positive and negative feelings towards their children or in regard to child externalizing and internalizing behaviours. The correlations between parental negativity and positivity and child externalizing and internalizing were similar for fathers and mothers, and for adopted and non-adopted children. The findings suggest similar parent–child relationship processes for fathers and mothers, and that genetic transmission of behaviour from parent to child does not account for the association between parental warmth and hostility and child-adjustment problems. PMID:21088705

  19. Disentangling the Effects of Cognitive Development and Linguistic Expertise: A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of English in Internationally-Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedeker, Jesse; Geren, Joy; Shafto, Carissa L.

    2012-01-01

    Early language development is characterized by predictable changes in the words children produce and the complexity of their utterances. In infants, these changes could reflect increasing linguistic expertise or cognitive maturation and development. To disentangle these factors, we compared the acquisition of English in internationally-adopted…

  20. Use of a Noncycloplegic Autorefractor to Perform Vision Screening in Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Noreen; Shacks, Janice; Kerr, Amanda R. E.; Bottrell, Christine L.; Poulsen, Marie Kanne; Yin, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of vision disorders in children are important to avoid lifelong visual impairment; however, preschool vision-screening rates are low. Traditional methods of screening lack the precision of objective tests and are difficult to administer in preschoolers. This study adopted a method using school nurses to conduct vision…

  1. A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

    2012-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…

  2. Professional Role and Identity of Icelandic Preschool Teachers: Effects of Stakeholders' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jónsdóttir, Arna H.; Coleman, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the reality of Icelandic preschool teachers who are, as in most other countries, predominantly female. The gendered nature of the role and the current identity adopted by preschool teachers appear to impact on their perceived status and professionalism. In this process, stakeholders in early childhood education (ECE),…

  3. Use of a Noncycloplegic Autorefractor to Perform Vision Screening in Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Noreen; Shacks, Janice; Kerr, Amanda R. E.; Bottrell, Christine L.; Poulsen, Marie Kanne; Yin, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of vision disorders in children are important to avoid lifelong visual impairment; however, preschool vision-screening rates are low. Traditional methods of screening lack the precision of objective tests and are difficult to administer in preschoolers. This study adopted a method using school nurses to conduct vision…

  4. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  5. A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

    2012-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…

  6. International Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Donald A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue begins with a conceptual introduction to economic specialization, exports and imports, and the importance of international trade. Four instructional units follow this introduction, beginning with a preschool and kindergarten unit called "Traders and Travelers," which involves young students in five activities that illustrate…

  7. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play ... Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text ...

  8. Tell Me Lies: Confronting the Preschool Closet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Travis

    2011-01-01

    This case explores the impact of being closeted on a gay, male preschool educator and the ways in which homophobic culture is fostered in one early learning center. Although sometimes protective, being challenged to hide one's sexual orientation most always has negative consequences for the individual and society. Internalized homophobia silences…

  9. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  10. Tell Me Lies: Confronting the Preschool Closet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Travis

    2011-01-01

    This case explores the impact of being closeted on a gay, male preschool educator and the ways in which homophobic culture is fostered in one early learning center. Although sometimes protective, being challenged to hide one's sexual orientation most always has negative consequences for the individual and society. Internalized homophobia silences…

  11. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  12. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption,…

  13. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption,…

  14. Relations between Preschool Attention Span-Persistence and Age 25 Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Piccinin, Andrea; Rhea, Sally Ann; Stallings, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations between children's attention span-persistence in preschool and later school achievement and college completion. Children were drawn from the Colorado Adoption Project using adopted and non-adopted children (N = 430). Results of structural equation modeling indicated that children's age 4 attention span-persistence…

  15. Relations between Preschool Attention Span-Persistence and Age 25 Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Megan M.; Acock, Alan C.; Piccinin, Andrea; Rhea, Sally Ann; Stallings, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations between children's attention span-persistence in preschool and later school achievement and college completion. Children were drawn from the Colorado Adoption Project using adopted and non-adopted children (N = 430). Results of structural equation modeling indicated that children's age 4 attention span-persistence…

  16. Swedish Preschool Teachers' Ideas of the Ideal Preschool Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Hellman, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool has been noted as being of a high quality compared to many other countries. However, dramatic changes in the preschool sector are taking place. A recent law states that it is a child's right to get a preschool place within a few months. As a consequence, the number of children in preschool has increased, which could influence…

  17. Swedish Preschool Teachers' Ideas of the Ideal Preschool Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid; Williams, Pia; Sheridan, Sonja; Hellman, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, preschool has been noted as being of a high quality compared to many other countries. However, dramatic changes in the preschool sector are taking place. A recent law states that it is a child's right to get a preschool place within a few months. As a consequence, the number of children in preschool has increased, which could influence…

  18. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  19. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  20. Assessing Preschoolers' Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    There are 11 behavioral dimensions which parents and preschool teachers can use in assessing the development of preschool children. These dimensions are: (1) sleeping; (2) eating; (3) toilet habits; (4) range of affect or emotion; (5) variations in play; (6) curiosity; (7) acceptance of authority; (8) initiative; (9) interest; (10) spontaneous…

  1. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Raising a Fit Preschooler KidsHealth > For Parents > Raising a Fit Preschooler Print A A A What's in this article? Helping Kids Learn New Skills How Much Activity Is Enough? Structured Play Unstructured ...

  2. Injuries in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

  3. Facilitating Preschool Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Robin, Ed.

    This collection, with contributors from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, addresses three important themes in the literacy learning of preschool children: children are active constructors of their own learning; families provide invaluable support in the early literacy learning of children; and preschool settings should reflect…

  4. Injuries in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

  5. Preschool Nutrition Education Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Nutrition Education, Berkeley, CA.

    Sixteen articles relating to preschool nutrition education programs, food habits and nutrient intake of preschoolers, parent education, and training of day care personnel are included in this monograph. Also included are more than fifty evaluative reviews and abstracts of articles, books, pamphlets, and audiovisuals useful as resources and/or…

  6. Facilitating Preschool Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Robin, Ed.

    This collection, with contributors from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, addresses three important themes in the literacy learning of preschool children: children are active constructors of their own learning; families provide invaluable support in the early literacy learning of children; and preschool settings should reflect…

  7. American Preschoolers on Ritalin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the controversial use of Ritalin among preschool children, examining research from two studies: "Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" and "Preschool ADHD Treatment Study." Examines issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and concludes by examining the influence of the human…

  8. Preschool Nutrition Education Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Nutrition Education, Berkeley, CA.

    Sixteen articles relating to preschool nutrition education programs, food habits and nutrient intake of preschoolers, parent education, and training of day care personnel are included in this monograph. Also included are more than fifty evaluative reviews and abstracts of articles, books, pamphlets, and audiovisuals useful as resources and/or…

  9. PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GETZELS, J.W.

    THESE ISSUES SHOULD BE DISCUSSED AND RESOLVED BEFORE A LARGE-SCALE INTRODUCTION OF PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN--(1) THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL-RELATED ABILITIES. NUMEROUS STUDIES ATTEST TO THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PRESCHOOL YEARS IN ESTABLISHING THE BASIC SKILLS ESSENTIAL TO SUCCESS IN…

  10. American Preschoolers on Ritalin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the controversial use of Ritalin among preschool children, examining research from two studies: "Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" and "Preschool ADHD Treatment Study." Examines issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and concludes by examining the influence of the human…

  11. International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1979-01-01

    The International Geological Correlation Project has attained scientific maturity and broad support and participation by geologists world wide. Its purpose is to provide a mechanism for international cooperation and information exchange about geological problems that transcend national boundaries. (Author/BB)

  12. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  13. Cultural Tourism in Transnational Adoption: "Staged Authenticity" and Its Implications for Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Pamela Anne

    2012-01-01

    The discursive practices of adoptive parents in two online transnational adoption forums (2006-2008) and observations of five international adoption workshops suggest that what Heather Jacobson described as "culture keeping", the cultural socialization of children that retains a sense of native group identity, is more aptly characterized as…

  14. Skin Color in Transracial and Inracial Adoptive Placements: Implications for Special Needs Adoptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRoy, Ruth G.; Grape, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Explores interview excerpts of African-American adults adopted either transracially or interracially to discuss implications of color for special-needs adoptions. Finds that the issue of color extends beyond racial differences to include skin tone and that children are aware of and internalize color at an early age. Suggests that adoption agencies…

  15. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Foster Care: Every Time, with Every Caregiver Foster & Adopted Children with FASDs Foster Parenting Foster Parents: FAQs Foster or Adopted Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused Health Needs of ...

  16. What's Happening in Adoption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula M.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews current issues in adoption: termination of parental rights, rights of unwed fathers, subsidized adoption, the recent influx of Vietnamese children, black market babies, agency accountability in placing children, the right of the adoptee to know his biological parents. (ED)

  17. Smart School Snacks: A Comprehensive Preschool Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernath, Penny; Masi, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    By adopting the Smart School Snacks program, administrators and teachers at the Nova Southeastern University (NSU) preschool center have prompted a healthy change in attitude about snacks. Simple healthy snacks have become the norm at the center and are welcomed by children and families alike. Family involvement is a critical part of the program.…

  18. Preschool Principal's Curriculum Leadership Indicators: A Taiwan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Fen; Lee, John Chi-Kin

    2013-01-01

    The role of a principal's curriculum leadership has become an educational issue in Taiwan's early childhood education. This study represents a pioneering attempt in adopting a target school interview, fuzzy Delphi, and analytic hierarchy process for constructing preschool principal's curriculum leadership indicators. Fifteen experts and…

  19. Smart School Snacks: A Comprehensive Preschool Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernath, Penny; Masi, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    By adopting the Smart School Snacks program, administrators and teachers at the Nova Southeastern University (NSU) preschool center have prompted a healthy change in attitude about snacks. Simple healthy snacks have become the norm at the center and are welcomed by children and families alike. Family involvement is a critical part of the program.…

  20. Preschool Principal's Curriculum Leadership Indicators: A Taiwan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Fen; Lee, John Chi-Kin

    2013-01-01

    The role of a principal's curriculum leadership has become an educational issue in Taiwan's early childhood education. This study represents a pioneering attempt in adopting a target school interview, fuzzy Delphi, and analytic hierarchy process for constructing preschool principal's curriculum leadership indicators. Fifteen experts and…

  1. Executive Function in Preschoolers: A Review Using an Integrative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garon, Nancy; Bryson, Susan E.; Smith, Isabel M.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 2 decades, major advances have been made in understanding the development of executive functions (EFs) in early childhood. This article reviews the EF literature during the preschool period using an integrative framework. The framework adopted considers EF to be a unitary construct with partially dissociable components (A. Miyake…

  2. Executive Function in Preschoolers: A Review Using an Integrative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garon, Nancy; Bryson, Susan E.; Smith, Isabel M.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 2 decades, major advances have been made in understanding the development of executive functions (EFs) in early childhood. This article reviews the EF literature during the preschool period using an integrative framework. The framework adopted considers EF to be a unitary construct with partially dissociable components (A. Miyake…

  3. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  4. Thinking About Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... happen within 2 to 3 years. Adopting a child from foster care may not take quite as long, but ... offer pre-adoptive training for prospective parents. For children who are adopted from foster care, there may be mandatory certification or training. ...

  5. Textbook Evaluation and Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marcy; Stuen, Carol; Carnine, Douglas; Long, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Encourages educators to carefully examine the textbook adoption process, especially the way in which adoption committees evaluate and select instructional materials. Reviews the available research literature on the textbook adoption process and includes recommendations for improving the process. Discusses guidelines for designing evaluation…

  6. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  7. Healthy depictions? Depicting adoption and adoption news events on broadcast news.

    PubMed

    Kline, Susan L; Chatterjee, Karishma; Karel, Amanda I

    2009-01-01

    Given that the public uses the media to learn about adoption as a family form, this study analyzes U.S. television news coverage of adoption between 2001 and 2005 (N = 309 stories), to identify the types of news events covered about adoption. A majority of news stories covered fraud, crime, legal disputes, and negative international adoption cases. Adoptees as defective or unhealthy were depicted more in negative news event stories, birth parents appeared less overall, and adoptive parents were most likely to have healthy depictions in positively oriented adoption experience, big family, and reunion stories. Although three quarters of the stories used primary adoption participants as news sources, one-third of the negative event stories did not contain healthy depictions of adoption participants. The authors discuss ways journalists and researchers might improve adoption news coverage.

  8. Infectious disease issues in adoption of young children.

    PubMed

    Ampofo, Krow

    2013-02-01

    To provide an update and overview of infectious disease issues in children of international adoption. International adoption by US families has decreased since 2004. Countries from where children are adopted have changed by 2011, with Ethiopia the second largest contributor of international adoptees after China. Since 2003, international adoptees are older, as fewer young children (<1 year of age) have been available for adoption. Although children are declared healthy in their home countries, medical disorders are often missed or become apparent after adoption. Comprehensive evaluations by providers in the USA after adoption frequently identify unsuspected medical disorders, infections, as well as delayed or incomplete vaccination in these recently adopted children. Early identification of infections allows treatment of potential communicable diseases and updating of immunizations. All international adoptees on arrival in the USA should be evaluated by a health practitioner knowledgeable in adoption medicine to identify medical problems, especially infections.

  9. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  10. The Danish Adoption Register.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-07-01

    The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia. The register encompass information on all 14,425 non-familial adoptions of Danish children legally granted in Denmark 1924-1947. It includes name and date of birth of each adoptee and his or her biological and adoptive parents, date of transfer to adoptive parents and date of formal adoption. The linkage to biological and adoptive parents is close to complete, even biological fathers are registered for 91.4% of the adoptees. Adoption registers are a unique source allowing disentangling of genetic and familial environmental influences on traits, risk of diseases, and mortality.

  11. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  12. Raising a Fit Preschooler

    MedlinePlus

    ... than when they were toddlers. Instead of just running around in the backyard, a preschooler has the ... on helping kids gain basic physical skills, like running, and fundamental social skills, like following rules and ...

  13. Chair Inserts for Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Eva; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The article provides detailed procedures (with diagrams) for constructing cardboard chair inserts to meet the needs of preschool children with minimal to severe physical limitations. The inserts offer reduced expense and increased flexibility allowing a customized fit. (DB)

  14. International Adoption Harmonization Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lofgren, Zoe [D-CA-16

    2010-06-15

    07/21/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. International Adoption Harmonization Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lofgren, Zoe [D-CA-16

    2010-06-15

    Senate - 07/21/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. International Adoption Harmonization Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lofgren, Zoe [D-CA-16

    2010-06-15

    07/21/2010 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Use of the Teacher Version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with German and American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew; Strand, Paul S.; Heinrichs, Nina; Cerna, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study evaluated the utility of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a teacher-report measure of internalizing and externalizing problems in preschool-age children. Participants included preschoolers drawn from Germany and the United States, with the American sample composed of both English-speaking…

  18. Screening for Autism in Iranian Preschoolers: Contrasting M-CHAT and a Scale Developed in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; McConkey, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Suitable screening instruments for the early diagnosis of autism are not readily available for use with preschoolers in non-Western countries. This study evaluated two tools: M-CHAT which is widely used internationally and one developed in Iran called Hiva. A population sample was recruited of nearly 3000 preschoolers in one Iranian city. Parents…

  19. Understanding Natural Sciences Education in a Reggio Emilia-Inspired Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Hatice Zeynep; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Kantor, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study explored aspects of how the natural sciences were represented in a Reggio Emilia-inspired laboratory preschool. The natural sciences as a discipline--a latecomer to preschool curricula--and the internationally known approach, Reggio Emilia, interested educators and researchers, but there was little research about science in…

  20. Use of the Teacher Version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with German and American Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Andrew; Strand, Paul S.; Heinrichs, Nina; Cerna, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study evaluated the utility of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a teacher-report measure of internalizing and externalizing problems in preschool-age children. Participants included preschoolers drawn from Germany and the United States, with the American sample composed of both English-speaking…

  1. Understanding Natural Sciences Education in a Reggio Emilia-Inspired Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Hatice Zeynep; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Kantor, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study explored aspects of how the natural sciences were represented in a Reggio Emilia-inspired laboratory preschool. The natural sciences as a discipline--a latecomer to preschool curricula--and the internationally known approach, Reggio Emilia, interested educators and researchers, but there was little research about science in…

  2. Screening for Autism in Iranian Preschoolers: Contrasting M-CHAT and a Scale Developed in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; McConkey, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Suitable screening instruments for the early diagnosis of autism are not readily available for use with preschoolers in non-Western countries. This study evaluated two tools: M-CHAT which is widely used internationally and one developed in Iran called Hiva. A population sample was recruited of nearly 3000 preschoolers in one Iranian city. Parents…

  3. Achieving timely adoption.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Moore, Megan; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    While family reunification is the primary permanency objective for children who must be placed temporarily outside of their homes, reunification is not possible for all children. For those children who do not return to their parents and cannot find permanent homes with other family members, adoption is the favored outcome. This review examines the composite measure in the federal Child and Family Services Review that measures agency performance related to the timeliness of adoptions of foster children. It summarizes the multiple factors that research has found to be associated with increased risk for adoption delay and disruption. These include child characteristics, family of origin and adoptive family characteristics, and features of child welfare services and systems. Practices that have been broadly linked to adoption timeliness or address risk factors associated with delays in adoption are described, including social worker activities and agency or system-wide practice.

  4. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their anxiety. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...

  5. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  6. Catholic Preschools: Some Legal Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Mary Angela

    This publication looks at the effect of the law on preschool programs conducted by nonpublic agencies. In the first chapter, a distinction is drawn between day care and preschool. The second chapter deals with sources of the law that are applied to preschool. Canon law affects Catholic schools. Catholic schools, as well as public schools, are…

  7. Adoption: Misunderstood, Mythologized, Marginalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.

    2003-01-01

    Implications are discussed in response to the Major Contribution in this issue reviewing the history, controversies, and theoretical and research literature related to adoption. Practice recommendations for therapists working with adopted children and their families are clustered around three prominent themes in the reviews by Lee, O'Brien and…

  8. Subsidized Adoption in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula; Katz, Sanford N.

    The Model State Subsidized Adoption Act, developed to supplement existing state statutes, is presented in full, with accompanying Model Regulations. The act is designed to help provide a child in special circumstances with a permanent adoptive home. When efforts to achieve placement without subsidy have failed, the Act would provide that the child…

  9. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  10. Adoption activities on the Internet: a call for regulation.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; White, Holly

    2010-07-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents, sometimes through an adoption brokerage service. International adoptions can also be plagued by unethical practices as the Internet has become available in both developed and developing countries. These activities, although offering the benefits of privacy and convenience, also pose serious problems of potential fraud, exploitation, and, most important, lack of professional consideration of the child's best interest. In this article, the authors review the landscape of current Internet-based adoption activities, examine the benefits and risks of Internet-based adoption activities, and call for social work self-regulation and leadership.

  11. [The outcomes of Adoption in the Case of the "British Chinese Adoption Study"].

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Practitioners can over-estimate the incidence of problems in adopted children and adults because they do not see those who make good psychological and social adjustments. Research into adoption outcomes can be hard to interpret without information about differing pre-adoption histories. Examples are given of research into three types of adoption: domestic infant adoption, adoptions from public care of maltreated children and international adoption of ex-orphanage children. Although negative outcomes are indisputably evident for some, recovery from adversity is more common than many would predict. It is important to recognize that subsequent nurturing in consistent and stimulating environments can build a platform for effective adaptations to challenges in the future. However, a proper understanding of the consequences of adoption has been limited by the fact that follow-up studies have rarely extended beyond adolescence and early adulthood. The British Chinese Adoption Study is a 50 year follow-up of orphanage girls internationally adopted into the United Kingdom, and is given as an example of good outcomes despite early years of adversity. Scores on mental health assessments were equivalent to the non-adopted, age-matched comparison group of UK women. Most of the women were rated as "good functioning" and educational achievements were many times higher than the comparison women. Life-long adverse effects are not inevitable following early adversity. Improved circumstances can promote recovery and good adult adjustment. Practice and research implications are discussed.

  12. Analysing the implemented curriculum of mathematics in preschool education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharos, Konstantinos; Koustourakis, Gerasimos; Papadimitriou, Konstantina

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to development of research tools for observation and analysis of educational practices used by teachers in preschool classrooms. More specifically, we approached the implemented curriculum of mathematics in Greek preschool education. We analysed the recorded data from a week of teaching practices in eight classrooms of Greek public kindergartens, based on Bernstein's theoretical framework on pedagogic discourse. The results showed that the actual educational practices in the observed classrooms deviated from the objectives of the official new cross-thematic curriculum for teaching mathematics in Greek kindergarten in terms of the form of transmitted mathematical knowledge, the instructional rules and strategies that teachers adopted for teaching mathematics, and the teaching-interactive relationships between preschool teachers and students.

  13. Age at placement, adoption experience and adult adopted people's contact with their adoptive and birth mothers: an attachment perspective.

    PubMed

    Howe, D

    2001-09-01

    Adoption holds particular interest for attachment researchers. Although children adopted as babies experience almost continuous care by their adoptive parents, older placed children experience at least one major change of caregiver when they join their adoptive family. Moreover, in the majority of cases, older placed children have generally suffered a pre-adoption history of abuse, neglect and/or rejection. It is now being recognized that older placed children's attachment histories and internal working models (IWMs) established in relationship with their initial carers remain active in relationship with their new carers. Transactional models have helped both researchers and practitioners to understand the dynamics of parent-child relationships in cases where insecure children with histories of neglect, abuse and rejection find themselves in new caregiving environments. The present study examines the childhood experiences of adult adopted people and their current levels of contact with their adoptive mothers, and in cases where people had searched for and found a birth relative, current levels of contact with their birth mother. Although no information was collected on the adopted adult's pre-placement history, age at placement was used as a proxy measure to examine whether older placed children reported different adoption experiences and what their current levels of contact were with their adoptive and birth mothers. The findings show that age at placement was associated with adopted people's reported experiences of being adopted and current rates of contact with their adoptive and birth mothers, with those placed at older ages most likely to report that they (1) did not feel they belonged in their adoptive families while growing up, (2) did not feel loved by their adoptive mother, (3) were least likely to remain in high-frequency contact with their adoptive mother, and (4) were least likely to remain in high-frequency contact with their birth mother. An

  14. Assessing fears of preschool children with nighttime fears by a parent version of the fear survey schedule for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Gothelf, Doron; Sadeh, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Although excessive fears are common in preschool children, validated assessment tools for this age are lacking. Our aim was to modify and provide preliminary evidence of the utility of a preschoolers' fear screening tool, a parent-reported Fear Survey Schedule for Preschool Children (FSS-PC). 109 Israeli preschool children (aged 4-6 years) with chronic night time fears (NF) and 30 healthy children (controls) participated. The FSS-PC analysis included: 1) internal reliability, 2) correlations between FSS-PC scores and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) measures, 3) differences between NF and a comparison sample of FSS-PC scores, and 4) FSS-PC sensitivity in detecting change in NF following an intervention for NF. There were low-to-medium positive correlations between the FSS-PC scores and several internalizing scales of the CBCL measures. FSS-PC scores in the NF group were significantly higher than the control children's score. FSS-PC scores had adequate internal reliability and were also sensitive for detecting significant changes in fear levels following behavioral interventions. Unique cultural and environmental circumstances and specific study group. This new version of the FSS-PC may provide clinicians with a novel and useful screening tool for early assessment of fear- and anxiety-related phenomena of preschool children.

  15. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  16. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol effects rickets syphilis thyroid conditions tooth decay tuberculosis It can be common for adopted kids, particularly ... These may include infections like scabies , lice , latent tuberculosis, and intestinal parasites; rickets and other forms of ...

  17. Assessing access for prospective adoptive parents living with HIV: an environmental scan of Ontario's adoption agencies.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Angela A; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Ross, Lori E; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Work has been underway to increase the availability of parenting options for people living with and affected by HIV. One option, adoption, has not yet been explored in the literature. The study aimed to gain a better understanding of the potential of adoption for individuals/couples living with HIV in Ontario, and to assess potential structural barriers or facilitators that may impact their experience navigating the adoption system by conducting an environmental scan of adoption service providers in Ontario. A list of adoption service providers was compiled using the Ontario government's website. Information relevant to the study's measures was collected using service providers' websites. Service providers without websites, or with websites that did not address all of the research measures, were contacted via telephone to complete a structured interview. Online data extraction was possible for 2 and telephone surveys were completed with 75 adoption service providers (total n = 77). Most service providers reported that HIV status is not an exclusion criterion for prospective parents (64%). However, more than one-fifth of the participants acknowledged they were not sure if people with HIV were eligible to adopt. Domestic service providers were the only providers who did not report knowledge of restrictions due to HIV status. Private domestic adoption presented social barriers as birth parent(s) of a child can access health records of a prospective parent and base their selection of an adoptive parent based on health status. Adoption practitioners and licensees involved in international adoptions reported the most structural barriers for prospective parent(s) living with HIV, attributed to the regulations established by the host country of the child(ren) eligible for adoption. Although international adoptions may present insurmountable barriers for individuals living with HIV, public and private domestic adoption appears to be a viable option.

  18. Assessment of attention in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E M; Schneider, H E

    2012-12-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of "disordered" attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child's history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention--including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures.

  19. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  20. Administering the Preschool Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonrod, Debbie

    Securing the right environment for a preschool program requires planning and research. Administrators or searching parties are advised to study zoning codes to become acquainted with state sanitation and safety regulations and laws, to involve teachers in cooperative planning, to design facilities which discourage vandalism, facilitate…

  1. Preschool Italian in Melbourne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kindergarten in Victoria, Australia is the preschool year, attended by children who are four going on five, and who will go onto primary school the following year. These are part-time programs, run over a small number of sessions per week, typically for 3-5 hours per session for 10-12 hours per week. North West Brunswick Kindergarten, in the…

  2. Preschool Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Akgül, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers' perspectives about children's school readiness. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study as a mixed method research. Data, in the quantitative aspects of the research, were collected through the use of "School Readiness Form" developed by Boz (2004)…

  3. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  4. Preschool Connected Speech Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJohnson, Albert; And Others

    This speech inventory developed for a study of aurally handicapped preschool children (see TM 001 129) provides information on intonation patterns in connected speech. The inventory consists of a list of phrases and simple sentences accompanied by pictorial clues. The test is individually administered by a teacher-examiner who presents the spoken…

  5. Administering the Preschool Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonrod, Debbie

    Securing the right environment for a preschool program requires planning and research. Administrators or searching parties are advised to study zoning codes to become acquainted with state sanitation and safety regulations and laws, to involve teachers in cooperative planning, to design facilities which discourage vandalism, facilitate…

  6. Child Development: Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.

    This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…

  7. Transition: Preschool to Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…

  8. Preschool Italian in Melbourne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kindergarten in Victoria, Australia is the preschool year, attended by children who are four going on five, and who will go onto primary school the following year. These are part-time programs, run over a small number of sessions per week, typically for 3-5 hours per session for 10-12 hours per week. North West Brunswick Kindergarten, in the…

  9. Forging Partnerships with Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailie, Patti Ensel

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Head Start program for preschool children directed by the Nature Center at Shaker Lakes in Cleveland, Ohio. Presents information on the content of this program, which is also aligned with the regular Head Start curriculum. Lists contact phone numbers for more information. (YDS)

  10. Trans-Friendly Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, Laurel A.

    2005-01-01

    Transgender kids and kids from trans families attend preschool and kindergarten. For the safety, comfort, and optimum learning of these students, trans-positive early childhood education environments are necessary. Through simple changes to existing curricula and equipment, teachers, parents, and administrators can create a trans-positive setting…

  11. PRE-SCHOOL TEACHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    THE TEACHER IS THE KEY PERSON IN IMPLEMENTING THE CURRICULUM, THE TRAINING OF PARENT AIDES, AND ADULT EDUCATION. IN SCHOOL HE IS RESPONSIBLE TO THE PRINCIPAL AND ATTENDS STAFF MEETINGS AND SCHOOL FUNCTIONS. HIS RESPONSIBILITIES TO THE PRESCHOOL PROJECT INCLUDE ATTENDING AND PARTICIPATING IN STAFF AND INSERVICE MEETINGS, TEACHING ADULT EDUCATION…

  12. THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CALDWELL, BETTYE M.; SOULE, DONALD

    THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY BEGAN AS AN ANSWER TO THE NEED FOR SOME TYPE OF INSTRUMENT THAT WOULD PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF HOW MUCH A DISADVANTAGED CHILD, PRIOR TO HIS INTRODUCTION TO HEAD START, HAD ACHIEVED IN AREAS REGARDED AS NECESSARY FOUNDATIONS FOR SUBSEQUENT SUCCESS IN SCHOOL. MEASURING BASIC INTELLIGENCE WAS NOT THE GOAL. RATHER, THE…

  13. Safety in the Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Mimi

    Guidelines for safety in the cooperative preschool are outlined, emphasizing control of the physical environment to insure maximum freedom for the children compatible with maximum safety. Building standards are set for stairways, rooms, lavatories, parking lots, harmful supplies, and wading pools. Orientation for safety is discussed in regard to…

  14. Trans-Friendly Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra, Laurel A.

    2005-01-01

    Transgender kids and kids from trans families attend preschool and kindergarten. For the safety, comfort, and optimum learning of these students, trans-positive early childhood education environments are necessary. Through simple changes to existing curricula and equipment, teachers, parents, and administrators can create a trans-positive setting…

  15. The Preschool Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugg, Mary E.; Wood, Sue Sims

    The Preschool Interest Inventory (PSII) has been developed to meet the need for an informal measure of the interests, play behaviors, and communication skills of young children between the ages of 2 and 6 years, particularly those exhibiting delays in language development. The first step in the Inventory process is the Caregiver Interview. In the…

  16. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  17. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  18. 45 CFR 1151.43 - Adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of grievance procedures. 1151.43 Section 1151.43 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE... Enforcement § 1151.43 Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient may adopt an internal grievance procedure...

  19. 45 CFR 1151.43 - Adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of grievance procedures. 1151.43 Section 1151.43 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE... Enforcement § 1151.43 Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient may adopt an internal grievance procedure...

  20. 45 CFR 1151.43 - Adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of grievance procedures. 1151.43 Section 1151.43 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE... Enforcement § 1151.43 Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient may adopt an internal grievance procedure...

  1. 45 CFR 1151.43 - Adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of grievance procedures. 1151.43 Section 1151.43 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE... Enforcement § 1151.43 Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient may adopt an internal grievance procedure...

  2. 45 CFR 1151.43 - Adoption of grievance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of grievance procedures. 1151.43 Section 1151.43 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE... Enforcement § 1151.43 Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient may adopt an internal grievance procedure...

  3. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruella, Marco; Kalos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical success has underscored the potential for immunotherapy based on the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of engineered T lymphocytes to mediate dramatic, potent, and durable clinical responses. This success has led to the broader evaluation of engineered T-lymphocyte-based adoptive cell therapy to treat a broad range of malignancies. In this review, we summarize concepts, successes, and challenges for the broader development of this promising field, focusing principally on lessons gleaned from immunological principles and clinical thought. We present ACT in the context of integrating T-cell and tumor biology and the broader systemic immune response.

  4. Probability Constructs in Preschool Education and How they Are Taught

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonopoulos, Konstantinos; Zacharos, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of Probability Theory constitutes a new trend in mathematics education internationally. The purpose of this research project was to explore the degree to which preschoolers understand key concepts of probabilistic thinking, such as sample space, the probability of an event and probability comparisons. At the same time, we evaluated an…

  5. Games and Toys for Blind Children in Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielasch, Helmut, Ed.; And Others

    The booklet, a contribution to the International Year of the Child, is intended to help parents enhance the development and education of their blind preschoolers. Parent-child interaction games to promote manual dexterity and sense of touch, listening skills and social communication, mobility, comprehension of the physical environment, artistic…

  6. Games and Toys for Blind Children in Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pielasch, Helmut, Ed.; And Others

    The booklet, a contribution to the International Year of the Child, is intended to help parents enhance the development and education of their blind preschoolers. Parent-child interaction games to promote manual dexterity and sense of touch, listening skills and social communication, mobility, comprehension of the physical environment, artistic…

  7. Post-Adoption Services--The Views of Adopters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Rena

    1990-01-01

    Studied behavioral problems that 19 Scottish adoptive families experienced with their adopted children. Also studied families' experiences with, views on, and suggestions for postadoption services. Discusses implications for adoption practices. (BG)

  8. CERTS customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  9. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  10. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; DeFries, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Provides an overview of a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development and discusses the results of analyses of cognitive measures and environmental assessments as examples of the types of information that can emerge from a design of this sort. (Author/RH)

  11. Adopt-A-School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt Lake City School District, UT.

    Included in this document are various materials related to the Adopt-A-School Program of the Salt Lake City, Utah, public school district. Contents consist of correspondence, a journal article, program materials, assessment materials, a handbook for company coordinators, newspaper articles, various questionnaires, and a list of companies that have…

  12. Adopting electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    Price, Morgan; Singer, Alex; Kim, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To understand the key challenges to adoption of advanced features of electronic medical records (EMRs) in office practice, and to better understand these challenges in a Canadian context. Design Mixed-methods study. Setting Manitoba. Participants Health care providers and staff in 5 primary care offices. Methods Level of EMR adoption was assessed, and field notes from interviews and discussion groups were qualitatively analyzed for common challenges and themes across all sites. Main findings Fifty-seven interviews and 4 discussion groups were conducted from November 2011 to January 2012. Electronic medical record adoption scores ranged from 2.3 to 3.0 (out of a theoretical maximum of 5). Practices often scored lower than expected on use of decision support, providing patients with access to their own data, and use of practice-reporting tools. Qualitative analysis showed there were ceiling effects to EMR adoption owing to how the EMR was implemented, the supporting eHealth infrastructure, lack of awareness or availability of EMR functionality, and poor EMR data quality. Conclusion Many practitioners used their EMRs as “electronic paper records” and were not using advanced features of their EMRs that could further enhance practice. Data-quality issues within the EMRs could affect future attempts at using these features. Education and quality improvement activities to support data quality and EMR optimization are likely needed to support practices in maximizing their use of EMRs. PMID:23851560

  13. School Adoption Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Doris

    Zions First National Bank in Utah adopted a local school in Garrison with a student body of 11, and invited them to participate in their Christmas tree program and a field trip to Salt Lake City. The venture proved so popular and rewarding for the children and bank staff that more field trips were funded and later, when the school burned down, the…

  14. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  15. Oral and Written Language Development of Children Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathleen A.; Roberts, Jenny A.; Krakow, Rena

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The sharp increase in the number of international adoptions in the United States has prompted a heightened interest in the language development of internationally adopted children. Although recent studies have investigated the early language development of adoptees, little is known about the school-age language and literacy skills of…

  16. Behavior and emotion modulation deficits in preschoolers at risk for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Guyer, Amanda E.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Egger, Helen L.; Helm, Jonathan; Stowe, Zachary; Towbin, Kenneth A.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Brotman, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly familial, but studies have yet to examine preschoolers at risk for BD using standardized, developmentally-appropriate clinical assessment tools. We used such methods to test whether preschoolers at familial risk for BD have more observed difficulty modulating emotions and behaviors than do low-risk preschoolers. Identification of emotional and behavioral difficulties in at-risk preschoolers is crucial for developing new approaches for early intervention and prevention of BD. Methods Using the standardized Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) protocol for preschoolers, we compared 23 preschoolers (Mage: 4.53±0.73 years; 18 males) with a first-degree relative with BD to 21 preschoolers (Mage: 4.65±0.84 years; 11 males) without a family history of BD. We characterized psychopathology in this sample using the Preschool Aged Psychiatric Assessment and behavioral and emotional problems using the Child Behavior Checklist. Results High-risk preschoolers demonstrated significantly more intense, pervasive, and clinically-concerning problems in anger modulation and behavior dysregulation on the DB-DOS than the low-risk group. High-risk relative to low-risk preschoolers, were also more likely to have maternal-reported anxiety and oppositional defiant disorders and internalizing and externalizing problems. Conclusions Clinically-concerning problems in anger modulation and behavior regulation, measured during standardized laboratory observation, differentiate preschoolers at high familial risk for BD from those at low risk. Investigation in a large longitudinal sample is critical for replication and for determining whether these observed behavioral differences can be reliably used as prodromal indicators of mood disorders. PMID:25691090

  17. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  19. Preschool Movement Education in Turkey: Perceptions of Preschool Administrators and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevimli-Celik, Serap; Kirazci, Sadettin; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of preschool administrators and parents about preschool movement education and movement practices in preschools. Participants were 8 preschool administrators and 21 parents from 8 randomly selected private preschools in one of the municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Semi-structured interviews,…

  20. Preschool Movement Education in Turkey: Perceptions of Preschool Administrators and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevimli-Celik, Serap; Kirazci, Sadettin; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of preschool administrators and parents about preschool movement education and movement practices in preschools. Participants were 8 preschool administrators and 21 parents from 8 randomly selected private preschools in one of the municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Semi-structured interviews,…

  1. Preschool Teachers' Perspectives on Planning and Documentation in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvestad, Torgeir; Sheridan, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a research project focusing on Norwegian teachers' planning and documentation of children's learning in preschool. Norwegian preschools follow a national curriculum and teachers are obliged to document both professional practice and learning outcomes. The aim of the article is to investigate teachers' experiences of…

  2. Preschool Teachers' Perspectives on Planning and Documentation in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvestad, Torgeir; Sheridan, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a research project focusing on Norwegian teachers' planning and documentation of children's learning in preschool. Norwegian preschools follow a national curriculum and teachers are obliged to document both professional practice and learning outcomes. The aim of the article is to investigate teachers' experiences of…

  3. The precaution adoption process.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, N D

    1988-01-01

    This article presents a critique of current models of preventive behavior. It discusses a variety of factors that are usually overlooked-including the appearance of costs and benefits over time, the role of cues to action, the problem of competing life demands, and the ways that actual decision behavior differs from the rational ideal implicit in expectancy-value and utility theories. Such considerations suggest that the adoption of new precautions should be viewed as a dynamic process with many determinants. The framework of a model that is able to accommodate these additional factors is described. This alternative model portrays the precaution adoption process as an orderly sequence of qualitatively different cognitive stages. Data illustrating a few of the suggestions made in the article are presented, and implications for prevention programs are discussed.

  4. Guide to CASE Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    from Ovum Ltd. and the Software Technology Support Center at Hill Air Force Base (UT 84056). Overviews of relevant issues, including CASE adoption, can...Integration Battle." Ovum , 1989. Feuche, M. "How to Use CASE Technology." MIS Week, 10, 37 (Sep 1989), 29. Firth, R., Mosley, V., Pethia, R., Roberts, L...Computer Science Berkeey CA 94704 symllable on Internet. anonomcus FTP laGpll ubicatkin sue-isnodeunomc~Icasa-nniduct-11 hax OVUM Ltd 7 Rathbon Street A

  5. Preschool Teacher's Conceptions of Computers and Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette

    2002-01-01

    There are many dimensions of play and play's significance for children's development and learning is often emphasized, but how do preschool teachers see children's use of computers in preschool? A qualitative study was done with 13 Swedish preschool teachers that had experience working with computers in preschool. The overall aim of this study was…

  6. Conceptualizing the Play Policies in Preschool Curriculums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, Tulin

    2013-01-01

    This research attempted to describe the play policies in preschool institutions in Ankara, Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine the approaches of the preschools to the children's play. "Play Policy Questionnaire" administered to all directors and teachers of 20 public preschools and 20 private preschools. Play policy of each…

  7. Preschool Education System in Turkey: Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Sevda

    1993-01-01

    Describes Turkey's preschool system and discusses the outcomes of (1) an investigation of the effects of social class and preschool center type on child and staff behaviors; and (2) a project to develop an intervention model for disadvantaged environments, while comparing the impact of educational preschools, custodial preschools, and home care on…

  8. Preschool Teacher's Conceptions of Computers and Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette

    2002-01-01

    There are many dimensions of play and play's significance for children's development and learning is often emphasized, but how do preschool teachers see children's use of computers in preschool? A qualitative study was done with 13 Swedish preschool teachers that had experience working with computers in preschool. The overall aim of this study was…

  9. What Do Children Learn at Swedish Preschools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindström, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research are, first, to make visible, examine, and illuminate preschool teachers' perception of what children enrolled in preschools learn and how they learn it; and second, to highlight and illuminate what abilities preschool teachers perceive that children can develop during their stay at preschools. As a theoretical…

  10. Recent Issues in the Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Sheridan, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden most of the young children are in preschool from early years. The government has taken responsibility by introducing different reforms such as child allowance, maternity leave, access to preschool for all children etc. Preschool (in Sweden for children aged 1-5 years and preschool class for 6 years old) is, since 1998, the first step in…

  11. Recent Issues in the Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Sheridan, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden most of the young children are in preschool from early years. The government has taken responsibility by introducing different reforms such as child allowance, maternity leave, access to preschool for all children etc. Preschool (in Sweden for children aged 1-5 years and preschool class for 6 years old) is, since 1998, the first step in…

  12. Conceptualizing the Play Policies in Preschool Curriculums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sener, Tulin

    2013-01-01

    This research attempted to describe the play policies in preschool institutions in Ankara, Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine the approaches of the preschools to the children's play. "Play Policy Questionnaire" administered to all directors and teachers of 20 public preschools and 20 private preschools. Play policy of each…

  13. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  14. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  15. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  16. The methamphetamine home: psychological impact on preschoolers in rural Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Asanbe, Comfort B; Hall, Charlene; Bolden, Charles D

    2008-01-01

    A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome are still unknown. To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing psychological problems. The participants were 58 white children between the ages of 4 and 5 years; 31 with a history of living in methamphetamine-producing homes and 27 children who live in non-methamphetamine producing homes in rural Tennessee. The groups were similar in age, gender, and socioeconomic background. The groups were compared for behavioral and emotional adjustment using the behavior assessment system for children-parent rating scale-preschool (BASC-PRS-P) form. Biological or custodian parents completed a rating on their preschoolers that provided information about the children's pattern of behavior and feelings. Preschoolers from the methamphetamine-producing homes showed more externalizing problems than their peers, but were comparable on internalizing problems. On specific behaviors, the data indicate that preschoolers in the methamphetamine group showed higher aggression symptoms than their peers from non-methamphetamine-producing homes. These findings, if replicated, point to the need for mental health screening when a child is removed from a methamphetamine-producing home.

  17. 26 CFR 1.175-6 - Adoption or change of method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption or change of method. 1.175-6 Section 1...-6 Adoption or change of method. (a) Adoption with consent. A taxpayer may, without consent, adopt... or water conservation expenditures described in section 175(a) are paid or incurred. Such adoption...

  18. 26 CFR 1.175-6 - Adoption or change of method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption or change of method. 1.175-6 Section 1...-6 Adoption or change of method. (a) Adoption with consent. A taxpayer may, without consent, adopt... or water conservation expenditures described in section 175(a) are paid or incurred. Such adoption...

  19. Adopting MOOCs for Affordable Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Sanjay; Mohanty, Rituparna

    2017-01-01

    Devgun ["International Journal of Information and Computation Technology," 3(7), 641-646, (2013)] and Sarkar et al. (2016) have discussed models those help in overcoming challenges while adopting technology with higher education. But these models need to be modified in the context of MOOCS. To overcome these challenges, we have developed…

  20. Preparing Elementary Principals for Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Marion; Shore, Rebecca; Shue, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    "Surprise! Here come the preschoolers." Thousands of elementary principals are receiving a similar message from their supervisors as the concept of universal preschool is propelled to the forefront of the national education agenda. School districts across the country are being infused with wide varieties of federal- and state-funded…

  1. Systematic Quality Work in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning that Swedish preschool teachers ascribe to systematic quality work. In Sweden, all preschools are required to work systematically with quality issues. This involves several interdependent steps that follow each other in a specific order. Although the concept of systematic quality work might…

  2. Systematic Quality Work in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Sonja; Williams, Pia; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the meaning that Swedish preschool teachers ascribe to systematic quality work. In Sweden, all preschools are required to work systematically with quality issues. This involves several interdependent steps that follow each other in a specific order. Although the concept of systematic quality work might…

  3. Movement Education For Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Maida L., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet explores why movement education is important for preschool children, what activities to include in a program, how and where to conduct a program, and criteria that can help to structure the program environment. The first section presents a rationale for the use of movement education for helping preschool children to develop…

  4. A Prospectus on Preschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Monte E.; And Others

    This report documents a preliminary effort to compile, analyze, and present data relevant to the feasibility of implementing a comprehensive preschool program within the St. Louis public school system. Sections of the study aim to provide (1) definition of and perspective on preschool education, (2) determination of the demographic…

  5. A Parent's Guide to Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet offers parents guidance on how to partner with teachers to help their children acquire the skills, attitudes, and habits to do well in school and throughout life. The booklet begins with a description of how preschool children learn, and continues with a discussion of the goals of the preschool curriculum related to social-emotional…

  6. The Push for Public Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From selecting appropriate curricula and teachers to providing classrooms with bathrooms easily accessible to 4-year-olds, public preschool programs present challenges to districts that run the programs, which are designed to prepare children to get off to a good start when they enter kindergarten. While a wide range of private preschool programs…

  7. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  8. Preschool Screening: An Examination of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Preschool Teacher Form (BESS Preschool)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Erin; Chin, Jenna K.; Quirk, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical time to identify and treat early emotional or behavioral problems. Universal screening can be used to identify emotional and behavioral risk in preschoolers and fits well within current service delivery frameworks. This criterion-related validity study examined the use of a brief teacher-rated screener, the…

  9. Preschool Screening: An Examination of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Preschool Teacher Form (BESS Preschool)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Erin; Chin, Jenna K.; Quirk, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical time to identify and treat early emotional or behavioral problems. Universal screening can be used to identify emotional and behavioral risk in preschoolers and fits well within current service delivery frameworks. This criterion-related validity study examined the use of a brief teacher-rated screener, the…

  10. After adoption: dissolution or permanence?

    PubMed

    Festinger, Trudy

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented on the whereabouts of 516 adopted children, based on a random sample of children adopted from placement in New York City in 1996. Data from interviews with adoptive parents were augmented by information from adoption subsidy records and state child tracking files, as well as interviews with caregivers of children whose adoptive parents were deceased. There were few dissolutions, but postadoption service needs were many.

  11. BEYOND THE DYAD: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRESCHOOLERS' ATTACHMENT REPRESENTATIONS AND FAMILY TRIADIC INTERACTIONS.

    PubMed

    C, Francisca Pérez; Moessner, Markus; A, María Pía Santelices

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between triadic family interactions and preschoolers' attachment representations, or internal working models (IWMs), from a qualitative and dimensional perspective. Individual, relational, and sociocultural variables were evaluated using two different samples. The results showed that triadic family interactions were linked to preschoolers' attachment security levels in both groups, indicating the reliability of the proposed model. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  13. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  14. EHR adopters vs. non-adopters: Impacts of, barriers to, and federal initiatives for EHR adoption

    PubMed Central

    Jamoom, Eric W.; Patel, Vaishali; Furukawa, Michael F.; King, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    While adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems has grown rapidly, little is known about physicians’ perspectives on its adoption and use. Nationally representative survey data from 2011 are used to compare the perspectives of physicians who have adopted EHRs with those that have yet to do so across three key areas: the impact of EHRs on clinical care, practice efficiency and operations; barriers to EHR adoption; and factors that influence physicians to adopt EHRs. Despite significant differences in perspectives between adopters and non-adopters, the majority of physicians perceive that EHR use yields overall clinical benefits, more efficient practices and financial benefits. Purchase cost and productivity loss are the greatest barriers to EHR adoption among both adopters and non-adopters; although non-adopters have significantly higher rates of reporting these as barriers. Financial incentives and penalties, technical assistance, and the capability for electronic health information exchange are factors with the greatest influence on EHR adoption among all physicians. However, a substantially higher proportion of non-adopters regard various national health IT policies, and in particular, financial incentives or penalties as a major influence in their decision to adopt an EHR system. Contrasting these perspectives provides a window into how national policies have shaped adoption thus far; and how these policies may shape adoption in the near future. PMID:26250087

  15. Making Preschool More Productive: How Classroom Management Training Can Help Teachers. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela; Raver, C. Cybele; Millenky, Megan; Jones, Stephanie; Lloyd, Chrishana M.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents results from the Newark, New Jersey, site of the Foundations of Learning (FOL) Demonstration, an intervention and random assignment evaluation of a curriculum designed to target children's behavior and emotional adjustment through the training of preschool teachers. The demonstration adopted the model used by CSRP (formerly…

  16. Making Preschool More Productive: How Classroom Management Training Can Help Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela; Raver, C. Cybele; Millenky, Megan; Jones, Stephanie; Lloyd, Chrishana M.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents results from the Newark, New Jersey, site of the Foundations of Learning (FOL) Demonstration, an intervention and random assignment evaluation of a curriculum designed to target children's behavior and emotional adjustment through the training of preschool teachers. The demonstration adopted the model used by CSRP (formerly…

  17. Young Children's Communication and Expression of Values during Play Sessions in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Johansson, Eva Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The article explores how young children between one and three years old communicate and prioritise values in order to create and be a part of a community during play sessions in an Icelandic preschool. Furthermore, it aims to investigate the value conflicts that might occur and how the children resolve such conflicts. The study adopts the…

  18. Learning from the Children: Exploring Preschool Children's Encounters with ICT at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Christine; McPake, Joanna; Plowman, Lydia; Berch-Heyman, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This article is an account of our attempts to understand preschool children's experiences with information and communication technologies (ICT) at home. Using case study data, we focus on what we can learn from talking directly to the children that might otherwise have been overlooked and on describing and evaluating the methods we adopted to…

  19. Young Children's Communication and Expression of Values during Play Sessions in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pálmadóttir, Hrönn; Johansson, Eva Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The article explores how young children between one and three years old communicate and prioritise values in order to create and be a part of a community during play sessions in an Icelandic preschool. Furthermore, it aims to investigate the value conflicts that might occur and how the children resolve such conflicts. The study adopts the…

  20. Gendered Word (Or World): Sexism in Philippine Preschool English Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrayo, Veronico Nogales

    2014-01-01

    Adhering to the notion that language learning is necessarily a culture-learning process, this paper explores the issue of sexism in six Philippine preschool English language textbooks. The study adopts the qualitative-quantitative approach in examining the following categories: gender visibility (illustrations), "firstness",…

  1. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  2. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  3. Preschool vision screening.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, S N; Tamhne, R C; Thompson, L; Francis, P M; Anderson, J; Colver, A F

    1991-01-01

    Although a good case for preschool screening for vision defects can be made there is very little evidence that existing programmes are effective in practice. A comparative trial of three different methods of preschool vision screening is described. Some 7000 children initially aged 5 months (younger cohorts) and 30 months (older cohorts) in three matched areas entered the trial during 1987. During 18 months of follow up new visual and ocular defects among these children were ascertained through ophthalmology outpatients and from optician records. Screening at 35 months by an orthoptist based in the community is superior to conventional health visitor surveillance at 30 months and to an agreed programme of primary care screening for squint at 30-36 months as judged by screening sensitivity (100% v 50% v 50%) and the incidence of treated target conditions (17 v 3 v 5 per 1000 person years). A notable feature in the area served by the orthoptist is that 13 children received treatment for straight eyed visual acuity loss from among 1000 children whereas there were no such cases among 2500 in the comparison areas. In the younger cohorts (that is, screening at age 5-9 months) all three programmes showed equally poor results, only one of the eight treated target conditions arising from all 3500 younger children being screen detected. PMID:2025002

  4. Parent Ratings of Executive Functioning in Children Adopted from Psychosocially Depriving Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that post-institutionalized (PI) children are particularly susceptible to attention problems and perform poorly on executive functioning (EF) lab tasks. Methods Parent ratings of EF were examined in 288 school-age and 130 preschool-age children adopted from psychosocially depriving Russian institutions that provided adequate physical resources but not one-on-one interactions with a consistent set of responsive caregivers. Results Results revealed a step-like association between age at adoption and EF deficits; school-age children adopted after 18 months of age had greater EF difficulties than younger-adopted children and the never-institutionalized normative sample. The onset of adolescence was associated with a greater increase in EF deficits for children adopted after 18 months than for younger-adopted children. Preschool-age children were not found to have greater EF difficulties than the normative sample. Conclusions These findings suggest that prolonged early psychosocial deprivation may increase children's risk of EF deficits and that the developmental stresses of adolescence may be particularly challenging for older-adopted PI children. PMID:20955189

  5. Subsidized Adoption across the Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm; Triseliotis, John

    1991-01-01

    Notes differences between American and British contexts and formulations of adoption payments. Highlights key findings from a research project that evaluated the impact of adoption allowances in Scotland. Gives particular attention to children's views about being adopted with financial help. (GH)

  6. College Students Reading to Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes an assignment that required noneducation majors enrolled in a children's literature class to read aloud and tell stories to preschool children as an alternative to writing a term paper. Describes the activities and materials used. (FL)

  7. Assessing executive function in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J; Reidy, Natalie

    2012-12-01

    Executive function develops at an unprecedented rate during the preschool period, yet few clinicians attempt to assess executive processes in young children. The primary objective of this article is to demonstrate that executive function can be assessed in preschoolers, and to highlight the importance of detecting executive dysfunction as early as possible. Following a description of executive function and the underlying neural systems, this article outlines some of the challenges in assessing executive function in young children. The various assessment paradigms used for assessing executive function in preschoolers are presented, and based on studies that have applied these measurement tools normal development of executive domains is described. Finally, the benefits and opportunities for executive function intervention in the preschool period are considered.

  8. Organising and Leading Systematic Quality Work in the Preschool -- Preschool Managers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Håkansson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Preschool managers' responsibility for and leadership of systematic quality work has come to the fore in connection with changes made to the Swedish preschool curriculum. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of preschool managers' leadership and management of the systematic quality work in Swedish preschools with reference…

  9. Organising and Leading Systematic Quality Work in the Preschool -- Preschool Managers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Håkansson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Preschool managers' responsibility for and leadership of systematic quality work has come to the fore in connection with changes made to the Swedish preschool curriculum. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of preschool managers' leadership and management of the systematic quality work in Swedish preschools with reference…

  10. Physical activity guidelines and preschooler's obesity status.

    PubMed

    Vale, S; Trost, S; Ruiz, J J; Rêgo, C; Moreira, P; Mota, J

    2013-10-01

    The benefits of promoting physical activity (PA) in counteracting the high prevalence of childhood obesity have become increasingly important in the past decade. The aim of this study was to examine the association between compliance of daily PA recommendations and the risk of being overweight or obese in preschool-aged children. The sample comprised 607 children aged 4-6 years, recruited from kindergartens located in the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal. Preschooler's body mass index was classified according to International Obesity Task Force. PA was assessed during 7 consecutive days by accelerometer. Children were classified as meeting or not meeting PA recommendations based on two guidelines: (i) at least 3 h per day of total PA (TPA); and (ii) at least 1 h per day of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.5 and 10.6% in girls and 17.2 and 8.9% in boys. In all, 90.2 and 97.3% of girls met the ≥ 1 h MVPA and ≥ 3 h TPA recommendations, respectively. In all, 96.2 and 99.4% boys met the ≥ 1 h MVPA and 3 h TPA recommendations, respectively. Boys were significantly more likely to achieve the ≥ 1 h MVPA and ≥ 3 h TPA recommendations than girls (P ≤ 0.001). Not meeting the ≥ 1 h MVPA guideline was associated with obesity status (OR: 3.8; IC: 1.3-10.4), in girls, but not boys. No other statistically significant associations were found. These findings suggest that over 90% of children met the recommended guidelines. There is an association with low levels of MVPA and higher obesity status among preschool girls. Further, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these data.

  11. [Adoption and its psychiatric aspects].

    PubMed

    Burgeois, M

    1975-06-01

    Adoption has changed in history, in different cultures, in law, in its goals, its functions, its modalities. The study of the adoptive condition is worthwhile for theoretical research (psychopathology, genetics, etc.) and for clinical practice (prevention, selection and motivation analysis of adopting parents). It is dangerous and too simple to explain pathology by adoption. However, there is a specific psychopathology of adoptees : 1. by maternal deprivation and abandonnement pathology (more frequent and more important), 2. by the adoptive situation condition itself. We review some hypotheses, particularly the concept of "Family romance". The adopted child undergoes more frequent examinations, both pediatric and psychiatric, than the ordinary child (this may be explained by parental anxiety and child acting out behavior). Certain American statistics on this appear to be significant. On the other hand, there is a silent pathology (the majority ?) : we found it frequently in the youngest children in France. We discuss the problem of psychiatric selection of adoptive parents and adoptive children, its legitimacy, its methodes ; psychopathology and motivations of the adoptive patents ; the problem of the revelation of adoption to the child ; the problem of sterility (it is often incompletely explored and treated). Adoption may not be the best solution for most of the abandonned children and sterile couples.

  12. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted.

  13. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  14. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  15. Influences of an Academically Oriented Preschool Curriculum on the Development of Children--Are There Negative Consequences for the Children's Socio-Emotional Competencies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluczniok, Katharina; Anders, Yvonne; Sechtig, Jutta; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    2016-01-01

    As a result of public discussions regarding Germany's standing on international rankings of student achievement, increased attention was focused on enhancing cognitive stimulation in preschools. There are some concerns that preschool curricula that focus more on cognitive stimulation rather than on socio-emotional skills might neglect the…

  16. Role of Assessment Tests in the Stability of Intelligence Scoring of Pre-School Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, P.; Jong, Y-J.; Hsu, H-Y.; Lung, F-W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As part of an ongoing clinical service programme for pre-school children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analysed the effect of three assessment tests, that is, Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II, Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of…

  17. Influences of an Academically Oriented Preschool Curriculum on the Development of Children--Are There Negative Consequences for the Children's Socio-Emotional Competencies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluczniok, Katharina; Anders, Yvonne; Sechtig, Jutta; Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    2016-01-01

    As a result of public discussions regarding Germany's standing on international rankings of student achievement, increased attention was focused on enhancing cognitive stimulation in preschools. There are some concerns that preschool curricula that focus more on cognitive stimulation rather than on socio-emotional skills might neglect the…

  18. Role of Assessment Tests in the Stability of Intelligence Scoring of Pre-School Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, P.; Jong, Y-J.; Hsu, H-Y.; Lung, F-W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As part of an ongoing clinical service programme for pre-school children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analysed the effect of three assessment tests, that is, Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II, Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of…

  19. Coping with birthparent loss in adopted children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel W; Brodzinsky, David M

    2002-02-01

    Relationships among adopted children's appraisals of birthparent loss, their coping strategies for managing such loss, and child and parent reports of child adjustment were investigated within the context of a stress and coping model of adoption adjustment. Eighty-two 8-12-year-old adopted children and one of their parents participated. Children completed questionnaires assessing their negative affect about birthparent loss, their curiosity about birthparents, their use of coping strategies to manage birthparent-related distress, and their levels of depression, anxiety, and global self-worth. Parents reported on children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and social competence. Children who reported higher levels of negative affect about birthparent loss also reported higher levels of depression and lower self-worth. Curiosity about birthparents predicted parent-rated externalizing behavior. Behavioral avoidant coping was associated with greater self-reported anxiety and parent-rated externalizing behavior, whereas problem solving coping was associated with increased parent-rated social competence. The findings, though limited by issues of measurement and sampling, add to the knowledge base regarding adopted children's appraisal and coping behaviors, and provide partial support for a stress and coping model of adopted children's adjustment.

  20. Depression and anxiety among postpartum and adoptive mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Richards, Jenny Gringer; O’Hara, Michael W.; Stuart, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Similar to biological mothers during the postpartum period, women who adopt children experience increased stress and life changes that may put them at risk for developing depression and anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms between postpartum and adoptive women and, among adoptive women, to examine associations between specific stressors and depressive symptoms. Data from adoptive mothers (n=147), recruited from Holt International, were compared to existing data from postpartum women (n=147). Differences in the level of depression and anxiety symptoms as measured by the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among postpartum and adoptive women were examined. Associations between specific stressors and depressive symptoms were examined among adoptive mothers. Postpartum and adoptive women had comparable levels of depressive symptoms, but adoptive women reported greater well-being and less anxiety than postpartum women. Stressors (e.g., sleep deprivation, history of infertility, past psychological disorder, and less marital satisfaction) were all significantly associated with depressive symptoms among adoptive women. The level of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, adoptive women experienced significantly fewer symptoms of anxiety and experienced greater well-being. Additionally, adoptive mothers experienced more depressive symptoms during the year following adoption when the stressors were present. Thus, women with these characteristics should be routinely screened for depression and anxiety. PMID:21725836

  1. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  2. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  3. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4 Graders: Evidence from TIMSS.

    PubMed

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

  4. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    PubMed Central

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  5. Preschool Democracy--Ideas from Montessori.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Suzanne Lowell

    1984-01-01

    Montessori believed that preschool children were capable of practicing an elementary form of democracy, could direct their own learning, and discipline themselves. How preschool teachers can adapt Montessori ideas to regular classroom instruction is discussed. (RM)

  6. Preschool Roundup: Costly Rodeo or Primary Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbed, Ruth Alice; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assessment of the Montgomery County (Maryland) preschool health roundup indicated that this standardized screening program is cost-effective for early identification of preschool children who will need health and/or educational intervention to achieve their maximum potential. (MJB)

  7. Sociometric Nominations of Preschoolers: A Psychometric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; McKinley, Marcia

    1993-01-01

    Peer nominations and teacher ratings of children's social behaviors were obtained for 36 preschoolers during their first, second, and third years in preschool. Peer nominations showed stability across time, and teacher ratings correlated with peer nominations. (MDM)

  8. 26 CFR 1.175-6 - Adoption or change of method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption or change of method. 1.175-6 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.175-6 Adoption or change of method. (a) Adoption with consent. A taxpayer may, without consent, adopt the method of...

  9. Going to the Courts Twice: A Critical Appraisal of the UK's Policy of Re-Adoption for Intercountry Adoptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Anita

    2011-01-01

    The policy of re-adoption for UK-citizen parents of intercountry adopted children is designed to protect children and safeguard their best interests, but in fact may breach a variety of rights and international Conventions, and when applied to specific cases can lead to more harm than good. In this review, I want to argue that the policy of…

  10. Initial Special Reports Submitted by Member States on the Action Taken by Them Upon the Recommendation Concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, Adopted by the General Conference During its Sixteenth Session. Item 21 of the Provisional Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Reports, some only partial, from the member states regarding their action on the topic of international standards for library statistics are presented. The 22 countries represented in this report are: Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Cuba, Dahomey, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Libya, Nepal,…

  11. Influences of Preschooler's Behavior on Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Gordon

    This paper discusses the impact of emerging developmental skills on preschoolers' test performance in reference to preoperational thinking, behavioral controls, and language skills. It is emphasized that some behaviors that occur during the preschool period may suggest pathology when observed in older children but are normal for preschoolers. A…

  12. The Arts in Turkish Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acer, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors determining a nation's level of development in the modern world is preschool education. When preschool education is perceived as an entity that affects every aspect of childhood development, this fact is undeniable. Several aspects of preschool education, including art education, play a significant role in a…

  13. Preschoolers' Cognitive Performance Improves Following Massage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sybil; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Lundy, Brenda

    1998-01-01

    Effects of massage on preschoolers' cognitive performance were assessed. Preschoolers were given Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised subtests before and after receiving 15-minute massage or spending 15 minutes reading stories with the experimenter. Children's performance on Block Design improved following massage, and…

  14. Preschool Evaluation Report: Year 1 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Judith A.; Hebbeler, Kathleen.

    The report documents activities and findings of the Preschool Evaluation Project which is developing a model for evaluating program provision to handicapped preschoolers and creating a longitudinal data base to track the short- and long-term progress of preschool children receiving special services in Montgomery County, Maryland. During the first…

  15. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  16. [Early Intervention for Handicapped Preschool Children].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainato, Diane M.; Strain, Phillip S.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter focuses on early intervention for handicapped preschool children. The lead article, entitled "Promoting Independent Work Skills in Handicapped Preschool Children," highlights findings of a project designed to identify critical skills needed for independent functioning in mainstream preschool and kindergarten…

  17. Educational Vouchers for Universal Pre-Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Schwartz, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers two issues regarding preschool education. First, it provides a brief set of arguments for government funding of universal, pre-school education. Second, it explores the applicability of a voucher plan using a regulated market approach for the funding of universal, pre-school education. Four criteria are used to assess the…

  18. Preschool Facilities: Are States Providing Adequate Guidance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Dennis R.; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2010-01-01

    The preschool facility is a critical element of an effective preschool program. The recent economic downturn in the United States makes it difficult for states and individual school districts to consider developing new preschool programs or enhancing current programs or facilities. Yet many Americans still agree that public investment in preschool…

  19. Bilingual Preschools. Volume 2: Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Kristin, Ed.; Rohde, Andreas, Ed.; Schelletter, Christina, Ed.; Steinlen, Anja K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from eleven preschools in four European countries (Germany, Belgium, Sweden, and the UK), this edited volume explores the progress of preschool children learning English over a period of two years. This edited volume (Volume II) gives details on best practices in bilingual preschools as well as background and training on topics…

  20. Computerized Sociometric Assessment for Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In preschool classes, sociometric peer ratings are used to measure children's peer relationships. The current study examined a computerized version of preschool sociometric ratings. The psychometric properties were compared of computerized sociometric ratings and traditional peer ratings for preschoolers. The distributions, inter-item…

  1. Preschoolers' Cognitive Performance Improves Following Massage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sybil; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Lundy, Brenda

    1998-01-01

    Effects of massage on preschoolers' cognitive performance were assessed. Preschoolers were given Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised subtests before and after receiving 15-minute massage or spending 15 minutes reading stories with the experimenter. Children's performance on Block Design improved following massage, and…

  2. Emergent Literacy: Preschool Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandvik, Jenny Miglis; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Adèr, Herman J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports on the construction of a research instrument developed to examine preschool teachers' beliefs and practices in relation to emergent literacy. A 130-item survey (Preschool Literacy Survey, PLS) was completed by a total of 90 preschool teachers in Norway. Items were grouped into homogenous scales, and the relationship…

  3. A Nutrition Education Program for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A curriculum was designed to give preschool caregivers basic nutrition background through a programed self-instructional unit; incorporate nutrition education into existing parts of a typical preschool day; and provide learning activities designed to help preschoolers relate food/nutrients to health. Development of materials, caregivers'…

  4. Preschoolers Use Speakers' Preferences to Learn Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Fortuna, Alexandra; Troseth, Georgene

    2009-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated preschoolers' ability to use others' preferences to learn names for things. Two studies demonstrated that preschool children make smart use of others' preferences. In the first study, preschool children only used information about others' preferences when they were clearly linked to referential intentions. The…

  5. The Arts in Turkish Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acer, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors determining a nation's level of development in the modern world is preschool education. When preschool education is perceived as an entity that affects every aspect of childhood development, this fact is undeniable. Several aspects of preschool education, including art education, play a significant role in a…

  6. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    (1) Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3) Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior. PMID:27649215

  7. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p < 0.0001). However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children's fruits and vegetables (FV) behavior, screen time (ST) behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children's PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  8. Family Talk about Internal States and Children's Relative Appraisals of Self and Sibling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated associations between preschoolers' conversations about internal states and their spontaneous appraisals of self and sibling. Thirty-two preschoolers (M age = 3.9 years) were observed during naturalistic home interactions with mothers and younger siblings. Various features of mothers' and children's internal state language…

  9. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  10. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  11. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  12. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  13. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  14. Adoption of an official ISEA glossary.

    PubMed

    Zartarian, Valerie; Bahadori, Tina; McKone, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The International Society for Exposure Analysis (ISEA) and its Nomenclature Committee have been involved since the mid-1990s in an intermittent but ongoing effort to develop an official ISEA glossary. Several related activities have stimulated greater interest and discussion nationally and internationally on a common exposure language. Among these activities are a 1997 Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology feature article on exposure and dose definitions and a 1999-initiated project of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (WHO/ILO/UNEP) to confront terminology issues hindering harmonization in the area of exposure assessment. Recently, the ISEA members voted in support of adopting the IPCS glossary as the official ISEA glossary, and the ISEA Executive Board agreed to accept this recommendation. In this feature article, we (1) describe the process through which the ISEA adopted the IPCS glossary as the official ISEA glossary, (2) present the joint IPCS/ISEA glossary of terms and their definitions, and (3) discuss plans for how the glossary can be used by ISEA and updated over time by ISEA and IPCS. The glossary is intended to be a living document that reflects the latest usage and maintains international harmonization of exposure terminology that can be practically applied to improve communication in exposure and related fields.

  15. The Application of the Preschool Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver–Teacher Report Form to Mainland Chinese Children: Syndrome Structure, Gender Differences, Country Effects, and Inter-Informant Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Halina

    2010-01-01

    Preschool children have long been a neglected population in the study of psychopathology. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA), which includes the Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), constitutes the few available measures to assess preschoolers with an empirically derived taxonomy of preschool psychopathology. However, the utility of the measures and their taxonomy of preschool psychopathology to the Chinese is largely unknown and has not been studied. The present study aimed at testing the cross-cultural factorial validity of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF, as well as the applicability of the taxonomy of preschool psychopathology they embody, to Mainland Chinese preschoolers. Country effects between our Chinese sample and the original U.S. sample, gender differences, and cross-informant agreement between teachers and parents were also to be examined. A Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF was completed by parents and teachers respectively on 876 preschoolers in Mainland China. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the original, U.S.-derived second order, multi-factor model best fit the Chinese preschool data of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. Rates of total behavior problems in Chinese preschoolers were largely similar to those in American preschoolers. Specifically, Chinese preschoolers scored higher on internalizing problems while American preschoolers scored higher on externalizing problems. Chinese preschool boys had significantly higher rates of externalizing problems than Chinese preschool girls. Cross-informant agreement between Chinese teachers and parents was relatively low compared to agreement in the original U.S. sample. Results support the generalizability of the taxonomic structure of preschool psychopathology derived in the U.S. to the Chinese, as well as the applicability of the Chinese version of the CBCL/1.5-5 and C-TRF. PMID:20821258

  16. Adoptive parent hostility and children's peer behavior problems: examining the role of genetically informed child attributes on adoptive parent behavior.

    PubMed

    Elam, Kit K; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-05-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation [rGE]) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative rGE while examining the associations between family processes and children's peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children's later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn links to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed.

  17. A comparison of attachment levels of adopters of cats: fee-based adoptions versus free adoptions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily; Gramann, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare professionals have been critical of adoption programs that do not charge a fee for adult cats, despite the high euthanasia rate for cats due to a reported lack of homes. The argument against the free cat adoptions cites a devaluation of the cat, which may affect the adopter's perceived value of the cat and subsequent care. It may also attract low-income adopters who are perceived as unable to fulfill the financial responsibility of acting as caregiver (owner) of a companion animal (pet). This study examined adopters' attachment to their cats in relation to the payment or waiver of an adoption fee using the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale and perception of the shelter. No significant differences were found between groups on either measure. Programs such as this create an opportunity to positively affect cats in animal shelters by finding more homes; programs such as this also affect cat overpopulation by putting more altered cats into the community.

  18. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Gimhae-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Jin-Hee; Ju, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Ja; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2011-06-01

    The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Gimhae-si, Korea. A total of 6,921 preschool children in 76 kindergartens were examined using the cellotape perianal swab method. The overall egg positive rate (EPR) was 10.5%. The EPR in boys was higher than that in girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.5, P<0.001), and it was higher in rural than in urban children (AOR: 1.2, P=0.022). The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection is fairly high among preschool children in Gimhae-si. Therefore, systematic control and preventive measures should be adopted to reduce morbidity associated with this nematode infection.

  19. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among Preschool Children in Gimhae-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Jin-Hee; Ju, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Ja

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Gimhae-si, Korea. A total of 6,921 preschool children in 76 kindergartens were examined using the cellotape perianal swab method. The overall egg positive rate (EPR) was 10.5%. The EPR in boys was higher than that in girls (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.5, P<0.001), and it was higher in rural than in urban children (AOR: 1.2, P=0.022). The present study confirmed that the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection is fairly high among preschool children in Gimhae-si. Therefore, systematic control and preventive measures should be adopted to reduce morbidity associated with this nematode infection. PMID:21738277

  20. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  1. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  2. Stories of Aboriginal Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttgens, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant number of transracial Aboriginal adoptions that have taken place in Canada, little research is available that addresses the psychological and psychosocial ramifications for the children involved. The scant literature that does exist raises concerns about the psychological impact of this type of adoption. The present…

  3. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  4. Ratings of Everyday Executive Functioning (REEF): A parent-report measure of preschoolers' executive functioning skills.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S; Huyder, Vanessa; McAuley, Tara; Liebermann, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) facilitates the development of academic, cognitive, and social-emotional skills and deficits in EF are implicated in a broad range of child psychopathologies. Although EF has clear implications for early development, the few questionnaires that assess EF in preschoolers tend to ask parents for global judgments of executive dysfunction and thus do not cover the full range of EF within the preschool age group. Here we present a new measure of preschoolers' EF-the Ratings of Everyday Executive Functioning (REEF)-that capitalizes on parents' observations of their preschoolers' (i.e., 3- to 5-year-olds) behavior in specific, everyday contexts. Over 4 studies, items comprising the REEF were refined and the measure's reliability and validity were evaluated. Factor analysis of the REEF yielded 1 factor, with items showing strong internal reliability. More important, children's scores on the REEF related to both laboratory measures of EF and another parent-report EF questionnaire. Moreover, reflecting divergent validity, the REEF was more strongly related to measures of EF as opposed to measures of affective styles. The REEF also captured differences in children's executive skills across the preschool years, and norms at 6-month intervals are reported. In summary, the REEF is a new parent-report measure that provides researchers with an efficient, valid, and reliable means of assessing preschoolers' executive functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Wishful thinking in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphane; Clément, Fabrice; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment sought to demonstrate the presence of wishful thinking--when wishes influence beliefs--in young children. A sample of 77 preschoolers needed to predict, eight times in a row, which of two plastic eggs, one containing one toy and the other containing three toys, would be drawn by a blinded experimenter. On the four trials in which the children could not keep the content of the egg drawn, they were equally likely to predict that either egg would be drawn. By contrast, on the four trials in which the children got to keep the content of the egg, they were more likely to predict that the egg with three toys would be drawn. Any effort the children exerted would be the same across conditions, so that this demonstration of wishful thinking cannot be accounted for by an effort heuristic. One group of children--a subgroup of the 5-year-olds--did not engage in wishful thinking. Children from this subgroup instead used the representativeness heuristic to guide their answers. This result suggests that having an explicit representation of the outcome inhibits children from engaging in wishful thinking in the same way as explicit representations constrain the operation of motivated reasoning in adults.

  6. The Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Preschool Activity Card Sort

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Amro, Ahmad F.; Almasri, Nihad A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Preschool Activity Card Sort (PACS) is an interview-based assessment tool to measure participation of preschool children with age range from 3 to 6 years. Objective of Study The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the recently translated Arabic PACS (A-PACS). Methods One hundred fifty-one Jordanian parents participated in the study representing different geographical areas. Children were almost equally distributed between males and females and into three age groups. Construct and concurrent validity were examined as well as the internal consistency of the scale and the test-retest reliability. Findings The A-PACS was able to differentiate between the participation level of young and old children in the domains of education, community mobility, and low demand leisure of the A-PACS giving evidence to its construct validity and it significantly correlated with some aspects of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) giving evidence to its concurrent validity. The A-PACS showed excellent overall internal consistency (α = .859) for all domains and good test-retest reliability (r = .976, p < .001). Conclusion The A-PACS can be considered as a valid and reliable tool to measure participation of preschool children with normal development from Arabic cultures. Future studies should focus on the validity of the A-PACS for use with children with disabilities.

  7. The transition into adoptive parenthood: Adoption as a process of continued unsafe uncertainty when family scripts collide.

    PubMed

    Tasker, Fiona; Wood, Sally

    2016-10-01

    Our prospective study investigated couples' expectations of adoptive parenthood and explored how these changed with their actual experience of parenthood. Six heterosexual couples were interviewed just before placement began and 6 months after the children had arrived. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyse both sets of interview data. Expectations of adoptive parenthood mostly transformed smoothly into adoption experience for couples, but challenges were experienced when family scripts collided and a continued feeling of unsafe uncertainty then prevailed within these newly formed family systems. Family script collision seemed a particular problem for couples adopting sibling pairs. To further professional practice in working with families over the transition to adoptive parenting, we suggest that professionals keep in mind a framework that includes the following: Internal and external world influences on family members, Intergenerational issues, Family scripts and the Structural challenges of adoption (IIFS). © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Adoption policy and evidence-based domestic adoption practice: a comparison of Romania, Ukraine, India, Guatemala, and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Groza, Victor; Bunkers, Kelley M

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (The Hague Permanent Bureau, 1993), and the Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children (2009) have provided a comprehensive, rights-based framework and guidance for developing domestic adoption and alternative, family based care programs. Domestic adoption is a critical component of any child-protection system and a core part of the range of alternative care options that the United Nations and other international organizations recommend be developed, resourced, and made accessible to children without parental care. This article uses data collected from adoptive parents' postadoption and governmental data in Romania, Ukraine, India, Guatemala, and Ethiopia to focus on domestic adoption in each of these countries. The article highlights both promising practices in domestic adoption as well as policies and practices that require additional research. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Administrative simplification: adoption of a standard for a unique health plan identifier; addition to the National Provider Identifier requirements; and a change to the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS) medical data code sets. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    This final rule adopts the standard for a national unique health plan identifier (HPID) and establishes requirements for the implementation of the HPID. In addition, it adopts a data element that will serve as an other entity identifier (OEID), or an identifier for entities that are not health plans, health care providers, or individuals, but that need to be identified in standard transactions. This final rule also specifies the circumstances under which an organization covered health care provider must require certain noncovered individual health care providers who are prescribers to obtain and disclose a National Provider Identifier (NPI). Lastly, this final rule changes the compliance date for the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for diagnosis coding, including the Official ICD-10-CM Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) for inpatient hospital procedure coding, including the Official ICD-10-PCS Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, from October 1, 2013 to October 1, 2014.

  10. A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes Through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

    2012-03-01

    This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a questionnaire was administered. The interview questionnaire was adapted from 'The Children's Attitudes Toward the Environment Scale-Preschool Version' which contains 15 interview questions and sub-questions. The findings of our study indicate that most of the 5-6-year-old children initially appear to have ecocentric attitudes towards environmental issues in all the dimensions. However, when the children explained their reasons for choosing one of the two pictures, their responses were evaluated as emanating from anthropocentric attitudes. No difference in the attitudes of the preschool children was detected in relation to their gender. In conclusion, this study shows that the educational programmes at the preschool stage need to be broadened and improved, particularly in the provision of outdoor study in natural settings for the children to develop a more ecocentric attitude towards the environment.

  11. You Get What You Need: An Examination of Purpose-Based Inheritance Reasoning in Undergraduates, Preschoolers, and Biological Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Elizabeth A.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This set of seven experiments examines reasoning about the inheritance and acquisition of physical properties in preschoolers, undergraduates, and biology experts. Participants (N = 390) received adoption vignettes in which a baby animal was born to one parent but raised by a biologically unrelated parent, and they judged whether the offspring…

  12. You Get What You Need: An Examination of Purpose-Based Inheritance Reasoning in Undergraduates, Preschoolers, and Biological Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Elizabeth A.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This set of seven experiments examines reasoning about the inheritance and acquisition of physical properties in preschoolers, undergraduates, and biology experts. Participants (N = 390) received adoption vignettes in which a baby animal was born to one parent but raised by a biologically unrelated parent, and they judged whether the offspring…

  13. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Emotion Development: A Novel Treatment for Depression in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Shannon N.; Pautsch, Jennifer; Luby, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychotherapies with known efficacy in adolescent depression have been adapted for prepubertal children; however, none have been empirically validated for use with depressed very young children. Due to the centrality of the parent-child relationship to the emotional well being of the young child, with caregiver support shown to mediate the risk for depression severity, we created an Emotional Development (ED) module to address emotion development impairments identified in preschool onset depression. The new module was integrated with an established intervention for preschool disruptive disorders, Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Preliminary findings of an open trial of this novel intervention, PCIT-ED, with depressed preschool children are reported. Methods PCIT was adapted for the treatment of preschool depression by incorporating a novel emotional development module focused on teaching the parent to facilitate the child’s emotional development and enhance emotion regulation. Eight parent-child dyads with depressed preschoolers participated in 14 sessions of treatment. Depression severity, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, functional impairment, and emotion recognition/discrimination were measured pre and post treatment. Results Depression severity scores significantly decreased with a large effect size (1.28). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms as well as functional impairment were also significantly decreased pre to post treatment. Conclusions PCIT-ED appears to be a promising treatment for preschoolers with depression and the large effect sizes observed in this open trial suggest early intervention may provide a window of opportunity for more effective treatment. A randomized controlled trial of PCIT-ED in preschool depression is currently underway. PMID:21284068

  14. Preschool vision screening.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, S K; Stewart-Brown, S L

    1997-01-01

    To undertake a systematic review of the effectiveness of preschool vision screening. To provide evidence on which decisions about the future provision of this service can be made. To indicate areas for further research. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines for systematic reviews were used. The research questions were formulated using the Wilson and Jungner criteria for evaluating screening programmes. They concerned prevalence, natural history, disability, treatment and screening in relation to three target conditions: amblyopia, refractive errors and squints which are not cosmetically obvious. Studies were considered for inclusion according to pre-determined criteria for the age group studied, the outcomes measured and the study design. The following types of study design were considered: cross-sectional studies of prevalence, cohort studies of natural history, any type of study (e.g., cross-sectional surveys, case-series, qualitative studies) of disability attributable to a target condition, controlled trials, observational studies and audits of screening programmes, and prospective controlled trials of treatment. The following electronic databases were searched: Biological Abstracts, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, IAC Health Periodicals, IAPV, Medline, Psychlit, Science Citation Index, System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, DHSS-Data, Faculty of Public Health Medicine Database of Dissertations, Index of Scientific and Technical Proceedings, Dissertation Abstracts, Index of Theses, NHS Research Register, Public Health Information Sharing Database. A limited amount of handsearching was undertaken. Reference lists were scanned to identify other relevant studies, and requests for unpublished data were made to people working in the field. Data was extracted by the first author and then checked by the second. Quantitative analysis was undertaken where possible. Qualitative analysis was performed where studies were too heterogeneous for the data to

  15. Adopting a Districtwide Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Washington school district's eight-step process leading to the adoption of a districtwide reading program. Includes data collection, research analysis, skill tracing, and field-testing. (PKP)

  16. Classification system adopted for fixed cutter bits

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.J.; Doiron, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The drilling industry has begun adopting the 1987 International Association of Drilling Contractors' (IADC) method for classifying fixed cutter drill bits. By studying the classification codes on bit records and properly applying the new IADC fixed cutter dull grading system to recently run bits, the end-user should be able to improve the selection and usage of fixed cutter bits. Several users are developing databases for fixed cutter bits in an effort to relate field performance to some of the more prominent bit design characteristics.

  17. Adopting nursing health record standards.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Álvaro; Rocha, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory investigation described in this paper tried to identify and acknowledge the added value created by the adoption of nursing practice standards. It did so using a case study in a large Portuguese hospital. Following a literature review, five assumptions were proposed. Subsequently, a survey was developed and administered to a sample of nursing staff at the hospital in question. Our results confirmed all but our final assumption, leading to the conclusion that the adoption of standards is beneficial to nursing practice.

  18. Imaginary Companions of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Sebanc, Anne M.; Hartup, Willard W.

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed mothers to examine the developmental significance of preschoolers' imaginary companions. Found that relationships with invisible companions were described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Object personification frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy; invisible friends were viewed…

  19. You and Your Preschool Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Research shows that many things affect how well preschool children perform in school, including meeting their physical needs with a healthy diet, exercise and good medical care. Young children also need social and emotional help that will build their confidence, independence and cooperation skills. This booklet highlights needs of babies, toddlers…

  20. Pre-School Child Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This activity kit was designed for parents to use with their preschool children and focuses on the development of skills through play. Sixty activities are described. Descriptions are accompanied by a photograph, a list of materials needed, directions, the purpose of the activity, and a statement of what the child will learn from it. Many of the…